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Sudan vs. Egypt

Introduction

SudanEgypt
BackgroundMilitary regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from Anglo-Egyptian co-rule in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but another broke out in 1983. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years followed by a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan. The referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelming support for independence. South Sudan became independent on 9 July 2011. Sudan and South Sudan have yet to fully implement security and economic agreements signed in September 2012 relating to the normalization of relations between the two countries. The final disposition of the contested Abyei region has also to be decided.
Following South Sudan's independence, conflict broke out between the government and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states (together known as the Two Areas), and has resulted in 1.1 million internally displaced persons or severely affected persons needing humanitarian assistance. A separate conflict broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, displacing nearly 2 million people and causing thousands of deaths. Fighting in both the Two Areas and Darfur between government forces and opposition has largely subsided, however the civilian populations are affected by low-level violence including inter-tribal conflict and banditry, largely a result of weak rule of law. The UN and the African Union have jointly commanded a Darfur peacekeeping operation (UNAMID) since 2007. Peacekeeping troops have struggled to address insecurity in Darfur and have increasingly become targets for attacks by armed groups. Sudan also has faced refugee influxes from neighboring countries, primarily Ethiopia, Eritrea, Chad, Central African Republic, and South Sudan. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and denial of access by both the government and armed opposition have impeded the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.
The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Completion of the Suez Canal in 1869 elevated Egypt as an important world transportation hub. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty from Britain in 1952. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to meet the demands of Egypt's population through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.
Inspired by the 2010 Tunisian revolution, Egyptian opposition groups led demonstrations and labor strikes countrywide, culminating in President Hosni MUBARAK's ouster in 2011. Egypt's military assumed national leadership until a new parliament was in place in early 2012; later that same year, Mohammed MORSI won the presidential election. Following often violent protests throughout the spring of 2013 against MORSI's government and the Muslim Brotherhood, the Egyptian Armed Forces intervened and removed MORSI from power in July 2013 and replaced him with interim president Adly MANSOUR. In January 2014, voters approved a new constitution by referendum and in May 2014 elected Abdelfattah ELSISI president. Egypt elected a new legislature in December 2015, the first parliament since 2012.

Geography

SudanEgypt
Locationnorth-eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula
Geographic coordinates15 00 N, 30 00 E
27 00 N, 30 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 1,861,484 sq km
land: NA
water: NA
total: 1,001,450 sq km
land: 995,450 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly less than one-fifth the size of the US
more than eight times the size of Ohio; slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico
Land boundariestotal: 6,819 km
border countries (7): Central African Republic 174 km, Chad 1,403 km, Egypt 1,276 km, Eritrea 682 km, Ethiopia 744 km, Libya 382 km, South Sudan 2,158 km
note: Sudan-South Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment; final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei region pending negotiations between Sudan and South Sudan
total: 2,612 km
border countries (4): Gaza Strip 13 km, Israel 208 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,276 km
Coastline853 km
2,450 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or the equidistant median line with Cyprus
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climatehot and dry; arid desert; rainy season varies by region (April to November)
desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
Terraingenerally flat, featureless plain; desert dominates the north
vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 568 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Red Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal Marrah 3,071 m
mean elevation: 321 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m
highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m
Natural resourcespetroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold; hydropower
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, rare earth elements, zinc
Land useagricultural land: 100%
arable land 15.7%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 84.2%
forest: 0%
other: 0% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 3.6%
arable land 2.8%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 0%
forest: 0.1%
other: 96.3% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land18,900 sq km (2012)
36,500 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsdust storms and periodic persistent droughts
periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes; flash floods; landslides; hot, driving windstorms called khamsin occur in spring; dust storms; sandstorms
Environment - current issuesinadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought
agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; limited natural freshwater resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notedominated by the Nile and its tributaries
controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees from Sudan and the Palestinian territories
Population distributionwith the exception of a ribbon of settlement that corresponds to the banks of the Nile, northern Sudan, which extends into the dry Sahara, is sparsely populated; more abundant vegetation and broader access to water increases population distribution in the south extending habitable range along nearly the entire border with South Sudan; sizeable areas of population are found around Khartoum, southeast between the Blue and White Nile Rivers, and througout South Darfur
approximately 95% of the population lives within 20 km of the Nile River and its delta; vast areas of the country remain sparsely populated or uninhabited

Demographics

SudanEgypt
Population36,729,501 (July 2016 est.)
94,666,993 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 39.43% (male 7,351,759/female 7,130,224)
15-24 years: 20.77% (male 3,926,374/female 3,703,826)
25-54 years: 32.42% (male 5,779,482/female 6,129,213)
55-64 years: 4.12% (male 793,848/female 721,075)
65 years and over: 3.25% (male 645,876/female 547,824) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 33.21% (male 16,268,862/female 15,169,039)
15-24 years: 19.24% (male 9,371,819/female 8,839,999)
25-54 years: 37.47% (male 18,020,332/female 17,448,871)
55-64 years: 5.91% (male 2,771,399/female 2,826,094)
65 years and over: 4.17% (male 1,937,119/female 2,013,459) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 19.6 years
male: 19.4 years
female: 19.9 years (2016 est.)
total: 23.8 years
male: 23.5 years
female: 24.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.69% (2016 est.)
2.51% (2016 est.)
Birth rate28.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
30.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate7.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
4.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-4.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.19 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 50.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 55.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 44.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 19.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 64.1 years
male: 62 years
female: 66.3 years (2016 est.)
total population: 72.7 years
male: 71.4 years
female: 74.2 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate3.68 children born/woman (2016 est.)
3.53 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.25% (2015 est.)
0.02% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sudanese
noun: Egyptian(s)
adjective: Egyptian
Ethnic groupsSudanese Arab (approximately 70%), Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata
Egyptian 99.6%, other 0.4% (2006 census)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS55,900 (2015 est.)
11,500 (2015 est.)
ReligionsSunni Muslim, small Christian minority
Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 90%, Christian (majority Coptic Orthodox, other Christians include Armenian Apostolic, Catholic, Maronite, Orthodox, and Anglican) 10% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths3,000 (2015 est.)
300 (2015 est.)
LanguagesArabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur
Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 75.9%
male: 83.3%
female: 68.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 73.8%
male: 82.2%
female: 65.4% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 7 years
male: 7 years
female: 7 years (2013)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2014)
Education expenditures2.2% of GDP (2009)
3.8% of GDP (2008)
Urbanizationurban population: 33.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.54% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 43.1% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.68% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 66% of population
rural: 50.2% of population
total: 55.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 34% of population
rural: 49.8% of population
total: 44.5% of population (2012 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 43.9% of population
rural: 13.4% of population
total: 23.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 56.1% of population
rural: 86.6% of population
total: 76.4% of population (2012 est.)
improved:
urban: 96.8% of population
rural: 93.1% of population
total: 94.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.2% of population
rural: 6.9% of population
total: 5.3% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationKHARTOUM (capital) 5.129 million (2015)
CAIRO (capital) 18.772 million; Alexandria 4.778 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate311 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
33 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight33% (2014)
7% (2014)
Health expenditures8.4% of GDP (2014)
5.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density3.06 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
0.81 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density0.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
0.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate6.6% (2014)
27.7% (2014)
Contraceptive prevalence rate12.2% (2014)
58.5% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 78
youth dependency ratio: 72.1
elderly dependency ratio: 5.9
potential support ratio: 16.9 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 62.3
youth dependency ratio: 53.8
elderly dependency ratio: 8.5
potential support ratio: 11.8 (2015 est.)

Government

SudanEgypt
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan
conventional short form: Sudan
local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
local short form: As-Sudan
former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
etymology: the name ""Sudan"" derives from the Arabic ""bilad-as-sudan"" meaning ""Land of the Black [peoples]""
"
"conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form: Egypt
local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
local short form: Misr
former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)
etymology: the English name ""Egypt"" derives from the ancient Greek name for the country ""Aigyptos""; the Arabic name ""Misr"" can be traced to the ancient Akkadian ""misru"" meaning border or frontier
"
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Khartoum
geographic coordinates: 15 36 N, 32 32 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Cairo
geographic coordinates: 30 03 N, 31 15 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions18 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); Blue Nile, Central Darfur, East Darfur, Gedaref, Gezira, Kassala, Khartoum, North Darfur, North Kordofan, Northern, Red Sea, River Nile, Sennar, South Darfur, South Kordofan, West Darfur, West Kordofan, White Nile
27 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazat); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma'iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Uqsur (Luxor), Al Wadi al Jadid (New Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Janub Sina' (South Sinai), Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina' (North Sinai), Suhaj
Independence1 January 1956 (from Egypt and the UK)
28 February 1922 (from UK protectorate status; the revolution that began on 23 July 1952 led to a republic being declared on 18 June 1953 and all British troops withdrawn on 18 June 1956); note - it was ca. 3200 B.C. that the Two Lands of Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt were first united politically
National holidayIndependence Day, 1 January (1956)
Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)
Constitutionprevious 1998; latest adopted 6 July 2005, effective 9 July 2005 (interim constitution); amended 2015; note - in 2011, the Government of Sudan initiated a national dialogue process with the intention of drafting a new constitution (2017)
history: several previous; latest approved by a constitutional committee in December 2013, approved by referendum held on 14-15 January 2014, ratified by interim president on 19 January 2014
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by one-fifth of the House of Representatives members; a decision to accept the proposal requires majority vote by House members; passage of amendment requires a two-thirds majority vote by House members and passage by majority vote in a referendum; articles of reelection of the president and principles of freedom normally not amendable (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of Islamic law and English common law
mixed legal system based on Napoleonic civil and penal law, Islamic religious law, and vestiges of colonial-era laws; judicial review of the constitutionality of laws by the Supreme Constitutional Court
Suffrage17 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branchnote: the position of prime minister was reinstated in December 2016 as a result of the 2015-16 national dialogue process, and President al-BASHIR appointed BAKRI Hassan Salih to the position on 2 March 2017
chief of state: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President & Prime Minister BAKRI Hassan Salih (first VP since 3 December 2013 and PM since 2 March 2017), Second Vice President Hasabu Mohamed ABDEL RAHMIN (since 3 December 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President & Prime Minister BAKRI Hassan Salih (first VP since 3 December 2013 and PM since 2 March 2017), Second Vice President Hasabu Mohamed ABDEL RAHMIN (since 3 December 2013))
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the Natinal Congress Party or NCP, formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF, dominates al-BASHIR's cabinet
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed; last held on 13-16 April 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (NCP) 94.1%, other (15 candidates) 5.9%
Chief of state: President Abdelfattah Said ELSISI (since 8 June 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Sherif ISMAIL (since 12 September 2015); note - Prime Minister Ibrahim MEHLAB resigned 12 September 2015
cabinet: Cabinet sworn in 19 September 2015
elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26-28 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2018); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the House of Representatives
election results: Abdelfattah Said ELSISI elected president; percent of vote in 1 round - Abdelfattah Said ELSISI (independent) 96.6%, Hamdeen SABAHI (Egyptian Current Party) 3.4%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral National Legislature consists of the Council of States or Majlis al-Wilayat (50 seats; members indirectly elected - 2 each by the 25 state legislatures to serve 6-year terms) and the National Assembly or Majlis Watani (426 seats; 213 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 128 for women only directly elected by proportional representation vote, and 85 directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms)
elections: last held on 13-15 April 2015 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NCP 323, DUP 25, Democratic Unionist Party 15, other 44, independent 19
note: the mandate of the members from the south was terminated upon independence by the Republic of South Sudan effective 9 July 2011 and membership in Sudan's National Assembly was reduced to 354; it is unclear whether this total will be retained for the next election or whether the previous total of 450 will be reconstituted
description: unicameral House of Representatives (Majlis Al-Nowaab); 596 seats; 448 members directly elected by individual candidacy system, 120 members - with quotas for women, youth, Christians and workers - elected in party-list constituencies by simple majority popular vote, and 28 members selected by the president; member term 5 years; note - inaugural session held on 10 January 2016
elections: multi-phase election completed on 16 December 2015 (next election 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -– Free Egyptians Party 65, Nation’s Future Party 53, New Wafd Party 36, Homeland’s Protector Party 18, Republican People’s Party 13, Congress Party 12, al-Nour Party 11, Conservative Party 6, Democratic Peace Party 5, Egyptian Social Democratic Party 4, Egyptian National Movement 4, Modern Egypt Party 4, Reform and Development Party 3, Freedom Party 3, My Homeland Egypt Party 3, National Progressive Unionist Party 2, Arab Democratic Nasserist Party 1, Revolutionary Guards Party 1, Free Egyptian Building Party 1, independent 351
Judicial branchhighest court(s): National Supreme Court (consists of 70 judges organized into panels of 3 judges and includes 4 circuits that operate outside the capital); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 justices including the court president); note - the Constitutional Court resides outside the national judiciary
judge selection and term of office: National Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Service Commission, an independent body chaired by the chief justice of the republic and members including other judges and judicial and legal officials; Supreme Court judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 7 years
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; other national courts; public courts; district, town, and rural courts
"highest court(s): Supreme Constitutional Court or SCC (consists of the court president and 10 justices); the SCC serves as the final court of arbitrator on the constitutionality of laws and conflicts between lower courts regarding jurisdiction and rulings; Court of Cassation (CC) (consists of the court president and 550 judges organized in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges); the CC is the highest appeals body for civil and criminal cases, also known as “ordinary justices""; Supreme Administrative Court (SAC) - consists of the court president and organized in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges); the SAC is the highest court of the State Council
judge selection and term of office: under the 2014 constitution, all judges and justices selected by the Supreme Judiciary Council and appointed by the president of the Republic; judges appointed for life
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; courts of limited jurisdiction; Family Court (established in 2004)
"
Political parties and leadersDemocratic Unionist Party or DUP
Democratic Unionist Party [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI]
Muslim Brotherhood or MB
National Congress Party or NCP [Umar Hassan al-BASHIR]
National Umma Party or UP [Saddiq al-MAHDI]
Popular Congress Party or PCP [Kamal UMARI]
Reform Now Party or RNP [Dr. Ghazi Salah al-DEEN]
Sudan National Front [Ali Mahmud HASANAYN]
Sudanese Communist Party or SCP [Mohammed Moktar Al-KHATEEB]
Sudanese Congress Party [Ibrahim Al-SHEIKH]
Unionist Movement Party or UMP
officially recognized: Al-Nour [Yunis MAKHYUN]
Arab Democratic Nasserist Party [Sameh ASHOUR]
Congress Party [Omar Mokhtar SEMEIDA]
Conservative Party [Akmal KOURTAM]
Democratic Peace Party [Ahmed FADALY]
Egyptian National Movement Party [Ibrahim DARWISH]
Egyptian Social Democratic Party [Mervat TALAWAY]
El Tagamu'u Party (National Progressibve Unionist [Sayed Abdel AAL]
Freedom Party [Mamdouh HASSAN]
Free Egyptian Building Party
Free Egyptians Party [Essam KHALIL]
Homeland’s Protector Party [Lt. Gen. (retired) Galal AL-HARIDI]
Modern Egypt Party [Nabil DEIBIS]
Mostaqbal Watan (Nation’s Future) Party [Mohamed Ashraf RASHAD]
My Homeland Egypt Party [Qadry ABU HUSSEIN]
National Progressive Unionist (Tagammu) Party [Sayed Abdel AAL]
Nation's Future Party [Ashraf RASHAD, secretary general]
New Wafd Party [Sayed al-BADAWI]
Reform and Development Party [Mohamad Anwar al-SADAT]
Republican People’s Party [Hazim AMR]
Revolutionary Guards Party [Magdy EL-SHARIF]
Political pressure groups and leadersDarfur rebel groups including the Justice and Equality Movement or JEM [Gibril Fidail IBRAHIM], Sudan Liberation Movement or SLM-AW [Abdel Wahid NUR, various factional leaders], Sudan Liberation Movement or SLM-MM [Minni Arkou MINAWI]
National Consensus Front or NCF [Farouq ABU ISSA]
Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North or SPLM-N [Yasir ARMAN]
NA
International organization participationABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CD, CICA, COMESA, D-8, EBRD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Maowia Osman KHALID (since 31 January 2014)
chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406
chief of mission: Ambassador Yasser REDA (since 19 September 2015)
chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400
FAX: [1] (202) 244-5131
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Steven KOUTSIS (since 2016)
embassy: Sharia Ali Abdul Latif Street, Khartoum
mailing address: P.O. Box 699, Kilo 10, Soba, Khartoum; APO AE 09829
telephone: [249] (187)-0-(22000)
FAX: [249] (183) 774-137
chief of mission: Ambassador R. Stephen BEECROFT (since 18 December 2014)
embassy: 5 Tawfik Diab St., Garden City, Cairo
mailing address: Unit 64900, Box 15, APO AE 09839-4900; 5 Tawfik Diab Street, Garden City, Cairo
telephone: [20] (2) 2797-3300
FAX: [20] (2) 2797-3200
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; colors and design based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I, but the meanings of the colors are expressed as follows: red signifies the struggle for freedom, white is the color of peace, light, and love, black represents the people of Sudan (in Arabic 'Sudan' means black), green is the color of Islam, agriculture, and prosperity
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white)
note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars in the white band, Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band, and Yemen, which has a plain white band
National anthem"name: ""Nahnu Djundulla Djundulwatan"" (We Are the Army of God and of Our Land)
lyrics/music: Sayed Ahmad Muhammad SALIH/Ahmad MURJAN
note: adopted 1956; originally served as the anthem of the Sudanese military
"
"name: ""Bilady, Bilady, Bilady"" (My Homeland, My Homeland, My Homeland)
lyrics/music: Younis-al QADI/Sayed DARWISH
note: adopted 1979; the current anthem, less militaristic than the previous one, was created after the signing of the 1979 peace treaty with Israel; Sayed DARWISH, commonly considered the father of modern Egyptian music, composed the anthem
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; withdrew acceptance of ICCt jurisdiction in 2008
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)secretary bird; national colors: red, white, black, green
golden eagle, white lotus; national colors: red, white, black
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sudan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: if the father was born in Egypt
dual citizenship recognized: only with prior permission from the government
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

SudanEgypt
Economy - overviewSudan has experienced protracted social conflict, civil war, and, in July 2011, the loss of three-quarters of its oil production due to the secession of South Sudan. The oil sector had driven much of Sudan's GDP growth since 1999. For nearly a decade, the economy boomed on the back of rising oil production, high oil prices, and significant inflows of foreign direct investment. Since the economic shock of South Sudan's secession, Sudan has struggled to stabilize its economy and make up for the loss of foreign exchange earnings. The interruption of oil production in South Sudan in 2012 for over a year and the consequent loss of oil transit fees further exacerbated the fragile state of Sudan’s economy. Ongoing conflicts in Southern Kordofan, Darfur, and the Blue Nile states, lack of basic infrastructure in large areas, and reliance by much of the population on subsistence agriculture, keep close to half of the population at or below the poverty line.

Sudan is also subject to comprehensive US sanctions. Sudan is attempting to develop non-oil sources of revenues, such as gold mining, while carrying out an austerity program to reduce expenditures. The world’s largest exporter of gum Arabic, Sudan produces 75-80% of the world’s total output. Agriculture continues to employ 80% of the work force.

Sudan introduced a new currency, still called the Sudanese pound, following South Sudan's secession, but the value of the currency has fallen since its introduction. Khartoum formally devalued the currency in June 2012, when it passed austerity measures that included gradually repealing fuel subsidies. Sudan also faces high inflation, which reached 47% on an annual basis in November 2012 but subsided to about 20% in 2016-17.
Occupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley, where most economic activity takes place. Egypt's economy was highly centralized during the rule of former President Gamal Abdel NASSER but opened up considerably under former Presidents Anwar EL-SADAT and Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK.

Cairo from 2004 to 2008 pursued business climate reforms to attract foreign investment and facilitate growth. Poor living conditions and limited job opportunities for the average Egyptian contribute to public discontent, a major factor leading to the January 2011 revolution that ousted MUBARAK. The uncertain political, security, and policy environment since 2011 caused economic growth to slow significantly, hurting tourism, manufacturing, and other sectors and pushing up unemployment, which remains above 10%.

Weak growth and limited foreign exchange earnings have made public finances unsustainable, leaving authorities dependent on expensive borrowing for deficit finance and on Gulf allies to help cover the import bill. In 2015-16, higher levels of foreign investment contributed to a slight rebound in GDP growth after a particularly depressed post-revolution period. In 2016, Cairo enacted a value-added tax, implemented fuel and electricity subsidy cuts, and floated its currency, which led to a sharp depreciation of the pound and corresponding inflation. In November 2016, the IMF approved a $12 billion, three-year loan for Egypt and disbursed the first $2.75 billion tranche.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$176.3 billion (2016 est.)
$171.1 billion (2015 est.)
$163.1 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1.105 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.064 trillion (2015 est.)
$1.021 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.1% (2016 est.)
4.9% (2015 est.)
1.6% (2014 est.)
3.8% (2016 est.)
4.2% (2015 est.)
2.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$4,500 (2016 est.)
$4,500 (2015 est.)
$4,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$12,100 (2016 est.)
$12,000 (2015 est.)
$11,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 27.5%
industry: 20.7%
services: 51.8% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 11.3%
industry: 35.8%
services: 52.9% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line46.5% (2009 est.)
25.2% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 26.7% (2009 est.)
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 26.6% (2008)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)20% (2016 est.)
17.3% (2015 est.)
12.1% (2016 est.)
10.4% (2015 est.)
Labor force11.92 million (2007 est.)
31.96 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 80%
industry: 7%
services: 13% (1998 est.)
agriculture: 29.2%
industry: 23.5%
services: 47.3% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate13.6% (2014 est.)
14.8% (2013 est.)
13.1% (2016 est.)
12.8% (2015 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $7.301 billion
expenditures: $11.28 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $60.09 billion
expenditures: $92.37 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesoil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly, milling
textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures
Industrial production growth rate2.5% (2016 est.)
0.6% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum Arabic, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), mangoes, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame seeds; animal feed, sheep and other livestock
cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats
Exports$3.703 billion (2016 est.)
$3.169 billion (2015 est.)
$14.73 billion (2016 est.)
$19.03 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesgold; oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, peanuts, gum Arabic, sugar
crude oil and petroleum products, fruits and vegetables, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals, processed food
Exports - partnersUAE 23.4%, Macau 23.3%, Saudi Arabia 20.8%, Egypt 9.6% (2015)
Saudi Arabia 9.1%, Italy 7.5%, Turkey 5.8%, UAE 5.1%, US 5.1%, UK 4.4%, India 4.1% (2015)
Imports$9.345 billion (2016 est.)
$8.368 billion (2015 est.)
$50.07 billion (2016 est.)
$57.17 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfoodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines, chemicals, textiles, wheat
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels
Imports - partnersMacau 22.7%, UAE 8.8%, India 8.4%, Egypt 6%, Saudi Arabia 4.6%, Turkey 4.3% (2015)
China 13%, Germany 7.7%, US 5.9%, Turkey 4.5%, Russia 4.4%, Italy 4.4%, Saudi Arabia 4.1% (2015)
Debt - external$51.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$49.42 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$50.67 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$44.61 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesSudanese pounds (SDG) per US dollar -
6.32 (2016 est.)
6.03 (2015 est.)
6.03 (2014 est.)
5.74 (2013 est.)
3.57 (2012 est.)
Egyptian pounds (EGP) per US dollar -
9.71 (2016 est.)
7.7133 (2015 est.)
7.7133 (2014 est.)
7.08 (2013 est.)
6.06 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
1 July - 30 June
Public debt68.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
68.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
92.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
90.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover central government debt and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$167.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$173.5 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$15.06 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.49 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$5.468 billion (2016 est.)
-$6.386 billion (2015 est.)
-$18.66 billion (2016 est.)
-$12.18 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$94.3 billion (2016 est.)
$342.8 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$24.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$24.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$94.51 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$89.65 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$55.19 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$70.08 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$61.63 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$17.41 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.34 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$260.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$297.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$9.711 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.511 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$55.96 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$66.49 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$15.64 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.42 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$210.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$243.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues7.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
-9.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 20%
male: 16%
female: 32% (2009 est.)
total: 34.3%
male: 28.7%
female: 52.2% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 82.6%
government consumption: 7.4%
investment in fixed capital: 14.1%
investment in inventories: 1.3%
exports of goods and services: 7.1%
imports of goods and services: -12.5% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 84.4%
government consumption: 12%
investment in fixed capital: 12.1%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 12.7%
imports of goods and services: -21.6% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving10.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
9.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
10% of GDP (2014 est.)
8.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
10.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
13% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

SudanEgypt
Electricity - production12 billion kWh (2014 est.)
162 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption9.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
143 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013 est.)
500 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
81 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production64,770 bbl/day (2014 est.)
511,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
59,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports2,060 bbl/day (2013 est.)
193,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves5 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
4.4 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves21.24 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
2.186 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
48.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
48.08 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
720 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
2.832 billion cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity3.7 million kW (2014 est.)
38 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels30.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
87.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants66.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
9.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
2.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production88,180 bbl/day (2013 est.)
547,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption108,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
797,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports5,984 bbl/day (2013 est.)
45,500 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports24,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
215,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy14 million Mt (2013 est.)
207 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 24,700,000
electrification - total population: 35%
electrification - urban areas: 63%
electrification - rural areas: 21% (2013)
population without electricity: 300,000
electrification - total population: 99.6%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 99.3% (2013)

Telecommunications

SudanEgypt
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 118,954
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 6,235,133
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 27.939 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 77 (July 2015 est.)
total: 94.016 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started in 1996 and have expanded substantially with wide coverage of most major cities
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, fiber optic, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations
international: country code - 249; linked to the EASSy and FLAG fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Arabsat (2010)
general assessment: Telecom Egypt remains largely state owned; principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay
domestic: largest fixed-line system in Africa and the Arab region; multiple mobile-cellular networks with a near 100-percent penetration of the market
international: country code - 20; landing point for Aletar, the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks, Link Around the Globe (FLAG) Falcon and FLAG FEA; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean, 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat); tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel (2015)
Internet country code.sd
.eg
Internet userstotal: 9.61 million
percent of population: 26.6% (July 2015 est.)
total: 31.767 million
percent of population: 35.9% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediathe Sudanese Government directly controls TV and radio, requiring that both media reflect government policies; TV has a permanent military censor; a private radio station is in operation (2007)
mix of state-run and private broadcast media; state-run TV operates 2 national and 6 regional terrestrial networks, as well as a few satellite channels; about 20 private satellite channels and a large number of Arabic satellite channels are available via subscription; state-run radio operates about 70 stations belonging to 8 networks; 2 privately owned radio stations operational (2008)

Transportation

SudanEgypt
Railwaystotal: 7,251 km
narrow gauge: 5,851 km 1.067-m gauge; 1,400 km 0.600-m gauge for cotton plantations (20014)
total: 5,085 km
standard gauge: 5,085 km 1.435-m gauge (62 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 11,900 km
paved: 4,320 km
unpaved: 7,580 km (2000)
total: 137,430 km
paved: 126,742 km (includes 838 km of expressways)
unpaved: 10,688 km (2010)
Waterways4,068 km (1,723 km open year round on White and Blue Nile Rivers) (2011)
3,500 km (includes the Nile River, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in Nile Delta; the Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches) is navigable by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 17.68 m) (2011)
Pipelinesgas 156 km; oil 4,070 km; refined products 1,613 km (2013)
condensate 486 km; condensate/gas 74 km; gas 7,986 km; liquid petroleum gas 957 km; oil 5,225 km; oil/gas/water 37 km; refined products 895 km; water 65 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Port Sudan
major seaport(s): Mediterranean Sea - Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Port Said; Gulf of Suez - Suez
oil terminal(s): Ain Sukhna terminal, Sidi Kerir terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Alexandria (1,108,826), Port Said (East) (2,617,043), Port Said (West) (1,138,753)
LNG terminal(s) (export): Damietta, Idku (Abu Qir Bay)
Merchant marinetotal: 2
by type: cargo 2 (2010)
total: 67
by type: bulk carrier 16, cargo 20, container 3, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 12, roll on/roll off 9
foreign-owned: 13 (Denmark 1, France 1, Greece 8, Jordan 2, Lebanon 1)
registered in other countries: 42 (Cambodia 4, Georgia 7, Honduras 2, Liberia 3, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 1, Moldova 5, Panama 11, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Saudi Arabia 1, Sierra Leone 3, unknown 1) (2010)
Airports74 (2013)
83 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 16
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
total: 72
over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
under 914 m: 6 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 58
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 28
under 914 m: 12 (2013)
total: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Heliports6 (2013)
7 (2013)

Military

SudanEgypt
Military branchesSudanese Armed Forces (SAF): Land Forces, Navy (includes Marines), Sudanese Air Force (Sikakh al-Jawwiya as-Sudaniya), Rapid Support Forces, Popular Defense Forces (2016)
Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Forces (2015)
Military service age and obligation18-33 years of age for male and female compulsory or voluntary military service; 1-2 year service obligation; a requirement that completion of national service was mandatory before entering public or private sector employment has been cancelled (2012)
18-30 years of age for male conscript military service; service obligation - 18-36 months, followed by a 9-year reserve obligation; voluntary enlistment possible from age 15 (2017)

Transnational Issues

SudanEgypt
Disputes - internationalthe effects of Sudan's ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-20th century have penetrated all of the neighboring states; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; as of April 2017, more than 610,000 Sudanese refugees are being hosted in the Central African Republic, Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, and South Sudan; Sudan, in turn, is hosting about 507,000 refugees, including more than 375,000 from South Sudan; Sudan accuses South Sudan of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of the Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; periodic violent skirmishes with Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan
Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; Egypt no longer shows its administration of the Bir Tawil trapezoid in Sudan on its maps; Gazan breaches in the security wall with Egypt in January 2008 highlight difficulties in monitoring the Sinai border; Saudi Arabia claims Egyptian-administered islands of Tiran and Sanafir
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 103,176 (Eritrea); 8,502 (Chad); 6,997 (Syria) (2016); 417,495 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2017)
IDPs: 3.3 million (civil war 1983-2005; ongoing conflict in Darfur region; government and rebel fighting along South Sudan border; inter-tribal clashes) (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 70,027 (West Bank and Gaza Strip); 6,835 (Somalia) (2016); 15,053 (Sudan); 122,228 (Syria) (2017)
IDPs: 78,000 (2016)
stateless persons: 19 (2016)
Trafficking in personscurrent situation: Sudan is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Sudanese women and girls, particularly those from rural areas or who are internally displaced, or refugees are vulnerable to domestic servitude in country, as well as domestic servitude and sex trafficking abroad; migrants from East and West Africa, South Sudan, Syria, and Nigeria smuggled into or through Sudan are vulnerable to exploitation; Ethiopian, Eritrean, and Filipina women are subjected to domestic servitude in Sudanese homes, and East African and possibly Thai women are forced into prostitution in Sudan; Sudanese children continue to be recruited and used as combatants by government forces and armed groups
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Sudan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government increased its efforts to publically address and prevent trafficking, established a national anti-trafficking council, and began drafting a national action plan against trafficking; the government acknowledges cross-border trafficking but still denies the existence of forced labor, sex trafficking, and the recruitment of child soldiers domestically; law enforcement and judicial officials struggled to apply the national anti-trafficking law, often relying on other statutes with lesser penalties; authorities did not use systematic procedure to identify victims or refer them to care and relied on international organizations and domestic groups to provide protective services; some foreign victims were penalized for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of being trafficked, such as immigration or prostitution violations (2015)
current situation: Egypt is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; Egyptian children, including the large population of street children are vulnerable to forced labor in domestic service, begging and agriculture or may be victims of sex trafficking or child sex tourism, which occurs in Cairo, Alexandria, and Luxor; some Egyptian women and girls are sold into “temporary” or “summer” marriages with Gulf men, through the complicity of their parents or marriage brokers, and are exploited for prostitution or forced labor; Egyptian men are subject to forced labor in neighboring countries, while adults from South and Southeast Asia and East Africa – and increasingly Syrian refugees – are forced to work in domestic service, construction, cleaning, and begging in Egypt; women and girls, including migrants and refugees, from Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and the Middle East are sex trafficked in Egypt; the Egyptian military cracked down on criminal group’s smuggling, abducting, trafficking, and extorting African migrants in the Sinai Peninsula, but the practice has reemerged in along Egypt’s western border with Libya
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Egypt does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government gathered data nationwide on trafficking cases to better allocated and prioritize anti-trafficking efforts, but overall it did not demonstrate increased progress; prosecutions increased in 2014, but no offenders were convicted for the second consecutive year; fewer trafficking victims were identified in 2014, which represents a significant and ongoing decrease from the previous two reporting periods; the government relied on NGOs and international organizations to identify and refer victims to protective services, and focused on Egyptian victims and refused to provide some services to foreign victims, at times including shelter (2015)

Source: CIA Factbook