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South Sudan vs. Kenya

Introduction

South SudanKenya
BackgroundEgypt attempted to colonize the region of southern Sudan by establishing the province of Equatoria in the 1870s. Islamic Mahdist revolutionaries overran the region in 1885, but in 1898 a British force was able to overthrow the Mahdist regime. An Anglo-Egyptian Sudan was established the following year with Equatoria being the southernmost of its eight provinces. The isolated region was largely left to itself over the following decades, but Christian missionaries converted much of the population and facilitated the spread of English. When Sudan gained its independence in 1956, it was with the understanding that the southerners would be able to participate fully in the political system. When the Arab Khartoum government reneged on its promises, a mutiny began that led to two prolonged periods of conflict (1955-1972 and 1983-2005) in which perhaps 2.5 million people died - mostly civilians - due to starvation and drought. Ongoing peace talks finally resulted in a Comprehensive Peace Agreement, signed in January 2005. As part of this agreement, the south was granted a six-year period of autonomy to be followed by a referendum on final status. The result of this referendum, held in January 2011, was a vote of 98% in favor of secession.
Since independence on 9 July 2011, South Sudan has struggled with good governance and nation building and has attempted to control rebel militia groups operating in its territory. Economic conditions have deteriorated since January 2012 when the government decided to shut down oil production following bilateral disagreements with Sudan. In December 2013, conflict between government and opposition forces led to a humanitarian crisis with millions of South Sudanese displaced and food insecure. The warring parties signed a peace agreement in August 2015 that created a transitional government of national unity in April 2016. However, in July 2016, fighting broke out between the two principal signatories plunging the country back into conflict.
Founding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence in 1963 until his death in 1978, when Vice President Daniel MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) made itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997, which were marred by violence and fraud, but were viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenyan people. President MOI stepped down in December 2002 following fair and peaceful elections. Mwai KIBAKI, running as the candidate of the multiethnic, united opposition group, the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), defeated KANU candidate Uhuru KENYATTA, the son of founding president Jomo KENYATTA, and assumed the presidency following a campaign centered on an anticorruption platform.
KIBAKI's reelection in December 2007 brought charges of vote rigging from Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) candidate Raila ODINGA and unleashed two months of violence in which as many as 1,500 people died. African Union-sponsored mediation led by former UN Secretary General Kofi ANNAN in late February 2008 resulted in a power-sharing accord bringing ODINGA into the government in the restored position of prime minister. The power sharing accord included a broad reform agenda, the centerpiece of which was constitutional reform. In August 2010, Kenyans overwhelmingly adopted a new constitution in a national referendum. The new constitution introduced additional checks and balances to executive power and significant devolution of power and resources to 47 newly created counties. It also eliminated the position of prime minister following the first presidential election under the new constitution, which occurred in March 2013. Uhuru KENYATTA won the election and was sworn into office in April 2013.

Geography

South SudanKenya
LocationEast-Central Africa; south of Sudan, north of Uganda and Kenya, west of Ethiopia
Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania
Geographic coordinates8 00 N, 30 00 E
1 00 N, 38 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 644,329 sq km
land: NA
water: NA
total: 580,367 sq km
land: 569,140 sq km
water: 11,227 sq km
Area - comparativemore than four times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Texas
five times the size of Ohio; slightly more than twice the size of Nevada
Land boundariestotal: 6,018 km
border countries (6): Central African Republic 1,055 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 714 km, Ethiopia 1,299 km, Kenya 317 km, Sudan 2,158 km, Uganda 475 km
note: South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment; final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan
total: 3,457 km
border countries (5): Ethiopia 867 km, Somalia 684 km, South Sudan 317 km, Tanzania 775 km, Uganda 814 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
536 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatehot with seasonal rainfall influenced by the annual shift of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone; rainfall heaviest in upland areas of the south and diminishes to the north
varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior
Terrainplains in the north and center rise to southern highlands along the border with Uganda and Kenya; the White Nile, flowing north out of the uplands of Central Africa, is the major geographic feature of the country; The Sudd (a name derived from floating vegetation that hinders navigation) is a large swampy area of more than 100,000 sq km fed by the waters of the White Nile that dominates the center of the country
low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west
Elevation extremesmean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: NA
highest point: Kinyeti 3,187 m
mean elevation: 762 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m
Natural resourceshydropower, fertile agricultural land, gold, diamonds, petroleum, hardwoods, limestone, iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver
limestone, soda ash, salt, gemstones, fluorspar, zinc, diatomite, gypsum, wildlife, hydropower
Irrigated land1,000 sq km (2012)
1,030 sq km (2012)
Geography - noteThe Sudd is a vast swamp in South Sudan, formed by the White Nile, comprising more than 15% of the country's total area; it is one of the world's largest wetlands
the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Kenya, Africa's second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value

Demographics

South SudanKenya
Population12,530,717 (July 2016 est.)
46,790,758
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 44.86% (male 2,866,374/female 2,755,451)
15-24 years: 20.32% (male 1,338,548/female 1,208,109)
25-54 years: 29.4% (male 1,783,091/female 1,901,553)
55-64 years: 3.31% (male 222,760/female 192,274)
65 years and over: 2.1% (male 145,687/female 116,870) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 40.87% (male 9,592,017/female 9,532,032)
15-24 years: 18.83% (male 4,398,554/female 4,411,586)
25-54 years: 33.54% (male 7,938,111/female 7,755,128)
55-64 years: 3.84% (male 819,665/female 976,862)
65 years and over: 2.92% (male 590,961/female 775,842) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 17.1 years
male: 17 years
female: 17.3 years (2016 est.)
total: 19.5 years
male: 19.4 years
female: 19.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate3.92% (2016 est.)
1.81% (2016 est.)
Birth rate36.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
25.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
6.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 64.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 69.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 59.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 38.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 42.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 33.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate5.19 children born/woman (2016 est.)
3.14 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate2.47% (2015 est.)
5.91% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: South Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective: South Sudanese
noun: Kenyan(s)
adjective: Kenyan
Ethnic groupsDinka 35.8%, Nuer 15.6%, Shilluk, Azande, Bari, Kakwa, Kuku, Murle, Mandari, Didinga, Ndogo, Bviri, Lndi, Anuak, Bongo, Lango, Dungotona, Acholi, Baka, Fertit (2011 est.)
Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS179,100 (2015 est.)
1,517,700 (2015 est.)
Religionsanimist, Christian
Christian 83% (Protestant 47.7%, Catholic 23.4%, other Christian 11.9%), Muslim 11.2%, Traditionalists 1.7%, other 1.6%, none 2.4%, unspecified 0.2% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths11,600 (2015 est.)
35,800 (2015 est.)
LanguagesEnglish (official), Arabic (includes Juba and Sudanese variants), regional languages include Dinka, Nuer, Bari, Zande, Shilluk
English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 27%
male: 40%
female: 16% (2009 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 78%
male: 81.1%
female: 74.9% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne disease: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria, dengue fever, trypanosomiasis-Gambiense (African sleeping sickness)
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Education expenditures0.8% of GDP (2011)
5.3% of GDP (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 18.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.05% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 25.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.34% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 66.7% of population
rural: 56.9% of population
total: 58.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 33.3% of population
rural: 43.1% of population
total: 41.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 81.6% of population
rural: 56.8% of population
total: 63.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 18.4% of population
rural: 43.2% of population
total: 36.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 16.4% of population
rural: 4.5% of population
total: 6.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 83.6% of population
rural: 95.5% of population
total: 93.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 31.2% of population
rural: 29.7% of population
total: 30.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 68.8% of population
rural: 70.3% of population
total: 69.9% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationJUBA (capital) 321,000 (2015)
NAIROBI (capital) 3.915 million; Mombassa 1.104 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate789 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
510 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight27.6% (2010)
11% (2014)
Health expenditures2.7% of GDP (2014)
5.7% of GDP (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate6.6% (2014)
5.9% (2014)
Demographic profileSouth Sudan, independent from Sudan since July 2011 after decades of civil war, is one of the world’s poorest countries and ranks among the lowest in many socioeconomic categories. Problems are exacerbated by ongoing tensions with Sudan over oil revenues and land borders, fighting between government forces and rebel groups, and inter-communal violence. Most of the population lives off of farming, while smaller numbers rely on animal husbandry; more than 80% of the populace lives in rural areas. The maternal mortality rate is among the world’s highest for a variety of reasons, including a shortage of health care workers, facilities, and supplies; poor roads and a lack of transport; and cultural beliefs that prevent women from seeking obstetric care. Most women marry and start having children early, giving birth at home with the assistance of traditional birth attendants, who are unable to handle complications.
Educational attainment is extremely poor due to the lack of schools, qualified teachers, and materials. Less than a third of the population is literate (the rate is even lower among women), and half live below the poverty line. Teachers and students are also struggling with the switch from Arabic to English as the language of instruction. Many adults missed out on schooling because of warfare and displacement.
More than 900,000 South Sudanese have sought refuge in neighboring countries since the current conflict began in 2013, almost 200,000 alone have fled since the most recent outbreak of violence in early July 2016. Another 1.7 million South Sudanese are internally displaced. Despite South Sudan’s instability and lack of infrastructure and social services, more than 240,000 people have fled to South Sudan to escape fighting in Sudan.
Kenya has experienced dramatic population growth since the mid-20th century as a result of its high birth rate and its declining mortality rate. More than 40% of Kenyans are under the age of 15 because of sustained high fertility, early marriage and childbearing, and an unmet need for family planning. Kenya’s persistent rapid population growth strains the labor market, social services, arable land, and natural resources. Although Kenya in 1967 was the first sub-Saharan country to launch a nationwide family planning program, progress in reducing the birth rate has largely stalled since the late 1990s, when the government decreased its support for family planning to focus on the HIV epidemic. Government commitment and international technical support spurred Kenyan contraceptive use, decreasing the fertility rate (children per woman) from about 8 in the late 1970s to less than 5 children twenty years later, but it has plateaued at just over 3 children today.
Kenya is a source of emigrants and a host country for refugees. In the 1960s and 1970s, Kenyans pursued higher education in the UK because of colonial ties, but as British immigration rules tightened, the US, the then Soviet Union, and Canada became attractive study destinations. Kenya’s stagnant economy and political problems during the 1980s and 1990s led to an outpouring of Kenyan students and professionals seeking permanent opportunities in the West and southern Africa. Nevertheless, Kenya’s relative stability since its independence in 1963 has attracted hundreds of thousands of refugees escaping violent conflicts in neighboring countries; Kenya presently shelters nearly 400,000 Somali refugees.
Contraceptive prevalence rate4% (2010)
66% (2015)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 83.7
youth dependency ratio: 77.3
elderly dependency ratio: 6.4
potential support ratio: 15.7 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 80.9
youth dependency ratio: 75.8
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1
potential support ratio: 19.7 (2015 est.)

Government

South SudanKenya
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of South Sudan
conventional short form: South Sudan
etymology: self-descriptive name from the country's former position within Sudan prior to independence; the name ""Sudan"" derives from the Arabic ""bilad-as-sudan"" meaning ""Land of the Black [peoples]""
"
"conventional long form: Republic of Kenya
conventional short form: Kenya
local long form: Republic of Kenya/Jamhuri ya Kenya
local short form: Kenya
former: British East Africa
etymology: named for Mount Kenya; the meaning of the name is unclear but may derive from the Kikuyu, Embu, and Kamba words ""kirinyaga,"" ""kirenyaa,"" and ""kiinyaa"" - all of which mean ""God's resting place""
"
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Juba
geographic coordinates: 04 51 N 31 37 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Nairobi
geographic coordinates: 1 17 S, 36 49 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions10 states; Central Equatoria, Eastern Equatoria, Jonglei, Lakes, Northern Bahr el Ghazal, Unity, Upper Nile, Warrap, Western Bahr el Ghazal, Western Equatoria
47 counties; Baringo, Bomet, Bungoma, Busia, Elgeyo/Marakwet, Embu, Garissa, Homa Bay, Isiolo, Kajiado, Kakamega, Kericho, Kiambu, Kilifi, Kirinyaga, Kisii, Kisumu, Kitui, Kwale, Laikipia, Lamu, Machakos, Makueni, Mandera, Marsabit, Meru, Migori, Mombasa, Murang'a, Nairobi City, Nakuru, Nandi, Narok, Nyamira, Nyandarua, Nyeri, Samburu, Siaya, Taita/Taveta, Tana River, Tharaka-Nithi, Trans Nzoia, Turkana, Uasin Gishu, Vihiga, Wajir, West Pokot
Independence9 July 2011 (from Sudan)
12 December 1963 (from the UK)
National holidayIndependence Day, 9 July (2011)
Jamhuri Day (Independence Day), 12 December (1963); note - Madaraka Day, 1 June (1963) marks the day Kenya attained internal self-rule
Constitutionprevious 2005 (preindependence); latest signed 7 July 2011, effective 9 July 2011 (Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011); amended 2013, 2015 (2016)
previous 1963, 1969; latest drafted 6 May 2010, passed by referendum 4 August 2010, promulgated 27 August 2010 (2016)
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Salva KIIR Mayardit (since 9 July 2011); First Vice President Taban Deng GAI (since 26 July 2016); Second Vice President James Wani IGGA (since 26 April 2016); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Salva KIIR Mayardit (since 9 July 2011); First Vice President Taban Deng GAI (since 26 July 2016); Second Vice President James Wani IGGA (since 26 April 2016)
cabinet: National Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Transitional National Legislative Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11-15 April 2010 (the next election has been postponed from 2015 to 2018 due to instability and violence)
election results: Salva KIIR Mayardit elected president; percent of vote - Salva KIIR Mayardit (SPLM) 93%, Lam AKOL (SPLM-DC) 7%
chief of state: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note - position of the prime minister abolished after the March 2013 elections
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, subject to confirmation by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president and deputy president directly elected on the same ballot by qualified majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); in addition to receiving an absolute majority popular vote, the presidential candidate must also win at least 25% of the votes cast in each of more than half of the 47 counties to avoid a runoff; election last held on 4 March 2013 (next to be held in 2017)
election results: Uhuru KENYATTA elected president in first round; percent of vote - Uhuru KENYATTA (TNA) 50.1%, Raila ODINGA (ODM) 43.7%, Musalia MUDAVADI (UDF) 4.0%, other 2.2%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral National Legislature consists of the Council of States (50 seats; the Council of States, established by presidential decree in August 2011, includes 50 members - 20 former members of the Council of States and 30 appointed representatives ) and the Transitional National Legislative Assembly (400 seats; the National Assembly, also established by presidential decree in August 2011, includes 170 members elected in April 2010, 96 members of the former National Assembly, 66 members appointed after independence, and 68 members added as a result of the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan)
elections: National Legislative Assembly - last held 11-15 April 2010 but did not take office until July 2011; because of political instability, current parliamentary term extended until next election on 9 July 2018); Council of States - established and members appointed 1 August 2011
election results: Council of States - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SPLM 20, unknown 30; National Legislative Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SPLM 251, SPLM-DC 6, DCP 4, independent 6, unknown 65
description: bicameral parliament consists of the Senate (67 seats; 47 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 20 directly elected by proportional representation vote - 16 women, 2 representing youth, and 2 representing the disabled; members serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly (349 seats; 290 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 47 women in single-seat constituencies elected by simple majority vote, and 12 members nominated by the National Assembly - 6 representing youth and 6 representing the disabled; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 4 March 2013 (next to be held in 2017)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - Jubilee Alliance 30 (TNA 17, URP 12, NARC 1); CORD Coalition 28 (ODM 17, FORD-K 5, WDM-K 5, other 1); Amani Coalition 6 (KANU 3, UDF 3), APK 3; National Assembly - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - Jubilee Alliance 167 (TNA 89, URP 75, NARC 3), CORD Coalition 141 (ODM 96, WDM-K 26, FORD-K 10, other 9), Amani Coalition 24 (UDF 12, KANU 6, NFK 6), Eagle Coalition 2 (KNC 2), APK 5, FORD-P 4, independent 4, other 2
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of South Sudan (consists of the chief and deputy chief justices, 9 other justices and normally organized into panels of 3 justices except when sitting as a Constitutional panel of all 9 justices chaired by the chief justice)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president upon proposal of the Judicial Service Council, a 9-member judicial and administrative body; justice tenure set by the National Legislature
subordinate courts: national level - Courts of Appeal; High Courts; County Courts; state level - High Courts; County Courts; customary courts; other specialized courts and tribunals
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of chief and deputy chief justices and 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: chief and deputy chief justices nominated by Judicial Service Commission (JSC) and appointed by president with approval of the National Assembly; other judges nominated by the JSC and appointed by president; chief justice serves a nonrenewable 10-year term or till age 70 whichever comes first; other judges serve till age 70
subordinate courts: High Court; Court of Appeal; military courts; magistrates' courts; religious courts
Political parties and leadersSudan People's Liberation Movement or SPLM [Salva KIIR Mayardit]
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-In Opposition or SPLM-IO [Riek MACHAR Teny Dhurgon]
Democratic Change Party or DCP [Onyoti Adigo NYIKWEC]
Alliance Party of Kenya or APK [Kiraitu MURUNGI]
Amani National Congress [Musalia MUDAVADI]
Coalition for Reforms and Democracy or CORD (includes ODM, WDM-K, FORD-K) [Raila ODINGA]
Federal Party of Kenya or FPK [Cyrus JIRONGA]
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya or FORD-K [Moses WETANGULA]
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-P [Henry OBWOCHA]
Jubilee Party [Uhuru KENYATTA]
Kenya African National Union or KANU [Gideon MOI]
National Rainbow Coalition or NARC [Charity NGILU]
Orange Democratic Movement Party of Kenya or ODM [Raila ODINGA]
Wiper Democratic Movement-K or WDM-K (formerly Orange Democratic Movement-Kenya or ODM-K) [Kalonzo MUSYOKA]
International organization participationAU, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOM, IPU, ITU, MIGA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Garang Diing AKUONG (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 1015 31st St., NW, Third Floor, Washington, DC, 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7940
FAX: [1] (202) 293-7941
chief of mission: Ambassador Robinson GITHAE (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
consulate(s): New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Mary Catherine PHEE (since July 2015)
embassy: Kololo Road adjacent to the EU's compound, Juba
telephone: [211] (0) 912-105-188
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert F. GODEC (since 16 January 2013)
embassy: United Nations Avenue, Nairobi; P.O. Box 606 Village Market, Nairobi 00621
mailing address: American Embassy Nairobi, U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-8900
telephone: [254] (20) 363-6000
FAX: [254] (20) 363-6157
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side contains a gold, five-pointed star; black represents the people of South Sudan, red the blood shed in the struggle for freedom, green the verdant land, and blue the waters of the Nile; the gold star represents the unity of the states making up South Sudan
note: resembles the flag of Kenya; one of only two national flags to display six colors as part of its primary design, the other is South Africa's
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a large Maasai warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center; black symbolizes the majority population, red the blood shed in the struggle for freedom, green stands for natural wealth, and white for peace; the shield and crossed spears symbolize the defense of freedom
National anthemname: South Sudan Oyee! (Hooray!)
lyrics/music: collective of 49 poets/Juba University students and teachers
note: adopted 2011; anthem selected in a national contest
"name: ""Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"" (Oh God of All Creation)
lyrics/music: Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE/traditional, adapted by Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE
note: adopted 1963; based on a traditional Kenyan folk song
"
National symbol(s)African fish eagle; national colors: red, green, blue, yellow, black, white
lion; national colors: black, red, green, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of South Sudan
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kenya
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 7 years

Economy

South SudanKenya
Economy - overviewFollowing several decades of civil war with Sudan, industry and infrastructure in landlocked South Sudan are severely underdeveloped and poverty is widespread. Subsistence agriculture provides a living for the vast majority of the population. Property rights are insecure and price signals are weak, because markets are not well organized. After independence, South Sudan's central bank issued a new currency, the South Sudanese Pound, allowing a short grace period for turning in the old currency.

South Sudan has little infrastructure - approximately 200 kilometers of paved roads. Electricity is produced mostly by costly diesel generators, and indoor plumbing and potable water are scarce. South Sudan depends largely on imports of goods, services, and capital - mainly from Uganda, Kenya and Sudan.

Nevertheless, South Sudan does have abundant natural resources. At independence in 2011, South Sudan produced nearly three-fourths of former Sudan's total oil output of nearly a half million barrels per day. The government of South Sudan used to rely on oil for the vast majority of its budget revenues before oil production fell sharply. Oil is exported through a pipeline that runs to refineries and shipping facilities at Port Sudan on the Red Sea. The economy of South Sudan will remain linked to Sudan for some time, given the long lead time and great expense required to build another pipeline, should the government decide to do so. In January 2012, South Sudan suspended production of oil because of its dispute with Sudan over transshipment fees. This suspension lasted 15 months and had a devastating impact on GDP, which declined by 48% in 2012. With the resumption of oil flows the economy rebounded strongly during the second half of calendar year 2013. This occurred in spite of the fact that oil production, at an average level of 222,000 barrels per day, was 40% lower compared with 2011, prior to the shutdown. GDP grew by nearly 30% in 2013. However, the outbreak of conflict on 15 December 2013 combined with a further reduction of oil production and exports, meant that GDP growth fell significantly in 2014 and 2015 as poverty and food insecurity rose. South Sudan holds one of the richest agricultural areas in Africa with fertile soils and abundant water supplies. Currently the region supports 10-20 million head of cattle.

South Sudan is currently burdened by considerable debt because of increased military spending and revenue shortfalls due to low oil prices and decreased production. South Sudan has received more than $4 billion in foreign aid since 2005, largely from the UK, the US, Norway, and the Netherlands. Annual inflation peaked at over 800% in October 2016. The government has relied on borrowing from the central bank to fund budget expenses. The decision in December 2015 by the central bank to abandon a fixed exchange rate and allow the South Sudanese Pound to float has not reduced inflation in the short term. Long-term challenges include diversifying the formal economy, alleviating poverty, maintaining macroeconomic stability, improving tax collection and financial management and improving the business environment.
Kenya is the economic, financial, and transport hub of East Africa. Kenya’s real GDP growth has averaged over 5% for the last eight years. Since 2014, Kenya has been ranked as a lower middle income country because its per capita GDP crossed a World Bank threshold. While Kenya has a growing entrepreneurial middle class and steady growth, its economic and development trajectory could be impaired by weak governance and corruption. Although reliable numbers are hard to find, unemployment and under-employment are extremely high, and could be near 40% of the population.

Agriculture remains the backbone of the Kenyan economy, contributing one-third of GDP. About 75% of Kenya’s population of roughly 44.2 million work at least part-time in the agricultural sector, including livestock and pastoral activities. Over 75% of agricultural output is from small-scale, rain-fed farming or livestock production.

Inadequate infrastructure continues to hamper Kenya’s efforts to improve its annual growth to the 8-10% range so that it can meaningfully address poverty and unemployment. The KENYATTA administration has been successful in courting external investment for infrastructure development. International financial institutions and donors remain important to Kenya's economic growth and development, but Kenya has also successfully raised capital in the global bond market. Kenya issued its first sovereign bond offering in mid-2014. Nairobi has contracted with a Chinese company to construct a new standard gauge railway connecting Mombasa and Nairobi, with completion expected in June 2017. In 2013, the country adopted a devolved system of government with the creation of 47 counties, and is in the process of devolving state revenues and responsibilities to the counties. Inflationary pressures and sharp currency depreciation peaked in early 2012 but have since abated following low global food and fuel prices and monetary interventions by the Central Bank. Drought-like conditions in parts of the country have pushed March 2017 inflation above 9%. Chronic budget deficits, including a shortage of funds in mid-2015, hampered the government’s ability to implement proposed development programs, but the economy is back in balance with many indicators, including foreign exchange reserves, interest rates, and FDI moving in the right direction. Underlying weaknesses were exposed in the banking sector in 2016 when the government was forced to take over three small and undercapitalized banks. In 2016, the government enacted legislation that limits interest rates banks can charge on loans and set a rate that banks must pay their depositors. This measure led to a sharp shrinkage of credit in the economy.

Tourism holds a significant place in Kenya’s economy. A spate of terrorist attacks by the Somalia-based group al-Shabaab reduced international tourism earning after their deadly 2013 attack on Nairobi’s Westgate mall, which killed 67 people, but the sector is now recovering. In 2016, tourist arrivals grew by 17% while revenues from tourism increased by 37%.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$20.88 billion (2016 est.)
$24.04 billion (2015 est.)
$24.08 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$152.7 billion (2016 est.)
$144.1 billion (2015 est.)
$136.4 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate-13.1% (2016 est.)
-0.2% (2015 est.)
2.9% (2014 est.)
6% (2016 est.)
5.6% (2015 est.)
5.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$1,700 (2016 est.)
$2,000 (2015 est.)
$2,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3,400 (2016 est.)
$3,300 (2015 est.)
$3,200 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
Population below poverty line50.6% (2009 est.)
43.4% (2012 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)800% (2016 est.)
52.8% (2015 est.)
6.1% (2016 est.)
6.6% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index46 (2010 est.)
42.5 (2008 est.)
44.9 (1997)
Budgetrevenues: $437 million
expenditures: $2.259 billion (FY 2013 est.)
revenues: $12.89 billion
expenditures: $17.85 billion (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productssorghum, maize, rice, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, mangoes, papayas, bananas, sweet potatoes, sunflower seeds, cotton, sesame seeds, cassava (manioc, tapioca), beans, peanuts; cattle, sheep
tea, coffee, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables; dairy products, beef, fish, pork, poultry, eggs
Exchange ratesSouth Sudanese pounds (SSP) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)
Kenyan shillings (KES) per US dollar -
102 (2016 est.)
98.179 (2015 est.)
98.179 (2014 est.)
87.921 (2013 est.)
84.53 (2012 est.)
Current Account Balance$181 million (2016 est.)
-$902 million (2015 est.)
-$3.822 billion (2016 est.)
-$4.335 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$2.628 billion (2016 est.)
$69.17 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$1.873 billion (31 December 2013)
$2.032 billion (31 December 2012)
$11.07 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.927 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$2.194 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$2.23 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$24.02 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$18.92 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues15% of GDP (2013 est.)
18.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-69.3% of GDP (FY2013 est.)
-7.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 34.9%
government consumption: 17.1%
investment in fixed capital: 10.4%
exports of goods and services: 64.9%
imports of goods and services: -27.2% (2011 est.)
household consumption: 77.6%
government consumption: 14.2%
investment in fixed capital: 21.3%
investment in inventories: -0.3%
exports of goods and services: 15.2%
imports of goods and services: -28% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving13.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
4.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
13.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
16.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
12.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

South SudanKenya
Electricity - production881.3 million kWh (2012 est.)
9.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption694.1 million kWh (2012 est.)
7.6 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013 est.)
38 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
79 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production220,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
11,270 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports98,680 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves3.75 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves63.71 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity255,200 kW (2012 est.)
2.281 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels30.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
42.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants66.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
43.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
13.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
12,610 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption11,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
92,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
575 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports10,280 bbl/day (2013 est.)
82,950 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy2.016 million Mt (2011 est.)
13 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 11,200,000
electrification - total population: 1%
electrification - urban areas: 4%
electrification - rural areas: 0% (2013)
population without electricity: 35,400,000
electrification - total population: 20%
electrification - urban areas: 60%
electrification - rural areas: 7% (2013)

Telecommunications

South SudanKenya
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 150
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2015)
total subscriptions: 85,496
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 2.899 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 24 (July 2015 est.)
total: 37.716 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 82 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systeminternational: country code - 211
general assessment: the mobile-cellular system is generally good, especially is urban areas; fixed-line telephone system is small and inefficient; trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system
domestic: sole fixed-line provider, Telkom Kenya, privatized in 2013 and is now 60% owned by Helios Investment Partners, a London-based equity fund, and 40% owned by the the Kenyan Government; multiple providers in the mobile-cellular segment of the market fostering a boom in mobile-cellular telephone usage with teledensity reaching 80 per 100 persons in 2015
international: country code - 254; landing point for the EASSy, TEAMS and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (2015)
Internet country code.ss
.ke
Broadcast mediaTV is controlled by the government; several private FM stations are operational in South Sudan; some foreign radio broadcasts are available
about a half-dozen large-scale privately owned media companies with TV and radio stations, as well as a state-owned TV broadcaster, provide service nationwide; satellite and cable TV subscription services available; state-owned radio broadcaster operates 2 national radio channels and provides regional and local radio services in multiple languages; many private radio stations broadcast on a national level along with over 100 private and non-profit provincial stations broadcasting in local languages; transmissions of several international broadcasters available (2014)

Transportation

South SudanKenya
Railwaystotal: 248 km
note: a narrow gauge, single-track railroad between Babonosa (Sudan) and Wau, the only existing rail system, was repaired in 2010 with $250 million in UN funds (2014)
total: 3,806 km
narrow gauge: 3,334 km 1.000-m gauge
standard gauge: 472 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 7,000 km
note: most of the road network is unpaved and much of it is in disrepair; a 192-km paved road between the capital, Juba, and Nimule on the Ugandan border was constructed with USAID funds in 2012 (2012)
total: 161,452 km
paved: 14,420 km (8,500 km highways, 1,872 urban roads, and 4,048 rural roads)
unpaved: 147,032 km (2017)
Waterwayssee entry for Sudan
none specifically; the only significant inland waterway is the part of Lake Victoria within the boundaries of Kenya; Kisumu is the main port and has ferry connections to Uganda and Tanzania (2011)
Airports85 (2013)
197 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)
total: 16
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 82
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 35
under 914 m: 34 (2013)
total: 181
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 107
under 914 m: 60 (2013)

Military

South SudanKenya
Military branchesSouth Sudan Defense Force (SSDF): ground force, navy, air force and air defense units (2017)
Kenya Defence Forces: Kenya Army, Kenya Navy, Kenya Air Force (2012)
Military service age and obligation18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory and voluntary military service; the Government of South Sudan signed agreements in March 2012 and August 2015 that included the demobilization of all child soldiers within the armed forces and opposition, but the recruitment of child soldiers by the warring parties continues; as of the end of 2016, UNICEF estimates that more than 17,000 child soldiers had been used in the country's civil war since it began in December 2013 (2016)
18-26 years of age for male and female voluntary service (under 18 with parental consent), with a 9-year obligation (7 years for Kenyan Navy); applicants must be Kenyan citizens and provide a national identity card (obtained at age 18) and a school-leaving certificate; women serve under the same terms and conditions as men; mandatory retirement at age 55 (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP10.93% of GDP (2015)
9.77% of GDP (2014)
7.41% of GDP (2013)
9.53% of GDP (2012)
5.91% of GDP (2011)
1.51% of GDP (2015)
1.33% of GDP (2014)
1.56% of GDP (2013)
1.67% of GDP (2012)
1.54% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

South SudanKenya
Disputes - international"South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan; periodic violent skirmishes with South Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; the boundary that separates Kenya and South Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the ""Ilemi Triangle,"" which Kenya has administered since colonial times
"
"Kenya served as an important mediator in brokering Sudan's north-south separation in February 2005; Kenya provides shelter to an estimated 580,000 refugees, including Ugandans who flee across the border periodically to seek protection from Lord's Resistance Army rebels; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists; the boundary that separates Kenya's and Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the ""Ilemi Triangle,"" which Kenya has administered since colonial times
"
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 247,111 (Sudan); 14,548 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2017)
IDPs: 1.89 million (alleged coup attempt and ethnic conflict beginning in December 2013; information is lacking on those displaced in earlier years by: fighting in Abyei between the Sudanese Armed Forces and the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) in May 2011; clashes between the SPLA and dissident militia groups in South Sudan; inter-ethnic conflicts over resources and cattle; attacks from the Lord's Resistance Army; floods and drought) (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 313,255 (Somalia); 104,700 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 29,894 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers); 27,640 (Ethiopia) (refugees and asylum seekers); 9,881 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 6,086 (Burundi) (2017)
IDPs: 138,000 (represents people displaced since the 1990s by ethnic and political violence and land disputes and who sought refuge mostly in camps; persons who took refuge in host communities or were evicted in urban areas are not included in the data; data is not available on pastoralists displaced by cattle rustling, violence, natural disasters, and development projects; the largest displacement resulted from 2007-08 post-election violence (2016)
stateless persons: 20,000 (2016); note - the stateless population consists of Nubians, Kenyan Somalis, and coastal Arabs; the Nubians are descendants of Sudanese soldiers recruited by the British to fight for them in East Africa more than a century ago; Nubians did not receive Kenyan citizenship when the country became independent in 1963; only recently have Nubians become a formally recognized tribe and had less trouble obtaining national IDs; Galjeel and other Somalis who have lived in Kenya for decades are included with more recent Somali refugees and denied ID cards

Source: CIA Factbook