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Somalia vs. Ethiopia

Introduction

SomaliaEthiopia
BackgroundBritain withdrew from British Somaliland in 1960 to allow its protectorate to join with Italian Somaliland and form the new nation of Somalia. In 1969, a coup headed by Mohamed SIAD Barre ushered in an authoritarian socialist rule characterized by the persecution, jailing, and torture of political opponents and dissidents. After the regime's collapse early in 1991, Somalia descended into turmoil, factional fighting, and anarchy. In May 1991, northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland that now includes the administrative regions of Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag, and Sool. Although not recognized by any government, this entity has maintained a stable existence and continues efforts to establish a constitutional democracy, including holding municipal, parliamentary, and presidential elections. The regions of Bari, Nugaal, and northern Mudug comprise a neighboring semi-autonomous state of Puntland, which has been self-governing since 1998 but does not aim at independence; it has also made strides toward reconstructing a legitimate, representative government but has suffered some civil strife. Puntland disputes its border with Somaliland as it also claims the regions of Sool and Sanaag, and portions of Togdheer. Beginning in 1993, a two-year UN humanitarian effort (primarily in south-central Somalia) was able to alleviate famine conditions, but when the UN withdrew in 1995, having suffered significant casualties, order still had not been restored. In 2000, the Somalia National Peace Conference (SNPC) held in Djibouti resulted in the formation of an interim government, known as the Transitional National Government (TNG). When the TNG failed to establish adequate security or governing institutions, the Government of Kenya, under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), led a subsequent peace process that concluded in October 2004 with the election of Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed as President of a second interim government, known as the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of the Somali Republic. The TFG included a 275-member parliamentary body, known as the Transitional Federal Parliament (TFP). President YUSUF resigned late in 2008 while United Nations-sponsored talks between the TFG and the opposition Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia (ARS) were underway in Djibouti. In January 2009, following the creation of a TFG-ARS unity government, Ethiopian military forces, which had entered Somalia in December 2006 to support the TFG in the face of advances by the opposition Islamic Courts Union (ICU), withdrew from the country. The TFP was doubled in size to 550 seats with the addition of 200 ARS and 75 civil society members of parliament. The expanded parliament elected Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed, the former ICU and ARS chairman as president in January 2009. The creation of the TFG was based on the Transitional Federal Charter (TFC), which outlined a five-year mandate leading to the establishment of a new Somali constitution and a transition to a representative government following national elections. In 2009, the TFP amended the TFC to extend TFG's mandate until 2011 and in 2011 Somali principals agreed to institute political transition by August 2012. The transition process ended in September 2012 when clan elders replaced the TFP by appointing 275 members to a new parliament who subsequently elected a new president.
Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41. In 1974, a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front. A constitution was adopted in 1994, and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A border war with Eritrea in the late 1990s ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. In November 2007, the Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Commission (EEBC) issued specific coordinates as virtually demarcating the border and pronounced its work finished. Alleging that the EEBC acted beyond its mandate in issuing the coordinates, Ethiopia has not accepted them and has not withdrawn troops from previously contested areas pronounced by the EEBC as belonging to Eritrea. In August 2012, longtime leader Prime Minister MELES Zenawi died in office and was replaced by his Deputy Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn, marking the first peaceful transition of power in decades.

Geography

SomaliaEthiopia
LocationEastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia
Eastern Africa, west of Somalia
Geographic coordinates10 00 N, 49 00 E
8 00 N, 38 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 637,657 sq km
land: 627,337 sq km
water: 10,320 sq km
total: 1,104,300 sq km
land: 1 million sq km
water: 104,300 sq km
Area - comparativealmost five times the size of Alabama; slightly smaller than Texas
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 2,385 km
border countries (3): Djibouti 61 km, Ethiopia 1,640 km, Kenya 684 km
total: 5,925 km
border countries (6): Djibouti 342 km, Eritrea 1,033 km, Kenya 867 km, Somalia 1,640 km, South Sudan 1,299 km, Sudan 744 km
Coastline3,025 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 200 nm
none (landlocked)
Climateprincipally desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons
tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation
Terrainmostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north
high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 410 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Shimbiris 2,416 m
mean elevation: 1,330 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Danakil Depression -125 m
highest point: Ras Dejen 4,533 m
Natural resourcesuranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, likely oil reserves
small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 70.3%
arable land 1.8%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 68.5%
forest: 10.6%
other: 19.1% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 36.3%
arable land 15.2%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 20%
forest: 12.2%
other: 51.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land2,000 sq km (2012)
2,900 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsrecurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; floods during rainy season
geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts
volcanism: volcanic activity in the Great Rift Valley; Erta Ale (elev. 613 m), which has caused frequent lava flows in recent years, is the country's most active volcano; Dabbahu became active in 2005, forcing evacuations; other historically active volcanoes include Alayta, Dalaffilla, Dallol, Dama Ali, Fentale, Kone, Manda Hararo, and Manda-Inakir
Environment - current issuesfamine; use of contaminated water contributes to human health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea
Geography - notestrategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal
landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993; Ethiopia is, therefore, the most populous landlocked country in the world; the Blue Nile, the chief headstream of the Nile by water volume, rises in T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana) in northwest Ethiopia; three major crops are believed to have originated in Ethiopia: coffee, grain sorghum, and castor bean

Demographics

SomaliaEthiopia
Population10,817,354
note: this estimate was derived from an official census taken in 1975 by the Somali Government; population counting in Somalia is complicated by the large number of nomads and by refugee movements in response to famine and clan warfare (July 2016 est.)
102,374,044
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 43.42% (male 2,345,536/female 2,351,886)
15-24 years: 18.87% (male 1,031,804/female 1,009,831)
25-54 years: 31.47% (male 1,762,093/female 1,641,699)
55-64 years: 4.02% (male 213,259/female 221,520)
65 years and over: 2.22% (male 92,966/female 146,760) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 43.71% (male 22,430,798/female 22,316,910)
15-24 years: 20.04% (male 10,182,973/female 10,332,626)
25-54 years: 29.45% (male 14,970,645/female 15,178,999)
55-64 years: 3.89% (male 1,939,635/female 2,047,041)
65 years and over: 2.91% (male 1,338,985/female 1,635,432) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 17.9 years
male: 18.1 years
female: 17.8 years (2016 est.)
total: 17.8 years
male: 17.6 years
female: 18 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.92% (2016 est.)
2.88% (2016 est.)
Birth rate40 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
36.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate13.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-7.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 96.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 105.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 87.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 51.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 58.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 43.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 52.4 years
male: 50.3 years
female: 54.5 years (2016 est.)
total population: 62.2 years
male: 59.8 years
female: 64.7 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate5.89 children born/woman (2016 est.)
5.07 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.5% (2015 est.)
1.15% (2014 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Somali(s)
adjective: Somali
noun: Ethiopian(s)
adjective: Ethiopian
Ethnic groupsSomali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including 30,000 Arabs)
Oromo 34.4%, Amhara (Amara) 27%, Somali (Somalie) 6.2%, Tigray (Tigrinya) 6.1%, Sidama 4%, Gurage 2.5%, Welaita 2.3%, Hadiya 1.7%, Afar (Affar) 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Silte 1.3%, Kefficho 1.2%, other 8.8% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS30,200 (2015 est.)
730,300 (2014 est.)
ReligionsSunni Muslim (Islam) (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter)
Ethiopian Orthodox 43.5%, Muslim 33.9%, Protestant 18.5%, traditional 2.7%, Catholic 0.7%, other 0.6% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths2,000 (2015 est.)
23,400 (2014 est.)
LanguagesSomali (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter), Arabic (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter), Italian, English
Oromo (official working language in the State of Oromiya) 33.8%, Amharic (official national language) 29.3%, Somali (official working language of the State of Sumale) 6.2%, Tigrigna (Tigrinya) (official working language of the State of Tigray) 5.9%, Sidamo 4%, Wolaytta 2.2%, Gurage 2%, Afar (official working language of the State of Afar) 1.7%, Hadiyya 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Opuuo 1.2%, Kafa 1.1%, other 8.1%, English (major foreign language taught in schools), Arabic (2007 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Rift Valley fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2016)
Education expendituresNA
4.5% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 39.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.06% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 19.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.89% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 69.6% of population
rural: 8.8% of population
total: 31.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 30.4% of population
rural: 91.2% of population
total: 68.3% of population (2011 est.)
improved:
urban: 93.1% of population
rural: 48.6% of population
total: 57.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.9% of population
rural: 51.4% of population
total: 42.7% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 52% of population
rural: 6.3% of population
total: 23.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 48% of population
rural: 93.7% of population
total: 76.4% of population (2011 est.)
improved:
urban: 27.2% of population
rural: 28.2% of population
total: 28% of population
unimproved:
urban: 72.8% of population
rural: 71.8% of population
total: 72% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationMOGADISHU (capital) 2.138 million; Hargeysa 760,000 (2015)
ADDIS ABABA (capital) 3.238 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate732 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
353 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight23% (2009)
25.2% (2014)
Physicians density0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate3.9% (2014)
3.3% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 1,148,265
percentage: 49% (2006 est.)
total number: 10,693,164
percentage: 53% (2005 est.)
Demographic profileSomalia scores very low for most humanitarian indicators, suffering from poor governance, protracted internal conflict, underdevelopment, economic decline, poverty, social and gender inequality, and environmental degradation. Despite civil war and famine raising its mortality rate, Somalia’s high fertility rate and large proportion of people of reproductive age maintain rapid population growth, with each generation being larger than the prior one. More than 60% of Somalia’s population is younger than 25, and the fertility rate is among the world’s highest at almost 6 children per woman – a rate that has decreased little since the 1970s.
A lack of educational and job opportunities is a major source of tension for Somalia’s large youth cohort, making them vulnerable to recruitment by extremist and pirate groups. Somalia has one of the world’s lowest primary school enrollment rates – just over 40% of children are in school – and one of world’s highest youth unemployment rates. Life expectancy is low as a result of high infant and maternal mortality rates, the spread of preventable diseases, poor sanitation, chronic malnutrition, and inadequate health services.
During the two decades of conflict that followed the fall of the SIAD regime in 1991, hundreds of thousands of Somalis fled their homes. Today Somalia is the world’s third highest source country for refugees, after Syria and Afghanistan. Insecurity, drought, floods, food shortages, and a lack of economic opportunities are the driving factors.
As of 2016, more than 1.1 million Somali refugees were hosted in the region, mainly in Kenya, Yemen, Egypt, Ethiopia, Djibouti, and Uganda, while more than 1.1 million Somalis were internally displaced. Since the implementation of a tripartite voluntary repatriation agreement among Kenya, Somalia, and the UNHCR in 2013, nearly 40,000 Somali refugees have returned home from Kenya’s Dadaab refugee camp – still houses to approximately 260,000 Somalis. The flow sped up rapidly after the Kenyan Government in May 2016 announced its intention to close the camp, worsening security and humanitarian conditions in receiving communities in south-central Somalia. Despite the conflict in Yemen, thousands of Somalis and other refugees and asylum seekers from the Horn of Africa risk their lives crossing the Gulf of Aden to reach Yemen and beyond (often Saudi Arabia). Bossaso in Puntland overtook Obock, Djibouti, as the primary departure point in mid-2014.
Ethiopia is a predominantly agricultural country – more than 80% of the population lives in rural areas – that is in the early stages of demographic transition. Infant, child, and maternal mortality have fallen sharply over the past decade, but the total fertility rate has declined more slowly and the population continues to grow. The rising age of marriage and the increasing proportion of women remaining single have contributed to fertility reduction. While the use of modern contraceptive methods among married women has increased significantly from 6 percent in 2000 to 27 percent in 2012, the overall rate is still quite low.
Ethiopia’s rapid population growth is putting increasing pressure on land resources, expanding environmental degradation, and raising vulnerability to food shortages. With more than 40 percent of the population below the age of 15 and a fertility rate of over 5 children per woman (and even higher in rural areas), Ethiopia will have to make further progress in meeting its family planning needs if it is to achieve the age structure necessary for reaping a demographic dividend in the coming decades.
Poverty, drought, political repression, and forced government resettlement have driven Ethiopia’s internal and external migration since the 1960s. Before the 1974 revolution, only small numbers of the Ethiopian elite went abroad to study and then returned home, but under the brutal Derg regime thousands fled the country, primarily as refugees. Between 1982 and 1991 there was a new wave of migration to the West for family reunification. Since the defeat of the Derg in 1991, Ethiopians have migrated to escape violence among some of the country’s myriad ethnic groups or to pursue economic opportunities. Internal and international trafficking of women and children for domestic work and prostitution is a growing problem.
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 98.1
youth dependency ratio: 92.5
elderly dependency ratio: 5.6
potential support ratio: 17.9 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 81.6
youth dependency ratio: 75.2
elderly dependency ratio: 6.3
potential support ratio: 15.8 (2015 est.)

Government

SomaliaEthiopia
Country name"conventional long form: Federal Republic of Somalia
conventional short form: Somalia
local long form: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalkaa Soomaaliya
local short form: Soomaaliya
former: Somali Republic, Somali Democratic Republic
etymology: ""Land of the Somali"" (ethnic group)
"
"conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
conventional short form: Ethiopia
local long form: Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
local short form: Ityop'iya
former: Abyssinia, Italian East Africa
abbreviation: FDRE
etymology: the country name derives from the Greek word ""Aethiopia,"" which in classical times referred to lands south of Egypt in the Upper Nile region
"
Government typefederal parliamentary republic
federal parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Mogadishu
geographic coordinates: 2 04 N, 45 20 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Addis Ababa
geographic coordinates: 9 02 N, 38 42 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions18 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe (Middle Jubba), Jubbada Hoose (Lower Jubba), Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe (Middle Shabeelle), Shabeellaha Hoose (Lower Shabeelle), Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed
9 ethnically based states (kililoch, singular - kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular - astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa), Afar, Amara (Amhara), Binshangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch (Gambela Peoples), Hareri Hizb (Harari People), Oromiya (Oromia), Sumale (Somali), Tigray, Ye Debub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)
Independence1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland that became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960 and Italian Somaliland that became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960 to form the Somali Republic)
oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years (may be traced to the Aksumite Kingdom, which coalesced in the first century B.C.)
National holidayFoundation of the Somali Republic, 1 July (1960); note - 26 June (1960) in Somaliland
Derg Downfall Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime), 28 May (1991)
Constitutionprevious 1961, 1979; latest drafted 12 June 2012, approved 1 August 2012 (provisional) (2016)
several previous; latest drafted June 1994, adopted 8 December 1994, entered into force 21 August 1995 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of civil law, Islamic law, and customary law (referred to as Xeer)
civil law system
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch"chief of state: President Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed ""Farmaajo"" (since 8 February 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Hassan Ali KHAYRE (since 1 March 2017)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister, approved by the House of the People
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Federal Parliament by two-thirds majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term; election last held on 8 February 2017 (previously scheduled for 30 September 2016 but postponed repeatedly); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the House of the People
election results: Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed ""Farmaajo"" elected president; Federal Parliament second round vote - Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed ""Farmaajo"" (TPP) 184, HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud (PDP) 97, Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed (ARS) 46
"
chief of state: President MULATU Teshome Wirtu (since 7 October 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn (since 21 September 2012); Deputy Prime Minister DEMEKE Mekonnen Hassen
cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by both chambers of Parliament for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2019); prime minister designated by the majority party following legislative elections
election results: MULATU Teshome Wirtu (OPDO) elected president by acclamation
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Federal Parliament to consist of an Upper House (54 seats; senators elected by state assemblies to serve 4-year terms) and the House of the People (275 seats; members elected by regional delegates to serve 4-year terms)
note: the inaugural House of the People was appointed in September 2012 by clan elders; in elections in 2016 and 2017, the Federal Parliament became bicameral with elections scheduled for 10 October 2016 for the Upper House and 23 October to 10 November 2016 for the House of the People; while the elections were delayed, they were eventually held in most regions despite voting irregularites; on 27 December 2016, 41 Upper House senators and 242 House of the People members were sworn in
bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Federation or Yefedereshein Mikir Bete (153 seats; members indirectly elected by state assemblies to serve 5-year terms) and the House of People's Representatives or Yehizb Tewokayoch Mekir Bete (547 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; 22 seats reserved for minorities; all members serve 5-year terms); note - the House of Federation is responsible for interpreting the constitution and federal-regional issues and the House of People's Representatives is responsible for passing legislation
elections: last held on 24 May 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: House of Representatives percent of vote - NA; seats by party - EPRDF 501, SPDP 24, BGPDP 9, ANDP 8, GPUDM 3, APDO 1, HNL 1
Judicial branchhighest court(s): the provisional constitution stipulates the establishment of the Constitutional Court (consists of 5 judges including the chief judge and deputy chief judge); note - under the terms of the 2004 Transitional National Charter, a Supreme Court based in Mogadishu and an Appeal Court were established; yet most regions have reverted to local forms of conflict resolution, either secular, traditional Somali customary law, or sharia Islamic law
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president upon proposal of the Judicial Service Commission, a 9-member judicial and administrative body; judge tenure NA
subordinate courts: federal- and federal member state-level courts; military courts; sharia Islamic courts
highest court(s): Federal Supreme Court (consists of 11 judges); note - the House of Federation has jurisdiction for all constitutional issues
judge selection and term of office: president and vice president of Federal Supreme Court recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; other Supreme Court judges nominated by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council (a 10-member body chaired by the president of the Federal Supreme Court) and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; judges serve until retirement at age 60
subordinate courts: federal high courts and federal courts of first instance; state court systems (mirror structure of federal system); sharia courts and customary and traditional courts
Political parties and leadersCADHI [Abdirahman IBRAHIM]
Cosmopolitan Democratic Party [Yarow Sharef ADEN]
Daljir Party or DP [Hassan MOALIM, chairperson]
Democratic Green Party of Somalia or DGPS [Abdullahi Y. MAHAMOUD]
Democratic Party of Somalia or DPS [Maslah Mohamed SIAD]
Green Leaf for Democracy or GLED
Hiil Qaran
Justice and Communist Party [Mohamed NUR]
Liberal Party of Somalia
National Unity Party (Xisbiga MIdnimo-Quaran) [Abdurahman BAADIYOW]
Peace and Development Party or PDP
Somali National Party or SNP [Mohammed Ameen Saeed AHMED]
Somali People's Party [Mahamud Hassan RAGE]
Somali Green Party (local chapter of Federation of Green Parties of Africa)
Tayo or TPP [Mohamed Abdullahi MOHAMED]
Tiir Party [Fadhil Sheik MOHAMUD]
United and Democratic Party [Salad Ali JELLE]
United Somali Parliamentarians
Afar National Democratic Party or ANDP [Taha AHMED]
Argoba People Democratic Organization or APDO
Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Party or BGPDP
Blue Party (Semayawi Party) [Solomon TESSEMA, spokesman]
Ethiopian Federal Democratic Unity Forum or MEDREK [Beyene PETROS] (a 4-party alliance)
Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF [Hailemarian DESALEGN] (including the following organizations: Amhara National Democratic Movement or ANDM; Oromo People's Democratic Organization or OPDO; Southern Ethiopian People's Democratic Movement or SEPDM; Tigray People's Liberation Front or TPLF)
Gambella Peoples Unity Democratic Movement or GPUDM
Harari National League or HNL [Murad ABDULHADI]
Somali People's Democratic Party or SPDP
Political pressure groups and leadersother: numerous political associations and clan and sub-clan factions exist in support and against political leaders from each clan, Federal Member State presidents, and other political leaders including the former and current presidents
Ginbot 7 Movement
Ogaden National Liberation Front or ONLF
Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa]
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU (candidate), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, LAS, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO
ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Ahmed Issa AWAD (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 425 East 61st Street, Suite 702, New York City, NY 10021
telephone: [1] (212) 688-9410, 688-5046
FAX: [1] (212) 759-0651
chief of mission: Ambassador GIRMA Birru Geda (since 6 January 2011)
chancery: 3506 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 364-1200
FAX: [1] (202) 587-0195
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Seattle
consulate(s): Houston, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USthe US Mission to Somalia, operating out of the US Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya, is headed by Ambassador Stephen M. SCHWARTZ (since 9 August 2016)
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Peter H. VROOMAN (since 2016)
embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
mailing address: P.O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
telephone: [251] 11 130-6000
FAX: 124-2401 [251] 11 124 2401
Flag descriptionlight blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; the blue field was originally influenced by the flag of the UN, but today is said to denote the sky and the neighboring Indian Ocean; the five points of the star represent the five regions in the horn of Africa that are inhabited by Somali people: the former British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland (which together make up Somalia), Djibouti, Ogaden (Ethiopia), and the North East Province (Kenya)
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red, with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; green represents hope and the fertility of the land, yellow symbolizes justice and harmony, while red stands for sacrifice and heroism in the defense of the land; the blue of the disk symbolizes peace and the pentagram represents the unity and equality of the nationalities and peoples of Ethiopia
note: Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three main colors of her flag (adopted ca. 1895) were so often appropriated by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the Pan-African colors; the emblem in the center of the current flag was added in 1996
National anthem"name: ""Qolobaa Calankeed"" (Every Nation Has its own Flag)
lyrics/music: lyrics/music: Abdullahi QARSHE
note: adopted 2012; written in 1959
"
"name: ""Whedefit Gesgeshi Woud Enat Ethiopia"" (March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia)
lyrics/music: DEREJE Melaku Mengesha/SOLOMON Lulu
note: adopted 1992
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)leopard; national colors: blue, white
Abyssinian lion (traditional), yellow pentagram with five rays of light on a blue field (promoted by current government); national colors: green, yellow, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Somalia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Ethiopia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years

Economy

SomaliaEthiopia
Economy - overviewDespite the lack of effective national governance, Somalia maintains an informal economy largely based on livestock, remittance/money transfer companies, and telecommunications. Somalia's government lacks the ability to collect domestic revenue and external debt – mostly in arrears – was estimated at 93% of GDP in 2014.

Agriculture is the most important sector, with livestock normally accounting for about 40% of GDP and more than 50% of export earnings. Nomads and semi-pastoralists, who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihood, make up a large portion of the population. Economic activity is estimated to have increased by 3.7% in 2016 because of growth in the agriculture, construction and telecommunications sector. Somalia's small industrial sector, based on the processing of agricultural products, has largely been looted and the machinery sold as scrap metal.

In recent years, Somalia's capital city, Mogadishu, has witnessed the development of the city's first gas stations, supermarkets, and airline flights to Turkey since the collapse of central authority in 1991. Mogadishu's main market offers a variety of goods from food to electronic gadgets. Hotels continue to operate and are supported with private-security militias. Formalized economic growth has yet to expand outside of Mogadishu and a few regional capitals, and within the city, security concerns dominate business. Telecommunication firms provide wireless services in most major cities and offer the lowest international call rates on the continent. In the absence of a formal banking sector, money transfer/remittance services have sprouted throughout the country, handling up to $1.6 billion in remittances annually, although international concerns over the money transfers into Somalia continues to threaten these services’ ability to operate in Western nations.
Ethiopia - the second most populous country in Africa - is a one-party state with a planned economy. For more than a decade before 2016, Ethiopia grew at a rate between 8% and 11% annually – one of the fastest growing states among the 188 IMF member countries. This growth was driven by government investment in infrastructure, as well as sustained progress in the agricultural and service sectors. More than 70% of Ethiopia’s population is still employed in the agricultural sector, but services have surpassed agriculture as the principal source of GDP.

Ethiopia has the lowest level of income-inequality in Africa and one of the lowest in the world, with a Gini coefficient comparable to that of the Scandinavian countries. Yet despite progress toward eliminating extreme poverty, Ethiopia remains one of the poorest countries in the world, due both to rapid population growth and a low starting base. Changes in rainfall associated with world-wide weather patterns resulted in the worst drought in thirty years in 2015/2016, creating food insecurity for millions of Ethiopians.

The state is heavily engaged in the economy. Ongoing infrastructure projects include power production and distribution, roads, rails, airports and industrial parks. Key sectors are state-owned, including telecommunications, banking and insurance, and power distribution. Under Ethiopia's constitution, the state owns all land and provides long-term leases to tenants. Title rights in urban areas, particularly Addis Ababa, are poorly regulated, and subject to corruption.

Ethiopia’s foreign exchange earnings are led by the services sector - primarily the state-run Ethiopian Airlines - followed by exports of several commodities. While coffee remains the largest foreign exchange earner, Ethiopia is diversifying exports, and commodities such as gold, sesame, khat, livestock and horticulture products are becoming increasingly important. Manufacturing represented less than 8% of total exports in 2016, but manufacturing exports should increase due to a growing international presence.

The banking, insurance, telecommunications, and micro-credit industries are restricted to domestic investors, but Ethiopia has attracted roughly $8.5 billion in foreign direct investment, mostly from China, Turkey, India and the EU; US FDI is $567 million. Investment has been primarily in infrastructure, construction, agriculture/horticulture, agricultural processing, textiles, leather and leather products.

In the fall of 2015, the government finalized and published the current 2016-2020 five-year plan, known as the Growth and Transformation Plan II, which emphasizes developing manufacturing in sectors where Ethiopia has a comparative advantage, such as textiles and garments, leather goods, and processed agricultural products. To support industrialization, Ethiopia plans to increase installed power generation capacity by 8,320 MW, up from a capacity of 2,000 MW, by building three more major dams and expanding to other sources of renewable energy.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$4.719 billion (2016 est.)
$4.551 billion (2015 est.)
$4.431 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
$174.7 billion (2016 est.)
$164.1 billion (2015 est.)
$148.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.7% (2016 est.)
2.7% (2015 est.)
3.4% (2014 est.)
6.5% (2016 est.)
10.2% (2015 est.)
10.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$400 (2016 est.)
$400 (2015 est.)
$400 (2014 est.)
$1,900 (2016 est.)
$1,800 (2015 est.)
$1,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 60.2%
industry: 7.4%
services: 32.5% (2013 est.)
agriculture: 36.2%
industry: 17%
services: 46.8% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty lineNA%
29.6% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 25.6% (2005)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1.5% (2016 est.)
-0.5% (2015 est.)
7.7% (2016 est.)
10.1% (2015 est.)
Labor force3.109 million (2013 est.)
50.97 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 71%
industry and services: 29% (1975)
agriculture: 72.7%
industry: 7.4%
services: 19.9% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rateNA%
17.5% (2012 est.)
18% (2011 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $145.3 million
expenditures: $151.1 million (2014 est.)
revenues: $10.07 billion
expenditures: $11.85 billion (2016 est.)
Industrieslight industries, including sugar refining, textiles, wireless communication
food processing, beverages, textiles, leather, garments, chemicals, metals processing, cement
Industrial production growth rate3.5% (2014 est.)
9% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsbananas, sorghum, corn, coconuts, rice, sugarcane, mangoes, sesame seeds, beans; cattle, sheep, goats; fish
cereals, coffee, oilseed, cotton, sugarcane, vegetables, khat, cut flowers; hides, cattle, sheep, goats; fish
Exports$819 million (2014 est.)
$779 million (2013 est.)
$2.932 billion (2016 est.)
$2.935 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditieslivestock, bananas, hides, fish, charcoal, scrap metal
coffee (27%, by value), oilseeds (17%), edible vegetables including khat (17%), gold (13%), flowers (7%), live animals (7%), raw leather products (3%), meat products (3%)
Exports - partnersUAE 36.1%, Oman 33.4%, Yemen 15.5% (2015)
Switzerland 14.3%, China 11.7%, US 9.5%, Netherlands 8.7%, Saudi Arabia 5.9%, Germany 5.7% (2015)
Imports$3.482 billion (2014 est.)
$3.322 billion (2013 est.)
$14.7 billion (2016 est.)
$15.87 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmanufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials, qat
machinery and aircraft (14%, by value), metal and metal products, (14%), electrical materials, (13%), petroleum products (12%), motor vehicles, (10%), chemicals and fertilizers (4%)
Imports - partnersOman 17.1%, Djibouti 17%, India 15%, China 10.7%, Kenya 5.5%, Pakistan 4% (2015)
China 20.5%, US 9.2%, Saudi Arabia 6.5%, India 4.5% (2015)
Debt - external$5.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$3.054 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$22.49 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$19.04 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesSomali shillings (SOS) per US dollar -
20,227 (2014 est.)
20,227 (2013 est.)
birr (ETB) per US dollar -
23.25 (2016 est.)
21.55 (2015 est.)
21.55 (2014 est.)
19.8 (2013 est.)
17.71 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearNA
8 July - 7 July
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$30.45 million (2014 est.)
$2.956 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.113 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$644 million (2014 est.)
-$7.206 billion (2016 est.)
-$7.483 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$5.925 billion (2015 est.)
$69.22 billion (2016 est.)
Central bank discount rateNA%
NA%
Commercial bank prime lending rateNA%
12.2% (31 December 2016 est.)
11.5% (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues2.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
14.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-0.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
-2.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 72.1%
government consumption: 8.7%
investment in fixed capital: 19.8%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 0.3%
imports of goods and services: -1.7% (2015 est.)
household consumption: 65.9%
government consumption: 10.2%
investment in fixed capital: 37.6%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 8.7%
imports of goods and services: -22.3% (2016 est.)

Energy

SomaliaEthiopia
Electricity - production300 million kWh (2014 est.)
9.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption300 million kWh (2014 est.)
6.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013 est.)
1.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
430,000 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
24.92 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity81,000 kW (2014 est.)
2.4 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
8.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
88.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
3.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption5,700 bbl/day (2014 est.)
61,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports5,679 bbl/day (2013 est.)
58,740 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy900,000 Mt (2013 est.)
9.3 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 8,900,000
electrification - total population: 15%
electrification - urban areas: 33%
electrification - rural areas: 4% (2013)
population without electricity: 71,200,000
electrification - total population: 24%
electrification - urban areas: 85%
electrification - rural areas: 10% (2013)

Telecommunications

SomaliaEthiopia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 51,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 890,642
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 5.836 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 55 (July 2015 est.)
total: 42.312 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 43 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: the public telecommunications system was almost completely destroyed or dismantled during the civil war; private companies offer limited local fixed-line service, and private wireless companies offer service in most major cities, while charging the lowest international rates on the continent
domestic: local cellular telephone systems have been established in Mogadishu and in several other population centers with one company beginning to provide 3G services in late 2012
international: country code - 252; Mogadishu is a landing point for the EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable system linking East Africa with Europe and North America (2012)
general assessment: Ethio Telecom maintains a monopoly over telecommunication services; open-wire, microwave radio relay; radio communication in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; 2 domestic satellites provide the national trunk service
domestic: the number of mobile telephones is increasing steadily from a small base and now stands at over 40 per 100 persons
international: country code - 251; open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.so
.et
Internet userstotal: 187,000
percent of population: 1.8% (July 2015 est.)
total: 11.538 million
percent of population: 11.6% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast media2 private TV stations rebroadcast Al-Jazeera and CNN; Somaliland has 1 government-operated TV station and Puntland has 1 private TV station; the transitional government operates Radio Mogadishu; 1 SW and roughly 10 private FM radio stations broadcast in Mogadishu; several radio stations operate in central and southern regions; Somaliland has 1 government-operated radio station; Puntland has roughly a half-dozen private radio stations; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are available (2007)
6 public TV stations broadcasting nationally and 10 public radio broadcasters; 7 private radio stations and 19 community radio stations (2017)

Transportation

SomaliaEthiopia
Roadwaystotal: 22,100 km
paved: 2,608 km
unpaved: 19,492 km (2000)
total: 110,414 km
paved: 14,354 km
unpaved: 96,060 km (2015)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Berbera, Kismaayo
Ethiopia is landlocked and uses the ports of Djibouti in Djibouti and Berbera in Somalia
Merchant marinetotal: 1
by type: cargo 1 (2008)
total: 8
by type: cargo 8 (2010)
Airports61 (2013)
57 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 6
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
total: 17
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 55
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 20
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 6 (2013)
total: 40
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 8 (2013)

Military

SomaliaEthiopia
Military branchesNational Security Force (NSF): Somali Army (2011)
Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF): Ground Forces, Ethiopian Air Force (Ye Ityopya Ayer Hayl, ETAF) (2013)
Military service age and obligation18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory and voluntary military service (2012)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service, but the military can conduct callups when necessary and compliance is compulsory (2012)

Transnational Issues

SomaliaEthiopia
Disputes - international"Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; ""Somaliland"" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera to landlocked Ethiopia and have established commercial ties with other regional states; ""Puntland"" and ""Somaliland"" ""governments"" seek international support in their secessionist aspirations and overlapping border claims; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading south across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists
"
"Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; ""Somaliland"" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera and trade ties to landlocked Ethiopia; civil unrest in eastern Sudan has hampered efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia
"
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 9,263 (Yemen) (2017)
IDPs: 1,106,751 (civil war since 1988, clan-based competition for resources; 2011 famine; insecurity because of fighting between al-Shabaab and the Transitional Federal Government's allied forces) (2017)
refugees (country of origin): 375,685 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 249,903 (Somalia) (refugees); 161,398 (Eritrea) (refugees and asylum seekers); 41,588 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2017)
IDPs: 258,000 (border war with Eritrea from 1998-2000; ethnic clashes; and ongoing fighting between the Ethiopian military and separatist rebel groups in the Sumale and Oromiya regions; natural disasters; intercommunal violence; most IDPs live in Sumale state) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook