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Sudan vs. Eritrea

Introduction

SudanEritrea
BackgroundMilitary regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from Anglo-Egyptian co-rule in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but another broke out in 1983. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years followed by a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan. The referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelming support for independence. South Sudan became independent on 9 July 2011. Sudan and South Sudan have yet to fully implement security and economic agreements signed in September 2012 relating to the normalization of relations between the two countries. The final disposition of the contested Abyei region has also to be decided.
Following South Sudan's independence, conflict broke out between the government and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states (together known as the Two Areas), and has resulted in 1.1 million internally displaced persons or severely affected persons needing humanitarian assistance. A separate conflict broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, displacing nearly 2 million people and causing thousands of deaths. Fighting in both the Two Areas and Darfur between government forces and opposition has largely subsided, however the civilian populations are affected by low-level violence including inter-tribal conflict and banditry, largely a result of weak rule of law. The UN and the African Union have jointly commanded a Darfur peacekeeping operation (UNAMID) since 2007. Peacekeeping troops have struggled to address insecurity in Darfur and have increasingly become targets for attacks by armed groups. Sudan also has faced refugee influxes from neighboring countries, primarily Ethiopia, Eritrea, Chad, Central African Republic, and South Sudan. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and denial of access by both the government and armed opposition have impeded the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.
"After independence from Italian colonial control in 1941 and 10 years of British administrative control, the UN established Eritrea as an autonomous region within the Ethiopian federation in 1952. Ethiopia's full annexation of Eritrea as a province 10 years later sparked a violent 30-year struggle for independence that ended in 1991 with Eritrean rebels defeating government forces. Eritreans overwhelmingly approved independence in a 1993 referendum. ISAIAS Afworki has been Eritrea's only president since independence; his rule, particularly since 2001, has been highly autocratic and repressive. His government has created a highly militarized society by pursuing an unpopular program of mandatory conscription into national service, sometimes of indefinite length. A two-and-a-half-year border war with Ethiopia that erupted in 1998 ended under UN auspices in December 2000. A UN peacekeeping operation was established that monitored a 25 km-wide Temporary Security Zone. The Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC) created in April 2003 was tasked ""to delimit and demarcate the colonial treaty border based on pertinent colonial treaties (1900, 1902, and 1908) and applicable international law."" The EEBC on 30 November 2007 remotely demarcated the border, assigning the town of Badme to Eritrea, despite Ethiopia's maintaining forces there from the time of the 1998-2000 war. Eritrea insisted that the UN terminate its peacekeeping mission on 31 July 2008. Eritrea has accepted the EEBC's ""virtual demarcation"" decision and repeatedly called on Ethiopia to remove its troops. Ethiopia has not accepted the demarcation decision, and neither party has entered into meaningful dialogue to resolve the impasse. Eritrea is subject to several UN Security Council Resolutions (initially in 2009 and renewed annually) imposing an arms embargo and a travel ban and assets freeze on certain individuals, in view of evidence that it has supported armed opposition groups in the region.
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Geography

SudanEritrea
Locationnorth-eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea
Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and Sudan
Geographic coordinates15 00 N, 30 00 E
15 00 N, 39 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 1,861,484 sq km
land: NA
water: NA
total: 117,600 sq km
land: 101,000 sq km
water: 16,600 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly less than one-fifth the size of the US
slightly larger than Pennsylvania
Land boundariestotal: 6,819 km
border countries (7): Central African Republic 174 km, Chad 1,403 km, Egypt 1,276 km, Eritrea 682 km, Ethiopia 744 km, Libya 382 km, South Sudan 2,158 km
note: Sudan-South Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment; final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei region pending negotiations between Sudan and South Sudan
total: 1,840 km
border countries (3): Djibouti 125 km, Ethiopia 1,033 km, Sudan 682 km
Coastline853 km
2,234 km (mainland on Red Sea 1,151 km, islands in Red Sea 1,083 km)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm
Climatehot and dry; arid desert; rainy season varies by region (April to November)
hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually, heaviest June to September); semiarid in western hills and lowlands
Terraingenerally flat, featureless plain; desert dominates the north
dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 568 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Red Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal Marrah 3,071 m
mean elevation: 853 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: near Kulul within the Danakil Depression -75 m
highest point: Soira 3,018 m
Natural resourcespetroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold; hydropower
gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, possibly oil and natural gas, fish
Land useagricultural land: 100%
arable land 15.7%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 84.2%
forest: 0%
other: 0% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 75.1%
arable land 6.8%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 68.3%
forest: 15.1%
other: 9.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land18,900 sq km (2012)
210 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsdust storms and periodic persistent droughts
frequent droughts, rare earthquakes and volcanoes; locust swarms
volcanism: Dubbi (elev. 1,625 m), which last erupted in 1861, was the country's only historically active volcano until Nabro (2,218 m) came to life on 12 June 2011
Environment - current issuesinadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought
deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; overgrazing; loss of infrastructure from civil warfare
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notedominated by the Nile and its tributaries
strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes; Eritrea retained the entire coastline of Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia on 24 May 1993

Demographics

SudanEritrea
Population36,729,501 (July 2016 est.)
5,869,869 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 39.43% (male 7,351,759/female 7,130,224)
15-24 years: 20.77% (male 3,926,374/female 3,703,826)
25-54 years: 32.42% (male 5,779,482/female 6,129,213)
55-64 years: 4.12% (male 793,848/female 721,075)
65 years and over: 3.25% (male 645,876/female 547,824) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 40.66% (male 1,199,355/female 1,187,467)
15-24 years: 19.39% (male 566,199/female 571,743)
25-54 years: 32.33% (male 933,825/female 963,812)
55-64 years: 3.73% (male 93,325/female 125,411)
65 years and over: 3.9% (male 97,248/female 131,484) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 19.6 years
male: 19.4 years
female: 19.9 years (2016 est.)
total: 19.4 years
male: 19 years
female: 19.9 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.69% (2016 est.)
0.81% (2016 est.)
Birth rate28.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
30.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate7.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-4.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-14.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.19 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.74 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 50.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 55.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 44.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 45.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 52.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 38.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 64.1 years
male: 62 years
female: 66.3 years (2016 est.)
total population: 64.9 years
male: 62.4 years
female: 67.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate3.68 children born/woman (2016 est.)
4.07 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.25% (2015 est.)
0.61% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sudanese
noun: Eritrean(s)
adjective: Eritrean
Ethnic groupsSudanese Arab (approximately 70%), Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata
nine recognized ethnic groups: Tigrinya 55%, Tigre 30%, Saho 4%, Kunama 2%, Rashaida 2%, Bilen 2%, other (Afar, Beni Amir, Nera) 5% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS55,900 (2015 est.)
14,100 (2015 est.)
ReligionsSunni Muslim, small Christian minority
Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant
HIV/AIDS - deaths3,000 (2015 est.)
500 (2015 est.)
LanguagesArabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur
Tigrinya (official), Arabic (official), English (official), Tigre, Kunama, Afar, other Cushitic languages
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 75.9%
male: 83.3%
female: 68.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 73.8%
male: 82.4%
female: 65.5% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 7 years
male: 7 years
female: 7 years (2013)
total: 5 years
male: 6 years
female: 5 years (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 33.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.54% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 22.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.11% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 66% of population
rural: 50.2% of population
total: 55.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 34% of population
rural: 49.8% of population
total: 44.5% of population (2012 est.)
improved:
urban: 73.2% of population
rural: 53.3% of population
total: 57.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 26.8% of population
rural: 46.7% of population
total: 42.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 43.9% of population
rural: 13.4% of population
total: 23.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 56.1% of population
rural: 86.6% of population
total: 76.4% of population (2012 est.)
improved:
urban: 44.5% of population
rural: 7.3% of population
total: 15.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 55.5% of population
rural: 92.7% of population
total: 84.3% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationKHARTOUM (capital) 5.129 million (2015)
ASMARA (capital) 804,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate311 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
501 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight33% (2014)
38.8% (2010)
Health expenditures8.4% of GDP (2014)
3.3% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density0.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate6.6% (2014)
3.4% (2014)
Contraceptive prevalence rate12.2% (2014)
8.4% (2010)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 78
youth dependency ratio: 72.1
elderly dependency ratio: 5.9
potential support ratio: 16.9 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 83.2
youth dependency ratio: 78.4
elderly dependency ratio: 4.8
potential support ratio: 20.7 (2015 est.)

Government

SudanEritrea
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan
conventional short form: Sudan
local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
local short form: As-Sudan
former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
etymology: the name ""Sudan"" derives from the Arabic ""bilad-as-sudan"" meaning ""Land of the Black [peoples]""
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"conventional long form: State of Eritrea
conventional short form: Eritrea
local long form: Hagere Ertra
local short form: Ertra
former: Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia
etymology: the country name derives from the ancient Greek appellation ""Erythra Thalassa"" meaning Red Sea, which is the major water body bordering the country
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Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Khartoum
geographic coordinates: 15 36 N, 32 32 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Asmara (Asmera)
geographic coordinates: 15 20 N, 38 56 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions18 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); Blue Nile, Central Darfur, East Darfur, Gedaref, Gezira, Kassala, Khartoum, North Darfur, North Kordofan, Northern, Red Sea, River Nile, Sennar, South Darfur, South Kordofan, West Darfur, West Kordofan, White Nile
6 regions (zobatat, singular - zoba); Anseba, Debub (South), Debubawi K'eyih Bahri (Southern Red Sea), Gash Barka, Ma'akel (Central), Semenawi Keyih Bahri (Northern Red Sea)
Independence1 January 1956 (from Egypt and the UK)
24 May 1993 (from Ethiopia)
National holidayIndependence Day, 1 January (1956)
Independence Day, 24 May (1991)
Constitutionprevious 1998; latest adopted 6 July 2005, effective 9 July 2005 (interim constitution); amended 2015; note - in 2011, the Government of Sudan initiated a national dialogue process with the intention of drafting a new constitution (2017)
adopted 23 May 1997 (not fully implemented); note - drafting of a new constitution, which began in 2014, continued into 2016 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of Islamic law and English common law
mixed legal system of civil, customary, and Islamic religious law
Suffrage17 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchnote: the position of prime minister was reinstated in December 2016 as a result of the 2015-16 national dialogue process, and President al-BASHIR appointed BAKRI Hassan Salih to the position on 2 March 2017
chief of state: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President & Prime Minister BAKRI Hassan Salih (first VP since 3 December 2013 and PM since 2 March 2017), Second Vice President Hasabu Mohamed ABDEL RAHMIN (since 3 December 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President & Prime Minister BAKRI Hassan Salih (first VP since 3 December 2013 and PM since 2 March 2017), Second Vice President Hasabu Mohamed ABDEL RAHMIN (since 3 December 2013))
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the Natinal Congress Party or NCP, formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF, dominates al-BASHIR's cabinet
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed; last held on 13-16 April 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (NCP) 94.1%, other (15 candidates) 5.9%
chief of state: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government and is head of the State Council and National Assembly
head of government: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); the only election was held on 8 June 1993, following independence from Ethiopia (next election postponed indefinitely)
election results: ISAIAS Afworki elected president by the transitional National Assembly; percent of National Assembly vote - ISAIAS Afworki (PFDJ) 95%, other 5%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral National Legislature consists of the Council of States or Majlis al-Wilayat (50 seats; members indirectly elected - 2 each by the 25 state legislatures to serve 6-year terms) and the National Assembly or Majlis Watani (426 seats; 213 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 128 for women only directly elected by proportional representation vote, and 85 directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms)
elections: last held on 13-15 April 2015 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NCP 323, DUP 25, Democratic Unionist Party 15, other 44, independent 19
note: the mandate of the members from the south was terminated upon independence by the Republic of South Sudan effective 9 July 2011 and membership in Sudan's National Assembly was reduced to 354; it is unclear whether this total will be retained for the next election or whether the previous total of 450 will be reconstituted
description: unicameral National Assembly or Hagerawi Baito (150 seats; 75 members indirectly elected by the ruling party and 75 directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: in May 1997, following the adoption of the new constitution, 75 members of the PFDJ Central Committee (the old Central Committee of the EPLF), 60 members of the 527-member Constituent Assembly, which had been established in 1997 to discuss and ratify the new constitution, and 15 representatives of Eritreans living abroad were formed into a Transitional National Assembly to serve as the country's legislative body until countrywide elections to form a National Assembly were held; although only 75 of 150 members of the Transitional National Assembly were elected, the constitution stipulates that once past the transition stage, all members of the National Assembly will be elected by secret ballot of all eligible voters; National Assembly elections scheduled for December 2001 were postponed indefinitely due to the war with Ethiopia
Judicial branchhighest court(s): National Supreme Court (consists of 70 judges organized into panels of 3 judges and includes 4 circuits that operate outside the capital); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 justices including the court president); note - the Constitutional Court resides outside the national judiciary
judge selection and term of office: National Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Service Commission, an independent body chaired by the chief justice of the republic and members including other judges and judicial and legal officials; Supreme Court judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 7 years
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; other national courts; public courts; district, town, and rural courts
highest court(s): High Court (consists of 20 judges and organized into civil, commercial, criminal, labor, administrative, and customary sections)
judge selection and term of office: High Court judges appointed by the president
subordinate courts: regional/zonal courts; community courts; special courts; sharia courts (for issues dealing with Muslim marriage, inheritance, and family); military courts
Political parties and leadersDemocratic Unionist Party or DUP
Democratic Unionist Party [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI]
Muslim Brotherhood or MB
National Congress Party or NCP [Umar Hassan al-BASHIR]
National Umma Party or UP [Saddiq al-MAHDI]
Popular Congress Party or PCP [Kamal UMARI]
Reform Now Party or RNP [Dr. Ghazi Salah al-DEEN]
Sudan National Front [Ali Mahmud HASANAYN]
Sudanese Communist Party or SCP [Mohammed Moktar Al-KHATEEB]
Sudanese Congress Party [Ibrahim Al-SHEIKH]
Unionist Movement Party or UMP
People's Front for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ [ISAIAS Afworki] (the only party recognized by the government)
note: a National Assembly committee drafted a law on political parties in January 2001, but the full National Assembly never debated or voted on it
Political pressure groups and leadersDarfur rebel groups including the Justice and Equality Movement or JEM [Gibril Fidail IBRAHIM], Sudan Liberation Movement or SLM-AW [Abdel Wahid NUR, various factional leaders], Sudan Liberation Movement or SLM-MM [Minni Arkou MINAWI]
National Consensus Front or NCF [Farouq ABU ISSA]
Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North or SPLM-N [Yasir ARMAN]
Democratic Movement for the Liberation of Eritrean Kunama or DMLEK
Eritrean Democratic Alliance or EDA
Eritrean Islamic Party for Justice and Development or EIPJD (includes the Eritrean Islamic Jihad (EIJ), Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement (EIJM), Eritrean Islamic Salvation, and the Eritrean Islamic Foundation)
Eritrean National Congress for Democratic Change or ENCDC
Eritrean National Salvation Front or ENSF
Eritrean People's Democratic Party or EPDP
Red Sea Afar Democratic Organization or RSADO
International organization participationABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (observer), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS (observer), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Maowia Osman KHALID (since 31 January 2014)
chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires BERHANE Gebrehiwet Solomon (since 15 March 2011)
chancery: 1708 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 319-1991
FAX: [1] (202) 319-1304
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Steven KOUTSIS (since 2016)
embassy: Sharia Ali Abdul Latif Street, Khartoum
mailing address: P.O. Box 699, Kilo 10, Soba, Khartoum; APO AE 09829
telephone: [249] (187)-0-(22000)
FAX: [249] (183) 774-137
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Natalie E. BROWN (since September 2016)
embassy: 179 Ala Street, Asmara
mailing address: P.O. Box 211, Asmara
telephone: [291] (1) 120004
FAX: [291] (1) 127584
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; colors and design based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I, but the meanings of the colors are expressed as follows: red signifies the struggle for freedom, white is the color of peace, light, and love, black represents the people of Sudan (in Arabic 'Sudan' means black), green is the color of Islam, agriculture, and prosperity
red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) dividing the flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is green, the lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive branch is centered on the hoist side of the red triangle; green stands for the country's agriculture economy, red signifies the blood shed in the fight for freedom, and blue symbolizes the bounty of the sea; the wreath-olive branch symbol is similar to that on the first flag of Eritrea from 1952; the shape of the red triangle broadly mimics the shape of the country
note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, and Vanuatu
National anthem"name: ""Nahnu Djundulla Djundulwatan"" (We Are the Army of God and of Our Land)
lyrics/music: Sayed Ahmad Muhammad SALIH/Ahmad MURJAN
note: adopted 1956; originally served as the anthem of the Sudanese military
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"name: ""Ertra, Ertra, Ertra"" (Eritrea, Eritrea, Eritrea)
lyrics/music: SOLOMON Tsehaye Beraki/Isaac Abraham MEHAREZGI and ARON Tekle Tesfatsion
note: adopted 1993; upon independence from Ethiopia
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International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; withdrew acceptance of ICCt jurisdiction in 2008
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)secretary bird; national colors: red, white, black, green
camel; national colors: green, red, blue
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sudan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Eritrea
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 20 years

Economy

SudanEritrea
Economy - overviewSudan has experienced protracted social conflict, civil war, and, in July 2011, the loss of three-quarters of its oil production due to the secession of South Sudan. The oil sector had driven much of Sudan's GDP growth since 1999. For nearly a decade, the economy boomed on the back of rising oil production, high oil prices, and significant inflows of foreign direct investment. Since the economic shock of South Sudan's secession, Sudan has struggled to stabilize its economy and make up for the loss of foreign exchange earnings. The interruption of oil production in South Sudan in 2012 for over a year and the consequent loss of oil transit fees further exacerbated the fragile state of Sudan’s economy. Ongoing conflicts in Southern Kordofan, Darfur, and the Blue Nile states, lack of basic infrastructure in large areas, and reliance by much of the population on subsistence agriculture, keep close to half of the population at or below the poverty line.

Sudan is also subject to comprehensive US sanctions. Sudan is attempting to develop non-oil sources of revenues, such as gold mining, while carrying out an austerity program to reduce expenditures. The world’s largest exporter of gum Arabic, Sudan produces 75-80% of the world’s total output. Agriculture continues to employ 80% of the work force.

Sudan introduced a new currency, still called the Sudanese pound, following South Sudan's secession, but the value of the currency has fallen since its introduction. Khartoum formally devalued the currency in June 2012, when it passed austerity measures that included gradually repealing fuel subsidies. Sudan also faces high inflation, which reached 47% on an annual basis in November 2012 but subsided to about 20% in 2016-17.
Since formal independence from Ethiopia in 1993, Eritrea has faced many economic problems, including lack of financial resources and chronic drought, which have been exacerbated by restrictive economic policies. Eritrea has a command economy under the control of the sole political party, the People's Front for Democracy and Justice. Like the economies of many African nations, a large share of the population - nearly 80% in Eritrea - is engaged in subsistence agriculture, but the sector only produces a small share of the country's total output.

Since the conclusion of the Ethiopia-Eritrea war in 2000, the government has expanded use of military and party-owned businesses to complete President ISAIAS's development agenda. The government has strictly controlled the use of foreign currency by limiting access and availability; new regulations in 2013 aimed at relaxing currency controls have had little economic effect. Few large private enterprises exist in Eritrea and most operate in conjunction with government partners, including a number of large international mining ventures, which began production in 2013. In late 2015, the government of Eritrea introduced a new currency, retaining the name Nakfa, and restricted the amount of hard currency individuals could withdraw from banks per month. The changeover has resulted in exchange fluctuations and the scarcity of hard currency available in the market.

While reliable statistics on Eritrea are difficult to obtain, erratic rainfall and the percentage of the labor force tied up in national service continue to interfere with agricultural production and economic development. Eritrea's harvests generally cannot meet the food needs of the country without supplemental grain purchases. Copper, potash, and gold production are likely to continue to drive economic growth and government revenue over the next few years, but military spending will continue to compete with development and investment plans.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$176.3 billion (2016 est.)
$171.1 billion (2015 est.)
$163.1 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$9.169 billion (2016 est.)
$8.845 billion (2015 est.)
$8.442 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.1% (2016 est.)
4.9% (2015 est.)
1.6% (2014 est.)
3.7% (2016 est.)
4.8% (2015 est.)
5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$4,500 (2016 est.)
$4,500 (2015 est.)
$4,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1,300 (2016 est.)
$1,300 (2015 est.)
$1,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 27.5%
industry: 20.7%
services: 51.8% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 12.1%
industry: 29.5%
services: 58.5% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line46.5% (2009 est.)
50% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 26.7% (2009 est.)
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices)20% (2016 est.)
17.3% (2015 est.)
11.8% (2016 est.)
9.8% (2015 est.)
Labor force11.92 million (2007 est.)
2.62 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 80%
industry: 7%
services: 13% (1998 est.)
agriculture: 80%
industry and services: 20% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate13.6% (2014 est.)
14.8% (2013 est.)
8.6% (2013 est.)
10% (2012 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $7.301 billion
expenditures: $11.28 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $1.58 billion
expenditures: $2.165 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesoil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly, milling
food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles, light manufacturing, salt, cement
Industrial production growth rate2.5% (2016 est.)
12.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum Arabic, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), mangoes, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame seeds; animal feed, sheep and other livestock
sorghum, lentils, vegetables, corn, cotton, tobacco, sisal; livestock, goats; fish
Exports$3.703 billion (2016 est.)
$3.169 billion (2015 est.)
$485.2 million (2016 est.)
$415.3 million (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesgold; oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, peanuts, gum Arabic, sugar
gold and other minerals, livestock, sorghum, textiles, food, small industry manufactures
Imports$9.345 billion (2016 est.)
$8.368 billion (2015 est.)
$1.022 billion (2016 est.)
$1.024 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfoodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines, chemicals, textiles, wheat
machinery, petroleum products, food, manufactured goods
Debt - external$51.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$49.42 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$820.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$831.2 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesSudanese pounds (SDG) per US dollar -
6.32 (2016 est.)
6.03 (2015 est.)
6.03 (2014 est.)
5.74 (2013 est.)
3.57 (2012 est.)
nakfa (ERN) per US dollar -
15.38 (2016 est.)
15.375 (2015 est.)
15.375 (2014 est.)
15.375 (2013 est.)
15.375 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt68.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
68.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
119.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
121.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$167.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$173.5 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$213.1 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$209.5 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$5.468 billion (2016 est.)
-$6.386 billion (2015 est.)
-$3 million (2016 est.)
-$102 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$94.3 billion (2016 est.)
$5.352 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$17.41 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.34 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$5.371 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.774 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$9.711 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.511 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.709 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.386 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$15.64 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.42 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.058 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.259 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues7.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
29.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
-10.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 82.6%
government consumption: 7.4%
investment in fixed capital: 14.1%
investment in inventories: 1.3%
exports of goods and services: 7.1%
imports of goods and services: -12.5% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 80.6%
government consumption: 23.4%
investment in fixed capital: 9%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 9.7%
imports of goods and services: -22.8% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving10.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
9.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
10% of GDP (2014 est.)
4% of GDP (2016 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
4% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

SudanEritrea
Electricity - production12 billion kWh (2014 est.)
300 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption9.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
300 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production64,770 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports2,060 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves5 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves21.24 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity3.7 million kW (2014 est.)
100,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels30.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
98.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants66.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
1.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production88,180 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption108,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
3,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports5,984 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports24,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
3,539 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy14 million Mt (2013 est.)
800,000 Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 24,700,000
electrification - total population: 35%
electrification - urban areas: 63%
electrification - rural areas: 21% (2013)
population without electricity: 4,300,000
electrification - total population: 32%
electrification - urban areas: 86%
electrification - rural areas: 17% (2013)

Telecommunications

SudanEritrea
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 118,954
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 66,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 27.939 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 77 (July 2015 est.)
total: 475,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started in 1996 and have expanded substantially with wide coverage of most major cities
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, fiber optic, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations
international: country code - 249; linked to the EASSy and FLAG fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Arabsat (2010)
general assessment: woefully inadequate service provided by state-owned telecom monopoly; most fixed-line telephones are in Asmara; cell phone use only slowly increasing throughout the country; no data service
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership is less than 10 per 100 persons
international: country code - 291 (2015)
Internet country code.sd
.er
Internet userstotal: 9.61 million
percent of population: 26.6% (July 2015 est.)
total: 71,000
percent of population: 1.1% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediathe Sudanese Government directly controls TV and radio, requiring that both media reflect government policies; TV has a permanent military censor; a private radio station is in operation (2007)
government controls broadcast media with private ownership prohibited; 1 state-owned TV station; state-owned radio operates 2 networks; purchases of satellite dishes and subscriptions to international broadcast media are permitted (2007)

Transportation

SudanEritrea
Railwaystotal: 7,251 km
narrow gauge: 5,851 km 1.067-m gauge; 1,400 km 0.600-m gauge for cotton plantations (20014)
total: 306 km
narrow gauge: 306 km 0.950-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 11,900 km
paved: 4,320 km
unpaved: 7,580 km (2000)
total: 4,010 km
paved: 874 km
unpaved: 3,136 km (2000)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Port Sudan
major seaport(s): Assab, Massawa
Merchant marinetotal: 2
by type: cargo 2 (2010)
total: 4
by type: cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1 (2010)
Airports74 (2013)
13 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 16
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 58
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 28
under 914 m: 12 (2013)
total: 9
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
Heliports6 (2013)
1 (2013)

Military

SudanEritrea
Military branchesSudanese Armed Forces (SAF): Land Forces, Navy (includes Marines), Sudanese Air Force (Sikakh al-Jawwiya as-Sudaniya), Rapid Support Forces, Popular Defense Forces (2016)
Eritrean Armed Forces: Eritrean Ground Forces, Eritrean Navy, Eritrean Air Force (includes Air Defense Force) (2011)
Military service age and obligation18-33 years of age for male and female compulsory or voluntary military service; 1-2 year service obligation; a requirement that completion of national service was mandatory before entering public or private sector employment has been cancelled (2012)
18-40 years of age for male and female voluntary and compulsory military service; 16-month conscript service obligation (2012)

Transnational Issues

SudanEritrea
Disputes - internationalthe effects of Sudan's ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-20th century have penetrated all of the neighboring states; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; as of April 2017, more than 610,000 Sudanese refugees are being hosted in the Central African Republic, Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, and South Sudan; Sudan, in turn, is hosting about 507,000 refugees, including more than 375,000 from South Sudan; Sudan accuses South Sudan of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of the Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; periodic violent skirmishes with Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan
Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by 2002 Ethiopia-Eritrea Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting eastern Sudanese rebel groups; in 2008, Eritrean troops moved across the border on Ras Doumera peninsula and occupied Doumera Island with undefined sovereignty in the Red Sea
Trafficking in personscurrent situation: Sudan is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Sudanese women and girls, particularly those from rural areas or who are internally displaced, or refugees are vulnerable to domestic servitude in country, as well as domestic servitude and sex trafficking abroad; migrants from East and West Africa, South Sudan, Syria, and Nigeria smuggled into or through Sudan are vulnerable to exploitation; Ethiopian, Eritrean, and Filipina women are subjected to domestic servitude in Sudanese homes, and East African and possibly Thai women are forced into prostitution in Sudan; Sudanese children continue to be recruited and used as combatants by government forces and armed groups
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Sudan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government increased its efforts to publically address and prevent trafficking, established a national anti-trafficking council, and began drafting a national action plan against trafficking; the government acknowledges cross-border trafficking but still denies the existence of forced labor, sex trafficking, and the recruitment of child soldiers domestically; law enforcement and judicial officials struggled to apply the national anti-trafficking law, often relying on other statutes with lesser penalties; authorities did not use systematic procedure to identify victims or refer them to care and relied on international organizations and domestic groups to provide protective services; some foreign victims were penalized for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of being trafficked, such as immigration or prostitution violations (2015)
current situation: Eritrea is a source country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor domestically and, to a lesser extent, sex and labor trafficking abroad; the country’s national service program is often abused, with conscripts detained indefinitely and subjected to forced labor; Eritrean migrants, often fleeing national service, face strict exit control procedures and limited access to passports and visas, making them vulnerable to trafficking; Eritrean secondary school children are required to take part in public works projects during their summer breaks and must attend military and educational camp in their final year to obtain a high school graduation certificate and to gain access to higher education and some jobs; some Eritreans living in or near refugee camps, particularly in Sudan, are kidnapped by criminal groups and held for ransom in the Sinai Peninsula and Libya, where they are subjected to forced labor and abuse
tier rating: Tier 3 – Eritrea does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government failed to investigate or prosecute any trafficking offenses or to identify or protect any victims; while the government continued to warn citizens of the dangers of human trafficking through awareness-raising events and poster campaigns, authorities lacked an understanding of the crime, conflating trafficking with transnational migration; Eritrea is not a party to the 2000 UN TIP Protocol (2015)

Source: CIA Factbook