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South Africa vs. Zimbabwe

Introduction

South AfricaZimbabwe
Background"Dutch traders landed at the southern tip of modern day South Africa in 1652 and established a stopover point on the spice route between the Netherlands and the Far East, founding the city of Cape Town. After the British seized the Cape of Good Hope area in 1806, many of the Dutch settlers (Afrikaners, called ""Boers"" (farmers) by the British) trekked north to found their own republics, Transvaal and Orange Free State. The discovery of diamonds (1867) and gold (1886) spurred wealth and immigration and intensified the subjugation of the native inhabitants. The Afrikaners resisted British encroachments but were defeated in the Second South African War (1899-1902); however, the British and the Afrikaners, ruled together beginning in 1910 under the Union of South Africa, which became a republic in 1961 after a whites-only referendum. In 1948, the Afrikaner-dominated National Party was voted into power and instituted a policy of apartheid - the separate development of the races - which favored the white minority at the expense of the black majority. The African National Congress (ANC) led the opposition to apartheid and many top ANC leaders, such as Nelson MANDELA, spent decades in South Africa's prisons. Internal protests and insurgency, as well as boycotts by some Western nations and institutions, led to the regime's eventual willingness to negotiate a peaceful transition to majority rule. The first multi-racial elections in 1994 following the end of apartheid ushered in majority rule under an ANC-led government. South Africa has since struggled to address apartheid-era imbalances in decent housing, education, and health care. ANC infighting came to a head in 2008 when President Thabo MBEKI was recalled by Parliament, and Deputy President Kgalema MOTLANTHE, succeeded him as interim president. Jacob ZUMA became president after the ANC won general elections in 2009; he was reelected in 2014.
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"The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the former British South Africa Company in 1923. A 1961 constitution was formulated that favored whites in power. In 1965 the government unilaterally declared its independence, but the UK did not recognize the act and demanded more complete voting rights for the black African majority in the country (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions and a guerrilla uprising finally led to free elections in 1979 and independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980. Robert MUGABE, the nation's first prime minister, has been the country's only ruler (as president since 1987) and has dominated the country's political system since independence. His chaotic land redistribution campaign, which began in 1997 and intensified after 2000, caused an exodus of white farmers, crippled the economy, and ushered in widespread shortages of basic commodities. Ignoring international condemnation, MUGABE rigged the 2002 presidential election to ensure his reelection.
In 2005, the capital city of Harare embarked on Operation Restore Order, ostensibly an urban rationalization program, which resulted in the destruction of the homes or businesses of 700,000 mostly poor supporters of the opposition. MUGABE in 2007 instituted price controls on all basic commodities causing panic buying and leaving store shelves empty for months. General elections held in March 2008 contained irregularities but still amounted to a censure of the ZANU-PF-led government with the opposition winning a majority of seats in parliament. Movement for Democratic Change - Tsvangirai opposition leader Morgan TSVANGIRAI won the most votes in the presidential poll, but not enough to win outright. In the lead up to a run-off election in June 2008, considerable violence against opposition party members led to the withdrawal of TSVANGIRAI from the ballot. Extensive evidence of violence and intimidation resulted in international condemnation of the process. Difficult negotiations over a power-sharing ""government of national unity,"" in which MUGABE remained president and TSVANGIRAI became prime minister, were finally settled in February 2009, although the leaders failed to agree upon many key outstanding governmental issues. MUGABE was reelected president in 2013 in balloting that was severely flawed and internationally condemned. As a prerequisite to holding the election, Zimbabwe enacted a new constitution by referendum, although many provisions in the new constitution have yet to be codified in law.
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Geography

South AfricaZimbabwe
LocationSouthern Africa, at the southern tip of the continent of Africa
Southern Africa, between South Africa and Zambia
Geographic coordinates29 00 S, 24 00 E
20 00 S, 30 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 1,219,090 sq km
land: 1,214,470 sq km
water: 4,620 sq km
note: includes Prince Edward Islands (Marion Island and Prince Edward Island)
total: 390,757 sq km
land: 386,847 sq km
water: 3,910 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly less than twice the size of Texas
about four times the size of Indiana; slightly larger than Montana
Land boundariestotal: 5,244 km
border countries (6): Botswana 1,969 km, Lesotho 1,106 km, Mozambique 496 km, Namibia 1,005 km, Swaziland 438 km, Zimbabwe 230 km
total: 3,229 km
border countries (4): Botswana 834 km, Mozambique 1,402 km, South Africa 230 km, Zambia 763 km
Coastline2,798 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
none (landlocked)
Climatemostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights
tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)
Terrainvast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal plain
mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains in east
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,034 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Njesuthi 3,408 m
mean elevation: 961 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of the Runde and Save Rivers 162 m
highest point: Inyangani 2,592 m
Natural resourcesgold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum, copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas
coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals
Land useagricultural land: 79.4%
arable land 9.9%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 69.2%
forest: 7.6%
other: 13% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 42.5%
arable land 10.9%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 31.3%
forest: 39.5%
other: 18% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land16,700 sq km (2012)
1,740 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsprolonged droughts
volcanism: the volcano forming Marion Island in the Prince Edward Islands, which last erupted in 2004, is South Africa's only active volcano
recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare
Environment - current issueslack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires extensive water conservation and control measures; growth in water usage outpacing supply; pollution of rivers from agricultural runoff and urban discharge; air pollution resulting in acid rain; soil erosion; desertification
deforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution; the black rhinoceros herd - once the largest concentration of the species in the world - has been significantly reduced by poaching; poor mining practices have led to toxic waste and heavy metal pollution
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - noteSouth Africa completely surrounds Lesotho and almost completely surrounds Swaziland
landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zambia; in full flood (February-April) the massive Victoria Falls on the river forms the world's largest curtain of falling water; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)

Demographics

South AfricaZimbabwe
Population54,300,704
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
14,546,961
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 28.34% (male 7,718,511/female 7,667,830)
15-24 years: 18.07% (male 4,865,807/female 4,943,707)
25-54 years: 41.44% (male 11,372,944/female 11,130,874)
55-64 years: 6.59% (male 1,662,874/female 1,915,908)
65 years and over: 5.57% (male 1,269,551/female 1,752,698) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 37.8% (male 2,778,806/female 2,720,033)
15-24 years: 21.29% (male 1,560,833/female 1,536,110)
25-54 years: 33.86% (male 2,578,142/female 2,346,993)
55-64 years: 3.55% (male 188,851/female 327,483)
65 years and over: 3.5% (male 194,933/female 314,777) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 26.8 years
male: 26.5 years
female: 27 years (2016 est.)
total: 20.6 years
male: 20.5 years
female: 20.8 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.99% (2016 est.)
2.2% (2016 est.)
Birth rate20.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
31.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.58 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 32 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 35.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 28.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 25.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 28.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 23.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 63.1 years
male: 61.6 years
female: 64.6 years (2016 est.)
total population: 58 years
male: 57.3 years
female: 58.7 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.31 children born/woman (2016 est.)
3.5 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate19.2% (2015 est.)
14.69% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: South African(s)
adjective: South African
noun: Zimbabwean(s)
adjective: Zimbabwean
Ethnic groupsblack African 80.2%, white 8.4%, colored 8.8%, Indian/Asian 2.5%
note: colored is a term used in South Africa, including on the national census, for persons of mixed race ancestry (2014 est.)
African 99.4% (predominantly Shona; Ndebele is the second largest ethnic group), other 0.4%, unspecified 0.2% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS6,984,600 (2015 est.)
1,425,800 (2015 est.)
ReligionsProtestant 36.6% (Zionist Christian 11.1%, Pentecostal/Charismatic 8.2%, Methodist 6.8%, Dutch Reformed 6.7%, Anglican 3.8%), Catholic 7.1%, Muslim 1.5%, other Christian 36%, other 2.3%, unspecified 1.4%, none 15.1% (2001 est.)
Protestant 82.7% (includes Apostolic 41.8%, Pentecostal 25.2%, other 15.7%), Roman Catholic 6.7%, other Christian 4.6%, traditional religion 0.6%, Muslim 0.4%, other 0.1%, none 4.9% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths182,400 (2015 est.)
29,400 (2015 est.)
LanguagesIsiZulu (official) 22.7%, IsiXhosa (official) 16%, Afrikaans (official) 13.5%, English (official) 9.6%, Sepedi (official) 9.1%, Setswana (official) 8%, Sesotho (official) 7.6%, Xitsonga (official) 4.5%, siSwati (official) 2.5%, Tshivenda (official) 2.4%, isiNdebele (official) 2.1%, sign language 0.5%, other 1.6% (2011 est.)
Shona (official; most widely spoken), Ndebele (official, second most widely spoken), English (official; traditionally used for official business), 13 minority languages (official; includes Chewa, Chibarwe, Kalanga, Koisan, Nambya, Ndau, Shangani, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda, and Xhosa)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.3%
male: 95.5%
female: 93.1% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 86.5%
male: 88.5%
female: 84.6% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2016)
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 13 years
male: 12 years
female: 13 years (2012)
total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 10 years (2013)
Education expenditures6.1% of GDP (2014)
8.4% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 64.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.59% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 32.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 99.6% of population
rural: 81.4% of population
total: 93.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.4% of population
rural: 18.6% of population
total: 6.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 97% of population
rural: 67.3% of population
total: 76.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3% of population
rural: 32.7% of population
total: 23.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 69.6% of population
rural: 60.5% of population
total: 66.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 30.4% of population
rural: 39.5% of population
total: 33.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 49.3% of population
rural: 30.8% of population
total: 36.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 50.7% of population
rural: 69.2% of population
total: 63.2% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationJohannesburg (includes Ekurhuleni) 9.399 million; Cape Town (legislative capital) 3.66 million; Durban 2.901 million; PRETORIA (capital) 2.059 million; Port Elizabeth 1.179 million; Vereeniging 1.155 million (2015)
HARARE (capital) 1.501 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate138 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
443 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight8.7% (2008)
11.2% (2014)
Health expenditures8.8% of GDP (2014)
6.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.77 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
0.07 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate25.6% (2014)
8.4% (2014)
Demographic profileSouth Africa’s youthful population is gradually aging, as the country’s total fertility rate (TFR) has declined dramatically from about 6 children per woman in the 1960s to roughly 2.2 in 2014. This pattern is similar to fertility trends in South Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa, and sets South Africa apart from the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, where the average TFR remains higher than other regions of the world. Today, South Africa’s decreasing number of reproductive age women is having fewer children, as women increase their educational attainment, workforce participation, and use of family planning methods; delay marriage; and opt for smaller families.
As the proportion of working-age South Africans has grown relative to children and the elderly, South Africa has been unable to achieve a demographic dividend because persistent high unemployment and the prevalence of HIV/AIDs have created a larger-than-normal dependent population. HIV/AIDS was also responsible for South Africa’s average life expectancy plunging to less than 43 years in 2008; it had only rebounded to approximately 50 years as of 2014. HIV/AIDS continues to be a serious public health threat, although awareness-raising campaigns and the wider availability of anti-retroviral drugs is stabilizing the number of new cases, enabling infected individuals to live longer, healthier lives, and reducing mother-child transmissions.
Migration to South Africa began in the second half of the 17th century when traders from the Dutch East India Company settled in the Cape and started using slaves from South and southeast Asia (mainly from India but also from present-day Indonesia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia) and southeast Africa (Madagascar and Mozambique) as farm laborers and, to a lesser extent, as domestic servants. The Indian subcontinent remained the Cape Colony’s main source of slaves in the early 18th century, while slaves were increasingly obtained from southeast Africa in the latter part of the 18th century and into the 19th century under British rule.
After slavery was completely abolished in the British Empire in 1838, South Africa’s colonists turned to temporary African migrants and indentured labor through agreements with India and later China, countries that were anxious to export workers to alleviate domestic poverty and overpopulation. Of the more than 150,000 indentured Indian laborers hired to work in Natal’s sugar plantations between 1860 and 1911, most exercised the right as British subjects to remain permanently (a small number of Indian immigrants came freely as merchants). Because of growing resentment toward Indian workers, the 63,000 indentured Chinese workers who mined gold in Transvaal between 1904 and 1911 were under more restrictive contracts and generally were forced to return to their homeland.
In the late 19th century and nearly the entire 20th century, South Africa’s then British colonies’ and Dutch states’ enforced selective immigration policies that welcomed “assimilable” white Europeans as permanent residents but excluded or restricted other immigrants. Following the Union of South Africa’s passage of a law in 1913 prohibiting Asian and other non-white immigrants and its elimination of the indenture system in 1917, temporary African contract laborers from neighboring countries became the dominant source of labor in the burgeoning mining industries. Others worked in agriculture and smaller numbers in manufacturing, domestic service, transportation, and construction. Throughout the 20th century, at least 40% of South Africa’s miners were foreigners; the numbers peaked at over 80% in the late 1960s. Mozambique, Lesotho, Botswana, and Swaziland were the primary sources of miners, and Malawi and Zimbabwe were periodic suppliers.
Under apartheid, a “two gates” migration policy focused on policing and deporting illegal migrants rather than on managing migration to meet South Africa’s development needs. The exclusionary 1991 Aliens Control Act limited labor recruitment to the highly skilled as defined by the ruling white minority, while bilateral labor agreements provided exemptions that enabled the influential mining industry and, to a lesser extent, commercial farms, to hire temporary, low-paid workers from neighboring states. Illegal African migrants were often tacitly allowed to work for low pay in other sectors but were always under threat of deportation.
The abolishment of apartheid in 1994 led to the development of a new inclusive national identity and the strengthening of the country’s restrictive immigration policy. Despite South Africa’s protectionist approach to immigration, the downsizing and closing of mines, and rising unemployment, migrants from across the continent believed that the country held work opportunities. Fewer African labor migrants were issued temporary work permits and, instead, increasingly entered South Africa with visitors’ permits or came illegally, which drove growth in cross-border trade and the informal job market. A new wave of Asian immigrants has also arrived over the last two decades, many operating small retail businesses.
In the post-apartheid period, increasing numbers of highly skilled white workers emigrated, citing dissatisfaction with the political situation, crime, poor services, and a reduced quality of life. The 2002 Immigration Act and later amendments were intended to facilitate the temporary migration of skilled foreign labor to fill labor shortages, but instead the legislation continues to create regulatory obstacles. Although the education system has improved and brain drain has slowed in the wake of the 2008 global financial crisis, South Africa continues to face skills shortages in several key sectors, such as health care and technology.
South Africa’s stability and economic growth has acted as a magnet for refugees and asylum seekers from nearby countries, despite the prevalence of discrimination and xenophobic violence. Refugees have included an estimated 350,000 Mozambicans during its 1980s civil war and, more recently, several thousand Somalis, Congolese, and Ethiopians. Nearly all of the tens of thousands of Zimbabweans who have applied for asylum in South Africa have been categorized as economic migrants and denied refuge.
Zimbabwe’s progress in reproductive, maternal, and child health has stagnated in recent years. According to a 2010 Demographic and Health Survey, contraceptive use, the number of births attended by skilled practitioners, and child mortality have either stalled or somewhat deteriorated since the mid-2000s. Zimbabwe’s total fertility rate has remained fairly stable at about 4 children per woman for the last two decades, although an uptick in the urban birth rate in recent years has caused a slight rise in the country’s overall fertility rate. Zimbabwe’s HIV prevalence rate dropped from approximately 29% to 15% since 1997 but remains among the world’s highest and continues to suppress the country’s life expectancy rate. The proliferation of HIV/AIDS information and prevention programs and personal experience with those suffering or dying from the disease have helped to change sexual behavior and reduce the epidemic.
Historically, the vast majority of Zimbabwe’s migration has been internal – a rural-urban flow. In terms of international migration, over the last 40 years Zimbabwe has gradually shifted from being a destination country to one of emigration and, to a lesser degree, one of transit (for East African illegal migrants traveling to South Africa). As a British colony, Zimbabwe attracted significant numbers of permanent immigrants from the UK and other European countries, as well as temporary economic migrants from Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia. Although Zimbabweans have migrated to South Africa since the beginning of the 20th century to work as miners, the first major exodus from the country occurred in the years before and after independence in 1980. The outward migration was politically and racially influenced; a large share of the white population of European origin chose to leave rather than live under a new black-majority government.
In the 1990s and 2000s, economic mismanagement and hyperinflation sparked a second, more diverse wave of emigration. This massive out migration – primarily to other southern African countries, the UK, and the US – has created a variety of challenges, including brain drain, illegal migration, and human smuggling and trafficking. Several factors have pushed highly skilled workers to go abroad, including unemployment, lower wages, a lack of resources, and few opportunities for career growth.
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 52.1
youth dependency ratio: 44.5
elderly dependency ratio: 7.7
potential support ratio: 13.1 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 80.4
youth dependency ratio: 75
elderly dependency ratio: 5.3
potential support ratio: 18.7 (2015 est.)

Government

South AfricaZimbabwe
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of South Africa
conventional short form: South Africa
former: Union of South Africa
abbreviation: RSA
etymology: self-descriptive name from the country's location on the continent; ""Africa"" is derived from the Roman designation of the area corresponding to present-day Tunisia ""Africa terra,"" which meant ""Land of the Afri"" (the tribe resident in that area), but which eventually came to mean the entire continent
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conventional long form: Republic of Zimbabwe
conventional short form: Zimbabwe
former: Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia
etymology: takes its name from the Kingdom of Zimbabwe (13th-15th century) and its capital of Great Zimbabwe, the largest stone structure in pre-colonial southern Africa
Government typeparliamentary republic
semi-presidential republic
Capitalname: Pretoria (administrative capital); Cape Town (legislative capital); Bloemfontein (judicial capital)
geographic coordinates: 25 42 S, 28 13 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Harare
geographic coordinates: 17 49 S, 31 02 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions9 provinces; Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Northern Cape, North West, Western Cape
8 provinces and 2 cities* with provincial status; Bulawayo*, Harare*, Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands
Independence31 May 1910 (Union of South Africa formed from four British colonies: Cape Colony, Natal, Transvaal, and Orange Free State); 31 May 1961 (republic declared); 27 April 1994 (majority rule)
18 April 1980 (from the UK)
National holidayFreedom Day, 27 April (1994)
Independence Day, 18 April (1980)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest drafted 8 May 1996, approved 4 December 1996, effective 4 February 1997; amended many times, last in 2013 (2016)
previous 1965 (at Rhodesian independence), 1979 (Lancaster House Agreement), 1980 (at Zimbabwean independence); latest final draft completed January 2013, approved by referendum 16 March 2013, approved by Parliament 9 May 2013; amended many times in 2013; note - significant amendments proposed in early 2015 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of Roman-Dutch civil law, English common law, and customary law
mixed legal system of English common law, Roman-Dutch civil law, and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Jacob ZUMA (since 9 May 2009); Deputy President Matamela Cyril RAMAPHOSA (since 26 May 2014) note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jacob ZUMA (since 9 May 2009); Deputy President Matamela Cyril RAMAPHOSA (since 26 May 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2019)
election results: Jacob ZUMA (ANC) reelected president by the National Assembly unopposed
chief of state: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Vice Presidents Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA and Phelekezela MPHOKO (both since 12 December 2014)
head of government: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); note - following the 31 July 2013 presidential election, the position of prime minister was abolished
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president, responsible to House of Assembly
elections/appointments: each presidential candidate nominated with a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least 1 candidate from each province) and directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 31 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018); co-vice presidents drawn from party leadership
election results: Robert Gabriel MUGABE reelected president; percent of vote - Robert Gabriel MUGABE (ZANU-PF) 61.1%, Morgan TSVANGIRAI (MDC-T) 34.4%, Welshman NCUBE (MDC-N) 2.7%, other 1.8%; note - the election process was considered flawed and roundly criticized by election monitors and international bodies; both the African Union and the South African Development Community endorsed the results of the election with some concerns
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament consists of the National Council of Provinces (90 seats; 10-member delegations appointed by each of the 9 provincial legislatures to serve 5-year terms; note - this council has special powers to protect regional interests, including safeguarding cultural and linguistic traditions among ethnic minorities) and the National Assembly (400 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: National Assembly and National Council of Provinces - last held on 7 May 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: National Council of Provinces - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ANC 60, DA 20, EFF 7, IFP 1, NFP 1, UDM 1; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - ANC 62.2%, DA 22.2%, EFF 6.4%, IFP 2.4%, NFP 1.6%, UDM 1.0%, other 4.2%; seats by party - ANC 249, DA 89, EFF 25, IFP 10, NFP 6, UDM 4, other 17
description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (80 seats; 60 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies - 6 seats in each of the 10 provinces - by proportional representation vote, 16 indirectly elected by the regional governing councils, 2 reserved for the National Council Chiefs, and 2 reserved for members with disabilities; members serve 5-year terms) and the House of Assembly (270 seats; 210 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 60 seats reserved for women directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 31 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ZANU-PF 37, MDC-T 21, MDC-N 2, chiefs 18, people with disabilities 2; House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ZANU-PF 196, MDC-T 70, MDC-N 2, independent 2
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Appeals (consists of the court president, deputy president, and 21 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the chief and deputy chief justices and 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Appeals president and vice-president appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Services Commission (JSC), a 23-member body chaired by the chief justice and includes other judges and judicial executives, members of parliament, practicing lawyers and advocates, a teacher of law, and several members designated by the national president; other Supreme Court judges appointed by the national president on the advice of the JSC and hold office until discharged from active service by terms of an Act of Parliament; Constitutional Court chief and deputy chief justices appointed by the national president after consultation with the JSC and with heads of the National Assembly; other Constitutional Court judges appointed by the national president after consultation with the chief justice and leaders of the National Assembly; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 12-year non-renewable terms or until age 70
subordinate courts: High Courts; Magistrates' Courts; labor courts; land claims courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 4 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the chief and deputy chief justices and 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission, an independent body consisting of the chief justice, Public Service Commission chairman, attorney general, and 2-3 members appointed by the president; judges normally serve until age 65 but can elect to serve until age 70; Constitutional Court judge appointment NA; judges serve non-renewable 15-year terms
subordinate courts: High Court; Labor Court; Administrative Court; regional magistrate courts; customary law courts; special courts
Political parties and leadersAfrican Christian Democratic Party or ACDP [Kenneth MESHOE]
African Independent Congress or AIC [Mandla GALD]
African National Congress or ANC [Jacob ZUMA]
African People's Convention or APC [Themba GODI]
Agang SA [Mike Tshishonga]
Congress of the People or COPE [Mosiuoa LEKOTA]
Democratic Alliance or DA [Mmusi MAIMANE]
Economic Freedom Fighters or EFF [Julius MALEMA]
Freedom Front Plus or FF+ [Pieter GROENEWALD]
Inkatha Freedom Party or IFP [Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI]
National Freedom Party or NFP [Zanele kaMAGWAZA-MSIBI]
Pan-Africanist Congress of Azania or PAC [Luthanado MBINDA]
United Christian Democratic Party or UCDP [Isaac Sipho MFUNDISI]
United Democratic Movement or UDM [Bantu HOLOMISA]
Freedom Party [Cosmas MPONDA]
Movement for Democratic Change or MDC [Welshman NCUBE]
Movement for Democratic Change - Tsvangirai or MDC-T [Morgan TSVANGIRAI]
National People's Party [Joyce MUJURU]
Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Tendai BITI]
Transform Zimbabwe or TZ [Jacob NGARIVHUME]
Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Robert Gabriel MUGABE]
Zimbabwe African Peoples Union or ZAPU [Dumiso DABENGWA]
Zimbabwe People First of ZimPF [Didymus MUTASA]
Political pressure groups and leadersCongress of South African Trade Unions or COSATU [Sdumo DLAMINI, president]
South African Communist Party or SACP [Blade NZIMANDE, general secretary]
South African National Civic Organization or SANCO [Richard MDAKANE, national president]
note: COSATU and SACP are in a formal alliance with the African National Congress
Crisis in Zimbabwe Coalition
National Constitutional Assembly or NCA [Lovemore MADHUKU]
Women of Zimbabwe Arise or WOZA [Jenni WILLIAMS]
Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions or ZCTU [George NKIWANE]
Zimbabwe Human Rights Association or ZimRights [Okay MACHISA]
Zimbabwe Human Rights NGO Forum [Lloyd KUVEY]
Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights or ZLHR [Roselyn HANZI]
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, BIS, BRICS, C, CD, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, NSG, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Mninwa Johannes MAHLANGU (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 232-4400 [1] (202) 232-4400
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1607
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Ammon MUTEMBWA (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 332-7100
FAX: [1] (202) 483-9326
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jessica LAPENN (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: 877 Pretorius Street, Arcadia, Pretoria
mailing address: P.O. Box 9536, Pretoria 0001
telephone: [27] (12) 431-4000
FAX: [27] (12) 342-2299
consulate(s) general: Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg
chief of mission: Ambassador Harry K. THOMAS, Jr. (since 25 February 2016)
embassy: 172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare
mailing address: P.O. Box 3340, Harare
telephone: [263] (4) 250-593 through 250-594
FAX: [263] (4) 796-488, or 722-618
Flag description"two equal width horizontal bands of red (top) and blue separated by a central green band that splits into a horizontal Y, the arms of which end at the corners of the hoist side; the Y embraces a black isosceles triangle from which the arms are separated by narrow yellow bands; the red and blue bands are separated from the green band and its arms by narrow white stripes; the flag colors do not have any official symbolism, but the Y stands for the ""convergence of diverse elements within South African society, taking the road ahead in unity""; black, yellow, and green are found on the flag of the African National Congress, while red, white, and blue are the colors in the flags of the Netherlands and the UK, whose settlers ruled South Africa during the colonial era
note: the South African flag is one of only two national flags to display six colors as part of its primary design, the other is South Sudan's
"
seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green with a white isosceles triangle edged in black with its base on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird representing the long history of the country is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle, which symbolizes peace; green represents agriculture, yellow mineral wealth, red the blood shed to achieve independence, and black stands for the native people
National anthem"name: ""National Anthem of South Africa""
lyrics/music: Enoch SONTONGA and Cornelius Jacob LANGENHOVEN/Enoch SONTONGA and Marthinus LOURENS de Villiers
note: adopted 1994; a combination of ""N'kosi Sikelel' iAfrica"" (God Bless Africa) and ""Die Stem van Suid Afrika"" (The Call of South Africa), which were respectively the anthems of the non-white and white communities under apartheid; official lyrics contain a mixture of Xhosa, Zulu, Sesotho, Afrikaans, and English (i.e., the five most widely spoken of South Africa's 11 official languages); music incorporates the melody used in the Tanzanian and Zambian anthems
"
"name: ""Kalibusiswe Ilizwe leZimbabwe"" [Northern Ndebele language] ""Simudzai Mureza WeZimbabwe"" [Shona] (Blessed Be the Land of Zimbabwe)
lyrics/music: Solomon MUTSWAIRO/Fred Lecture CHANGUNDEGA
note: adopted 1994
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)springbok (antelope), king protea flower; national colors: red, green, blue, yellow, black, white
Zimbabwe bird symbol, African fish eagle, flame lily; national colors: green, yellow, red, black, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of South Africa
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission of the government
residency requirement for naturalization: 1 year
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Zimbabwe; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

South AfricaZimbabwe
Economy - overviewSouth Africa is a middle-income emerging market with an abundant supply of natural resources; well-developed financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors; and a stock exchange that is Africa’s largest and among the top 20 in the world.

Economic growth has decelerated in recent years, slowing to an estimated 0.3% in 2016. Unemployment, poverty, and inequality - among the highest in the world - remain a challenge. Official unemployment is roughly 26% of the workforce, and runs significantly higher among black youth. Even though the country's modern infrastructure supports a relatively efficient distribution of goods to major urban centers throughout the region, unstable electricity supplies retard growth. Eskom, the state-run power company, is building three new power stations and is installing new power demand management programs to improve power grid reliability; in late 2016 they issued a request for bids to revamp South Africa’s nuclear power generating capabilities. Load shedding and resulting rolling blackouts gripped many parts of South Africa in late 2014 and early 2015 because of electricity supply constraints due to technical problems at some generation units, unavoidable planned maintenance, and an accident at a power station.

South Africa's economic policy has focused on controlling inflation; however, the country faces structural constraints that also limit economic growth, such as skills shortages, declining global competitiveness, and frequent work stoppages due to strike action. The government faces growing pressure from urban constituencies to improve the delivery of basic services to low-income areas, to increase job growth, and to provide university level-education at affordable prices. Political infighting among South Africa’s ruling party and the volatility of the Rand risks economic growth. International investors are concerned about the country’s long-term economic stability; as of December 2016, most major international credit ratings agencies placed South Africa only one level above junk bond status.
Zimbabwe's economy depends heavily on its mining and agriculture sectors. Following a decade of contraction from 1998 to 2008, the economy recorded real growth of more than 10% per year in the period 2010-13, before slowing to roughly 4% in 2014 due to poor harvests, low diamond revenues, and decreased investment. Growth turned negative in 2016. Lower mineral prices, infrastructure and regulatory deficiencies, a poor investment climate, a large public and external debt burden, and extremely high government wage expenses impede the country’s economic performance.

Until early 2009, the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe (RBZ) routinely printed money to fund the budget deficit, causing hyperinflation. Adoption of a multi-currency basket in early 2009 - which allowed currencies such as the Botswana pula, the South Africa rand, and the US dollar to be used locally - reduced inflation below 10% per year. In January 2015, as part of the government’s effort to boost trade and attract foreign investment, the RBZ announced that the Chinese renmimbi, Indian rupee, Australian dollar, and Japanese yen would be accepted as legal tender in Zimbabwe, though transactions were predominantly carried out in US dollars and South African rand until 2016, when the rand’s devaluation and instability led to near-exclusive use of the US dollar. The government in November 2016 began releasing bond notes, a parallel currency legal only in Zimbabwe which the government claims will have a one-to-one exchange ratio with the US dollar, to ease cash shortages. Bond notes began trading at a discount of up to 10% in the black market by the end of 2016.

Zimbabwe’s government entered a second Staff Monitored Program with the IMF in 2014 and undertook other measures to reengage with international financial institutions. Zimbabwe repaid roughly $108 million in arrears to the IMF in October 2016, but financial observers note that Zimbabwe is unlikely to gain new financing because the government has not disclosed how it plans to repay more than $1.7 billion in arrears to the World Bank and African Development Bank. International financial institutions want Zimbabwe to implement significant fiscal and structural reforms before granting new loans. Foreign and domestic investment continues to be hindered by the lack of land tenure and titling, the inability to repatriate dividends to investors overseas, and the lack of clarity regarding the government’s Indigenization and Economic Empowerment Act.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$739.1 billion (2016 est.)
$735.4 billion (2015 est.)
$726.3 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$28.33 billion (2016 est.)
$28.41 billion (2015 est.)
$28.11 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate0.5% (2016 est.)
1.3% (2015 est.)
1.6% (2014 est.)
-0.3% (2016 est.)
1.1% (2015 est.)
3.9% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$13,500 (2016 est.)
$13,400 (2015 est.)
$13,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1,700 (2016 est.)
$1,800 (2015 est.)
$1,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 2.2%
industry: 29.2%
services: 68.7% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 12.2%
industry: 28.4%
services: 59.4% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line16.6% (2016 est.)
72.3% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 51.3% (2011 est.)
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 40.4% (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)6.5% (2016 est.)
4.5% (2015 est.)
1.6% (2016 est.)
-2.4% (2015 est.)
Labor force21.7 million (2016 est.)
8.098 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 4.6%
industry: 23.5%
services: 71.9% (2014 est.)
agriculture: 66%
industry: 10%
services: 24% (1996)
Unemployment rate26.8% (2016 est.)
25.4% (2015 est.)
95% (2009 est.)
80% (2005 est.)
note: figures include unemployment and underemployment; true unemployment is unknown and, under current economic conditions, unknowable
Distribution of family income - Gini index62.5 (2013 est.)
63.4 (2011 est.)
50.1 (2006)
50.1 (1995)
Budgetrevenues: $76.62 billion
expenditures: $86.45 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $3.4 billion
expenditures: $3.9 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesmining (world's largest producer of platinum, gold, chromium), automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textiles, iron and steel, chemicals, fertilizer, foodstuffs, commercial ship repair
mining (coal, gold, platinum, copper, nickel, tin, diamonds, clay, numerous metallic and nonmetallic ores), steel; wood products, cement, chemicals, fertilizer, clothing and footwear, foodstuffs, beverages
Industrial production growth rate-1% (2016 est.)
-3% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscorn, wheat, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; beef, poultry, mutton, wool, dairy products
tobacco, corn, cotton, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; sheep, goats, pigs
Exports$83.16 billion (2016 est.)
$81.63 billion (2015 est.)
$3.257 billion (2016 est.)
$3.551 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesgold, diamonds, platinum, other metals and minerals, machinery and equipment
platinum, cotton, tobacco, gold, ferroalloys, textiles/clothing
Exports - partnersChina 9.2%, US 7.6%, Germany 6.6%, Namibia 5.1%, Botswana 5.1%, Japan 4.9%, UK 4.1% (2015)
China 26.6%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 13.4%, South Africa 12.4%, Botswana 12% (2015)
Imports$85.03 billion (2016 est.)
$84.33 billion (2015 est.)
$5.738 billion (2016 est.)
$6.016 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum products, scientific instruments, foodstuffs
machinery and transport equipment, other manufactures, chemicals, fuels, food products
Imports - partnersChina 18.4%, Germany 11.4%, US 7.1%, India 5% (2015)
South Africa 45.4%, China 12.4%, Zambia 6.1%, India 5.3% (2015)
Debt - external$129.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$131.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$10.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$10.56 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesrand (ZAR) per US dollar -
15.7 (2016 est.)
12.7581 (2015 est.)
12.7581 (2014 est.)
10.8469 (2013 est.)
8.2 (2012 est.)
Zimbabwean dollars (ZWD) per US dollar -
1 (2016 est.)
NA (2013)
234.25 (2010)

note: the dollar was adopted as a legal currency in 2009; since then the Zimbabwean dollar has experienced hyperinflation and is essentially worthless
Fiscal year1 April - 31 March
calendar year
Public debt43.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
44.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
45.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
44.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$44.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$45.91 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$326.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$339.1 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$9.624 billion (2016 est.)
-$13.95 billion (2015 est.)
-$234 million (2016 est.)
-$1.17 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$280.4 billion (2016 est.)
$14.19 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$128.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$124.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.413 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.084 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$168.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$162.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$252.1 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$234 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$735.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$933.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$942.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$4.073 billion (13 April 2015 est.)
$11.82 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$10.9 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Central bank discount rate5.75% (31 December 2014)
7% (31 December 2009)
7.17% (31 December 2010)
975% (31 December 2007)
Commercial bank prime lending rate10.6% (31 December 2016 est.)
9.42% (31 December 2015 est.)
20% (31 December 2016 est.)
18% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$209 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$196.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$5.055 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.013 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$99.49 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$91.72 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.13 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.112 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: Zimbabwe's central bank no longer publishes data on monetary aggregates, except for bank deposits, which amounted to $2.1 billion in November 2010; the Zimbabwe dollar stopped circulating in early 2009; since then, the US dollar and South African rand have been the most frequently used currencies; there are no reliable estimates of the amount of foreign currency circulating in Zimbabwe
Stock of broad money$172.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$192.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$101.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$47.64 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues27.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
24% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
-3.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 51.3%
male: 48%
female: 55.3% (2014 est.)
total: 8.7%
male: 7.7%
female: 9.8% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 58%
government consumption: 19.9%
investment in fixed capital: 20.1%
investment in inventories: 0.5%
exports of goods and services: 34.9%
imports of goods and services: -33.4% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 83.7%
government consumption: 25.4%
investment in fixed capital: 13.2%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 24.4%
imports of goods and services: -46.6% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving16.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
16.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
15.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
7.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
-2.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

South AfricaZimbabwe
Electricity - production235 billion kWh (2014 est.)
9.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption212 billion kWh (2014 est.)
8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports14 billion kWh (2014 est.)
1.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports11 billion kWh (2014 est.)
1.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production3,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports466,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves15 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves15.01 billion cu m (1 January 2012 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production950 million cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption4.75 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports3.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity46 million kW (2014 est.)
2.2 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels90.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
63.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants4.5% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
36.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels4.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.7% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production488,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption663,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
29,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports131,500 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports169,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
29,070 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy482 million Mt (2013 est.)
11 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 7,700,000
electrification - total population: 85%
electrification - urban areas: 90%
electrification - rural areas: 77% (2013)
population without electricity: 8,500,000
electrification - total population: 40%
electrification - urban areas: 80%
electrification - rural areas: 21% (2013)

Telecommunications

South AfricaZimbabwe
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 4,131,055
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 333,702
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 85.197 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 159 (July 2015 est.)
total: 12.757 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 90 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: the system is the best-developed and most modern in Africa
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 165 telephones per 100 persons; consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay links, fiber-optic cable, radiotelephone communication stations, and wireless local loops; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria
international: country code - 27; the SAT-3/WASC and SAFE fiber-optic submarine cable systems connect South Africa to Europe and Asia; the EASSy fiber-optic cable system connects with Europe and North America; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: competition has driven rapid expansion of telecommunications, particularly cellular voice and mobile broadband, in recent years; continued economic instability and infrastructure limitations, such as reliable power, hinder progress
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay links, open-wire lines, radiotelephone communication stations, fixed wireless local loop installations, fiber-optic cable, VSAT terminals, and a substantial mobile-cellular network; Internet connection is most readily available in Harare and major towns; 2 government owned and 2 private cellular providers; 3G and VoIP services are widely available with 4G/LTE service being deployed
international: country code - 263; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat; 5 international digital gateway exchanges; fiber-optic connections to neighboring states provide access to international networks via undersea cable (2017)
Internet country code.za
.zw
Internet userstotal: 27.868 million
percent of population: 51.9% (July 2015 est.)
total: 2.328 million
percent of population: 16.4% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediathe South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) operates 4 TV stations, 3 are free-to-air and 1 is pay TV; e.tv, a private station, is accessible to more than half the population; multiple subscription TV services provide a mix of local and international channels; well-developed mix of public and private radio stations at the national, regional, and local levels; the SABC radio network, state-owned and controlled but nominally independent, operates 18 stations, one for each of the 11 official languages, 4 community stations, and 3 commercial stations; more than 100 community-based stations extend coverage to rural areas (2007)
government owns all local radio and TV stations; foreign shortwave broadcasts and satellite TV are available to those who can afford antennas and receivers; in rural areas, access to TV broadcasts is extremely limited; analog TV only, no digital service (2017)

Transportation

South AfricaZimbabwe
Railwaystotal: 20,986 km
standard gauge: 80 km 1.435-m gauge (80 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 19,756 km 1.065-m gauge (8,271 km electrified)
other: 1,150 km (passenger rail, gauge unspecified, 1,115.5 km electrified) (2014)
total: 3,427 km
narrow gauge: 3,427 km 1.067-m gauge (313 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 747,014 km
paved: 158,952 km
unpaved: 588,062 km (2014)
total: 97,267 km
paved: 18,481 km
unpaved: 78,786 km (2002)
Pipelinescondensate 94 km; gas 1,293 km; oil 992 km; refined products 1,460 km (2013)
refined products 270 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth, Richards Bay, Saldanha Bay
container port(s) (TEUs): Durban (2,712,975)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Mossel Bay
river port(s): Binga, Kariba (Zambezi)
Airports566 (2013)
196 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 144
over 3,047 m: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 52
914 to 1,523 m: 65
under 914 m: 9 (2013)
total: 17
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 7 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 422
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 31
914 to 1,523 m: 258
under 914 m: 132 (2013)
total: 179
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 104
under 914 m: 72 (2013)

Military

South AfricaZimbabwe
Military branchesSouth African National Defense Force (SANDF): South African Army, South African Navy (SAN), South African Air Force (SAAF), South African Military Health Services (2013)
Zimbabwe Defense Forces (ZDF): Zimbabwe National Army (ZNA), Air Force of Zimbabwe (AFZ) (2012)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; women are eligible to serve in noncombat roles; 2-year service obligation (2012)
18-24 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; women are eligible to serve (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.1% of GDP (2015)
1.11% of GDP (2014)
1.12% of GDP (2013)
1.13% of GDP (2012)
1.14% of GDP (2011)
2.61% of GDP (2015)
2.59% of GDP (2014)
2.64% of GDP (2013)
2.57% of GDP (2012)
1.81% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

South AfricaZimbabwe
Disputes - internationalSouth Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration; the governments of South Africa and Namibia have not signed or ratified the text of the 1994 Surveyor's General agreement placing the boundary in the middle of the Orange River
Namibia has supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river; South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration
Illicit drugstransshipment center for heroin, hashish, and cocaine, as well as a major cultivator of marijuana in its own right; cocaine and heroin consumption on the rise; world's largest market for illicit methaqualone, usually imported illegally from India through various east African countries, but increasingly producing its own synthetic drugs for domestic consumption; attractive venue for money launderers given the increasing level of organized criminal and narcotics activity in the region and the size of the South African economy
transit point for cannabis and South Asian heroin, mandrax, and methamphetamines en route to South Africa
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 28,695 (Somalia); 26,156 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 17,776 (Ethiopia); 5,394 (Republic of the Congo) (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 5,925 (Democratic Republic of Congo) (2016)
IDPs: undetermined (political violence, violence in association with the 2008 election, human rights violations, land reform, and economic collapse) (2015)
stateless persons: 300,000 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook