Home

Spain vs. Andorra

Introduction

SpainAndorra
BackgroundSpain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World War I and II but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). A peaceful transition to democracy following the death of dictator Francisco FRANCO in 1975, and rapid economic modernization (Spain joined the EU in 1986) gave Spain a dynamic and rapidly growing economy and made it a global champion of freedom and human rights. More recently Spain has emerged from a severe economic recession that began in mid-2008, posting three straight years of GDP growth above the EU average. Unemployment has fallen, but remains high especially among youth. Spain is the Eurozone’s fourth largest economy.
The landlocked Principality of Andorra is one of the smallest states in Europe, nestled high in the Pyrenees between the French and Spanish borders. For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique coprincipality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders (from 1607 onward, the French chief of state and the Bishop of Urgell). In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the introduction of a modern, constitution; the co-princes remained as titular heads of state, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy.
Andorra has become a popular tourist destination visited by approximately 8 million people each year drawn by the winter sports, summer climate, and duty-free shopping. Andorra has also become a wealthy international commercial center because of its mature banking sector and low taxes. As part of its effort to modernize its economy, Andorra has opened to foreign investment, and engaged in other reforms, such as advancing tax initiatives aimed at supporting a broader infrastructure. Although not a member of the EU, Andorra enjoys a special relationship with the organization and uses the euro as its national currency.

Geography

SpainAndorra
LocationSouthwestern Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Bay of Biscay, and Pyrenees Mountains; southwest of France
Southwestern Europe, Pyrenees mountains, on the border between France and Spain
Geographic coordinates40 00 N, 4 00 W
42 30 N, 1 30 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 505,370 sq km
land: 498,980 sq km
water: 6,390 sq km
note: there are two autonomous cities - Ceuta and Melilla - and 17 autonomous communities including Balearic Islands and Canary Islands, and three small Spanish possessions off the coast of Morocco - Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera
total: 468 sq km
land: 468 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparativealmost five times the size of Kentucky; slightly more than twice the size of Oregon
2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundariestotal: 1,952.7 km
border countries (5): Andorra 63 km, France 646 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1,224 km, Morocco (Ceuta) 8 km, Morocco (Melilla) 10.5 km
note: an additional 75-meter border segment exists between Morocco and the Spanish exclave of Penon de Velez de la Gomera
total: 118 km
border countries (2): France 55 km, Spain 63 km
Coastline4,964 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (applies only to the Atlantic Ocean)
none (landlocked)
Climatetemperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast
temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers
Terrainlarge, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees Mountains in north
rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 660 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico de Teide (Tenerife) on Canary Islands 3,718 m
mean elevation: 1,996 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m
highest point: Pic de Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m
Natural resourcescoal, lignite, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, tungsten, mercury, pyrites, magnesite, fluorspar, gypsum, sepiolite, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land
hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead
Land useagricultural land: 54.1%
arable land 24.9%; permanent crops 9.1%; permanent pasture 20.1%
forest: 36.8%
other: 9.1% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 43.4%
arable land 5.5%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 37.9%
forest: 34%
other: 22.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land38,000 sq km (2012)
0 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsperiodic droughts, occasional flooding
volcanism: volcanic activity in the Canary Islands, located off Africa's northwest coast; Teide (elev. 3,715 m) has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; La Palma (elev. 2,426 m), which last erupted in 1971, is the most active of the Canary Islands volcanoes; Lanzarote is the only other historically active volcano
avalanches
Environment - current issuespollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification
deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notestrategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar; Spain controls a number of territories in northern Morocco including the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas
landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees
Population distributionwith the notable exception of Madrid, Sevilla, and Zaragoza, the largest urban agglomerations are found along the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts; numerous smaller cities are spread throughout the interior reflecting Spain's agrarian heritage; dense settlement is found around the capital of Madrid, as well as the port city of Barcelona
population is unevenly distributed and is concentrated in the 7 urbanized valleys that make up the country's parishes (political administrative divisions)

Demographics

SpainAndorra
Population48,563,476 (July 2016 est.)
85,660 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 15.43% (male 3,854,687/female 3,638,288)
15-24 years: 9.56% (male 2,400,188/female 2,243,311)
25-54 years: 45.24% (male 11,200,786/female 10,771,652)
55-64 years: 11.91% (male 2,820,933/female 2,963,050)
65 years and over: 17.85% (male 3,700,832/female 4,969,749) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 14.74% (male 6,476/female 6,151)
15-24 years: 9.52% (male 4,236/female 3,915)
25-54 years: 47.01% (male 20,614/female 19,651)
55-64 years: 13.59% (male 6,229/female 5,412)
65 years and over: 15.15% (male 6,566/female 6,410) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 42.3 years
male: 41.2 years
female: 43.6 years (2016 est.)
total: 43.7 years
male: 43.8 years
female: 43.5 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.84% (2016 est.)
0.07% (2016 est.)
Birth rate9.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate9.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.02 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 81.7 years
male: 78.7 years
female: 84.9 years (2016 est.)
total population: 82.8 years
male: 80.6 years
female: 85.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.49 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.39 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.39% (2015 est.)
NA
Nationalitynoun: Spaniard(s)
adjective: Spanish
noun: Andorran(s)
adjective: Andorran
Ethnic groupscomposite of Mediterranean and Nordic types
Andorran 46.2%, Spanish 26.4%, Portuguese 12.8%, French 5%, other 9.6% (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS148,900 (2015 est.)
NA
ReligionsRoman Catholic 67.8%, atheist 9.1%, other 2.2%, non-believer 18.4%, unspecified 2.5% (2016 est.)
Roman Catholic (predominant)
HIV/AIDS - deaths1,200 (2015 est.)
NA
LanguagesCastilian Spanish (official nationwide) 74%, Catalan (official in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and the Valencian Community (where it is known as Valencian)) 17%, Galician (official in Galicia) 7%, Basque (official in the Basque Country and in the Basque-speaking area of Navarre) 2%, Aranese (official in the northwest corner of Catalonia (Vall d'Aran) along with Catalan; <5,000 speakers)
note: Aragonese, Aranese Asturian, Basque, Calo, Catalan, Galician, and Valencian are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese
Education expenditures4.3% of GDP (2013)
3.1% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 79.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.52% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 85.1% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.14% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 99.8% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 99.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.2% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationMADRID (capital) 6.199 million; Barcelona 5.258 million; Valencia 810,000 (2015)
ANDORRA LA VELLA (capital) 23,000 (2014)
Health expenditures9% of GDP (2014)
8.1% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density3.82 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
3.69 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density3.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
2.5 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate26.5% (2014)
32.1% (2014)

Government

SpainAndorra
Country name"conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain
conventional short form: Spain
local long form: Reino de Espana
local short form: Espana
etymology: derivation of the name ""Espana"" is uncertain, but may come from the Phoenician term ""span,"" related to the word ""spy,"" meaning ""to forge metals,"" so, ""i-spn-ya"" would mean ""place where metals are forged""; the ancient Phoenicians long exploited the Iberian Peninsula for its mineral wealth
"
"conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
conventional short form: Andorra
local long form: Principat d'Andorra
local short form: Andorra
etymology: the origin of the country's name is obscure; since the area served as part of the Spanish March (defensive buffer zone) against the invading Moors in the 8th century, the name may derive from the Arabic ""ad-darra"" meaning ""the forest""
"
Government typeparliamentary constitutional monarchy
parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains its chiefs of state in the form of a co-principality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seu d'Urgell, Spain, who are represented in Andorra by the co-princes' representatives
Capitalname: Madrid
geographic coordinates: 40 24 N, 3 41 W
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
note: Spain has two time zones including the Canary Islands
name: Andorra la Vella
geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma) and 2 autonomous cities* (ciudades autonomas, singular - ciudad autonoma); Andalucia; Aragon; Asturias; Canarias (Canary Islands); Cantabria; Castilla-La Mancha; Castilla-Leon; Cataluna (Castilian), Catalunya (Catalan), Catalonha (Aranese) [Catalonia]; Ceuta*; Comunidad Valenciana (Castilian), Comunitat Valenciana (Valencian) [Valencian Community]; Extremadura; Galicia; Illes Baleares (Balearic Islands); La Rioja; Madrid; Melilla*; Murcia; Navarra (Castilian), Nafarroa (Basque) [Navarre]; Pais Vasco (Castilian), Euskadi (Basque) [Basque Country]
note: the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla plus three small islands of Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, administered directly by the Spanish central government, are all along the coast of Morocco and are collectively referred to as Places of Sovereignty (Plazas de Soberania)
7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria
Independence1492; the Iberian peninsula was characterized by a variety of independent kingdoms prior to the Muslim occupation that began in the early 8th century A.D. and lasted nearly seven centuries; the small Christian redoubts of the north began the reconquest almost immediately, culminating in the seizure of Granada in 1492; this event completed the unification of several kingdoms and is traditionally considered the forging of present-day Spain
1278 (formed under the joint sovereignty of the French Count of Foix and the Spanish Bishop of Urgell)
National holidayNational Day (Hispanic Day), 12 October (1492); note - commemorates COLUMBUS' arrival in the Americas
Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)
Constitutionhistory: previous 1812; latest approved by the General Courts 31 October 1978, passed by referendum 6 December 1978, signed by the king 27 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978
amendments: proposed by the government, by the General Courts (the Congress or the Senate), or by the self-governing communities submitted through the government; passage requires three-fifths majority vote by both houses and passage by referendum if requested by one-tenth of members of either house; proposals disapproved by both houses are submitted to a joint committee, which submits an agreed upon text for another vote; passage requires two-thirds vote in Congress and simple majority vote in the Senate; amended 1992, 2007, 2011 (2016)
history: drafted 1991, approved by referendum 14 March 1993, effective 28 April 1993
amendments: proposed by the coprinces jointly or by the General Council; passage requires at least a two-thirds majority vote by the General Council, ratification in a referendum, and sanctioning by the coprinces (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system with regional variations
mixed legal system of civil and customary law with the influence of canon law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: King FELIPE VI (since 19 June 2014); Heir Apparent Princess LEONOR, Princess of Asturias, daughter of the monarch, born 31 October 2005
head of government: President of the Government or Prime Minister Mariano RAJOY (since 20 December 2011); Vice President (and Minister of the President's Office) Soraya SAENZ DE SANTAMARIA (since 22 December 2011)
cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the monarch usually proposes the leader of the party or coalition with the largest majority of seats as president, who is then indirectly elected by the Congress of Deputies; election last held on 26 June 2016; vice president and Council of Ministers appointed by the president
election results: percent of National Assembly vote - NA
note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government, but its recommendations are non-binding
chief of state: French Coprince Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017) ; represented by Jean-Pierre HUGUES (since 15 June 2016) and Spanish Coprince Archbishop Joan-Enric VIVES i Sicilia (since 12 May 2003); represented by Josep Maria MAUN (since 20 July 2012)
head of government: Head of Government (or Cap de Govern) Antoni MARTI PETIT (since 12 May 2011)
cabinet: Executive Council designated by head of government
elections/appointments: head of government indirectly elected by the General Council (Andorran parliament), formally appointed by the coprinces for a 4-year term; election last held on 31 March 2015 (next to be held in April 2019); the leader of the majority party in the General Council is usually elected head of government
election results: Antoni MARTI PETIT (DA) elected head of government; percent of General Council vote - 79%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral General Courts or Las Cortes Generales consists of the Senate or Senado (266 seats as of 2017; 208 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 58 appointed by the regional legislatures; members serve 4-year terms) and the Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; 348 members directly elected in 50 multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 directly elected from the North African Ceuta and Melilla enclaves by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms or until the government is dissolved)
elections: Senate - last held on 26 June 2016; Congress of Deputies - last held on 26 June 2016 (next to be held no later than June 2020)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PP 149, PSOE 62, Podemos 20, ERC 12, EAJ/PNV 6, other 17; Congress of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PP 33.0%, PSOE 22.7%, Podemos 21.1%, C's 13.0%, ERC-CatSi 2.6%, CDC 2.0%, EAJ/PNV 1.2%, other 4.4%; seats by party - PP 134, PSOE 84, Podemos 67, C's 32, ERC-CatSi 9, EAJ/PNV 5, other 19
description: unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de les Valls (a minimum of 28 seats; 14 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies (parishes) by simple majority vote and 14 directly elected in a single national constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms); note - each voter casts two separate ballots - one for a national list and one for a parish list
elections: last held on 1 March 2015 (next to be held in April 2019)
election results: seats by party - percent of vote by party: DA 34.5%, PLA 25.0%, PS-VA-IC-independent coalition 21.3%, SDP 9.6%, invalid votes 9.5%; seats by party: DA 15, PLA 8, PS-VA-IC-independent coalition 3, SDP 2
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo (consists of the court president and organized into the Civil Room with a president and 9 judges, the Penal Room with a president and 14 judges, the Administrative Room with a president and 32 judges, the Social Room with a president and 12 judges, and the Military Room with a president and 7 judges); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional de Espana (consists of 12 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch from candidates proposed by the General Council of the Judiciary Power, a 20-member governing board chaired by the monarch that includes presidential appointees, and lawyers and jurists confirmed by the National Assembly; judges can serve until age 70; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the National Assembly, executive branch, and the General Council of the Judiciary, and appointed by the monarch for 9-year terms
subordinate courts: National High Court; High Courts of Justice (in each of the autonomous communities); provincial courts; courts of first instance
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de la Justicia d'Andorra (consists of the court president and 8 judges organized into civil, criminal, and administrative chambers); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 4 magistrates)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and judges appointed by the Supreme Council of Justice, a 5-member judicial policy and administrative body appointed 1 each by the coprinces, 1 by the General Council, 1 by the executive council president, and 1 by the courts; judges serve 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional magistrates appointed 2 by the coprinces and 2 by the General Council; magistrates' appointments limited to 2 consecutive 8-year terms
subordinate courts: Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts
Political parties and leadersAmaiur [Xabier ERREKONDO] (a separatist political coalition that advocates Basque independence from Spain)
Asturias Forum or FAC [Cristina COTO]
Basque Country Unite (Euskal Herria Bildu) or EH Bildu [Pello URIZAR] (coalition of 4 Basque pro-independence parties)
Basque Nationalist Party or PNV or EAJ [Andoni ORTUZAR]
Canarian Coalition or CC [Claudina MORALES Rodriguez] (coalition of five parties)
Canarian Nationalist Party or PNC [Juan Manuel GARCIA Ramos]
Catalan Agreement of Progress (Entesa Catalonia de Progress) or ECP [Carles BONET i Reves] (Senate coalition of Catalan parties - PSC, ERC, ICV, EUA)
Catalan European Democratic Party or PDeCat [Artur MAS]
Ciudadanos Party or C's [Albert RIVERA]
Compromis [Monica Oltra JARQUE]
Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Ana PONTON Mondelo]
Gomera Socialist Group or ASG
Initiative for Catalonia Greens or ICV [Joan HERRERA i Torres and Dolors CAMATS]
Podemos [Pablo IGLESIAS Turrion]
Popular Party or PP [Mariano RAJOY Brey]
Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Oriol JUNQUERAS i Vies]
Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Pedro SANCHEZ]
Union of People of Navarra or UPN [Javier ESPARZA]
Union, Progress and Democracy or UPyD [Gorka MAEIRO]
United Left or IU [Alberto GARZON] (a coalition of parties including the Communist Party of Spain or PCE and other small parties; ran as Popular Unity or UP in 2015 election)
Yes to the Future or Geroa Bai [Koldo MARTINEZ] (a coalition of four Navarran parties)
Citizens' Initiative or IC [Sergi RICART] (including PS, VA, IC, and independents)
Democrats for Andorra or DA [Antoni MARTI PETIT]
Greens of Andorra or VA [Isabel LOZANO MUNOZ, Juli FERNANDEZ BLASI]
Liberal Party or PLA [Jordi GALLARDO]
Social Democratic Party or PS [Vincenc ALAY FERRER]
Social Democratic Progress Party or SDP [Victor NAUDI ZAMORA]
note: there are also several smaller parties at the parish level (one is Lauredian Union)
International organization participationADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
CE, FAO, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITU, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Pedro MORENES Eulate (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 2375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 452-0100, 728-2340
FAX: [1] (202) 833-5670
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Kansas City (MO)
chief of mission: Ambassador Elisenda VIVES BALMANA (since 2 March 2016)
chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kris URS (since January 2017) note - also accredited to Andorra
embassy: Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid
mailing address: PSC 61, APO AE 09642
telephone: [34] (91) 587-2200
FAX: [34] (91) 587-2303
consulate(s) general: Barcelona
the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the US Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda de Montcada, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: [34] (93) 280-2227; FAX: [34] (93) 280-6175
Flag description"three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms is quartered to display the emblems of the traditional kingdoms of Spain (clockwise from upper left, Castile, Leon, Navarre, and Aragon) while Granada is represented by the stylized pomegranate at the bottom of the shield; the arms are framed by two columns representing the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar; the red scroll across the two columns bears the imperial motto of ""Plus Ultra"" (further beyond) referring to Spanish lands beyond Europe; the triband arrangement with the center stripe twice the width of the outer dates to the 18th century
note: the red and yellow colors are related to those of the oldest Spanish kingdoms: Aragon, Castile, Leon, and Navarre
"
three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red, with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the latter band is slightly wider than the other two so that the ratio of band widths is 8:9:8; the coat of arms features a quartered shield with the emblems of (starting in the upper left and proceeding clockwise): Urgell, Foix, Bearn, and Catalonia; the motto reads VIRTUS UNITA FORTIOR (Strength United is Stronger); the flag combines the blue and red French colors with the red and yellow of Spain to show Franco-Spanish protection
note: similar to the flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem
National anthem"name: ""Himno Nacional Espanol"" (National Anthem of Spain)
lyrics/music: no lyrics/unknown
note: officially in use between 1770 and 1931, restored in 1939; the Spanish anthem is the first anthem to be officially adopted, but it has no lyrics; in the years prior to 1931 it became known as ""Marcha Real"" (The Royal March); it first appeared in a 1761 military bugle call book and was replaced by ""Himno de Riego"" in the years between 1931 and 1939; the long version of the anthem is used for the king, while the short version is used for the prince, prime minister, and occasions such as sporting events
"
"name: ""El Gran Carlemany"" (The Great Charlemagne)
lyrics/music: Joan BENLLOCH i VIVO/Enric MARFANY BONS
note: adopted 1921; the anthem provides a brief history of Andorra in a first person narrative
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Pillars of Hercules; national colors: red, yellow
national colors: blue, yellow, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Spain
dual citizenship recognized: only with select Latin American countries
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years for persons with no ties to Spain
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the mother must be an Andorran citizen or the father must have been born in Andorra and both parents maintain permanent residence in Andorra
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 25 years

Economy

SpainAndorra
Economy - overviewAfter experiencing a prolonged recession in the wake of the global financial crisis that began in 2008, in 2016 Spain marked the third full year of positive economic growth in nine years, largely due to increased private consumption. At the onset of the financial crisis, Spain's GDP contracted by 3.7% in 2009, ending a 16-year growth trend, and continued contracting through most of 2013. In 2013, the government successfully shored up struggling banks - exposed to the collapse of Spain's depressed real estate and construction sectors - and in January 2014 completed an EU-funded restructuring and recapitalization program for its financial sector.

Until 2014, credit contraction in the private sector, fiscal austerity, and high unemployment weighed on domestic consumption and investment. The unemployment rate rose from a low of about 8% in 2007 to more than 26% in 2013, but labor reforms prompted a modest reduction to 19.7% in 2016. High unemployment has strained Spain's public finances, as spending on social benefits increased while tax revenues fell. Spain’s budget deficit peaked at 11.4% of GDP in 2010, but Spain gradually reduced the deficit to about 5% of GDP in 2015, and 4.1% of GDP in 2016. Public debt has increased substantially – from 60.1% of GDP in 2010 to nearly 99.5% in 2016.

Exports were resilient throughout the economic downturn and helped to bring Spain's current account into surplus in 2013 for the first time since 1986, where it remained in 2014-16. Rising labor productivity and an internal devaluation resulting from moderating labor costs and lower inflation have helped to improve foreign investor interest in the economy and positive FDI flows have been restored.

Political gridlock after the national elections in December 2015 and June 2016 and ensuing government formation process constrained the caretaker government’s ability to implement needed labor, pension, healthcare, tax, and education reforms— in 2016. The European Commission criticized Spain’s 2016 budget for its easing of austerity measures and its alleged overly optimistic growth and deficit projections. Spain’s borrowing costs are dramatically lower since their peak in mid-2012, and despite the recent uptick in economic activity, inflation has dropped sharply, from 1.5% in 2013 to a negative 0.3% in 2016.
Andorra has a developed economy and a free market, with per capita income above the European average and above the level of its neighbors, Spain and France. The country has developed a sophisticated infrastructure including a one-of-a-kind micro-fiber-optic network for the entire country. Tourism, retail sales, and finance are the mainstays of Andorra's small economy, accounting for more than three-quarters of GDP. Andorra's duty-free status for some products and its summer and winter resorts attract millions of visitors annually, although the economic downturn in neighboring countries has curtailed the number of tourists. Andorra uses the euro and is effectively subject to the monetary policy of the European Central Bank. Andorra's comparative advantage as a tax haven eroded when the borders of neighboring France and Spain opened; its bank secrecy laws have been relaxed under pressure from the EU and OECD.

Agricultural production is limited - only about 5% of the land is arable - and most food has to be imported, making the economy vulnerable to changes in fuel and food prices. The principal livestock is sheep. Manufacturing output and exports consist mainly of perfumes and cosmetic products, products of the printing industry, electrical machinery and equipment, clothing, tobacco products, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.

Andorra is open to, and actively seeking to attract, foreign investment. The Andorran economy is undergoing a process of diversification centered largely on the sectors of tourism, trade, property, and finance. To provide incentives for growth and diversification in the economy, the Andorran government began sweeping economic reforms in 2006. The Parliament approved three laws to complement the first phase of economic openness: on Companies (October 2007), on Business Accounting (December 2007), and on Foreign Investment (April 2008 and June 2012). From 2011 to 2015, the Parliament also approved direct taxes in the form taxes on corporations, on individual incomes of residents and non-residents, and on capital gains, savings, and economic activities. These regulations aim to establish a transparent, modern, and internationally comparable regulatory framework.

The principal objectives of the economic reform are to attract investment and businesses which can contribute most to Andorra’s economic development, offering greater diversification and contributing higher added value. Prior to 2008, when the first law on investment was approved, Andorra offered limited foreign investment opportunities largely due to concerns about the impact of foreign firms on such a small economy. As a consequence, non-citizens were allowed to own no more than 33% of a company. Only after residing in the country for a minimum of 20 years were foreigners entitled to own 100%.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$1.69 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.64 trillion (2015 est.)
$1.589 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3.327 billion (2015 est.)
$3.363 billion (2014 est.)
$3.273 billion (2013 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.1% (2016 est.)
3.2% (2015 est.)
1.4% (2014 est.)
-1.1% (2015 est.)
1.4% (2014 est.)
-0.1% (2013 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$36,500 (2016 est.)
$35,300 (2015 est.)
$34,200 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$49,900 (2015 est.)
$51,300 (2014 est.)
$50,300 (2013 est.)
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 2.5%
industry: 22.4%
services: 75.1% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 11.9%
industry: 33.6%
services: 54.5% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line21.1% (2012 est.)
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 24% (2011)
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices)-0.3% (2016 est.)
-0.6% (2015 est.)
-0.9% (2015 est.)
-0.1% (2014 est.)
Labor force22.89 million (2016 est.)
39,750 (2016)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 4.2%
industry: 24%
services: 71.7% (2009)
agriculture: 0.5%
industry: 4.4%
services: 95.1% (2015)
Unemployment rate19.7% (2016 est.)
22.1% (2015 est.)
3.7% (2016 est.)
4.1% (2015 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $461.3 billion
expenditures: $512.9 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $1.872 billion
expenditures: $2.06 billion (2016)
Industriestextiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment
tourism (particularly skiing), banking, timber, furniture
Industrial production growth rate2% (2016 est.)
NA%
Agriculture - productsgrain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish
small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables, tobacco; sheep, cattle
Exports$266.3 billion (2016 est.)
$277.9 billion (2015 est.)
$78.71 million (2015 est.)
$79.57 million (2014 est.)
Exports - commoditiesmachinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, medicines, other consumer goods
tobacco products, furniture
Exports - partnersFrance 15.7%, Germany 11%, Italy 7.4%, UK 7.4%, Portugal 7.1%, US 4.5% (2015)
Spain 52.6%, France 18.7%, Italy 2.9% (2015)
Imports$287.9 billion (2016 est.)
$302.6 billion (2015 est.)
$1.257 billion (2015 est.)
$1.264 billion (2014 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semi-finished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, measuring and medical control instruments
consumer goods, food, fuel, electricity
Imports - partnersGermany 14.4%, France 11.7%, China 7.1%, Italy 6.5%, Netherlands 5%, UK 4.9% (2015)
Spain 63.6%, France 15.8%, Germany 3.1%
Debt - external$2.094 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$1.963 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
$0 (2016)
Exchange rateseuros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.7525 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt99.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
99.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
41% of GDP (2014 est.)
41.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$1.252 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.712 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues36.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
69% of GDP (2016)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
-6.9% of GDP (2016)

Energy

SpainAndorra
Electricity - production264 billion kWh (2014 est.)
99.48 million kWh (2015)
Electricity - consumption234 billion kWh (2014 est.)
221.6 million kWh (2015)
Electricity - exports16 billion kWh (2014 est.)
6,000 kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports12 billion kWh (2014 est.)
471.3 million kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production4,652 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016)
Oil - imports1.349 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016)
Oil - exports54,230 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016)
Oil - proved reserves150 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (2016) (1 January 2016)
Natural gas - proved reserves2.548 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2016)
Natural gas - production24 million cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2016)
Natural gas - consumption27.23 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2016)
Natural gas - exports8.219 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2016)
Natural gas - imports36.38 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2016)
Electricity - installed generating capacity102.3 million kW (2014 est.)
520,000 kW (2010 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels43% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
61.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants19.6% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
23.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels7.7% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production1.352 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

SpainAndorra
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 19,180,192
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 40 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 38,850
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 45 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 50.926 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (July 2015 est.)
total: 71,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 83 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: well-developed, modern facilities
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 145 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 34; submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Middle East, Asia, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries (2015)
general assessment: modern automatic telephone system
domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges
international: country code - 376; landline circuits to France and Spain (2016)
Internet country code.es
.ad
Internet userstotal: 37.886 million
percent of population: 78.7% (July 2015 est.)
total: 83,000
percent of population: 96.9% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediaa mixture of both publicly operated and privately owned TV and radio stations; overall, hundreds of TV channels are available including national, regional, local, public, and international channels; satellite and cable TV systems available; multiple national radio networks, a large number of regional radio networks, and a larger number of local radio stations; overall, hundreds of radio stations (2008)
1 public TV station and 2 public radio stations; about 10 commercial radio stations; good reception of radio and TV broadcasts from stations in France and Spain; upgraded to terrestrial digital TV broadcasting in 2007; roughly 25 international TV channels available (2016)

Transportation

SpainAndorra
Roadwaystotal: 683,175 km
paved: 683,175 km (includes 16,205 km of expressways) (2011)
total: 320 km (2015)

Military

SpainAndorra
Military branchesSpanish Armed Forces: Army (Ejercito de Tierra), Spanish Navy (Armada Espanola, AE, includes Marine Corps), Spanish Air Force (Ejercito del Aire Espanola, EdA) (2013)
no regular military forces; Police Corps of Andorra (2017)

Transnational Issues

SpainAndorra
Disputes - international"in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any ""shared sovereignty"" arrangement; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; after voters in the UK chose to leave the EU in a June 2016 referendum, Spain again proposed shared sovereignty of Gibraltar; UK officials rejected Spain’s joint sovereignty proposal; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); Morocco serves as the primary launching site of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz
"
none

Source: CIA Factbook