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South Africa vs. Botswana

Introduction

South AfricaBotswana
Background"Dutch traders landed at the southern tip of modern day South Africa in 1652 and established a stopover point on the spice route between the Netherlands and the Far East, founding the city of Cape Town. After the British seized the Cape of Good Hope area in 1806, many of the Dutch settlers (Afrikaners, called ""Boers"" (farmers) by the British) trekked north to found their own republics, Transvaal and Orange Free State. The discovery of diamonds (1867) and gold (1886) spurred wealth and immigration and intensified the subjugation of the native inhabitants. The Afrikaners resisted British encroachments but were defeated in the Second South African War (1899-1902); however, the British and the Afrikaners, ruled together beginning in 1910 under the Union of South Africa, which became a republic in 1961 after a whites-only referendum. In 1948, the Afrikaner-dominated National Party was voted into power and instituted a policy of apartheid - the separate development of the races - which favored the white minority at the expense of the black majority. The African National Congress (ANC) led the opposition to apartheid and many top ANC leaders, such as Nelson MANDELA, spent decades in South Africa's prisons. Internal protests and insurgency, as well as boycotts by some Western nations and institutions, led to the regime's eventual willingness to negotiate a peaceful transition to majority rule. The first multi-racial elections in 1994 following the end of apartheid ushered in majority rule under an ANC-led government. South Africa has since struggled to address apartheid-era imbalances in decent housing, education, and health care. ANC infighting came to a head in 2008 when President Thabo MBEKI was recalled by Parliament, and Deputy President Kgalema MOTLANTHE, succeeded him as interim president. Jacob ZUMA became president after the ANC won general elections in 2009; he was reelected in 2014.
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Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name at independence in 1966. More than four decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most stable economies in Africa. The ruling Botswana Democratic Party has won every election since independence; President Ian KHAMA was reelected for a second term in 2014. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining, dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature preserves. Botswana has one of the world's highest known rates of HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.

Geography

South AfricaBotswana
LocationSouthern Africa, at the southern tip of the continent of Africa
Southern Africa, north of South Africa
Geographic coordinates29 00 S, 24 00 E
22 00 S, 24 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 1,219,090 sq km
land: 1,214,470 sq km
water: 4,620 sq km
note: includes Prince Edward Islands (Marion Island and Prince Edward Island)
total: 581,730 sq km
land: 566,730 sq km
water: 15,000 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly less than twice the size of Texas
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundariestotal: 5,244 km
border countries (6): Botswana 1,969 km, Lesotho 1,106 km, Mozambique 496 km, Namibia 1,005 km, Swaziland 438 km, Zimbabwe 230 km
total: 4,347.15 km
border countries (4): Namibia 1,544 km, South Africa 1,969 km, Zambia 0.15 km, Zimbabwe 834 km
Coastline2,798 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
none (landlocked)
Climatemostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights
semiarid; warm winters and hot summers
Terrainvast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal plain
predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,034 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Njesuthi 3,408 m
mean elevation: 1,013 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m
Natural resourcesgold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum, copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas
diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver
Land useagricultural land: 79.4%
arable land 9.9%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 69.2%
forest: 7.6%
other: 13% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 45.8%
arable land 0.6%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 45.2%
forest: 19.8%
other: 34.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land16,700 sq km (2012)
20 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsprolonged droughts
volcanism: the volcano forming Marion Island in the Prince Edward Islands, which last erupted in 2004, is South Africa's only active volcano
periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility
Environment - current issueslack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires extensive water conservation and control measures; growth in water usage outpacing supply; pollution of rivers from agricultural runoff and urban discharge; air pollution resulting in acid rain; soil erosion; desertification
overgrazing; desertification; limited freshwater resources
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - noteSouth Africa completely surrounds Lesotho and almost completely surrounds Swaziland
landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country

Demographics

South AfricaBotswana
Population54,300,704
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
2,209,208
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 28.34% (male 7,718,511/female 7,667,830)
15-24 years: 18.07% (male 4,865,807/female 4,943,707)
25-54 years: 41.44% (male 11,372,944/female 11,130,874)
55-64 years: 6.59% (male 1,662,874/female 1,915,908)
65 years and over: 5.57% (male 1,269,551/female 1,752,698) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 32.4% (male 364,807/female 350,888)
15-24 years: 21.32% (male 234,251/female 236,650)
25-54 years: 37.61% (male 444,290/female 386,622)
55-64 years: 4.55% (male 45,186/female 55,272)
65 years and over: 4.13% (male 36,216/female 55,026) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 26.8 years
male: 26.5 years
female: 27 years (2016 est.)
total: 23.2 years
male: 23.4 years
female: 23.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.99% (2016 est.)
1.19% (2016 est.)
Birth rate20.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
20.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
13.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
4.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 32 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 35.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 28.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 8.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 63.1 years
male: 61.6 years
female: 64.6 years (2016 est.)
total population: 54.5 years
male: 56.3 years
female: 52.6 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.31 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.3 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate19.2% (2015 est.)
22.21% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: South African(s)
adjective: South African
noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Ethnic groupsblack African 80.2%, white 8.4%, colored 8.8%, Indian/Asian 2.5%
note: colored is a term used in South Africa, including on the national census, for persons of mixed race ancestry (2014 est.)
Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and white 7%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS6,984,600 (2015 est.)
348,900 (2015 est.)
ReligionsProtestant 36.6% (Zionist Christian 11.1%, Pentecostal/Charismatic 8.2%, Methodist 6.8%, Dutch Reformed 6.7%, Anglican 3.8%), Catholic 7.1%, Muslim 1.5%, other Christian 36%, other 2.3%, unspecified 1.4%, none 15.1% (2001 est.)
Christian 79.1%, Badimo 4.1%, other 1.4% (includes Baha'i, Hindu, Muslim, Rastafarian), none 15.2%, unspecified 0.3% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths182,400 (2015 est.)
3,200 (2015 est.)
LanguagesIsiZulu (official) 22.7%, IsiXhosa (official) 16%, Afrikaans (official) 13.5%, English (official) 9.6%, Sepedi (official) 9.1%, Setswana (official) 8%, Sesotho (official) 7.6%, Xitsonga (official) 4.5%, siSwati (official) 2.5%, Tshivenda (official) 2.4%, isiNdebele (official) 2.1%, sign language 0.5%, other 1.6% (2011 est.)
Setswana 77.3%, Sekalanga 7.4%, Shekgalagadi 3.4%, English (official) 2.8%, Zezuru/Shona 2%, Sesarwa 1.7%, Sembukushu 1.6%, Ndebele 1%, other 2.8% (2011 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.3%
male: 95.5%
female: 93.1% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.5%
male: 88%
female: 88.9% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2016)
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 13 years
male: 12 years
female: 13 years (2012)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2013)
Education expenditures6.1% of GDP (2014)
9.6% of GDP (2009)
Urbanizationurban population: 64.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.59% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 57.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.29% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 99.6% of population
rural: 81.4% of population
total: 93.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.4% of population
rural: 18.6% of population
total: 6.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.2% of population
rural: 92.3% of population
total: 96.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.8% of population
rural: 7.7% of population
total: 3.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 69.6% of population
rural: 60.5% of population
total: 66.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 30.4% of population
rural: 39.5% of population
total: 33.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 78.5% of population
rural: 43.1% of population
total: 63.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 21.5% of population
rural: 56.9% of population
total: 36.6% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationJohannesburg (includes Ekurhuleni) 9.399 million; Cape Town (legislative capital) 3.66 million; Durban 2.901 million; PRETORIA (capital) 2.059 million; Port Elizabeth 1.179 million; Vereeniging 1.155 million (2015)
GABORONE (capital) 247,000 (2014)
Maternal mortality rate138 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
129 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight8.7% (2008)
11.2% (2008)
Health expenditures8.8% of GDP (2014)
5.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.77 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
0.38 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate25.6% (2014)
19.5% (2014)
Demographic profileSouth Africa’s youthful population is gradually aging, as the country’s total fertility rate (TFR) has declined dramatically from about 6 children per woman in the 1960s to roughly 2.2 in 2014. This pattern is similar to fertility trends in South Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa, and sets South Africa apart from the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, where the average TFR remains higher than other regions of the world. Today, South Africa’s decreasing number of reproductive age women is having fewer children, as women increase their educational attainment, workforce participation, and use of family planning methods; delay marriage; and opt for smaller families.
As the proportion of working-age South Africans has grown relative to children and the elderly, South Africa has been unable to achieve a demographic dividend because persistent high unemployment and the prevalence of HIV/AIDs have created a larger-than-normal dependent population. HIV/AIDS was also responsible for South Africa’s average life expectancy plunging to less than 43 years in 2008; it had only rebounded to approximately 50 years as of 2014. HIV/AIDS continues to be a serious public health threat, although awareness-raising campaigns and the wider availability of anti-retroviral drugs is stabilizing the number of new cases, enabling infected individuals to live longer, healthier lives, and reducing mother-child transmissions.
Migration to South Africa began in the second half of the 17th century when traders from the Dutch East India Company settled in the Cape and started using slaves from South and southeast Asia (mainly from India but also from present-day Indonesia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia) and southeast Africa (Madagascar and Mozambique) as farm laborers and, to a lesser extent, as domestic servants. The Indian subcontinent remained the Cape Colony’s main source of slaves in the early 18th century, while slaves were increasingly obtained from southeast Africa in the latter part of the 18th century and into the 19th century under British rule.
After slavery was completely abolished in the British Empire in 1838, South Africa’s colonists turned to temporary African migrants and indentured labor through agreements with India and later China, countries that were anxious to export workers to alleviate domestic poverty and overpopulation. Of the more than 150,000 indentured Indian laborers hired to work in Natal’s sugar plantations between 1860 and 1911, most exercised the right as British subjects to remain permanently (a small number of Indian immigrants came freely as merchants). Because of growing resentment toward Indian workers, the 63,000 indentured Chinese workers who mined gold in Transvaal between 1904 and 1911 were under more restrictive contracts and generally were forced to return to their homeland.
In the late 19th century and nearly the entire 20th century, South Africa’s then British colonies’ and Dutch states’ enforced selective immigration policies that welcomed “assimilable” white Europeans as permanent residents but excluded or restricted other immigrants. Following the Union of South Africa’s passage of a law in 1913 prohibiting Asian and other non-white immigrants and its elimination of the indenture system in 1917, temporary African contract laborers from neighboring countries became the dominant source of labor in the burgeoning mining industries. Others worked in agriculture and smaller numbers in manufacturing, domestic service, transportation, and construction. Throughout the 20th century, at least 40% of South Africa’s miners were foreigners; the numbers peaked at over 80% in the late 1960s. Mozambique, Lesotho, Botswana, and Swaziland were the primary sources of miners, and Malawi and Zimbabwe were periodic suppliers.
Under apartheid, a “two gates” migration policy focused on policing and deporting illegal migrants rather than on managing migration to meet South Africa’s development needs. The exclusionary 1991 Aliens Control Act limited labor recruitment to the highly skilled as defined by the ruling white minority, while bilateral labor agreements provided exemptions that enabled the influential mining industry and, to a lesser extent, commercial farms, to hire temporary, low-paid workers from neighboring states. Illegal African migrants were often tacitly allowed to work for low pay in other sectors but were always under threat of deportation.
The abolishment of apartheid in 1994 led to the development of a new inclusive national identity and the strengthening of the country’s restrictive immigration policy. Despite South Africa’s protectionist approach to immigration, the downsizing and closing of mines, and rising unemployment, migrants from across the continent believed that the country held work opportunities. Fewer African labor migrants were issued temporary work permits and, instead, increasingly entered South Africa with visitors’ permits or came illegally, which drove growth in cross-border trade and the informal job market. A new wave of Asian immigrants has also arrived over the last two decades, many operating small retail businesses.
In the post-apartheid period, increasing numbers of highly skilled white workers emigrated, citing dissatisfaction with the political situation, crime, poor services, and a reduced quality of life. The 2002 Immigration Act and later amendments were intended to facilitate the temporary migration of skilled foreign labor to fill labor shortages, but instead the legislation continues to create regulatory obstacles. Although the education system has improved and brain drain has slowed in the wake of the 2008 global financial crisis, South Africa continues to face skills shortages in several key sectors, such as health care and technology.
South Africa’s stability and economic growth has acted as a magnet for refugees and asylum seekers from nearby countries, despite the prevalence of discrimination and xenophobic violence. Refugees have included an estimated 350,000 Mozambicans during its 1980s civil war and, more recently, several thousand Somalis, Congolese, and Ethiopians. Nearly all of the tens of thousands of Zimbabweans who have applied for asylum in South Africa have been categorized as economic migrants and denied refuge.
Botswana has experienced one of the most rapid declines in fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. The total fertility rate has fallen from more than 5 children per woman in the mid 1980s to approximately 2.4 in 2013. The fertility reduction has been attributed to a host of factors, including higher educational attainment among women, greater participation of women in the workforce, increased contraceptive use, later first births, and a strong national family planning program. Botswana was making significant progress in several health indicators, including life expectancy and infant and child mortality rates, until being devastated by the HIV/AIDs epidemic in the 1990s.
Today Botswana has the third highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in the world at approximately 22%, however comprehensive and effective treatment programs have reduced HIV/AIDS-related deaths. The combination of declining fertility and increasing mortality rates because of HIV/AIDS is slowing the population aging process, with a narrowing of the youngest age groups and little expansion of the oldest age groups. Nevertheless, having the bulk of its population (about 60%) of working age will only yield economic benefits if the labor force is healthy, educated, and productively employed.
Batswana have been working as contract miners in South Africa since the 19th century. Although Botswana’s economy improved shortly after independence in 1966 with the discovery of diamonds and other minerals, its lingering high poverty rate and lack of job opportunities continued to push workers to seek mining work in southern African countries. In the early 1970s, about a third of Botswana’s male labor force worked in South Africa (lesser numbers went to Namibia and Zimbabwe). Not until the 1980s and 1990s, when South African mining companies had reduced their recruitment of foreign workers and Botswana’s economic prospects had improved, were Batswana increasingly able to find job opportunities at home.
Most Batswana prefer life in their home country and choose cross-border migration on a temporary basis only for work, shopping, visiting family, or tourism. Since the 1970s, Botswana has pursued an open migration policy enabling it to recruit thousands of foreign workers to fill skilled labor shortages. In the late 1990s, Botswana’s prosperity and political stability attracted not only skilled workers but small numbers of refugees from neighboring Angola, Namibia, and Zimbabwe.
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 52.1
youth dependency ratio: 44.5
elderly dependency ratio: 7.7
potential support ratio: 13.1 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 55.3
youth dependency ratio: 49.7
elderly dependency ratio: 5.6
potential support ratio: 17.9 (2015 est.)

Government

South AfricaBotswana
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of South Africa
conventional short form: South Africa
former: Union of South Africa
abbreviation: RSA
etymology: self-descriptive name from the country's location on the continent; ""Africa"" is derived from the Roman designation of the area corresponding to present-day Tunisia ""Africa terra,"" which meant ""Land of the Afri"" (the tribe resident in that area), but which eventually came to mean the entire continent
"
"conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
conventional short form: Botswana
local long form: Republic of Botswana
local short form: Botswana
former: Bechuanaland
etymology: the name Botswana means ""Land of the Tswana"" - referring to the country's major ethnic group
"
Government typeparliamentary republic
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Pretoria (administrative capital); Cape Town (legislative capital); Bloemfontein (judicial capital)
geographic coordinates: 25 42 S, 28 13 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Gaborone
geographic coordinates: 24 38 S, 25 54 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions9 provinces; Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Northern Cape, North West, Western Cape
10 districts and 6 town councils*; Central, Chobe, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Jwaneng*, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, North East, North West, Selebi-Phikwe*, South East, Southern, Sowa Town*
Independence31 May 1910 (Union of South Africa formed from four British colonies: Cape Colony, Natal, Transvaal, and Orange Free State); 31 May 1961 (republic declared); 27 April 1994 (majority rule)
30 September 1966 (from the UK)
National holidayFreedom Day, 27 April (1994)
Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest drafted 8 May 1996, approved 4 December 1996, effective 4 February 1997; amended many times, last in 2013 (2016)
previous 1960 (preindependence); latest adopted March 1965, effective 30 September 1966; amended several times, last in 2006 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of Roman-Dutch civil law, English common law, and customary law
mixed legal system of civil law influenced by the Roman-Dutch model and also customary and common law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Jacob ZUMA (since 9 May 2009); Deputy President Matamela Cyril RAMAPHOSA (since 26 May 2014) note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jacob ZUMA (since 9 May 2009); Deputy President Matamela Cyril RAMAPHOSA (since 26 May 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2019)
election results: Jacob ZUMA (ANC) reelected president by the National Assembly unopposed
chief of state: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008); Vice President Mokgweetsi Eric MASISI (since 12 November 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008); Vice President Mokgweetsi Eric MASISI (since 12 November 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - NA
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament consists of the National Council of Provinces (90 seats; 10-member delegations appointed by each of the 9 provincial legislatures to serve 5-year terms; note - this council has special powers to protect regional interests, including safeguarding cultural and linguistic traditions among ethnic minorities) and the National Assembly (400 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: National Assembly and National Council of Provinces - last held on 7 May 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: National Council of Provinces - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ANC 60, DA 20, EFF 7, IFP 1, NFP 1, UDM 1; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - ANC 62.2%, DA 22.2%, EFF 6.4%, IFP 2.4%, NFP 1.6%, UDM 1.0%, other 4.2%; seats by party - ANC 249, DA 89, EFF 25, IFP 10, NFP 6, UDM 4, other 17
description: unicameral Parliament consists of the National Assembly (65 seats; 57 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 6 nominated by the president and indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the rest of the National Assembly, and 2 ex-officio members - the president and attorney general; elected members serve 5-year terms); note - the House of Chiefs (Ntlo ya Dikgosi), an advisory body to the National Assembly, consists of 35 members - 8 hereditary chiefs from Botswana's principal tribes, 22 indirectly elected by the chiefs, and 5 appointed by the president; the House of Chiefs consults on issues including powers of chiefs, customary courts, customary law, tribal property, and constitutional amendments
elections: National Assembly elections last held on 24 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 46.5%, UDC 30.0%, BCP 20.4%, independent 3.1%; seats by party - BDP 37, UDC 17, BCP 3
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Appeals (consists of the court president, deputy president, and 21 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the chief and deputy chief justices and 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Appeals president and vice-president appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Services Commission (JSC), a 23-member body chaired by the chief justice and includes other judges and judicial executives, members of parliament, practicing lawyers and advocates, a teacher of law, and several members designated by the national president; other Supreme Court judges appointed by the national president on the advice of the JSC and hold office until discharged from active service by terms of an Act of Parliament; Constitutional Court chief and deputy chief justices appointed by the national president after consultation with the JSC and with heads of the National Assembly; other Constitutional Court judges appointed by the national president after consultation with the chief justice and leaders of the National Assembly; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 12-year non-renewable terms or until age 70
subordinate courts: High Courts; Magistrates' Courts; labor courts; land claims courts
highest court(s): Court of Appeal, High Court (each consists of a chief justice and a number of other judges as prescribed by the Parliament)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court chief justices appointed by the president and other judges appointed by the president upon the advice of the Judicial Service Commission; all judges appointed to serve until age 70
subordinate courts: Industrial Court (with circuits scheduled monthly in the capital city and in 3 districts); Magistrates Courts (1 in each district); Customary Court of Appeal; Paramount Chief's Court/Urban Customary Court; Senior Chief's Representative Court; Chief's Representative’s Court; Headman's Court
Political parties and leadersAfrican Christian Democratic Party or ACDP [Kenneth MESHOE]
African Independent Congress or AIC [Mandla GALD]
African National Congress or ANC [Jacob ZUMA]
African People's Convention or APC [Themba GODI]
Agang SA [Mike Tshishonga]
Congress of the People or COPE [Mosiuoa LEKOTA]
Democratic Alliance or DA [Mmusi MAIMANE]
Economic Freedom Fighters or EFF [Julius MALEMA]
Freedom Front Plus or FF+ [Pieter GROENEWALD]
Inkatha Freedom Party or IFP [Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI]
National Freedom Party or NFP [Zanele kaMAGWAZA-MSIBI]
Pan-Africanist Congress of Azania or PAC [Luthanado MBINDA]
United Christian Democratic Party or UCDP [Isaac Sipho MFUNDISI]
United Democratic Movement or UDM [Bantu HOLOMISA]
Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]
Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Dumelang SALESHANDO]
Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Ian KHAMA]
Botswana Movement for Democracy or BMD [Ndaba GAOLATHE]
Botswana National Front or BNF [Duma BOKO]
Botswana Peoples Party or BPP [Motlatsi MOLAPISI]
Umbrella for Democratic Change or UDC [Duma BOKO] (includes BMD, BPP, BCP and BNF)
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, BIS, BRICS, C, CD, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, NSG, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Mninwa Johannes MAHLANGU (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 232-4400 [1] (202) 232-4400
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1607
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador David John NEWMAN (since 3 August 2015)
chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164
consulate(s) general: Atlanta
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jessica LAPENN (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: 877 Pretorius Street, Arcadia, Pretoria
mailing address: P.O. Box 9536, Pretoria 0001
telephone: [27] (12) 431-4000
FAX: [27] (12) 342-2299
consulate(s) general: Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg
chief of mission: Ambassador Earl R. MILLER (since 30 January 2015)
embassy: Embassy Drive, Government Enclave (off Khama Crescent), Gaborone
mailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
telephone: [267] 395-3982
FAX: [267] 318-0232
Flag description"two equal width horizontal bands of red (top) and blue separated by a central green band that splits into a horizontal Y, the arms of which end at the corners of the hoist side; the Y embraces a black isosceles triangle from which the arms are separated by narrow yellow bands; the red and blue bands are separated from the green band and its arms by narrow white stripes; the flag colors do not have any official symbolism, but the Y stands for the ""convergence of diverse elements within South African society, taking the road ahead in unity""; black, yellow, and green are found on the flag of the African National Congress, while red, white, and blue are the colors in the flags of the Netherlands and the UK, whose settlers ruled South Africa during the colonial era
note: the South African flag is one of only two national flags to display six colors as part of its primary design, the other is South Sudan's
"
light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center; the blue symbolizes water in the form of rain, while the black and white bands represent racial harmony
National anthem"name: ""National Anthem of South Africa""
lyrics/music: Enoch SONTONGA and Cornelius Jacob LANGENHOVEN/Enoch SONTONGA and Marthinus LOURENS de Villiers
note: adopted 1994; a combination of ""N'kosi Sikelel' iAfrica"" (God Bless Africa) and ""Die Stem van Suid Afrika"" (The Call of South Africa), which were respectively the anthems of the non-white and white communities under apartheid; official lyrics contain a mixture of Xhosa, Zulu, Sesotho, Afrikaans, and English (i.e., the five most widely spoken of South Africa's 11 official languages); music incorporates the melody used in the Tanzanian and Zambian anthems
"
"name: ""Fatshe leno la rona"" (Our Land)
lyrics/music: Kgalemang Tumedisco MOTSETE
note: adopted 1966
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)springbok (antelope), king protea flower; national colors: red, green, blue, yellow, black, white
zebra; national colors: blue, white, black
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of South Africa
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission of the government
residency requirement for naturalization: 1 year
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Botswana
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

South AfricaBotswana
Economy - overviewSouth Africa is a middle-income emerging market with an abundant supply of natural resources; well-developed financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors; and a stock exchange that is Africa’s largest and among the top 20 in the world.

Economic growth has decelerated in recent years, slowing to an estimated 0.3% in 2016. Unemployment, poverty, and inequality - among the highest in the world - remain a challenge. Official unemployment is roughly 26% of the workforce, and runs significantly higher among black youth. Even though the country's modern infrastructure supports a relatively efficient distribution of goods to major urban centers throughout the region, unstable electricity supplies retard growth. Eskom, the state-run power company, is building three new power stations and is installing new power demand management programs to improve power grid reliability; in late 2016 they issued a request for bids to revamp South Africa’s nuclear power generating capabilities. Load shedding and resulting rolling blackouts gripped many parts of South Africa in late 2014 and early 2015 because of electricity supply constraints due to technical problems at some generation units, unavoidable planned maintenance, and an accident at a power station.

South Africa's economic policy has focused on controlling inflation; however, the country faces structural constraints that also limit economic growth, such as skills shortages, declining global competitiveness, and frequent work stoppages due to strike action. The government faces growing pressure from urban constituencies to improve the delivery of basic services to low-income areas, to increase job growth, and to provide university level-education at affordable prices. Political infighting among South Africa’s ruling party and the volatility of the Rand risks economic growth. International investors are concerned about the country’s long-term economic stability; as of December 2016, most major international credit ratings agencies placed South Africa only one level above junk bond status.
Until the global recession, Botswana maintained one of the world's highest economic growth rates since independence in 1966. Diamond mining fueled much of the economic expansion and currently accounts for one quarter of GDP, approximately 85% of export earnings, and about one-third of the government's revenues. Tourism is the secondary earner of foreign exchange and many Batswana engage in subsistence farming and cattle rearing. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of approximately $16,900 in 2016. Botswana also ranks as one of the best credit risks in Africa.

Botswana's economy closely follows global economic trends because of its heavy reliance on a single luxury export. According to official government statistics, unemployment is around 20%, but unofficial estimates run much higher. De Beers, a major international diamond company, signed a 10-year deal with Botswana in 2012 and moved its rough stone sorting and trading division from London to Gaborone in 2013. The move was geared to support the development of Botswana's nascent downstream diamond industry.

Botswana’s economy recovered from the 2008 global recession in 2010, but has only grown modestly since then, primarily due to the downturn in the global diamond market, though water and power shortages also played a role. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is second highest in the world and threatens the country's impressive economic gains. In 2016, Botswana entered its fourth year of drought, detrimental to Botswana’s small, but vital agriculture sector, but diamond exports increased to their highest levels since 2013, buffering economic growth. As a result, the economy registered 2.9% growth in 2016.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$739.1 billion (2016 est.)
$735.4 billion (2015 est.)
$726.3 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$35.9 billion (2016 est.)
$34.89 billion (2015 est.)
$35.49 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate0.5% (2016 est.)
1.3% (2015 est.)
1.6% (2014 est.)
2.9% (2016 est.)
-1.7% (2015 est.)
4.1% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$13,500 (2016 est.)
$13,400 (2015 est.)
$13,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$16,900 (2016 est.)
$16,600 (2015 est.)
$16,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 2.2%
industry: 29.2%
services: 68.7% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 1.8%
industry: 29.8%
services: 68.4% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line16.6% (2016 est.)
30.3% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 51.3% (2011 est.)
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices)6.5% (2016 est.)
4.5% (2015 est.)
2.8% (2016 est.)
3.1% (2015 est.)
Labor force21.7 million (2016 est.)
1.177 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 4.6%
industry: 23.5%
services: 71.9% (2014 est.)
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate26.8% (2016 est.)
25.4% (2015 est.)
20% (2013 est.)
17.8% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index62.5 (2013 est.)
63.4 (2011 est.)
60.5 (2009)
63 (1993)
Budgetrevenues: $76.62 billion
expenditures: $86.45 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $5.516 billion
expenditures: $5.624 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesmining (world's largest producer of platinum, gold, chromium), automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textiles, iron and steel, chemicals, fertilizer, foodstuffs, commercial ship repair
diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver; beef processing; textiles
Industrial production growth rate-1% (2016 est.)
2.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscorn, wheat, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; beef, poultry, mutton, wool, dairy products
livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts
Exports$83.16 billion (2016 est.)
$81.63 billion (2015 est.)
$6.448 billion (2016 est.)
$6.274 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesgold, diamonds, platinum, other metals and minerals, machinery and equipment
diamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, beef, textiles
Imports$85.03 billion (2016 est.)
$84.33 billion (2015 est.)
$7.194 billion (2016 est.)
$7.09 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum products, scientific instruments, foodstuffs
foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment, textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products, metal and metal products
Debt - external$129.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$131.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.386 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.221 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesrand (ZAR) per US dollar -
15.7 (2016 est.)
12.7581 (2015 est.)
12.7581 (2014 est.)
10.8469 (2013 est.)
8.2 (2012 est.)
pulas (BWP) per US dollar -
10.21 (2016 est.)
10.1263 (2015 est.)
10.1263 (2014 est.)
8.9761 (2013 est.)
7.62 (2012 est.)
Fiscal year1 April - 31 March
1 April - 31 March
Public debt43.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
44.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
21% of GDP (2016 est.)
19.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$44.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$45.91 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$7.682 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.486 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$9.624 billion (2016 est.)
-$13.95 billion (2015 est.)
$2.202 billion (2016 est.)
$1.121 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$280.4 billion (2016 est.)
$15.01 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$735.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$933.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$942.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$4.588 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$4.107 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$4.076 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate5.75% (31 December 2014)
7% (31 December 2009)
5.5% (31 December 2016)
6% (31 December 2015)
Commercial bank prime lending rate10.6% (31 December 2016 est.)
9.42% (31 December 2015 est.)
7% (31 December 2016 est.)
7.5% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$209 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$196.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.783 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.614 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$99.49 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$91.72 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.365 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.223 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$172.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$192.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$8.293 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$7.635 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues27.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
36.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
-0.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 51.3%
male: 48%
female: 55.3% (2014 est.)
total: 36%
male: 29.6%
female: 43.5% (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 58%
government consumption: 19.9%
investment in fixed capital: 20.1%
investment in inventories: 0.5%
exports of goods and services: 34.9%
imports of goods and services: -33.4% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 46.1%
government consumption: 17.1%
investment in fixed capital: 29.5%
investment in inventories: 6.9%
exports of goods and services: 52.4%
imports of goods and services: -52% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving16.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
16.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
15.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
35.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
39.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
46.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

South AfricaBotswana
Electricity - production235 billion kWh (2014 est.)
2.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption212 billion kWh (2014 est.)
3.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports14 billion kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports11 billion kWh (2014 est.)
1.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production3,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports466,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves15 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves15.01 billion cu m (1 January 2012 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production950 million cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption4.75 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports3.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity46 million kW (2014 est.)
895,000 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels90.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants4.5% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels4.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.7% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production488,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption663,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
23,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports131,500 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports169,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
22,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy482 million Mt (2013 est.)
4.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 7,700,000
electrification - total population: 85%
electrification - urban areas: 90%
electrification - rural areas: 77% (2013)
population without electricity: 700,000
electrification - total population: 66%
electrification - urban areas: 75%
electrification - rural areas: 54% (2013)

Telecommunications

South AfricaBotswana
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 4,131,055
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 160,490
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 85.197 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 159 (July 2015 est.)
total: 3.475 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 159 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: the system is the best-developed and most modern in Africa
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 165 telephones per 100 persons; consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay links, fiber-optic cable, radiotelephone communication stations, and wireless local loops; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria
international: country code - 27; the SAT-3/WASC and SAFE fiber-optic submarine cable systems connect South Africa to Europe and Asia; the EASSy fiber-optic cable system connects with Europe and North America; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: Botswana is participating in regional development efforts; expanding fully digital system with fiber-optic cables linking the major population centers in the east as well as a system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relays links, and radiotelephone communication stations; the Botswana Telecommunications Corporation is rolling out 4G service to over 95 sites in the country that will improve network connectivity
domestic: fixed-line teledensity has declined in recent years and now stands at roughly 7 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity now pushing 160 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 267; international calls are made via satellite, using international direct dialing; 2 international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.za
.bw
Internet userstotal: 27.868 million
percent of population: 51.9% (July 2015 est.)
total: 600,000
percent of population: 27.5% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediathe South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) operates 4 TV stations, 3 are free-to-air and 1 is pay TV; e.tv, a private station, is accessible to more than half the population; multiple subscription TV services provide a mix of local and international channels; well-developed mix of public and private radio stations at the national, regional, and local levels; the SABC radio network, state-owned and controlled but nominally independent, operates 18 stations, one for each of the 11 official languages, 4 community stations, and 3 commercial stations; more than 100 community-based stations extend coverage to rural areas (2007)
2 TV stations - 1 state-owned and 1 privately owned; privately owned satellite TV subscription service is available; 2 state-owned national radio stations; 3 privately owned radio stations broadcast locally (2007)

Transportation

South AfricaBotswana
Railwaystotal: 20,986 km
standard gauge: 80 km 1.435-m gauge (80 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 19,756 km 1.065-m gauge (8,271 km electrified)
other: 1,150 km (passenger rail, gauge unspecified, 1,115.5 km electrified) (2014)
total: 888 km
narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 747,014 km
paved: 158,952 km
unpaved: 588,062 km (2014)
total: 17,916 km
note: includes 8,916 km of Public Highway Network roads (6,116 km paved and 2,800 km unpaved) and 9,000 km of District Council roads (2011)
Airports566 (2013)
74 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 144
over 3,047 m: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 52
914 to 1,523 m: 65
under 914 m: 9 (2013)
total: 10
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 422
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 31
914 to 1,523 m: 258
under 914 m: 132 (2013)
total: 64
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 46
under 914 m: 13 (2013)

Military

South AfricaBotswana
Military branchesSouth African National Defense Force (SANDF): South African Army, South African Navy (SAN), South African Air Force (SAAF), South African Military Health Services (2013)
Botswana Defence Force (BDF): Ground Forces Command, Air Arm Command, Defense Logistics Command (2017)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; women are eligible to serve in noncombat roles; 2-year service obligation (2012)
18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.1% of GDP (2015)
1.11% of GDP (2014)
1.12% of GDP (2013)
1.13% of GDP (2012)
1.14% of GDP (2011)
2.8% of GDP (2015)
2.39% of GDP (2014)
2.02% of GDP (2013)
2.27% of GDP (2012)
2.36% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

South AfricaBotswana
Disputes - internationalSouth Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration; the governments of South Africa and Namibia have not signed or ratified the text of the 1994 Surveyor's General agreement placing the boundary in the middle of the Orange River
none

Source: CIA Factbook