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Sri Lanka vs. India

Introduction

Sri LankaIndia
BackgroundThe first Sinhalese arrived in Sri Lanka late in the 6th century B.C., probably from northern India. Buddhism was introduced circa 250 B.C., and the first kingdoms developed at the cities of Anuradhapura (from circa 200 B.C. to circa A.D. 1000) and Polonnaruwa (from about 1070 to 1200). In the 14th century, a south Indian dynasty established a Tamil kingdom in northern Sri Lanka. The Portuguese controlled the coastal areas of the island in the 16th century and the Dutch in the 17th century. The island was ceded to the British in 1796, became a crown colony in 1802, and was formally united under British rule by 1815. As Ceylon, it became independent in 1948; its name was changed to Sri Lanka in 1972. Prevailing tensions between the Sinhalese majority and Tamil separatists erupted into war in 1983. After two decades of fighting, the government and Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) formalized a cease-fire in February 2002 with Norway brokering peace negotiations. Both the LTTE and the government unofficially abrogated the ceasefire and violence between the LTTE and government forces intensified in 2006, but the government regained control of the Eastern Province in 2007. The government officially withdrew from the ceasefire agreement in January 2008 and by May 2009, the remnants of the LTTE had been defeated.
Since the end of the conflict, the government has enacted an ambitious program of economic development projects, many of which are financed by loans from the Government of China. In addition to efforts at reconstructing its economy, the government has resettled more than 95% of those civilians displaced during the final phase of the conflict and released the vast majority of former LTTE combatants captured by Government Security Forces. Progress continues to be made on more contentious and politically difficult issues such as reaching a political settlement with Tamil elected representatives and holding accountable those alleged to have been involved in human rights violations and other abuses during the conflict.
The Indus Valley civilization, one of the world's oldest, flourished during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. and extended into northwestern India. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture. Islam spread across the subcontinent over a period of 700 years. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded India and established the Delhi Sultanate. In the early 16th century, the Emperor BABUR established the Mughal Dynasty, which ruled India for more than three centuries. European explorers began establishing footholds in India during the 16th century.
By the 19th century, Great Britain had become the dominant political power on the subcontinent. The British Indian Army played a vital role in both World Wars. Years of nonviolent resistance to British rule, led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU, eventually resulted in Indian independence, which was granted in 1947. Large-scale communal violence took place before and after the subcontinent partition into two separate states - India and Pakistan. The neighboring nations have fought three wars since independence, the last of which was in 1971 and resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. India's nuclear weapons tests in 1998 emboldened Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. In November 2008, terrorists originating from Pakistan conducted a series of coordinated attacks in Mumbai, India's financial capital. Despite pressing problems such as significant overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and widespread corruption, economic growth following the launch of economic reforms in 1991 and a massive youthful population are driving India's emergence as a regional and global power.

Geography

Sri LankaIndia
LocationSouthern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of India
Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan
Geographic coordinates7 00 N, 81 00 E
20 00 N, 77 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Asia
Areatotal: 65,610 sq km
land: 64,630 sq km
water: 980 sq km
total: 3,287,263 sq km
land: 2,973,193 sq km
water: 314,070 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly larger than West Virginia
slightly more than one-third the size of the US
Land boundaries0 km
total: 13,888 km
border countries (6): Bangladesh 4,142 km, Bhutan 659 km, Burma 1,468 km, China 2,659 km, Nepal 1,770 km, Pakistan 3,190 km
Coastline1,340 km
7,000 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climatetropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March); southwest monsoon (June to October)
varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
Terrainmostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in south-central interior
upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 228 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pidurutalagala 2,524 m
mean elevation: 160 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m
Natural resourceslimestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, phosphates, clay, hydropower, arable land
coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 43.5%
arable land 20.7%; permanent crops 15.8%; permanent pasture 7%
forest: 29.4%
other: 27.1% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 60.5%
arable land 52.8%; permanent crops 4.2%; permanent pasture 3.5%
forest: 23.1%
other: 16.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land5,700 sq km (2012)
667,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsoccasional cyclones and tornadoes
droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes
volcanism: Barren Island (elev. 354 m) in the Andaman Sea has been active in recent years
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by poaching and urbanization; coastal degradation from mining activities and increased pollution; freshwater resources being polluted by industrial wastes and sewage runoff; waste disposal; air pollution in Colombo
deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notestrategic location near major Indian Ocean sea lanes
dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal
Population distributionthe population is primarily concentrated within a broad wet zone in the southwest, urban centers along the eastern coast, and on the Jaffna Peninsula in the north
with the notable exception of the deserts in the northwest, including the Thar Desert, and the mountain fringe in the north, a very high population density exists throughout most of the country; the core of the population is in the north along the banks of the Ganges, with other river valleys and southern coastal areas also having large population concentrations

Demographics

Sri LankaIndia
Population22.235 million (July 2016 est.)
1,266,883,598 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 24.35% (male 2,760,821/female 2,652,747)
15-24 years: 14.7% (male 1,660,402/female 1,608,022)
25-54 years: 41.71% (male 4,544,253/female 4,729,544)
55-64 years: 9.89% (male 1,018,357/female 1,181,060)
65 years and over: 9.35% (male 882,740/female 1,197,054) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 27.71% (male 186,420,229/female 164,611,755)
15-24 years: 17.99% (male 121,009,850/female 106,916,692)
25-54 years: 40.91% (male 267,203,029/female 251,070,105)
55-64 years: 7.3% (male 46,398,574/female 46,105,489)
65 years and over: 6.09% (male 36,549,003/female 40,598,872) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 32.5 years
male: 31.2 years
female: 33.7 years (2016 est.)
total: 27.6 years
male: 26.9 years
female: 28.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.8% (2016 est.)
1.19% (2016 est.)
Birth rate15.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
19.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate6.2 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 8.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 40.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 39.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 41.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 76.8 years
male: 73.3 years
female: 80.4 years (2016 est.)
total population: 68.5 years
male: 67.3 years
female: 69.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.09 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.45 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.03% (2015 est.)
0.26% (2013 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Sri Lankan(s)
adjective: Sri Lankan
noun: Indian(s)
adjective: Indian
Ethnic groupsSinhalese 74.9%, Sri Lankan Tamil 11.2%, Sri Lankan Moors 9.2%, Indian Tamil 4.2%, other 0.5% (2012 est.)
Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS4,200 (2015 est.)
2,118,100 (2015 est.)
ReligionsBuddhist (official) 70.2%, Hindu 12.6%, Muslim 9.7%, Roman Catholic 6.1%, other Christian 1.3%, other 0.05% (2012 est.)
Hindu 79.8%, Muslim 14.2%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.7%, other and unspecified 2% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths100 (2015 est.)
67,600 (2015 est.)
LanguagesSinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil (official and national language) 18%, other 8%
note: English, spoken competently by about 10% of the population, is commonly used in government and is referred to as the link language in the constitution
Hindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%, Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%, Punjabi 2.8%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9%
note: English enjoys the status of subsidiary official language but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the most widely spoken language and primary tongue of 41% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language (2001 census)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
male: 93.6%
female: 91.7% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.2%
male: 81.3%
female: 60.6% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne disease: dengue fever
water contact disease: leptospirosis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
water contact disease: leptospirosis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2013)
total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2014)
Education expenditures2.2% of GDP (2015)
3.8% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 18.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.72% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 32.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.38% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 98.5% of population
rural: 95% of population
total: 95.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.5% of population
rural: 5% of population
total: 4.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 97.1% of population
rural: 92.6% of population
total: 94.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.9% of population
rural: 7.4% of population
total: 5.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 88.1% of population
rural: 96.7% of population
total: 95.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 11.9% of population
rural: 3.3% of population
total: 4.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 62.6% of population
rural: 28.5% of population
total: 39.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 37.4% of population
rural: 71.5% of population
total: 60.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationSri Jayewardenepura Kotte (legislative capital) 128,000 (2014); COLOMBO (capital) 707,000 (2015)
NEW DELHI (capital) 25.703 million; Mumbai 21.043 million; Kolkata 11.766 million; Bangalore 10.087 million; Chennai 9.62 million; Hyderabad 8.944 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate30 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
174 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures3.5% of GDP (2014)
4.7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.73 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
0.73 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density3.6 beds/1,000 population (2012)
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate6.8% (2014)
4.7% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 51.2
youth dependency ratio: 37.2
elderly dependency ratio: 14.1
potential support ratio: 7.1 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 52.4
youth dependency ratio: 43.9
elderly dependency ratio: 8.6
potential support ratio: 11.7 (2015 est.)

Government

Sri LankaIndia
Country name"conventional long form: Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
conventional short form: Sri Lanka
local long form: Shri Lanka Prajatantrika Samajavadi Janarajaya/Ilankai Jananayaka Choshalichak Kutiyarachu
local short form: Shri Lanka/Ilankai
former: Serendib, Ceylon
etymology: the name means ""resplendent island"" in Sanskrit
"
"conventional long form: Republic of India
conventional short form: India
local long form: Republic of India/Bharatiya Ganarajya
local short form: India/Bharat
etymology: the English name derives from the Indus River; the Indian name ""Bharat"" may derive from the ""Bharatas"" tribe mentioned in the Vedas of the second millennium B.C.; the name is also associated with Emperor Bharata, the legendary conqueror of all of India
"
Government typepresidential republic
federal parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Colombo (commercial capital); Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte (administrative capital)
geographic coordinates: 6 55 N, 79 50 E
time difference: UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: New Delhi
geographic coordinates: 28 36 N, 77 12 E
time difference: UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions9 provinces; Central, Eastern, North Central, Northern, North Western, Sabaragamuwa, Southern, Uva, Western
29 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Puducherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal
note: although its status is that of a union territory, the official name of Delhi is National Capital Territory of Delhi
Independence4 February 1948 (from the UK)
15 August 1947 (from the UK)
National holidayIndependence Day (National Day), 4 February (1948)
Republic Day, 26 January (1950)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 16 August 1978, certified 31 August 1978
amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of its total membership, certification by the president of the republic or the Parliament speaker, and approval in a referendum by an absolute majority of valid votes; amended many times, last in 2015 (2017)
history: previous 1935 (preindependence); latest draft completed 4 November 1949, adopted 26 November 1949, effective 26 January 1950
amendments: proposed by either the Council of States or the House of the People; passage requires majority participation of the total membership in each house and at least two-thirds majority of voting members of each house, followed by assent of the president of India; proposed amendments to the constitutional amendment procedures also must be ratified by at least one-half of the India state legislatures before presidential assent; amended many times, last in 2016 (2017)
Legal systemmixed legal system of Roman-Dutch civil law, English common law, and Jaffna Tamil customary law
common law system based on the English model; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Maithripala SIRISENA (since 9 January 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Ranil WICKREMESINGHE (since 9 January 2015) holds the title of prime minister
head of government: President Maithripala SIRISENA (since 9 January 2015)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president in consultation with the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by preferential majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 8 January 2015 (next to be held by January 2021); note - the January 2015 election was held nearly 2 years ahead of schedule
election results: Maithripala SIRISENA elected president; percent of vote - Maithripala SIRISENA (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) 51.3%, Mahinda RAJAPAKSA (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) 47.6%, other 1.1%
chief of state: President Pranab MUKHERJEE (since 22 July 2012); Vice President Mohammad Hamid ANSARI (since 11 August 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Narendra MODI (since 26 May 2014)
cabinet: Union Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and state legislatures for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 19 July 2012 (next to be held on 17 July 2017); vice president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and state legislatures for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 7 August 2012 (next to be held by 10 August 2017); following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by parliamentary members of the majority party
election results: Pranab MUKHERJEE elected president; percent of vote - Pranab MUKHERJEE (INC prior to election) 69.3%, Purno SANGMA (independent) 30.7%; Mohammad Hamid ANSARI reelected vice president; electoral college vote - Mohammad Hamid ANSARI 490, Jaswant SINGH 238
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Parliament (225 seats; 196 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote using a preferential method in which voters select 3 candidates in order of preference; remaining 29 seats allocated to other political parties and groups in proportion to share of national vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 17 August 2015 following President SIRISENA's dissolution of Parliament in late June in an effort to consolidate power and pass reforms (next to be held in 2020)
election results: percent of vote by alliance/party - EYJP 45.7%, UPFA 42.4%, JVP 4.9%, TNA 4.6%, SLMC 0.4%, EPDP 0.3% other 1.7%; seats by alliance/party EYJP 106, UPFA 95, TNA 16, JVP 6, SLMC 1, EPDP 1
description: bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (245 seats; 233 members indirectly elected by state and territorial assemblies by proportional representation vote, and 12 members appointed by the president; members serve 6-year terms) and the House of the People or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 2 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: People's Assembly - last held April-May 2014 in 10 phases; (next to be held by May 2019)
election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - BJP 31.0%, INC 19.3%, AITC 3.8%, SP 3.4%, AIADMK 3.3%, CPI(M) 3.3%, TDP 2.6%, YSRC 2.5%, AAP 2.1%, SAD 1.8%, BJD 1.7%, SS 1.7%, NCP 1.6%, RJD 1.3%, TRS 1.3%, LJP 0.4%, other 15.9%, independent 3.0%; seats by party - BJP 282, INC 44, AIADMK 37, AITC 34, BJD 20, SS 18, TDP 16, TRS 11, CPI(M) 9, YSRC 9, LJP 6, NCP 6, SP 5, AAP 4, RJD 4, SAD 4, other 33, independent 3
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of the Republic (consists of the chief justice and 9 justices); note - the court has exclusive jurisdiction to review legislation
judge selection and term of office: chief justice nominated by the Constitutional Council (CC), a 9-member high-level advisory body, and appointed by the president; other justices nominated by the CC and appointed by the president on the advice of the chief justice; all justices can serve until age 65
subordinate courts: Court of Appeals; High Courts; Magistrate's Courts; municipal and primary courts
"highest court(s): Supreme Court (the chief justice and 25 associate justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president to serve until age 65
subordinate courts: High Courts; District Courts; Labour Court
note: in mid-2011, India’s Cabinet approved the ""National Mission for Justice Delivery and Legal Reform"" to eliminate judicial corruption and reduce the backlog of cases; as of mid-July 2015, the Indian Government was considering the introduction of pre-trial hearing as a method for reducing the backlog
"
Political parties and leadersEelam People's Democratic Party or EPDP [Douglas DEVANANDA]
Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna or JVP [Anura Kumara DISSANAYAKE]
Jathika Hela Urumaya or JHU [Karunarathna PARANAWITHANA and Ven Hadigalle WIMALASARA THERO]]
Sri Lanka Freedom Party or SLFP [Maithripala SIRISENA]
Sri Lanka Muslim Congress or SLMC [Rauff HAKEEM]
Tamil National Alliance or TNA [Rajavarothiam SAMPANTHAN]
United National Front for Good Governance or EYJP (coalition includes UNP)
United National Party or UNP [Ranil WICKREMESINGHE]
United People's Freedom Alliance or UPFA (coalition includes SLFP)
Aam Aadmi Party or AAP [Arvind KEJRIWAL]
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [J. JAYALALITHAA]
All India Trinamool Congress or AITC [Mamata BANERJEE]
Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]
Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Amit SHAH]
Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]
Communist Party of India-Marxist or CPI(M) [Prakash KARAT]
Indian National Congress or INC [Sonia GANDHI]
Lok Janshakti Party (LJP) [Ram Vilas PASWAN]
Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]
Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Lalu Prasad YADAV]
Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]
Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Parkash Singh BADAL]
Shiv Sena or SS [Uddhav THACKERAY]
Telegana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) [K. Chandrashekar RAO]
Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]
YSR Congress (YSRC) [Jaganmohan REDDY]
note: India has dozens of national and regional political parties
Political pressure groups and leadersBuddhist clergy
Sinhalese Buddhist lay groups
diaspora groups
other: labor unions; hard-line nationalist Sinhalese groups such as the National Movement Against Terrorism
All Parties Hurriyat Conference in the Kashmir Valley (separatist group)
Bajrang Dal (militant religious organization)
Jamiat Ulema-e Hind [Mahmood MADANI] (religious organization)
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh [Mohan BHAGWAT] (nationalist organization)
Vishwa Hindu Parishad [Pravin TOGADIA] (militant religious organization)
other: hundreds of social reform, anti-corruption, and environmental groups at state and local level; numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy
International organization participationABEDA, ADB, ARF, BIMSTEC, C, CD, CICA (observer), CP, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (dialogue member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIMSTEC, BIS, BRICS, C, CD, CERN (observer), CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Prasad KARIYAWASAM (since 14 July 2014)
chancery: 3025 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4025 through 4028
FAX: [1] (202) 232-7181
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Navtej Singh SARNA (since January 2017)
chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note - Consular Wing located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone: [1](202) 939-7000
telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000
FAX: [1] (202) 265-4351
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Atul KESHAP (since 21 August 2015); note - also accredited to Maldives
embassy: 210 Galle Road, Colombo 3
mailing address: P. O. Box 106, Colombo
telephone: [94] (11) 249-8500
FAX: [94] (11) 243-7345
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires MaryKay L. Carlson (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [91] (11) 2419-8000
FAX: [91] (11) 2419-0017
consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras), Hyderabad, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)
Flag descriptionyellow with two panels; the smaller hoist-side panel has two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and orange; the other larger panel depicts a yellow lion holding a sword on a maroon rectangular field that also displays a yellow bo leaf in each corner; the yellow field appears as a border around the entire flag and extends between the two panels; the lion represents Sinhalese ethnicity, the strength of the nation, and bravery; the sword demonstrates the sovereignty of the nation; the four bo leaves - symbolizing Buddhism and its influence on the country - stand for the four virtues of kindness, friendliness, happiness, and equanimity; orange signifies Sri Lankan Tamils, green Sri Lankan Moors, and maroon the Sinhalese majority; yellow denotes other ethnic groups; also referred to as the Lion Flag
three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green, with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; saffron represents courage, sacrifice, and the spirit of renunciation; white signifies purity and truth; green stands for faith and fertility; the blue chakra symbolizes the wheel of life in movement and death in stagnation
note: similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white band
National anthem"name: ""Sri Lanka Matha"" (Mother Sri Lanka)
lyrics/music: Ananda SAMARKONE
note: adopted 1951
"
"name: ""Jana-Gana-Mana"" (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People)
lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE
note: adopted 1950; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote Bangladesh's national anthem
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)lion, water lily; national colors: maroon, yellow
the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which depicts four Asiatic lions standing back to back mounted on a circular abacus, is the official emblem; Bengal tiger; lotus flower; national colors: saffron, white, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Sri Lanka
dual citizenship recognized: no, except in cases where the government rules it is to the benefit of Sri Lanka
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of India
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

Sri LankaIndia
Economy - overviewSri Lanka is attempting to sustain economic growth while maintaining macroeconomic stability under an IMF program. The government's high debt payments and bloated civil service cadre, which have contributed to historically high budget deficits and low tax revenues, remain a concern. Government debt is about 77% of GDP and remains among the highest of the emerging markets.

The new government in 2015 drastically increased wages for public sector employees, which boosted demand for consumer goods but hurt the overall balance of payments and reduced foreign exchange reserves.

Tourism has experienced strong growth during recent years following the resolution of the government's 26-year conflict with the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. The government has been pursuing large-scale reconstruction and development projects in its efforts to spur growth.
India's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Slightly less than half of the work force is in agriculture, but services are the major source of economic growth, accounting for nearly two-thirds of India's output but employing less than one-third of its labor force. India has capitalized on its large educated English-speaking population to become a major exporter of information technology services, business outsourcing services, and software workers.

India is developing into an open-market economy, yet traces of its past autarkic policies remain. Economic liberalization measures, including industrial deregulation, privatization of state-owned enterprises, and reduced controls on foreign trade and investment, began in the early 1990s and served to accelerate the country's growth, which averaged nearly 7% per year from 1997 to 2016. India's economic growth slowed in 2011 because of a decline in investment caused by high interest rates, rising inflation, and investor pessimism about the government's commitment to further economic reforms and about slow world growth. Rising macroeconomic imbalances in India and improving economic conditions in Western countries led investors to shift capital away from India, prompting a sharp depreciation of the rupee.

Growth rebounded in 2014 through 2016, exceeding 7% each year. Investors’ perceptions of India improved in early 2014, due to a reduction of the current account deficit and expectations of post-election economic reform, resulting in a surge of inbound capital flows and stabilization of the rupee. Since the election, the government has passed an important goods and services tax bill and raised foreign direct investment caps in some sectors but most economic reforms have focused on administrative and governance changes largely because the ruling party remains a minority in India’s upper house of Parliament, which must approve most bills. Despite a high growth rate compared to the rest of the world, in 2015 and 2016, India’s government-owned banks faced mounting bad debt, resulting in low credit growth and restrained economic growth.

The outlook for India's long-term growth is moderately positive due to a young population and corresponding low dependency ratio, healthy savings and investment rates, and increasing integration into the global economy. However, long-term challenges remain significant, including: India's discrimination against women and girls, an inefficient power generation and distribution system, ineffective enforcement of intellectual property rights, decades-long civil litigation dockets, inadequate transport and agricultural infrastructure, limited non-agricultural employment opportunities, high spending and poorly targeted subsidies, inadequate availability of quality basic and higher education, and accommodating rural-to-urban migration.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$236.7 billion (2016 est.)
$226.5 billion (2015 est.)
$216.1 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$8.721 trillion (2016 est.)
$8.103 trillion (2015 est.)
$7.534 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate4.5% (2016 est.)
4.8% (2015 est.)
4.9% (2014 est.)
7.6% (2016 est.)
7.6% (2015 est.)
7.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$11,200 (2016 est.)
$10,700 (2015 est.)
$10,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$6,700 (2016 est.)
$6,300 (2015 est.)
$5,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 8.5%
industry: 30.9%
services: 60.6% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 16.5%
industry: 29.8%
services: 45.4% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line6.7% (2012 est.)
21.9% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 39.5% (2009)
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 29.8% (2011)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)4% (2016 est.)
0.9% (2015 est.)
5.2% (2016 est.)
4.9% (2015 est.)
Labor force9.062 million (2016 est.)
513.7 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 28.4%
industry: 25.7%
services: 45.9% (30 Jun 2015)
agriculture: 47%
industry: 22%
services: 31% (FY 2014 est.)
Unemployment rate4.5% (2016 est.)
4.7% (2015 est.)
5% (FY 2016 est.)
4.9% (FY 2014 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index49 (2010)
46 (1995)
35.2 (2011)
37.8 (1997)
Budgetrevenues: $10.98 billion
expenditures: $15.54 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $273.3 billion
expenditures: $273.3 billion (FY 2016 est.)
Industriesprocessing of rubber, tea, coconuts, tobacco and other agricultural commodities; telecommunications, insurance, banking; tourism, shipping; clothing, textiles; cement, petroleum refining, information technology services, construction
textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software, pharmaceuticals
Industrial production growth rate5.6% (2016 est.)
7.4% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsrice, sugarcane, grains, pulses, oilseed, spices, vegetables, fruit, tea, rubber, coconuts; milk, eggs, hides, beef; fish
rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, lentils, onions, potatoes; dairy products, sheep, goats, poultry; fish
Exports$10.53 billion (2016 est.)
$10.5 billion (2015 est.)
$262.3 billion (FY 2016 est.)
$267.9 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiestextiles and apparel, tea and spices; rubber manufactures; precious stones; coconut products, fish
petroleum products, precious stones, vehicles, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, cereals, apparel
Exports - partnersUS 28.8%, UK 10.6%, India 6.6%, Germany 4.9%, Italy 4.5% (2015)
US 15.2%, UAE 11.4%, Hong Kong 4.6% (1 January - 30 September 2016)
Imports$19.01 billion (2016 est.)
$18.93 billion (2015 est.)
$381 billion (FY2016 est.)
$394.1 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiespetroleum, textiles, machinery and transportation equipment, building materials, mineral products, foodstuffs
crude oil, precious stones, machinery, chemicals, fertilizer, plastics, iron and steel
Imports - partnersIndia 28.3%, Japan 9.2%, UAE 7.1%, Singapore 6.1% (2015)
China 15.7%, Saudi Arabia 5.4%, Switzerland 5.4%, US 5.3%, UAE 5.2% (1 January - 30 September 2016)
Debt - external$45.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$44.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$507 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$480.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesSri Lankan rupees (LKR) per US dollar -
146.6 (2016 est.)
135.86 (2015 est.)
135.86 (2014 est.)
130.57 (2013 est.)
127.6 (2012 est.)
Indian rupees (INR) per US dollar -
68.3 (2016 est.)
64.152 (2015 est.)
64.152 (2014 est.)
61.03 (2013 est.)
53.44 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
1 April - 31 March
Public debt77.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
76% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: covers central government debt, and excludes debt instruments directly owned by government entities other than the treasury (e.g. commercial bank borrowings of a government corporation); the data includes treasury debt held by foreign entities as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement; sub-national entities are usually not permitted to sell debt instruments
52.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
52.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover central government debt, and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$6.542 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.303 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$359.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$351.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$1.932 billion (2016 est.)
-$2.009 billion (2015 est.)
-$20.86 billion (2016 est.)
-$22.09 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$82.24 billion (2016 est.)
$2.251 trillion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$NA
$453.2 billion (30 September 2016 est.)
$296.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$NA
$149 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$139 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$20.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$23.67 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$18.81 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.516 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.558 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.139 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate7% (30 September 2016)
6% (31 December 2015)
6.25% (31 December 2016)
7.75% (31 December 2014)
note: this is the Indian central bank's policy rate - the repurchase rate
Commercial bank prime lending rate12.29% (31 December 2016 est.)
7.4% (31 December 2015 est.)
9.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
10.01% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$44.73 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$39.22 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.579 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.57 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$5.521 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.963 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$385.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$370.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$31.84 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$28.16 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.728 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.704 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues13.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.1% of GDP (FY 2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-5.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
0% of GDP (FY 2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 20.1%
male: 15%
female: 27.8% (2013 est.)
total: 10.7%
male: 10.4%
female: 11.6% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 69.4%
government consumption: 8.7%
investment in fixed capital: 26%
investment in inventories: 3.5%
exports of goods and services: 20.5%
imports of goods and services: -28.1% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 60.8%
government consumption: 11.4%
investment in fixed capital: 27.6%
investment in inventories: 3%
exports of goods and services: 19%
imports of goods and services: -21.8% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving26.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
25.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
24.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
30.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
31.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
32.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

Sri LankaIndia
Electricity - production12 billion kWh (2014 est.)
1.218 trillion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption11 billion kWh (2014 est.)
973 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013 est.)
200 million kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
761,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports34,860 bbl/day (2013 est.)
3.785 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
5.675 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
1.489 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
30.4 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
52.1 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
21.7 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity3.4 million kW (2014 est.)
308.8 million kW (30 November 2016 )
Electricity - from fossil fuels51.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
69.3% of total installed capacity (30 November 2016 )
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants47% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
14% of total installed capacity (30 November 2016 )
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
1.9% of total installed capacity (30 November 2016 )
Electricity - from other renewable sources1.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
14.9% of total installed capacity (30 November 2016 )
Refined petroleum products - production32,780 bbl/day (2013 est.)
4.775 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption98,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
3.735 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports2,682 bbl/day (2013 est.)
1.351 million bbl/day (FY 2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports56,570 bbl/day (2013 est.)
653,500 bbl/day (FY 2016 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy16 million Mt (2013 est.)
1.887 billion Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 1,334,100
electrification - total population: 94%
electrification - urban areas: 99%
electrification - rural areas: 93% (2013)
population without electricity: 237,400,000
electrification - total population: 79%
electrification - urban areas: 98%
electrification - rural areas: 70% (2013)

Telecommunications

Sri LankaIndia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 2,601,196
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 25.518 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 24.385 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 111 (July 2015 est.)
total: 1,011.054 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 81 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: telephone services have improved significantly and are available in most parts of the country
domestic: national trunk network consists mostly of digital microwave radio relay; fiber-optic links now in use in Colombo area and fixed wireless local loops have been installed; competition is strong in mobile cellular systems and mobile cellular subscribership is increasing
international: country code - 94; the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, Australia, Middle East, Europe, US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: supported by recent deregulation and liberalization of telecommunications laws and policies, India has emerged as one of the fastest-growing telecom markets in the world; total telephone subscribership base exceeded 1 billion in 2015, an overall teledensity of roughly 80%, and subscribership is currently growing at roughly 5 million per month; urban teledensity now exceeds 100%, and rural teledensity has reached 50%
domestic: mobile cellular service introduced in 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan areas and 19 telecom circles, each with multiple private service providers and one or more state-owned service providers; in recent years significant trunk capacity added in the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indian National Satellite system (INSAT), with 6 satellites supporting 33,000 very small aperture terminals (VSAT)
international: country code - 91; a number of major international submarine cable systems, including SEA-ME-WE-3 with landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay), SEA-ME-WE-4 with a landing site at Chennai, Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) with a landing site at Mumbai (Bombay), South Africa - Far East (SAFE) with a landing site at Cochin, the i2i cable network linking to Singapore with landing sites at Mumbai (Bombay) and Chennai (Madras), and Tata Indicom linking Singapore and Chennai (Madras), provide a significant increase in the bandwidth available for both voice and data traffic; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region); 9 gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam (2015)
Internet country code.lk
.in
Internet userstotal: 6.614 million
percent of population: 30% (July 2015 est.)
total: 325.441 million
percent of population: 26% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediagovernment operates 5 TV channels and 19 radio channels; multi-channel satellite and cable TV subscription services available; 25 private TV stations and about 43 radio stations; 6 non-profit TV stations and 4 radio stations (2017)
Doordarshan, India's public TV network, operates about 20 national, regional, and local services; a large and increasing number of privately owned TV stations are distributed by cable and satellite service providers; in 2015, more than 230 million homes had access to cable and satellite TV offering more than 700 TV channels; government controls AM radio with All India Radio operating domestic and external networks; news broadcasts via radio are limited to the All India Radio Network; since 2000, privately owned FM stations have been permitted and their numbers have increased rapidly (2015)

Transportation

Sri LankaIndia
Railwaystotal: 1,447 km
broad gauge: 1,447 km 1.676-m gauge (2014)
total: 68,525 km
broad gauge: 58,404 km 1.676-m gauge (23,654 electrified)
narrow gauge: 9,499 km 1.000-m gauge; 622 km 0.762-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 114,093 km
paved: 16,977 km
unpaved: 97,116 km (2010)
total: 4,699,024 km
note: includes 96,214 km of national highways and expressways, 147,800 km of state highways, and 4,455,010 km of other roads (2015)
Waterways160 km (primarily on rivers in southwest) (2012)
14,500 km (5,200 km on major rivers and 485 km on canals suitable for mechanized vessels) (2012)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Colombo
container port(s) (TEUs): Colombo (3,651,963)
major seaport(s): Chennai, Jawaharal Nehru Port, Kandla, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay), Sikka, Vishakhapatnam
container port(s) (TEUs): Chennai (1,558,343), Jawaharal Nehru Port (4,307,622)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Dabhol, Dahej, Hazira
Merchant marinetotal: 21
by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 13, chemical tanker 1, container 1, petroleum tanker 2
foreign-owned: 8 (Germany 8) (2010)
total: 340
by type: bulk carrier 104, cargo 78, chemical tanker 22, container 14, liquefied gas 11, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 15, petroleum tanker 92
foreign-owned: 10 (China 1, Hong Kong 2, Jersey 2, Malaysia 1, UAE 4)
registered in other countries: 76 (Cyprus 4, Dominica 2, Liberia 8, Malta 3, Marshall Islands 10, Nigeria 1, Panama 24, Saint Kitts and Nevis 2, Singapore 21, unknown 1) (2010)
Airports19 (2013)
346 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 15
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 7 (2013)
total: 253
over 3,047 m: 22
2,438 to 3,047 m: 59
1,524 to 2,437 m: 76
914 to 1,523 m: 82
under 914 m: 14 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
total: 93
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 38
under 914 m: 45 (2013)
Heliports1 (2013)
45 (2013)

Military

Sri LankaIndia
Military branchesSri Lanka Army, Sri Lanka Navy (includes Marine Corps), Sri Lanka Air Force, Sri Lanka Coast Guard (2016)
Army, Navy (includes naval air arm), Air Force, Coast Guard (2011)
Military service age and obligation18-22 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; 5-year service obligation (Air Force) (2012)
16-18 years of age for voluntary military service (Army 17 1/2, Air Force 17, Navy 16 1/2); no conscription; women may join as officers, currently serve in combat roles as pilots, and will soon be allowed in all combat roles (2016)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP2.21% of GDP (2015)
2.53% of GDP (2014)
2.27% of GDP (2013)
2.14% of GDP (2012)
2.68% of GDP (2011)
2.42% of GDP (2015)
2.49% of GDP (2014)
2.46% of GDP (2013)
2.54% of GDP (2012)
2.65% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Sri LankaIndia
Disputes - internationalnone
since China and India launched a security and foreign policy dialogue in 2005, consolidated discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indian claims that China transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters continue
Kashmir remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas)
India and Pakistan resumed bilateral dialogue in February 2011 after a two-year hiatus, have maintained the 2003 cease-fire in Kashmir, and continue to have disputes over water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries
UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim in Indian Gujarat State; Prime Minister Singh's September 2011 visit to Bangladesh resulted in the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh, which had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, but which had never been implemented; Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Joint Border Committee with Nepal continues to examine contested boundary sections, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal
Refugees and internally displaced personsIDPs: 44,000 (civil war; more than half displaced prior to 2008; many of the more than 480,000 IDPs registered as returnees have not reached durable solutions) (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 110,098 (Tibet/China); 63,162 (Sri Lanka); 15,561 (Burma); 7,693 (Afghanistan) (2015)
IDPs: 796,000 (armed conflict and intercommunal violence) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook