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Sudan vs. South Sudan

Introduction

SudanSouth Sudan
BackgroundMilitary regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from Anglo-Egyptian co-rule in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but another broke out in 1983. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years followed by a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan. The referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelming support for independence. South Sudan became independent on 9 July 2011. Sudan and South Sudan have yet to fully implement security and economic agreements signed in September 2012 relating to the normalization of relations between the two countries. The final disposition of the contested Abyei region has also to be decided.
Following South Sudan's independence, conflict broke out between the government and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states (together known as the Two Areas), and has resulted in 1.1 million internally displaced persons or severely affected persons needing humanitarian assistance. A separate conflict broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, displacing nearly 2 million people and causing thousands of deaths. Fighting in both the Two Areas and Darfur between government forces and opposition has largely subsided, however the civilian populations are affected by low-level violence including inter-tribal conflict and banditry, largely a result of weak rule of law. The UN and the African Union have jointly commanded a Darfur peacekeeping operation (UNAMID) since 2007. Peacekeeping troops have struggled to address insecurity in Darfur and have increasingly become targets for attacks by armed groups. Sudan also has faced refugee influxes from neighboring countries, primarily Ethiopia, Eritrea, Chad, Central African Republic, and South Sudan. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and denial of access by both the government and armed opposition have impeded the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.
Egypt attempted to colonize the region of southern Sudan by establishing the province of Equatoria in the 1870s. Islamic Mahdist revolutionaries overran the region in 1885, but in 1898 a British force was able to overthrow the Mahdist regime. An Anglo-Egyptian Sudan was established the following year with Equatoria being the southernmost of its eight provinces. The isolated region was largely left to itself over the following decades, but Christian missionaries converted much of the population and facilitated the spread of English. When Sudan gained its independence in 1956, it was with the understanding that the southerners would be able to participate fully in the political system. When the Arab Khartoum government reneged on its promises, a mutiny began that led to two prolonged periods of conflict (1955-1972 and 1983-2005) in which perhaps 2.5 million people died - mostly civilians - due to starvation and drought. Ongoing peace talks finally resulted in a Comprehensive Peace Agreement, signed in January 2005. As part of this agreement, the south was granted a six-year period of autonomy to be followed by a referendum on final status. The result of this referendum, held in January 2011, was a vote of 98% in favor of secession.
Since independence on 9 July 2011, South Sudan has struggled with good governance and nation building and has attempted to control rebel militia groups operating in its territory. Economic conditions have deteriorated since January 2012 when the government decided to shut down oil production following bilateral disagreements with Sudan. In December 2013, conflict between government and opposition forces led to a humanitarian crisis with millions of South Sudanese displaced and food insecure. The warring parties signed a peace agreement in August 2015 that created a transitional government of national unity in April 2016. However, in July 2016, fighting broke out between the two principal signatories plunging the country back into conflict.

Geography

SudanSouth Sudan
Locationnorth-eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea
East-Central Africa; south of Sudan, north of Uganda and Kenya, west of Ethiopia
Geographic coordinates15 00 N, 30 00 E
8 00 N, 30 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 1,861,484 sq km
land: NA
water: NA
total: 644,329 sq km
land: NA
water: NA
Area - comparativeslightly less than one-fifth the size of the US
more than four times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundariestotal: 6,819 km
border countries (7): Central African Republic 174 km, Chad 1,403 km, Egypt 1,276 km, Eritrea 682 km, Ethiopia 744 km, Libya 382 km, South Sudan 2,158 km
note: Sudan-South Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment; final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei region pending negotiations between Sudan and South Sudan
total: 6,018 km
border countries (6): Central African Republic 1,055 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 714 km, Ethiopia 1,299 km, Kenya 317 km, Sudan 2,158 km, Uganda 475 km
note: South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment; final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan
Coastline853 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
none (landlocked)
Climatehot and dry; arid desert; rainy season varies by region (April to November)
hot with seasonal rainfall influenced by the annual shift of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone; rainfall heaviest in upland areas of the south and diminishes to the north
Terraingenerally flat, featureless plain; desert dominates the north
plains in the north and center rise to southern highlands along the border with Uganda and Kenya; the White Nile, flowing north out of the uplands of Central Africa, is the major geographic feature of the country; The Sudd (a name derived from floating vegetation that hinders navigation) is a large swampy area of more than 100,000 sq km fed by the waters of the White Nile that dominates the center of the country
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 568 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Red Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal Marrah 3,071 m
mean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: NA
highest point: Kinyeti 3,187 m
Natural resourcespetroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold; hydropower
hydropower, fertile agricultural land, gold, diamonds, petroleum, hardwoods, limestone, iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver
Irrigated land18,900 sq km (2012)
1,000 sq km (2012)
Geography - notedominated by the Nile and its tributaries
The Sudd is a vast swamp in South Sudan, formed by the White Nile, comprising more than 15% of the country's total area; it is one of the world's largest wetlands

Demographics

SudanSouth Sudan
Population36,729,501 (July 2016 est.)
12,530,717 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 39.43% (male 7,351,759/female 7,130,224)
15-24 years: 20.77% (male 3,926,374/female 3,703,826)
25-54 years: 32.42% (male 5,779,482/female 6,129,213)
55-64 years: 4.12% (male 793,848/female 721,075)
65 years and over: 3.25% (male 645,876/female 547,824) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 44.86% (male 2,866,374/female 2,755,451)
15-24 years: 20.32% (male 1,338,548/female 1,208,109)
25-54 years: 29.4% (male 1,783,091/female 1,901,553)
55-64 years: 3.31% (male 222,760/female 192,274)
65 years and over: 2.1% (male 145,687/female 116,870) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 19.6 years
male: 19.4 years
female: 19.9 years (2016 est.)
total: 17.1 years
male: 17 years
female: 17.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.69% (2016 est.)
3.92% (2016 est.)
Birth rate28.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
36.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate7.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-4.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 50.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 55.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 44.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 64.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 69.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 59.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate3.68 children born/woman (2016 est.)
5.19 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.25% (2015 est.)
2.47% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sudanese
noun: South Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective: South Sudanese
Ethnic groupsSudanese Arab (approximately 70%), Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata
Dinka 35.8%, Nuer 15.6%, Shilluk, Azande, Bari, Kakwa, Kuku, Murle, Mandari, Didinga, Ndogo, Bviri, Lndi, Anuak, Bongo, Lango, Dungotona, Acholi, Baka, Fertit (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS55,900 (2015 est.)
179,100 (2015 est.)
ReligionsSunni Muslim, small Christian minority
animist, Christian
HIV/AIDS - deaths3,000 (2015 est.)
11,600 (2015 est.)
LanguagesArabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur
English (official), Arabic (includes Juba and Sudanese variants), regional languages include Dinka, Nuer, Bari, Zande, Shilluk
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 75.9%
male: 83.3%
female: 68.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 27%
male: 40%
female: 16% (2009 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne disease: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria, dengue fever, trypanosomiasis-Gambiense (African sleeping sickness)
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Education expenditures2.2% of GDP (2009)
0.8% of GDP (2011)
Urbanizationurban population: 33.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.54% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 18.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.05% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 66% of population
rural: 50.2% of population
total: 55.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 34% of population
rural: 49.8% of population
total: 44.5% of population (2012 est.)
improved:
urban: 66.7% of population
rural: 56.9% of population
total: 58.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 33.3% of population
rural: 43.1% of population
total: 41.3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 43.9% of population
rural: 13.4% of population
total: 23.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 56.1% of population
rural: 86.6% of population
total: 76.4% of population (2012 est.)
improved:
urban: 16.4% of population
rural: 4.5% of population
total: 6.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 83.6% of population
rural: 95.5% of population
total: 93.3% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationKHARTOUM (capital) 5.129 million (2015)
JUBA (capital) 321,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate311 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
789 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight33% (2014)
27.6% (2010)
Health expenditures8.4% of GDP (2014)
2.7% of GDP (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate6.6% (2014)
6.6% (2014)
Contraceptive prevalence rate12.2% (2014)
4% (2010)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 78
youth dependency ratio: 72.1
elderly dependency ratio: 5.9
potential support ratio: 16.9 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 83.7
youth dependency ratio: 77.3
elderly dependency ratio: 6.4
potential support ratio: 15.7 (2015 est.)

Government

SudanSouth Sudan
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan
conventional short form: Sudan
local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
local short form: As-Sudan
former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
etymology: the name ""Sudan"" derives from the Arabic ""bilad-as-sudan"" meaning ""Land of the Black [peoples]""
"
"conventional long form: Republic of South Sudan
conventional short form: South Sudan
etymology: self-descriptive name from the country's former position within Sudan prior to independence; the name ""Sudan"" derives from the Arabic ""bilad-as-sudan"" meaning ""Land of the Black [peoples]""
"
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Khartoum
geographic coordinates: 15 36 N, 32 32 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Juba
geographic coordinates: 04 51 N 31 37 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions18 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); Blue Nile, Central Darfur, East Darfur, Gedaref, Gezira, Kassala, Khartoum, North Darfur, North Kordofan, Northern, Red Sea, River Nile, Sennar, South Darfur, South Kordofan, West Darfur, West Kordofan, White Nile
10 states; Central Equatoria, Eastern Equatoria, Jonglei, Lakes, Northern Bahr el Ghazal, Unity, Upper Nile, Warrap, Western Bahr el Ghazal, Western Equatoria
Independence1 January 1956 (from Egypt and the UK)
9 July 2011 (from Sudan)
National holidayIndependence Day, 1 January (1956)
Independence Day, 9 July (2011)
Constitutionprevious 1998; latest adopted 6 July 2005, effective 9 July 2005 (interim constitution); amended 2015; note - in 2011, the Government of Sudan initiated a national dialogue process with the intention of drafting a new constitution (2017)
previous 2005 (preindependence); latest signed 7 July 2011, effective 9 July 2011 (Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011); amended 2013, 2015 (2016)
Suffrage17 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchnote: the position of prime minister was reinstated in December 2016 as a result of the 2015-16 national dialogue process, and President al-BASHIR appointed BAKRI Hassan Salih to the position on 2 March 2017
chief of state: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President & Prime Minister BAKRI Hassan Salih (first VP since 3 December 2013 and PM since 2 March 2017), Second Vice President Hasabu Mohamed ABDEL RAHMIN (since 3 December 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President & Prime Minister BAKRI Hassan Salih (first VP since 3 December 2013 and PM since 2 March 2017), Second Vice President Hasabu Mohamed ABDEL RAHMIN (since 3 December 2013))
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the Natinal Congress Party or NCP, formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF, dominates al-BASHIR's cabinet
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed; last held on 13-16 April 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (NCP) 94.1%, other (15 candidates) 5.9%
chief of state: President Salva KIIR Mayardit (since 9 July 2011); First Vice President Taban Deng GAI (since 26 July 2016); Second Vice President James Wani IGGA (since 26 April 2016); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Salva KIIR Mayardit (since 9 July 2011); First Vice President Taban Deng GAI (since 26 July 2016); Second Vice President James Wani IGGA (since 26 April 2016)
cabinet: National Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Transitional National Legislative Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11-15 April 2010 (the next election has been postponed from 2015 to 2018 due to instability and violence)
election results: Salva KIIR Mayardit elected president; percent of vote - Salva KIIR Mayardit (SPLM) 93%, Lam AKOL (SPLM-DC) 7%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral National Legislature consists of the Council of States or Majlis al-Wilayat (50 seats; members indirectly elected - 2 each by the 25 state legislatures to serve 6-year terms) and the National Assembly or Majlis Watani (426 seats; 213 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 128 for women only directly elected by proportional representation vote, and 85 directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms)
elections: last held on 13-15 April 2015 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NCP 323, DUP 25, Democratic Unionist Party 15, other 44, independent 19
note: the mandate of the members from the south was terminated upon independence by the Republic of South Sudan effective 9 July 2011 and membership in Sudan's National Assembly was reduced to 354; it is unclear whether this total will be retained for the next election or whether the previous total of 450 will be reconstituted
description: bicameral National Legislature consists of the Council of States (50 seats; the Council of States, established by presidential decree in August 2011, includes 50 members - 20 former members of the Council of States and 30 appointed representatives ) and the Transitional National Legislative Assembly (400 seats; the National Assembly, also established by presidential decree in August 2011, includes 170 members elected in April 2010, 96 members of the former National Assembly, 66 members appointed after independence, and 68 members added as a result of the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan)
elections: National Legislative Assembly - last held 11-15 April 2010 but did not take office until July 2011; because of political instability, current parliamentary term extended until next election on 9 July 2018); Council of States - established and members appointed 1 August 2011
election results: Council of States - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SPLM 20, unknown 30; National Legislative Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SPLM 251, SPLM-DC 6, DCP 4, independent 6, unknown 65
Judicial branchhighest court(s): National Supreme Court (consists of 70 judges organized into panels of 3 judges and includes 4 circuits that operate outside the capital); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 justices including the court president); note - the Constitutional Court resides outside the national judiciary
judge selection and term of office: National Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Service Commission, an independent body chaired by the chief justice of the republic and members including other judges and judicial and legal officials; Supreme Court judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 7 years
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; other national courts; public courts; district, town, and rural courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of South Sudan (consists of the chief and deputy chief justices, 9 other justices and normally organized into panels of 3 justices except when sitting as a Constitutional panel of all 9 justices chaired by the chief justice)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president upon proposal of the Judicial Service Council, a 9-member judicial and administrative body; justice tenure set by the National Legislature
subordinate courts: national level - Courts of Appeal; High Courts; County Courts; state level - High Courts; County Courts; customary courts; other specialized courts and tribunals
Political parties and leadersDemocratic Unionist Party or DUP
Democratic Unionist Party [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI]
Muslim Brotherhood or MB
National Congress Party or NCP [Umar Hassan al-BASHIR]
National Umma Party or UP [Saddiq al-MAHDI]
Popular Congress Party or PCP [Kamal UMARI]
Reform Now Party or RNP [Dr. Ghazi Salah al-DEEN]
Sudan National Front [Ali Mahmud HASANAYN]
Sudanese Communist Party or SCP [Mohammed Moktar Al-KHATEEB]
Sudanese Congress Party [Ibrahim Al-SHEIKH]
Unionist Movement Party or UMP
Sudan People's Liberation Movement or SPLM [Salva KIIR Mayardit]
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-In Opposition or SPLM-IO [Riek MACHAR Teny Dhurgon]
Democratic Change Party or DCP [Onyoti Adigo NYIKWEC]
International organization participationABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
AU, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOM, IPU, ITU, MIGA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Maowia Osman KHALID (since 31 January 2014)
chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406
chief of mission: Ambassador Garang Diing AKUONG (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 1015 31st St., NW, Third Floor, Washington, DC, 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7940
FAX: [1] (202) 293-7941
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Steven KOUTSIS (since 2016)
embassy: Sharia Ali Abdul Latif Street, Khartoum
mailing address: P.O. Box 699, Kilo 10, Soba, Khartoum; APO AE 09829
telephone: [249] (187)-0-(22000)
FAX: [249] (183) 774-137
chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Catherine PHEE (since July 2015)
embassy: Kololo Road adjacent to the EU's compound, Juba
telephone: [211] (0) 912-105-188
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; colors and design based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I, but the meanings of the colors are expressed as follows: red signifies the struggle for freedom, white is the color of peace, light, and love, black represents the people of Sudan (in Arabic 'Sudan' means black), green is the color of Islam, agriculture, and prosperity
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side contains a gold, five-pointed star; black represents the people of South Sudan, red the blood shed in the struggle for freedom, green the verdant land, and blue the waters of the Nile; the gold star represents the unity of the states making up South Sudan
note: resembles the flag of Kenya; one of only two national flags to display six colors as part of its primary design, the other is South Africa's
National anthem"name: ""Nahnu Djundulla Djundulwatan"" (We Are the Army of God and of Our Land)
lyrics/music: Sayed Ahmad Muhammad SALIH/Ahmad MURJAN
note: adopted 1956; originally served as the anthem of the Sudanese military
"
name: South Sudan Oyee! (Hooray!)
lyrics/music: collective of 49 poets/Juba University students and teachers
note: adopted 2011; anthem selected in a national contest
National symbol(s)secretary bird; national colors: red, white, black, green
African fish eagle; national colors: red, green, blue, yellow, black, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sudan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of South Sudan
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

SudanSouth Sudan
Economy - overviewSudan has experienced protracted social conflict, civil war, and, in July 2011, the loss of three-quarters of its oil production due to the secession of South Sudan. The oil sector had driven much of Sudan's GDP growth since 1999. For nearly a decade, the economy boomed on the back of rising oil production, high oil prices, and significant inflows of foreign direct investment. Since the economic shock of South Sudan's secession, Sudan has struggled to stabilize its economy and make up for the loss of foreign exchange earnings. The interruption of oil production in South Sudan in 2012 for over a year and the consequent loss of oil transit fees further exacerbated the fragile state of Sudan’s economy. Ongoing conflicts in Southern Kordofan, Darfur, and the Blue Nile states, lack of basic infrastructure in large areas, and reliance by much of the population on subsistence agriculture, keep close to half of the population at or below the poverty line.

Sudan is also subject to comprehensive US sanctions. Sudan is attempting to develop non-oil sources of revenues, such as gold mining, while carrying out an austerity program to reduce expenditures. The world’s largest exporter of gum Arabic, Sudan produces 75-80% of the world’s total output. Agriculture continues to employ 80% of the work force.

Sudan introduced a new currency, still called the Sudanese pound, following South Sudan's secession, but the value of the currency has fallen since its introduction. Khartoum formally devalued the currency in June 2012, when it passed austerity measures that included gradually repealing fuel subsidies. Sudan also faces high inflation, which reached 47% on an annual basis in November 2012 but subsided to about 20% in 2016-17.
Following several decades of civil war with Sudan, industry and infrastructure in landlocked South Sudan are severely underdeveloped and poverty is widespread. Subsistence agriculture provides a living for the vast majority of the population. Property rights are insecure and price signals are weak, because markets are not well organized. After independence, South Sudan's central bank issued a new currency, the South Sudanese Pound, allowing a short grace period for turning in the old currency.

South Sudan has little infrastructure - approximately 200 kilometers of paved roads. Electricity is produced mostly by costly diesel generators, and indoor plumbing and potable water are scarce. South Sudan depends largely on imports of goods, services, and capital - mainly from Uganda, Kenya and Sudan.

Nevertheless, South Sudan does have abundant natural resources. At independence in 2011, South Sudan produced nearly three-fourths of former Sudan's total oil output of nearly a half million barrels per day. The government of South Sudan used to rely on oil for the vast majority of its budget revenues before oil production fell sharply. Oil is exported through a pipeline that runs to refineries and shipping facilities at Port Sudan on the Red Sea. The economy of South Sudan will remain linked to Sudan for some time, given the long lead time and great expense required to build another pipeline, should the government decide to do so. In January 2012, South Sudan suspended production of oil because of its dispute with Sudan over transshipment fees. This suspension lasted 15 months and had a devastating impact on GDP, which declined by 48% in 2012. With the resumption of oil flows the economy rebounded strongly during the second half of calendar year 2013. This occurred in spite of the fact that oil production, at an average level of 222,000 barrels per day, was 40% lower compared with 2011, prior to the shutdown. GDP grew by nearly 30% in 2013. However, the outbreak of conflict on 15 December 2013 combined with a further reduction of oil production and exports, meant that GDP growth fell significantly in 2014 and 2015 as poverty and food insecurity rose. South Sudan holds one of the richest agricultural areas in Africa with fertile soils and abundant water supplies. Currently the region supports 10-20 million head of cattle.

South Sudan is currently burdened by considerable debt because of increased military spending and revenue shortfalls due to low oil prices and decreased production. South Sudan has received more than $4 billion in foreign aid since 2005, largely from the UK, the US, Norway, and the Netherlands. Annual inflation peaked at over 800% in October 2016. The government has relied on borrowing from the central bank to fund budget expenses. The decision in December 2015 by the central bank to abandon a fixed exchange rate and allow the South Sudanese Pound to float has not reduced inflation in the short term. Long-term challenges include diversifying the formal economy, alleviating poverty, maintaining macroeconomic stability, improving tax collection and financial management and improving the business environment.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$176.3 billion (2016 est.)
$171.1 billion (2015 est.)
$163.1 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$20.88 billion (2016 est.)
$24.04 billion (2015 est.)
$24.08 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.1% (2016 est.)
4.9% (2015 est.)
1.6% (2014 est.)
-13.1% (2016 est.)
-0.2% (2015 est.)
2.9% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$4,500 (2016 est.)
$4,500 (2015 est.)
$4,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1,700 (2016 est.)
$2,000 (2015 est.)
$2,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
Population below poverty line46.5% (2009 est.)
50.6% (2009 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)20% (2016 est.)
17.3% (2015 est.)
800% (2016 est.)
52.8% (2015 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $7.301 billion
expenditures: $11.28 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $437 million
expenditures: $2.259 billion (FY 2013 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum Arabic, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), mangoes, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame seeds; animal feed, sheep and other livestock
sorghum, maize, rice, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, mangoes, papayas, bananas, sweet potatoes, sunflower seeds, cotton, sesame seeds, cassava (manioc, tapioca), beans, peanuts; cattle, sheep
Exchange ratesSudanese pounds (SDG) per US dollar -
6.32 (2016 est.)
6.03 (2015 est.)
6.03 (2014 est.)
5.74 (2013 est.)
3.57 (2012 est.)
South Sudanese pounds (SSP) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)
Current Account Balance-$5.468 billion (2016 est.)
-$6.386 billion (2015 est.)
$181 million (2016 est.)
-$902 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$94.3 billion (2016 est.)
$2.628 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$9.711 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.511 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.873 billion (31 December 2013)
$2.032 billion (31 December 2012)
Stock of broad money$15.64 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.42 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.194 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$2.23 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues7.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
15% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
-69.3% of GDP (FY2013 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 20%
male: 16%
female: 32% (2009 est.)
total: 18.5%
male: 20%
female: 17% (2008 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 82.6%
government consumption: 7.4%
investment in fixed capital: 14.1%
investment in inventories: 1.3%
exports of goods and services: 7.1%
imports of goods and services: -12.5% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 34.9%
government consumption: 17.1%
investment in fixed capital: 10.4%
exports of goods and services: 64.9%
imports of goods and services: -27.2% (2011 est.)
Gross national saving10.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
9.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
10% of GDP (2014 est.)
13.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
4.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
13.6% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

SudanSouth Sudan
Electricity - production12 billion kWh (2014 est.)
881.3 million kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - consumption9.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
694.1 million kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production64,770 bbl/day (2014 est.)
220,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports2,060 bbl/day (2013 est.)
98,680 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves5 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
3.75 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves21.24 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
63.71 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity3.7 million kW (2014 est.)
255,200 kW (2012 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels30.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
30.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants66.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
66.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production88,180 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption108,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
11,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports5,984 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports24,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
10,280 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy14 million Mt (2013 est.)
2.016 million Mt (2011 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 24,700,000
electrification - total population: 35%
electrification - urban areas: 63%
electrification - rural areas: 21% (2013)
population without electricity: 11,200,000
electrification - total population: 1%
electrification - urban areas: 4%
electrification - rural areas: 0% (2013)

Telecommunications

SudanSouth Sudan
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 118,954
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 150
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2015)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 27.939 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 77 (July 2015 est.)
total: 2.899 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 24 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started in 1996 and have expanded substantially with wide coverage of most major cities
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, fiber optic, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations
international: country code - 249; linked to the EASSy and FLAG fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Arabsat (2010)
international: country code - 211
Internet country code.sd
.ss
Broadcast mediathe Sudanese Government directly controls TV and radio, requiring that both media reflect government policies; TV has a permanent military censor; a private radio station is in operation (2007)
TV is controlled by the government; several private FM stations are operational in South Sudan; some foreign radio broadcasts are available

Transportation

SudanSouth Sudan
Railwaystotal: 7,251 km
narrow gauge: 5,851 km 1.067-m gauge; 1,400 km 0.600-m gauge for cotton plantations (20014)
total: 248 km
note: a narrow gauge, single-track railroad between Babonosa (Sudan) and Wau, the only existing rail system, was repaired in 2010 with $250 million in UN funds (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 11,900 km
paved: 4,320 km
unpaved: 7,580 km (2000)
total: 7,000 km
note: most of the road network is unpaved and much of it is in disrepair; a 192-km paved road between the capital, Juba, and Nimule on the Ugandan border was constructed with USAID funds in 2012 (2012)
Waterways4,068 km (1,723 km open year round on White and Blue Nile Rivers) (2011)
see entry for Sudan
Airports74 (2013)
85 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 16
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 58
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 28
under 914 m: 12 (2013)
total: 82
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 35
under 914 m: 34 (2013)
Heliports6 (2013)
1 (2013)

Military

SudanSouth Sudan
Military branchesSudanese Armed Forces (SAF): Land Forces, Navy (includes Marines), Sudanese Air Force (Sikakh al-Jawwiya as-Sudaniya), Rapid Support Forces, Popular Defense Forces (2016)
South Sudan Defense Force (SSDF): ground force, navy, air force and air defense units (2017)
Military service age and obligation18-33 years of age for male and female compulsory or voluntary military service; 1-2 year service obligation; a requirement that completion of national service was mandatory before entering public or private sector employment has been cancelled (2012)
18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory and voluntary military service; the Government of South Sudan signed agreements in March 2012 and August 2015 that included the demobilization of all child soldiers within the armed forces and opposition, but the recruitment of child soldiers by the warring parties continues; as of the end of 2016, UNICEF estimates that more than 17,000 child soldiers had been used in the country's civil war since it began in December 2013 (2016)

Transnational Issues

SudanSouth Sudan
Disputes - internationalthe effects of Sudan's ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-20th century have penetrated all of the neighboring states; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; as of April 2017, more than 610,000 Sudanese refugees are being hosted in the Central African Republic, Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, and South Sudan; Sudan, in turn, is hosting about 507,000 refugees, including more than 375,000 from South Sudan; Sudan accuses South Sudan of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of the Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; periodic violent skirmishes with Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan
"South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan; periodic violent skirmishes with South Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; the boundary that separates Kenya and South Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the ""Ilemi Triangle,"" which Kenya has administered since colonial times
"
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 103,176 (Eritrea); 8,502 (Chad); 6,997 (Syria) (2016); 417,495 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2017)
IDPs: 3.3 million (civil war 1983-2005; ongoing conflict in Darfur region; government and rebel fighting along South Sudan border; inter-tribal clashes) (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 247,111 (Sudan); 14,548 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2017)
IDPs: 1.89 million (alleged coup attempt and ethnic conflict beginning in December 2013; information is lacking on those displaced in earlier years by: fighting in Abyei between the Sudanese Armed Forces and the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) in May 2011; clashes between the SPLA and dissident militia groups in South Sudan; inter-ethnic conflicts over resources and cattle; attacks from the Lord's Resistance Army; floods and drought) (2016)
Trafficking in personscurrent situation: Sudan is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Sudanese women and girls, particularly those from rural areas or who are internally displaced, or refugees are vulnerable to domestic servitude in country, as well as domestic servitude and sex trafficking abroad; migrants from East and West Africa, South Sudan, Syria, and Nigeria smuggled into or through Sudan are vulnerable to exploitation; Ethiopian, Eritrean, and Filipina women are subjected to domestic servitude in Sudanese homes, and East African and possibly Thai women are forced into prostitution in Sudan; Sudanese children continue to be recruited and used as combatants by government forces and armed groups
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Sudan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government increased its efforts to publically address and prevent trafficking, established a national anti-trafficking council, and began drafting a national action plan against trafficking; the government acknowledges cross-border trafficking but still denies the existence of forced labor, sex trafficking, and the recruitment of child soldiers domestically; law enforcement and judicial officials struggled to apply the national anti-trafficking law, often relying on other statutes with lesser penalties; authorities did not use systematic procedure to identify victims or refer them to care and relied on international organizations and domestic groups to provide protective services; some foreign victims were penalized for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of being trafficked, such as immigration or prostitution violations (2015)
current situation: South Sudan is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; South Sudanese women and girls, particularly those who are internally displaced, orphaned, refugees, or from rural areas, are vulnerable to forced labor and sexual exploitation, often in urban centers; children may be victims of forced labor in construction, market vending, shoe shining, car washing, rock breaking, brick making, delivery cart pulling, and begging; girls are also forced into marriages and subsequently subjected to sexual slavery or domestic servitude; women and girls migrate willingly from Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to South Sudan with the promise of legitimate jobs and are forced into the sex trade; inter-ethnic abductions and abductions by criminal groups continue, with abductees subsequently forced into domestic servitude, herding, or sex trafficking; in 2014, the recruitment and use of child soldiers increased significantly within government security forces and was also prevalent among opposition forces
tier rating: Tier 3 – South Sudan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; despite the government’s formal recommitment to an action plan to eliminate the recruitment and use of child soldiers by 2016, the practice expanded during 2014, and the government did not hold any officers criminally responsible; government officials reportedly are complicit in trafficking offenses but these activities continue to go uninvestigated; authorities reportedly identified five trafficking victims but did not transfer them to care facilities; law enforcement continued to arrest and imprison individuals for prostitution, including trafficking victims; no known steps were taken to address the exploitation of South Sudanese nationals working abroad or foreign workers in South Sudan (2015)

Source: CIA Factbook