Home

South Sudan vs. Ethiopia

Introduction

South SudanEthiopia
BackgroundEgypt attempted to colonize the region of southern Sudan by establishing the province of Equatoria in the 1870s. Islamic Mahdist revolutionaries overran the region in 1885, but in 1898 a British force was able to overthrow the Mahdist regime. An Anglo-Egyptian Sudan was established the following year with Equatoria being the southernmost of its eight provinces. The isolated region was largely left to itself over the following decades, but Christian missionaries converted much of the population and facilitated the spread of English. When Sudan gained its independence in 1956, it was with the understanding that the southerners would be able to participate fully in the political system. When the Arab Khartoum government reneged on its promises, a mutiny began that led to two prolonged periods of conflict (1955-1972 and 1983-2005) in which perhaps 2.5 million people died - mostly civilians - due to starvation and drought. Ongoing peace talks finally resulted in a Comprehensive Peace Agreement, signed in January 2005. As part of this agreement, the south was granted a six-year period of autonomy to be followed by a referendum on final status. The result of this referendum, held in January 2011, was a vote of 98% in favor of secession.
Since independence on 9 July 2011, South Sudan has struggled with good governance and nation building and has attempted to control rebel militia groups operating in its territory. Economic conditions have deteriorated since January 2012 when the government decided to shut down oil production following bilateral disagreements with Sudan. In December 2013, conflict between government and opposition forces led to a humanitarian crisis with millions of South Sudanese displaced and food insecure. The warring parties signed a peace agreement in August 2015 that created a transitional government of national unity in April 2016. However, in July 2016, fighting broke out between the two principal signatories plunging the country back into conflict.
Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41. In 1974, a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front. A constitution was adopted in 1994, and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A border war with Eritrea in the late 1990s ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. In November 2007, the Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Commission (EEBC) issued specific coordinates as virtually demarcating the border and pronounced its work finished. Alleging that the EEBC acted beyond its mandate in issuing the coordinates, Ethiopia has not accepted them and has not withdrawn troops from previously contested areas pronounced by the EEBC as belonging to Eritrea. In August 2012, longtime leader Prime Minister MELES Zenawi died in office and was replaced by his Deputy Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn, marking the first peaceful transition of power in decades.

Geography

South SudanEthiopia
LocationEast-Central Africa; south of Sudan, north of Uganda and Kenya, west of Ethiopia
Eastern Africa, west of Somalia
Geographic coordinates8 00 N, 30 00 E
8 00 N, 38 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 644,329 sq km
land: NA
water: NA
total: 1,104,300 sq km
land: 1 million sq km
water: 104,300 sq km
Area - comparativemore than four times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Texas
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 6,018 km
border countries (6): Central African Republic 1,055 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 714 km, Ethiopia 1,299 km, Kenya 317 km, Sudan 2,158 km, Uganda 475 km
note: South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment; final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan
total: 5,925 km
border countries (6): Djibouti 342 km, Eritrea 1,033 km, Kenya 867 km, Somalia 1,640 km, South Sudan 1,299 km, Sudan 744 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climatehot with seasonal rainfall influenced by the annual shift of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone; rainfall heaviest in upland areas of the south and diminishes to the north
tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation
Terrainplains in the north and center rise to southern highlands along the border with Uganda and Kenya; the White Nile, flowing north out of the uplands of Central Africa, is the major geographic feature of the country; The Sudd (a name derived from floating vegetation that hinders navigation) is a large swampy area of more than 100,000 sq km fed by the waters of the White Nile that dominates the center of the country
high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
Elevation extremesmean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: NA
highest point: Kinyeti 3,187 m
mean elevation: 1,330 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Danakil Depression -125 m
highest point: Ras Dejen 4,533 m
Natural resourceshydropower, fertile agricultural land, gold, diamonds, petroleum, hardwoods, limestone, iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver
small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower
Irrigated land1,000 sq km (2012)
2,900 sq km (2012)
Geography - noteThe Sudd is a vast swamp in South Sudan, formed by the White Nile, comprising more than 15% of the country's total area; it is one of the world's largest wetlands
landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993; Ethiopia is, therefore, the most populous landlocked country in the world; the Blue Nile, the chief headstream of the Nile by water volume, rises in T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana) in northwest Ethiopia; three major crops are believed to have originated in Ethiopia: coffee, grain sorghum, and castor bean

Demographics

South SudanEthiopia
Population12,530,717 (July 2016 est.)
102,374,044
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 44.86% (male 2,866,374/female 2,755,451)
15-24 years: 20.32% (male 1,338,548/female 1,208,109)
25-54 years: 29.4% (male 1,783,091/female 1,901,553)
55-64 years: 3.31% (male 222,760/female 192,274)
65 years and over: 2.1% (male 145,687/female 116,870) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 43.71% (male 22,430,798/female 22,316,910)
15-24 years: 20.04% (male 10,182,973/female 10,332,626)
25-54 years: 29.45% (male 14,970,645/female 15,178,999)
55-64 years: 3.89% (male 1,939,635/female 2,047,041)
65 years and over: 2.91% (male 1,338,985/female 1,635,432) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 17.1 years
male: 17 years
female: 17.3 years (2016 est.)
total: 17.8 years
male: 17.6 years
female: 18 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate3.92% (2016 est.)
2.88% (2016 est.)
Birth rate36.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
36.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 64.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 69.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 59.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 51.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 58.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 43.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate5.19 children born/woman (2016 est.)
5.07 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate2.47% (2015 est.)
1.15% (2014 est.)
Nationalitynoun: South Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective: South Sudanese
noun: Ethiopian(s)
adjective: Ethiopian
Ethnic groupsDinka 35.8%, Nuer 15.6%, Shilluk, Azande, Bari, Kakwa, Kuku, Murle, Mandari, Didinga, Ndogo, Bviri, Lndi, Anuak, Bongo, Lango, Dungotona, Acholi, Baka, Fertit (2011 est.)
Oromo 34.4%, Amhara (Amara) 27%, Somali (Somalie) 6.2%, Tigray (Tigrinya) 6.1%, Sidama 4%, Gurage 2.5%, Welaita 2.3%, Hadiya 1.7%, Afar (Affar) 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Silte 1.3%, Kefficho 1.2%, other 8.8% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS179,100 (2015 est.)
730,300 (2014 est.)
Religionsanimist, Christian
Ethiopian Orthodox 43.5%, Muslim 33.9%, Protestant 18.5%, traditional 2.7%, Catholic 0.7%, other 0.6% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths11,600 (2015 est.)
23,400 (2014 est.)
LanguagesEnglish (official), Arabic (includes Juba and Sudanese variants), regional languages include Dinka, Nuer, Bari, Zande, Shilluk
Oromo (official working language in the State of Oromiya) 33.8%, Amharic (official national language) 29.3%, Somali (official working language of the State of Sumale) 6.2%, Tigrigna (Tigrinya) (official working language of the State of Tigray) 5.9%, Sidamo 4%, Wolaytta 2.2%, Gurage 2%, Afar (official working language of the State of Afar) 1.7%, Hadiyya 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Opuuo 1.2%, Kafa 1.1%, other 8.1%, English (major foreign language taught in schools), Arabic (2007 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 27%
male: 40%
female: 16% (2009 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 49.1%
male: 57.2%
female: 41.1% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne disease: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria, dengue fever, trypanosomiasis-Gambiense (African sleeping sickness)
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2016)
Education expenditures0.8% of GDP (2011)
4.5% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 18.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.05% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 19.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.89% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 66.7% of population
rural: 56.9% of population
total: 58.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 33.3% of population
rural: 43.1% of population
total: 41.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 93.1% of population
rural: 48.6% of population
total: 57.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.9% of population
rural: 51.4% of population
total: 42.7% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 16.4% of population
rural: 4.5% of population
total: 6.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 83.6% of population
rural: 95.5% of population
total: 93.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 27.2% of population
rural: 28.2% of population
total: 28% of population
unimproved:
urban: 72.8% of population
rural: 71.8% of population
total: 72% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationJUBA (capital) 321,000 (2015)
ADDIS ABABA (capital) 3.238 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate789 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
353 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight27.6% (2010)
25.2% (2014)
Health expenditures2.7% of GDP (2014)
4.9% of GDP (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate6.6% (2014)
3.3% (2014)
Demographic profileSouth Sudan, independent from Sudan since July 2011 after decades of civil war, is one of the world’s poorest countries and ranks among the lowest in many socioeconomic categories. Problems are exacerbated by ongoing tensions with Sudan over oil revenues and land borders, fighting between government forces and rebel groups, and inter-communal violence. Most of the population lives off of farming, while smaller numbers rely on animal husbandry; more than 80% of the populace lives in rural areas. The maternal mortality rate is among the world’s highest for a variety of reasons, including a shortage of health care workers, facilities, and supplies; poor roads and a lack of transport; and cultural beliefs that prevent women from seeking obstetric care. Most women marry and start having children early, giving birth at home with the assistance of traditional birth attendants, who are unable to handle complications.
Educational attainment is extremely poor due to the lack of schools, qualified teachers, and materials. Less than a third of the population is literate (the rate is even lower among women), and half live below the poverty line. Teachers and students are also struggling with the switch from Arabic to English as the language of instruction. Many adults missed out on schooling because of warfare and displacement.
More than 900,000 South Sudanese have sought refuge in neighboring countries since the current conflict began in 2013, almost 200,000 alone have fled since the most recent outbreak of violence in early July 2016. Another 1.7 million South Sudanese are internally displaced. Despite South Sudan’s instability and lack of infrastructure and social services, more than 240,000 people have fled to South Sudan to escape fighting in Sudan.
Ethiopia is a predominantly agricultural country – more than 80% of the population lives in rural areas – that is in the early stages of demographic transition. Infant, child, and maternal mortality have fallen sharply over the past decade, but the total fertility rate has declined more slowly and the population continues to grow. The rising age of marriage and the increasing proportion of women remaining single have contributed to fertility reduction. While the use of modern contraceptive methods among married women has increased significantly from 6 percent in 2000 to 27 percent in 2012, the overall rate is still quite low.
Ethiopia’s rapid population growth is putting increasing pressure on land resources, expanding environmental degradation, and raising vulnerability to food shortages. With more than 40 percent of the population below the age of 15 and a fertility rate of over 5 children per woman (and even higher in rural areas), Ethiopia will have to make further progress in meeting its family planning needs if it is to achieve the age structure necessary for reaping a demographic dividend in the coming decades.
Poverty, drought, political repression, and forced government resettlement have driven Ethiopia’s internal and external migration since the 1960s. Before the 1974 revolution, only small numbers of the Ethiopian elite went abroad to study and then returned home, but under the brutal Derg regime thousands fled the country, primarily as refugees. Between 1982 and 1991 there was a new wave of migration to the West for family reunification. Since the defeat of the Derg in 1991, Ethiopians have migrated to escape violence among some of the country’s myriad ethnic groups or to pursue economic opportunities. Internal and international trafficking of women and children for domestic work and prostitution is a growing problem.
Contraceptive prevalence rate4% (2010)
37.9% (2015)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 83.7
youth dependency ratio: 77.3
elderly dependency ratio: 6.4
potential support ratio: 15.7 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 81.6
youth dependency ratio: 75.2
elderly dependency ratio: 6.3
potential support ratio: 15.8 (2015 est.)

Government

South SudanEthiopia
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of South Sudan
conventional short form: South Sudan
etymology: self-descriptive name from the country's former position within Sudan prior to independence; the name ""Sudan"" derives from the Arabic ""bilad-as-sudan"" meaning ""Land of the Black [peoples]""
"
"conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
conventional short form: Ethiopia
local long form: Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
local short form: Ityop'iya
former: Abyssinia, Italian East Africa
abbreviation: FDRE
etymology: the country name derives from the Greek word ""Aethiopia,"" which in classical times referred to lands south of Egypt in the Upper Nile region
"
Government typepresidential republic
federal parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Juba
geographic coordinates: 04 51 N 31 37 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Addis Ababa
geographic coordinates: 9 02 N, 38 42 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions10 states; Central Equatoria, Eastern Equatoria, Jonglei, Lakes, Northern Bahr el Ghazal, Unity, Upper Nile, Warrap, Western Bahr el Ghazal, Western Equatoria
9 ethnically based states (kililoch, singular - kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular - astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa), Afar, Amara (Amhara), Binshangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch (Gambela Peoples), Hareri Hizb (Harari People), Oromiya (Oromia), Sumale (Somali), Tigray, Ye Debub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)
Independence9 July 2011 (from Sudan)
oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years (may be traced to the Aksumite Kingdom, which coalesced in the first century B.C.)
National holidayIndependence Day, 9 July (2011)
Derg Downfall Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime), 28 May (1991)
Constitutionprevious 2005 (preindependence); latest signed 7 July 2011, effective 9 July 2011 (Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011); amended 2013, 2015 (2016)
several previous; latest drafted June 1994, adopted 8 December 1994, entered into force 21 August 1995 (2016)
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Salva KIIR Mayardit (since 9 July 2011); First Vice President Taban Deng GAI (since 26 July 2016); Second Vice President James Wani IGGA (since 26 April 2016); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Salva KIIR Mayardit (since 9 July 2011); First Vice President Taban Deng GAI (since 26 July 2016); Second Vice President James Wani IGGA (since 26 April 2016)
cabinet: National Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Transitional National Legislative Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11-15 April 2010 (the next election has been postponed from 2015 to 2018 due to instability and violence)
election results: Salva KIIR Mayardit elected president; percent of vote - Salva KIIR Mayardit (SPLM) 93%, Lam AKOL (SPLM-DC) 7%
chief of state: President MULATU Teshome Wirtu (since 7 October 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn (since 21 September 2012); Deputy Prime Minister DEMEKE Mekonnen Hassen
cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by both chambers of Parliament for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2019); prime minister designated by the majority party following legislative elections
election results: MULATU Teshome Wirtu (OPDO) elected president by acclamation
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral National Legislature consists of the Council of States (50 seats; the Council of States, established by presidential decree in August 2011, includes 50 members - 20 former members of the Council of States and 30 appointed representatives ) and the Transitional National Legislative Assembly (400 seats; the National Assembly, also established by presidential decree in August 2011, includes 170 members elected in April 2010, 96 members of the former National Assembly, 66 members appointed after independence, and 68 members added as a result of the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan)
elections: National Legislative Assembly - last held 11-15 April 2010 but did not take office until July 2011; because of political instability, current parliamentary term extended until next election on 9 July 2018); Council of States - established and members appointed 1 August 2011
election results: Council of States - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SPLM 20, unknown 30; National Legislative Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SPLM 251, SPLM-DC 6, DCP 4, independent 6, unknown 65
bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Federation or Yefedereshein Mikir Bete (153 seats; members indirectly elected by state assemblies to serve 5-year terms) and the House of People's Representatives or Yehizb Tewokayoch Mekir Bete (547 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; 22 seats reserved for minorities; all members serve 5-year terms); note - the House of Federation is responsible for interpreting the constitution and federal-regional issues and the House of People's Representatives is responsible for passing legislation
elections: last held on 24 May 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: House of Representatives percent of vote - NA; seats by party - EPRDF 501, SPDP 24, BGPDP 9, ANDP 8, GPUDM 3, APDO 1, HNL 1
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of South Sudan (consists of the chief and deputy chief justices, 9 other justices and normally organized into panels of 3 justices except when sitting as a Constitutional panel of all 9 justices chaired by the chief justice)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president upon proposal of the Judicial Service Council, a 9-member judicial and administrative body; justice tenure set by the National Legislature
subordinate courts: national level - Courts of Appeal; High Courts; County Courts; state level - High Courts; County Courts; customary courts; other specialized courts and tribunals
highest court(s): Federal Supreme Court (consists of 11 judges); note - the House of Federation has jurisdiction for all constitutional issues
judge selection and term of office: president and vice president of Federal Supreme Court recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; other Supreme Court judges nominated by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council (a 10-member body chaired by the president of the Federal Supreme Court) and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; judges serve until retirement at age 60
subordinate courts: federal high courts and federal courts of first instance; state court systems (mirror structure of federal system); sharia courts and customary and traditional courts
Political parties and leadersSudan People's Liberation Movement or SPLM [Salva KIIR Mayardit]
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-In Opposition or SPLM-IO [Riek MACHAR Teny Dhurgon]
Democratic Change Party or DCP [Onyoti Adigo NYIKWEC]
Afar National Democratic Party or ANDP [Taha AHMED]
Argoba People Democratic Organization or APDO
Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Party or BGPDP
Blue Party (Semayawi Party) [Solomon TESSEMA, spokesman]
Ethiopian Federal Democratic Unity Forum or MEDREK [Beyene PETROS] (a 4-party alliance)
Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF [Hailemarian DESALEGN] (including the following organizations: Amhara National Democratic Movement or ANDM; Oromo People's Democratic Organization or OPDO; Southern Ethiopian People's Democratic Movement or SEPDM; Tigray People's Liberation Front or TPLF)
Gambella Peoples Unity Democratic Movement or GPUDM
Harari National League or HNL [Murad ABDULHADI]
Somali People's Democratic Party or SPDP
International organization participationAU, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOM, IPU, ITU, MIGA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO
ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Garang Diing AKUONG (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 1015 31st St., NW, Third Floor, Washington, DC, 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7940
FAX: [1] (202) 293-7941
chief of mission: Ambassador GIRMA Birru Geda (since 6 January 2011)
chancery: 3506 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 364-1200
FAX: [1] (202) 587-0195
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Seattle
consulate(s): Houston, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Mary Catherine PHEE (since July 2015)
embassy: Kololo Road adjacent to the EU's compound, Juba
telephone: [211] (0) 912-105-188
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Peter H. VROOMAN (since 2016)
embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
mailing address: P.O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
telephone: [251] 11 130-6000
FAX: 124-2401 [251] 11 124 2401
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side contains a gold, five-pointed star; black represents the people of South Sudan, red the blood shed in the struggle for freedom, green the verdant land, and blue the waters of the Nile; the gold star represents the unity of the states making up South Sudan
note: resembles the flag of Kenya; one of only two national flags to display six colors as part of its primary design, the other is South Africa's
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red, with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; green represents hope and the fertility of the land, yellow symbolizes justice and harmony, while red stands for sacrifice and heroism in the defense of the land; the blue of the disk symbolizes peace and the pentagram represents the unity and equality of the nationalities and peoples of Ethiopia
note: Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three main colors of her flag (adopted ca. 1895) were so often appropriated by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the Pan-African colors; the emblem in the center of the current flag was added in 1996
National anthemname: South Sudan Oyee! (Hooray!)
lyrics/music: collective of 49 poets/Juba University students and teachers
note: adopted 2011; anthem selected in a national contest
"name: ""Whedefit Gesgeshi Woud Enat Ethiopia"" (March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia)
lyrics/music: DEREJE Melaku Mengesha/SOLOMON Lulu
note: adopted 1992
"
National symbol(s)African fish eagle; national colors: red, green, blue, yellow, black, white
Abyssinian lion (traditional), yellow pentagram with five rays of light on a blue field (promoted by current government); national colors: green, yellow, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of South Sudan
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Ethiopia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years

Economy

South SudanEthiopia
Economy - overviewFollowing several decades of civil war with Sudan, industry and infrastructure in landlocked South Sudan are severely underdeveloped and poverty is widespread. Subsistence agriculture provides a living for the vast majority of the population. Property rights are insecure and price signals are weak, because markets are not well organized. After independence, South Sudan's central bank issued a new currency, the South Sudanese Pound, allowing a short grace period for turning in the old currency.

South Sudan has little infrastructure - approximately 200 kilometers of paved roads. Electricity is produced mostly by costly diesel generators, and indoor plumbing and potable water are scarce. South Sudan depends largely on imports of goods, services, and capital - mainly from Uganda, Kenya and Sudan.

Nevertheless, South Sudan does have abundant natural resources. At independence in 2011, South Sudan produced nearly three-fourths of former Sudan's total oil output of nearly a half million barrels per day. The government of South Sudan used to rely on oil for the vast majority of its budget revenues before oil production fell sharply. Oil is exported through a pipeline that runs to refineries and shipping facilities at Port Sudan on the Red Sea. The economy of South Sudan will remain linked to Sudan for some time, given the long lead time and great expense required to build another pipeline, should the government decide to do so. In January 2012, South Sudan suspended production of oil because of its dispute with Sudan over transshipment fees. This suspension lasted 15 months and had a devastating impact on GDP, which declined by 48% in 2012. With the resumption of oil flows the economy rebounded strongly during the second half of calendar year 2013. This occurred in spite of the fact that oil production, at an average level of 222,000 barrels per day, was 40% lower compared with 2011, prior to the shutdown. GDP grew by nearly 30% in 2013. However, the outbreak of conflict on 15 December 2013 combined with a further reduction of oil production and exports, meant that GDP growth fell significantly in 2014 and 2015 as poverty and food insecurity rose. South Sudan holds one of the richest agricultural areas in Africa with fertile soils and abundant water supplies. Currently the region supports 10-20 million head of cattle.

South Sudan is currently burdened by considerable debt because of increased military spending and revenue shortfalls due to low oil prices and decreased production. South Sudan has received more than $4 billion in foreign aid since 2005, largely from the UK, the US, Norway, and the Netherlands. Annual inflation peaked at over 800% in October 2016. The government has relied on borrowing from the central bank to fund budget expenses. The decision in December 2015 by the central bank to abandon a fixed exchange rate and allow the South Sudanese Pound to float has not reduced inflation in the short term. Long-term challenges include diversifying the formal economy, alleviating poverty, maintaining macroeconomic stability, improving tax collection and financial management and improving the business environment.
Ethiopia - the second most populous country in Africa - is a one-party state with a planned economy. For more than a decade before 2016, Ethiopia grew at a rate between 8% and 11% annually – one of the fastest growing states among the 188 IMF member countries. This growth was driven by government investment in infrastructure, as well as sustained progress in the agricultural and service sectors. More than 70% of Ethiopia’s population is still employed in the agricultural sector, but services have surpassed agriculture as the principal source of GDP.

Ethiopia has the lowest level of income-inequality in Africa and one of the lowest in the world, with a Gini coefficient comparable to that of the Scandinavian countries. Yet despite progress toward eliminating extreme poverty, Ethiopia remains one of the poorest countries in the world, due both to rapid population growth and a low starting base. Changes in rainfall associated with world-wide weather patterns resulted in the worst drought in thirty years in 2015/2016, creating food insecurity for millions of Ethiopians.

The state is heavily engaged in the economy. Ongoing infrastructure projects include power production and distribution, roads, rails, airports and industrial parks. Key sectors are state-owned, including telecommunications, banking and insurance, and power distribution. Under Ethiopia's constitution, the state owns all land and provides long-term leases to tenants. Title rights in urban areas, particularly Addis Ababa, are poorly regulated, and subject to corruption.

Ethiopia’s foreign exchange earnings are led by the services sector - primarily the state-run Ethiopian Airlines - followed by exports of several commodities. While coffee remains the largest foreign exchange earner, Ethiopia is diversifying exports, and commodities such as gold, sesame, khat, livestock and horticulture products are becoming increasingly important. Manufacturing represented less than 8% of total exports in 2016, but manufacturing exports should increase due to a growing international presence.

The banking, insurance, telecommunications, and micro-credit industries are restricted to domestic investors, but Ethiopia has attracted roughly $8.5 billion in foreign direct investment, mostly from China, Turkey, India and the EU; US FDI is $567 million. Investment has been primarily in infrastructure, construction, agriculture/horticulture, agricultural processing, textiles, leather and leather products.

In the fall of 2015, the government finalized and published the current 2016-2020 five-year plan, known as the Growth and Transformation Plan II, which emphasizes developing manufacturing in sectors where Ethiopia has a comparative advantage, such as textiles and garments, leather goods, and processed agricultural products. To support industrialization, Ethiopia plans to increase installed power generation capacity by 8,320 MW, up from a capacity of 2,000 MW, by building three more major dams and expanding to other sources of renewable energy.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$20.88 billion (2016 est.)
$24.04 billion (2015 est.)
$24.08 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$174.7 billion (2016 est.)
$164.1 billion (2015 est.)
$148.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate-13.1% (2016 est.)
-0.2% (2015 est.)
2.9% (2014 est.)
6.5% (2016 est.)
10.2% (2015 est.)
10.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$1,700 (2016 est.)
$2,000 (2015 est.)
$2,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1,900 (2016 est.)
$1,800 (2015 est.)
$1,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
Population below poverty line50.6% (2009 est.)
29.6% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)800% (2016 est.)
52.8% (2015 est.)
7.7% (2016 est.)
10.1% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index46 (2010 est.)
33 (2011)
30 (2000)
Budgetrevenues: $437 million
expenditures: $2.259 billion (FY 2013 est.)
revenues: $10.07 billion
expenditures: $11.85 billion (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productssorghum, maize, rice, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, mangoes, papayas, bananas, sweet potatoes, sunflower seeds, cotton, sesame seeds, cassava (manioc, tapioca), beans, peanuts; cattle, sheep
cereals, coffee, oilseed, cotton, sugarcane, vegetables, khat, cut flowers; hides, cattle, sheep, goats; fish
Exchange ratesSouth Sudanese pounds (SSP) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)
birr (ETB) per US dollar -
23.25 (2016 est.)
21.55 (2015 est.)
21.55 (2014 est.)
19.8 (2013 est.)
17.71 (2012 est.)
Current Account Balance$181 million (2016 est.)
-$902 million (2015 est.)
-$7.206 billion (2016 est.)
-$7.483 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$2.628 billion (2016 est.)
$69.22 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$1.873 billion (31 December 2013)
$2.032 billion (31 December 2012)
$14.43 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$11.97 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$2.194 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$2.23 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$28 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$24.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues15% of GDP (2013 est.)
14.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-69.3% of GDP (FY2013 est.)
-2.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 18.5%
male: 20%
female: 17% (2008 est.)
total: 7.3%
male: 5%
female: 9.6% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 34.9%
government consumption: 17.1%
investment in fixed capital: 10.4%
exports of goods and services: 64.9%
imports of goods and services: -27.2% (2011 est.)
household consumption: 65.9%
government consumption: 10.2%
investment in fixed capital: 37.6%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 8.7%
imports of goods and services: -22.3% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving13.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
4.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
13.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
29% of GDP (2016 est.)
31.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
30.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

South SudanEthiopia
Electricity - production881.3 million kWh (2012 est.)
9.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption694.1 million kWh (2012 est.)
6.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013 est.)
1.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production220,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports98,680 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves3.75 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
430,000 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves63.71 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
24.92 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity255,200 kW (2012 est.)
2.4 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels30.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
8.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants66.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
88.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
3.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption11,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
61,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports10,280 bbl/day (2013 est.)
58,740 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy2.016 million Mt (2011 est.)
9.3 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 11,200,000
electrification - total population: 1%
electrification - urban areas: 4%
electrification - rural areas: 0% (2013)
population without electricity: 71,200,000
electrification - total population: 24%
electrification - urban areas: 85%
electrification - rural areas: 10% (2013)

Telecommunications

South SudanEthiopia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 150
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2015)
total subscriptions: 890,642
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 2.899 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 24 (July 2015 est.)
total: 42.312 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 43 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systeminternational: country code - 211
general assessment: Ethio Telecom maintains a monopoly over telecommunication services; open-wire, microwave radio relay; radio communication in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; 2 domestic satellites provide the national trunk service
domestic: the number of mobile telephones is increasing steadily from a small base and now stands at over 40 per 100 persons
international: country code - 251; open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.ss
.et
Broadcast mediaTV is controlled by the government; several private FM stations are operational in South Sudan; some foreign radio broadcasts are available
6 public TV stations broadcasting nationally and 10 public radio broadcasters; 7 private radio stations and 19 community radio stations (2017)

Transportation

South SudanEthiopia
Railwaystotal: 248 km
note: a narrow gauge, single-track railroad between Babonosa (Sudan) and Wau, the only existing rail system, was repaired in 2010 with $250 million in UN funds (2014)
total: 659 km (Ethiopian segment of the 756 km Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)
standard gauge: 659 km 1.435-m gauge
note: electric railway with redundant power supplies; under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia and managed by a Chinese contractor (2017)
Roadwaystotal: 7,000 km
note: most of the road network is unpaved and much of it is in disrepair; a 192-km paved road between the capital, Juba, and Nimule on the Ugandan border was constructed with USAID funds in 2012 (2012)
total: 110,414 km
paved: 14,354 km
unpaved: 96,060 km (2015)
Airports85 (2013)
57 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)
total: 17
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 82
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 35
under 914 m: 34 (2013)
total: 40
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 8 (2013)

Military

South SudanEthiopia
Military branchesSouth Sudan Defense Force (SSDF): ground force, navy, air force and air defense units (2017)
Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF): Ground Forces, Ethiopian Air Force (Ye Ityopya Ayer Hayl, ETAF) (2013)
Military service age and obligation18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory and voluntary military service; the Government of South Sudan signed agreements in March 2012 and August 2015 that included the demobilization of all child soldiers within the armed forces and opposition, but the recruitment of child soldiers by the warring parties continues; as of the end of 2016, UNICEF estimates that more than 17,000 child soldiers had been used in the country's civil war since it began in December 2013 (2016)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service, but the military can conduct callups when necessary and compliance is compulsory (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP10.93% of GDP (2015)
9.77% of GDP (2014)
7.41% of GDP (2013)
9.53% of GDP (2012)
5.91% of GDP (2011)
0.71% of GDP (2015)
0.73% of GDP (2014)
0.81% of GDP (2013)
0.87% of GDP (2012)
1.09% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

South SudanEthiopia
Disputes - international"South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan; periodic violent skirmishes with South Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; the boundary that separates Kenya and South Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the ""Ilemi Triangle,"" which Kenya has administered since colonial times
"
"Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; ""Somaliland"" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera and trade ties to landlocked Ethiopia; civil unrest in eastern Sudan has hampered efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia
"
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 247,111 (Sudan); 14,548 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2017)
IDPs: 1.89 million (alleged coup attempt and ethnic conflict beginning in December 2013; information is lacking on those displaced in earlier years by: fighting in Abyei between the Sudanese Armed Forces and the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) in May 2011; clashes between the SPLA and dissident militia groups in South Sudan; inter-ethnic conflicts over resources and cattle; attacks from the Lord's Resistance Army; floods and drought) (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 375,685 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 249,903 (Somalia) (refugees); 161,398 (Eritrea) (refugees and asylum seekers); 41,588 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2017)
IDPs: 258,000 (border war with Eritrea from 1998-2000; ethnic clashes; and ongoing fighting between the Ethiopian military and separatist rebel groups in the Sumale and Oromiya regions; natural disasters; intercommunal violence; most IDPs live in Sumale state) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook