Slovenia vs. Hungary


BackgroundThe Slovene lands were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the latter's dissolution at the end of World War I. In 1918, the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new multinational state, which was named Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia became a republic of the renewed Yugoslavia, which though communist, distanced itself from Moscow's rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power by the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 after a short 10-day war. Historical ties to Western Europe, a strong economy, and a stable democracy have assisted in Slovenia's transformation to a modern state. Slovenia acceded to both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004; it joined the euro zone and the Schengen zone in 2007.
"Hungary became a Christian kingdom in A.D. 1000 and for many centuries served as a bulwark against Ottoman Turkish expansion in Europe. The kingdom eventually became part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and an announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. Under the leadership of Janos KADAR in 1968, Hungary began liberalizing its economy, introducing so-called ""Goulash Communism."" Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU five years later.


Locationsouth Central Europe, Julian Alps between Austria and Croatia
Central Europe, northwest of Romania
Geographic coordinates46 07 N, 14 49 E
47 00 N, 20 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Areatotal: 20,273 sq km
land: 20,151 sq km
water: 122 sq km
total: 93,028 sq km
land: 89,608 sq km
water: 3,420 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than New Jersey
slightly smaller than Virginia; about the same size as Indiana
Land boundariestotal: 1,211 km
border countries (4): Austria 299 km, Croatia 600 km, Hungary 94 km, Italy 218 km
total: 2,106 km
border countries (7): Austria 321 km, Croatia 348 km, Romania 424 km, Serbia 164 km, Slovakia 627 km, Slovenia 94 km, Ukraine 128 km
Coastline46.6 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
none (landlocked)
ClimateMediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east
temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
Terraina short southwestern coastal strip of Karst topography on the Adriatic; an alpine mountain region lies adjacent to Italy and Austria in the north; mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east
mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 492 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Triglav 2,864 m
mean elevation: 143 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
highest point: Kekes 1,014 m
Natural resourceslignite, lead, zinc, building stone, hydropower, forests
bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 22.8%
arable land 8.4%; permanent crops 1.3%; permanent pasture 13.1%
forest: 62.3%
other: 14.9% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 58.9%
arable land 48.5%; permanent crops 2%; permanent pasture 8.4%
forest: 22.5%
other: 18.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land60 sq km (2012)
1,721 sq km (2012)
Environment - current issuesSava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage from urban air pollution and resulting acid rain
the upgrading of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution to meet EU requirements will require large investments
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notedespite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes
landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions
Population distributiona fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; pockets in the mountainous northwest exhibit less density than elsewhere
a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations


Population1,978,029 (July 2016 est.)
9,874,784 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 13.35% (male 136,114/female 127,904)
15-24 years: 9.58% (male 97,191/female 92,369)
25-54 years: 43.3% (male 432,824/female 423,708)
55-64 years: 14.82% (male 144,160/female 148,903)
65 years and over: 18.95% (male 152,770/female 222,086) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 14.76% (male 750,516/female 706,780)
15-24 years: 11.19% (male 570,097/female 534,856)
25-54 years: 41.74% (male 2,071,865/female 2,049,939)
55-64 years: 13.66% (male 620,362/female 728,387)
65 years and over: 18.65% (male 693,609/female 1,148,373) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 44.1 years
male: 42.5 years
female: 45.9 years (2016 est.)
total: 41.8 years
male: 39.9 years
female: 44.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate-0.29% (2016 est.)
-0.24% (2016 est.)
Birth rate8.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate11.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
12.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
1.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 78.2 years
male: 74.6 years
female: 82 years (2016 est.)
total population: 75.9 years
male: 72.2 years
female: 79.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.35 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.44 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.08% (2014 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Slovene(s)
adjective: Slovenian
noun: Hungarian(s)
adjective: Hungarian
Ethnic groupsSlovene 83.1%, Serb 2%, Croat 1.8%, Bosniak 1.1%, other or unspecified 12% (2002 census)
Hungarian 85.6%, Romani 3.2%, German 1.9%, other 2.6%, unspecified 14.1% (2011 est.)
note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic group; Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–10% of Hungary's population
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS900 (2014 est.)
ReligionsCatholic 57.8%, Muslim 2.4%, Orthodox 2.3%, other Christian 0.9%, unaffiliated 3.5%, other or unspecified 23%, none 10.1% (2002 census)
Roman Catholic 37.2%, Calvinist 11.6%, Lutheran 2.2%, Greek Catholic 1.8%, other 1.9%, none 18.2%, unspecified 27.2% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsless than 100 (2014 est.)
100 (2013 est.)
LanguagesSlovenian (official) 91.1%, Serbo-Croatian 4.5%, other or unspecified 4.4%, Italian (official, only in municipalities where Italian national communities reside), Hungarian (official, only in municipalities where Hungarian national communities reside) (2002 census)
Hungarian (official) 99.6%, English 16%, German 11.2%, Russian 1.6%, Romanian 1.3%, French 1.2%, other 4.2%
note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Hungarian is the mother tongue of 98.9% of Hungarian speakers (2011 est.)
Literacydefinition: NA
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.1%
male: 99.1%
female: 99% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 17 years
male: 17 years
female: 18 years (2014)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2015)
Education expenditures5.5% of GDP (2013)
4.2% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 49.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.08% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 71.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.47% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 99.7% of population
rural: 99.4% of population
total: 99.5% of population
urban: 0.3% of population
rural: 0.6% of population
total: 0.5% of population (2015 est.)
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 99.1% of population
rural: 99.1% of population
total: 99.1% of population
urban: 0.9% of population
rural: 0.9% of population
total: 0.9% of population (2015 est.)
urban: 97.8% of population
rural: 98.6% of population
total: 98% of population
urban: 2.2% of population
rural: 1.4% of population
total: 2% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationLJUBLJANA (capital) 279,000 (2014)
BUDAPEST (capital) 1.714 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate9 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
17 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures9.2% of GDP (2014)
7.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.77 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
3.32 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density4.6 beds/1,000 population (2013)
7.2 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate27.4% (2014)
26% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth29 years (2013 est.)
28.2 years (2013 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 48.7
youth dependency ratio: 22
elderly dependency ratio: 26.7
potential support ratio: 3.7 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 47.9
youth dependency ratio: 21.5
elderly dependency ratio: 26.3
potential support ratio: 3.8 (2015 est.)


Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia
conventional short form: Slovenia
local long form: Republika Slovenija
local short form: Slovenija
former: People's Republic of Slovenia, Socialist Republic of Slovenia
etymology: related to the Slavic autonym (self-designation) ""Slovenin,"" a derivation from ""slovo"" (word), denoting ""people who speak (the same language)"" (i.e., people who understand each other)
"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Hungary
local long form: none
local short form: Magyarorszag
etymology: the Byzantine Greeks refered to the tribes that arrived on the steppes of Eastern Europe in the 9th century as the ""Oungroi,"" a name that was later Latinized to ""Ungri"" and which became ""Hungari""; the name originally meant an ""[alliance of] ten tribes""; the Hungarian name ""Magyarorszag"" means ""Country of the Magyars""; the term may derive from the most prominent of the Hungarian tribes, the Megyer
Government typeparliamentary republic
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Ljubljana
geographic coordinates: 46 03 N, 14 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Budapest
geographic coordinates: 47 30 N, 19 05 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions201 municipalities (obcine, singular - obcina) and 11 urban municipalities (mestne obcine, singular - mestna obcina)
municipalities: Ajdovscina, Ankaran, Apace, Beltinci, Benedikt, Bistrica ob Sotli, Bled, Bloke, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Braslovce, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Cerkvenjak, Cirkulane, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik, Divaca, Dobje, Dobrepolje, Dobrna, Dobrova-Polhov Gradec, Dobrovnik/Dobronak, Dolenjske Toplice, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gorje, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grad, Grosuplje, Hajdina, Hoce-Slivnica, Hodos, Horjul, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola/Isola, Jesenice, Jezersko, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Komenda, Kosanjevica na Krki, Kostel, Kozje, Kranjska Gora, Krizevci, Krsko, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava/Lendva, Litija, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Log-Dragomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Lovrenc na Pohorju, Luce, Lukovica,
Majsperk, Makole, Markovci, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miklavz na Dravskem Polju, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mirna, Mirna Pec, Mislinja, Mokronog-Trebelno, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Odranci, Oplotnica, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran/Pirano, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podlehnik, Podvelka, Poljcane, Polzela, Postojna, Prebold, Preddvor, Prevalje, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne na Koroskem, Razkrizje, Recica ob Savinji, Rence-Vogrsko, Ribnica, Ribnica na Pohorju, Rogaska Slatina, Rogasovci, Rogatec, Ruse, Selnica ob Dravi, Semic, Sevnica, Sezana, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Sodrazica, Solcava, Sredisce ob Dravi, Starse, Straza, Sveta Ana, Sveta Trojica v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Andraz v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Jurij ob Scavnici, Sveti Jurij v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Tomaz, Salovci, Sempeter-Vrtojba, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur, Sentrupert, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smarjeske Toplice, Smartno ob Paki, Smartno pri Litiji, Sostanj, Store, Tabor, Tisina, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trnovska Vas, Trzic, Trzin, Turnisce, Velika Polana, Velike Lasce, Verzej, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice, Vojnik, Vransko, Vrhnika, Vuzenica, Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki, Zetale, Ziri, Zirovnica, Zrece, Zuzemberk
urban municipalities: Celje, Koper-Capodistria, Kranj, Ljubljana, Maribor, Murska Sobota, Nova Gorica, Novo Mesto, Ptuj, Slovenj Gradec, Velenje
19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 23 cities with county rights (megyei jogu varosok, singular - megyei jogu varos), and 1 capital city (fovaros)
counties: Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Csongrad, Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala
cities with county rights: Bekescsaba, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Erd, Gyor, Hodmezovasarhely, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Salgotarjan, Sopron, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szekszard, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Veszprem, Zalaegerszeg
capital city: Budapest
Independence25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
16 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 25 December 1000 (crowning of King STEPHEN I, traditional founding date); 30 March 1867 (Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy established)
National holidayIndependence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)
Saint Stephen's Day, 20 August (1083); note - commemorates his cannonization and the transfer of his remains to Buda (now Budapest) in 1083
Constitutionhistory: previous 1974 (preindependence); latest passed by Parliament 23 December 1991
amendments: proposed by at least 20 National Assembly members, by the government, or by petition of at least 30,000 voters; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; referendum required if agreed upon by at least 30 Assembly members; passage in a referendum requires participation of a majority of eligible voters and a simple majority of votes cast; amended several times, last in 2015 (2016)
history: previous 1949 (heavily amended in 1989 following the collapse of communism); latest approved 18 April 2011, signed 25 April 2011, effective 1 January 2012
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the government, by parliamentary committee, or by Parliament members; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament members and approval by the president; amended several times, last in 2013 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system
civil legal system influenced by the German model
Suffrage18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
18 years of age, 16 if married; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Borut PAHOR (since 22 December 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Miro CERAR (since 18 September 2014)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 November 2012 with a runoff on 2 December 2012 (next to be held in 2017); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually nominated prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly
election results: Borut PAHOR elected president; percent of vote in second round - Borut PAHOR (SD) 67.4%, Danilo TURK (independent) 32.6%; note - a snap election was held in July 2014 following the resignation of Prime Minister Alenka BRATUSEK in May 2014, Miro CERAR (SMC) elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 57 to 11
chief of state: Janos ADER (since 10 May 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Viktor ORBAN (since 29 May 2010)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister and appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly with two-thirds majority vote in first round or simple majority vote in second round for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 13 March 2017 (next to be held by spring 2022); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president
election results: Janos ADER (Fidesz) reelected president; National Assembly vote - 131 to 39; Viktor ORBAN (Fidesz) elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 130 to 57 (in 2014)
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament consists of the National Council or Drzavni Svet (40 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats; 88 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 directly elected in special constituencies for Italian and Hungarian minorities by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms); note - the National Council is primarily an advisory body with limited legislative powers
elections: National Assembly - last held on 13 July 2014 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - SMC 34.6%, SDS 20.7%, DeSUS 10.2%, ZL 6%, SD 6%, NSi 5.6%, ZaAB 4.3%, other 12.6%; seats by party - SMC 36, SDS 21, DeSUS 10, ZL 6, SD 6, NSi, 5, ZaAB 4, Hungarian minority 1, Italian minority 1
note: as of January 2017, seats by party SMC 35, SDS 19, DeSUS 11, ZL 6, SD 6, NSi 5, Hungarian minority 1, Italian minority 1, unaffiliated 6
description: unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (199 seats; 106 members directly elected in single-member constituencies by simple majority vote and 93 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 6 April 2014 (next to be held by April 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - Fidesz-KDNP 44.5%, Unity 26%, Jobbik 20.5%, LMP 5.3%, other 3.7%; seats by party - Fidesz-KDNP 133, Unity 38, Jobbik 23, LMP 5
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and 37 judges organized into civil, criminal, commercial, labor and social security, administrative, and registry departments); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 7 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and vice president appointed by the National Assembly upon the proposal of the Minister of Justice based on the opinions of the Judicial Council, an 11-member independent body elected by the National Assembly from proposals submitted by the president, attorneys, law universities, and sitting judges; other Supreme Court judges elected by the National Assembly from candidates proposed by the Judicial Council; Supreme Court judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly from nominations by the president of the republic; Constitutional Court president selected from among their own for a 3-year term; other judges elected for single 9-year terms
subordinate courts: county, district, regional, and high courts; specialized labor-related and social courts; Court of Audit; Administrative Court
highest court(s): Curia or Supreme Judicial Court (consists of the president, vice president, 5 department heads, and approximately 76 judges and organized into civil, criminal, economic, and administrative-labor departments; Constitutional Court (consists of 15 judges including the court president)
judge selection and term of office: Curia president elected from among its members for 9 years by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president of the republic; other Curia judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a separate 15-member administrative body; judge tenure based on interim evaluations until normal retirement age; Constitutional Court judges elected by two-thirds vote of the National Assembly; members serve single renewable 12-year terms with mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: 5 regional courts of appeal; 19 regional or county courts (including Budapest Metropolitan Court); 20 administrative and labor courts; 111 district or local courts
Political parties and leadersAlliance of Social Liberal Democrats or ZSD (formerly Alliance of Alenka Bratusek or ZaAB) [Alenka BRATUSEK]
Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia or DeSUS [Karl ERJAVEC]
Modern Center Party or SMC [Miro CERAR]
New Slovenia or NSi [Ljudmila NOVAK]
Slovenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA]
Social Democrats or SD [Dejan ZIDAN]
United Left or ZL (collective leadership)
Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN]
Democratic Coalition or DK [Ferenc GYURCSANY]
Dialogue for Hungary or PM [Javor BENEDEK, Timea SZABO]
Fidesz-Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN]
Hungarian Liberal Party or MLP [Gabor FODOR]
Hungarian Socialist Party or MSZP [Gyula MOLNAR]
Movement for a Better Hungary or Jobbik [Gabor VONA]
Politics Can Be Different or LMP [Bernadett SZEL, Akos HADHAZI]
Together 2014 or Egyutt [Peter JUHASZ, Viktor SZIGETVARI]
Political pressure groups and leadersCatholic Church
other: various trade and public sector employee unions
"Civil Osszefogas Forum (""Civil Unity Forum,"" nominally independent organization that serves as the steering committee for the pro-government mass organization Bekemenet (Peace March), supporting ORBAN government's policies)
Hungarian Civil Liberties Union (Tarsasag a Szabadsagjogokert) or TASZ (freedom of expression, information privacy)
Hungarian Helsinki Committee (asylum seekers' rights, human rights in law enforcement and the judicial system)
MigSzol (Migrant Solidarity Group of Hungary) (independent advocacy group on migration crisis)
MostMi (""Now Us"") [Bori TAKACS, Zsolt VARADY](Facebook group that was a major participant at anti-government demonstrations in late 2014-early 2015; pro-Europe, anti-establishment movement that blames Fidesz for the state of the country, but also blames all established political parties for perceived political and economic failures since the fall of communism)
Okotars (empowerment of civil society in Hungary)

Energy Club (Energia Klub)
Greenpeace Hungary (Greenpeace Magyarorszag)
International organization participationAustralia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Bozo CERAR (since 6 September 2013)
chancery: 2410 California Street N.W., Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 386-6601
FAX: [1] (202) 386-6633
consulate(s) general: Cleveland (OH)
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Laszlo SZABO designated
chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
consulate(s): Boston
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Brent Robert HARTLEY (since 12 February 2015)
embassy: Presernova 31, 1000 Ljubljana
mailing address: American Embassy Ljubljana, US Department of State, 7140 Ljubljana Place, Washington, DC 20521-7140
telephone: [386] (1) 200-5500
FAX: [386] (1) 200-5555
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d’Affaires David KOSTELANCIK (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest
mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270
telephone: [36] (1) 475-4400
FAX: [36] (1) 475-4248
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red, derive from the medieval coat of arms of the Duchy of Carniola; the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav, Slovenia's highest peak, in white against a blue background at the center; beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers, and above it are three six-pointed stars arranged in an inverted triangle, which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje, the prominent Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th centuries) appears in the upper hoist side of the flag centered on the white and blue bands
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green; the flag dates to the national movement of the 18th and 19th centuries, and fuses the medieval colors of the Hungarian coat of arms with the revolutionary tricolor form of the French flag; folklore attributes virtues to the colors: red for strength, white for faithfulness, and green for hope; alternatively, the red is seen as being for the blood spilled in defense of the land, white for freedom, and green for the pasturelands that make up so much of the country
National anthem"name: ""Zdravljica"" (A Toast)
lyrics/music: France PRESEREN/Stanko PREMRL
note: adopted 1989; originally written in 1848; the full poem, whose seventh verse is used as the anthem, speaks of pan-Slavic nationalism
"name: ""Himnusz"" (Hymn)
lyrics/music: Ferenc KOLCSEY/Ferenc ERKEL
note: adopted 1844
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Mount Triglav; national colors: white, blue, red
Holy Crown of Hungary (Crown of Saint Stephen); national colors: red, white, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Slovenia; both parents if the child is born outside of Slovenia
dual citizenship recognized: yes, for select cases
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years, the last 5 of which have been continuous
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Hungary
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years


Economy - overviewWith excellent infrastructure, a well-educated work force, and a strategic location between the Balkans and Western Europe, Slovenia has one of the highest per capita GDPs in Central Europe, despite having suffered a protracted recession in 2008-2009 in the wake of the global financial crisis. Slovenia became the first 2004 EU entrant to adopt the euro (on 1 January 2007) and has experienced one of the most stable political transitions in Central and Southeastern Europe.

In March 2004, Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank. In 2007, Slovenia was invited to begin the process for joining the OECD; it became a member in 2012. However, long-delayed privatizations, particularly within Slovenia’s largely state-owned and increasingly indebted banking sector, have fueled investor concerns since 2012 that the country would need EU-IMF financial assistance. In 2013, the European Commission granted Slovenia permission to begin recapitalizing ailing lenders and transferring their nonperforming assets into a “bad bank” established to restore bank balance sheets. From 2014 to 2016, export-led growth, fueled by demand in larger European markets pushed GDP growth to 2.3% per year, while stubbornly-high unemployment fell slightly to below 12%.

Prime Minister CERAR’s government took office in September 2014, pledging to press ahead with commitments to privatize a select group of state-run companies, rationalize public spending, and further stabilize the banking sector.
Hungary has made the transition from a centrally planned to a liberal market-driven economy with a per capita income nearly two-thirds that of the EU-28 average; however, in recent years the government has become more involved in managing the economy. Budapest has implemented unorthodox economic policies to boost household consumption and has relied on EU-funded development projects to generate growth.

The economy is largely driven by exports, making it vulnerable to external market shocks. Following the fall of communism in 1990, Hungary experienced a drop-off in exports and financial assistance from the former Soviet Union. Hungary embarked on a series of economic reforms, including privatization of state-owned enterprises and reduction of social spending programs, to shift from a centrally planned to a market-driven economy, and to reorient its economy towards trade with the West. These efforts helped to spur growth, attract investment, and reduce Hungary’s debt burden and fiscal deficits. However, living conditions for the average Hungarian initially deteriorated as inflation increased and unemployment reached double digits. Conditions slowly improved over the 1990s as the reforms came to fruition and export growth accelerated. Economic policies instituted during that decade helped position Hungary to join the European Union in 2004; Hungary has yet to join the euro zone, however. Hungary suffered a historic economic contraction as a result of the global economic slowdown in 2008-09 as export demand and domestic consumption dropped, prompting it to take an IMF-EU financial assistance package.

Since 2010, the government has backpedalled on reforms and taken a more nationalist and populist approach towards economic management. The government has favored national industries, and specifically government-linked businesses, through legislation, regulation, and public procurements. In 2010 and 2012, the government increased taxes on foreign-dominated sectors, such as banking and retail, because the move helped to raise revenues and decrease the budget deficit, thereby allowing Hungary to maintain access to EU development funds. The policy deterred private investment, however. In 2011 and 2014, Hungary nationalized private pension funds. The move squeezed financial service providers out of the system, but it also helped Hungary curb its public debt and lower its budget deficit to below 3% of GDP, as subsequent pension contributions have been channeled into the state-managed pension fund. Hungary’s public debt (at 73.9% of GDP) is still high compared to EU peers in Central Europe. Despite these reversals, real GDP growth has remained robust in the past several years because EU cyclical funding increased, EU demand for Hungarian exports rose, and domestic household consumption rebounded. To further boost household consumption ahead of an anticipated 2018 election, the government has announced plans to increase the minimum wage and public sector salaries, to decrease taxes on foodstuffs and services, to decrease personal income tax from 16% to 15%, as well as to introduce a uniform 9% business tax for both small and medium enterprises and large companies. Real GDP growth slowed in 2016 due to a cyclical fallback in EU funds, but is expected to increase to above 3% in 2017 and 2018.

Systemic economic challenges include long-term and youth unemployment, labor shortages, widespread poverty in rural areas, vulnerabilities to changes in demand for exports, and a heavy reliance on Russian energy imports.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$68.35 billion (2016 est.)
$65.96 billion (2015 est.)
$63.91 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$267.6 billion (2016 est.)
$262.4 billion (2015 est.)
$254.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2.5% (2016 est.)
2.3% (2015 est.)
3.1% (2014 est.)
2% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2015 est.)
3.7% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$33,100 (2016 est.)
$32,000 (2015 est.)
$31,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$27,200 (2016 est.)
$26,600 (2015 est.)
$25,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 2.3%
industry: 33.6%
services: 64.1% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 3.5%
industry: 31.8%
services: 64.7% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line14.3% (2015 est.)
14.9% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.8%
highest 10%: 20.2% (2012)
lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 22.4% (2015)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)0.5% (2016 est.)
-0.5% (2015 est.)
0.1% (2016 est.)
-0.1% (2015 est.)
Labor force926,600 (2016 est.)
4.564 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 3.7%
industry: 31.7%
services: 64.6% (2015 est.)
agriculture: 4.9%
industry: 30.3%
services: 64.5% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate11.2% (2016 est.)
12.3% (2015 est.)
6.6% (2016 est.)
6.8% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index24.5 (2015)
25 (2014)
28.2 (2015 est.)
28.6 (2014)
Budgetrevenues: $19.32 billion
expenditures: $20.51 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $57.32 billion
expenditures: $60.08 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting; electronics (including military electronics), trucks, automobiles, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools
mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles
Industrial production growth rate5.6% (2015 est.)
3.3% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productshops, wheat, coffee, corn, apples, pears; cattle, sheep, poultry
wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products
Exports$20.56 billion (2016 est.)
$19.99 billion (2015 est.)
$91.78 billion (2016 est.)
$89.44 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesmanufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food
machinery and equipment 53.4%, other manufactures 31.2%, food products 8.4%, raw materials 3.4%, fuels and electricity 3.9% (2012 est.)
Exports - partnersGermany 19.1%, Italy 10.6%, Austria 8%, Croatia 6.8%, Slovakia 4.7%, Hungary 4.4%, France 4.2% (2015)
Germany 28%, Romania 5.4%, Slovakia 5.1%, Austria 5%, Italy 4.8%, France 4.7%, UK 4%, Czech Republic 4% (2015)
Imports$20.52 billion (2016 est.)
$19.65 billion (2015 est.)
$86.61 billion (2016 est.)
$84.7 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, food
machinery and equipment 45.4%, other manufactures 34.3%, fuels and electricity 12.6%, food products 5.3%, raw materials 2.5% (2012)
Imports - partnersGermany 16.5%, Italy 13.6%, Austria 10.2%, China 5.5%, Croatia 5.1%, Turkey 4% (2015)
Germany 25.8%, China 6.7%, Austria 6.6%, Poland 5.5%, Slovakia 5.3%, France 5%, Czech Republic 4.8%, Netherlands 4.6%, Italy 4.5% (2015)
Debt - external$46.3 billion (31 January 2017 est.)
$48.2 billion (31 January 2016 est.)
$131.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$127.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange rateseuros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)
forints (HUF) per US dollar -
287.7 (2016 est.)
279.33 (2015 est.)
279.33 (2014 est.)
232.6 (2013 est.)
225.1 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt81.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
83.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds
75.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
75.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and government, state government, local government, and social security funds.
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$753 million (28 February 2017 est.)
$850 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$31.62 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$33.13 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$3.009 billion (2016 est.)
$2.217 billion (2015 est.)
$5.434 billion (2016 est.)
$4.121 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$43.99 billion (2016 est.)
$117.1 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$15.64 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14.49 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$240.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$236.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$8.093 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.843 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$168.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$165.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$5.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.94 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$21.59 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.69 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$14.51 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate0% (16 March 2016)
0.05% (4 Sept 2014)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
0.9% (31 December 2016)
1.35% (31 December 2015)
Commercial bank prime lending rate2.3% (31 Januay 2017 est.)
2.7% (31 January 2016 est.)
2.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.9% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$29.64 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$29.94 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$68.82 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$69.85 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$17.27 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14.52 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
$48.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$46.14 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$25.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$23.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$68.87 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$66.91 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues43.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
49% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
-2.4% of GDP
note: Hungary has been under the EU Excessive Deficit Procedure since it joined the EU in 2004; in March 2012 the EU elevated its Excessive Deficit Procedure against Hungary and proposed freezing 30% of the country's Cohesion Funds because 2011 deficit reductions were not achieved in a sustainable manner; in June 2012, the EU lifted the freeze, recognizing that steps had been taken to reduce the deficit; the Hungarian deficit increased above 3% both in 2013 and in 2014 due to sluggish growth and the government's fiscal tightening (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 20.2%
male: 19.4%
female: 21.3% (2014 est.)
total: 20.4%
male: 20%
female: 20.9% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 51.7%
government consumption: 18.9%
investment in fixed capital: 18.4%
investment in inventories: 1.3%
exports of goods and services: 79.1%
imports of goods and services: -69.4% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 50.3%
government consumption: 20%
investment in fixed capital: 20.4%
investment in inventories: 0.6%
exports of goods and services: 94.3%
imports of goods and services: -85.6% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving26.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
25.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
26% of GDP (2014 est.)
25.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
26.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
24.3% of GDP (2014 est.)


Electricity - production16.53 billion kWh (2016 est.)
28 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption14.57 billion kWh (2016 est.)
38 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports10.28 billion kWh (2016)
5.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports8.325 billion kWh (2016 est.)
19 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
12,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
134,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
1,740 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
27.19 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2016)
8.268 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production4.5 million cu m (2016 est.)
1.505 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption836.5 million cu m (2016 est.)
8.46 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2016 est.)
226.6 million cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - imports832 million cu m (2016 est.)
8.167 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity3.37 million kW (2016 est.)
9.289 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels31.8% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
22% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants31.9% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
0.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels34.4% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
61% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources1.7% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
6.8% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
159,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption13,710 bbl/day (2016 est.)
154,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
47,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports13,710 bbl/day (2016 est.)
52,310 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy14.3 million Mt (2013 est.)
44.2 million Mt (2015 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)


Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 753,082
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 38 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 3,094,228
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 2.354 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 119 (July 2015 est.)
total: 11.786 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 119 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: well-developed telecommunications infrastructure
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 155 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 386 (2015)
general assessment: modern telephone system is digital and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay
domestic: competition among mobile-cellular service providers has led to a sharp increase in the use of mobile-cellular phones since 2000 and a decrease in the number of fixed-line connections
international: country code - 36; Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals (2015)
Internet country code.si
Internet userstotal: 1.45 million
percent of population: 73.1% (July 2015 est.)
total: 7.209 million
percent of population: 72.8% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediapublic TV broadcaster, Radiotelevizija Slovenija (RTV), operates a system of national and regional TV stations; 35 domestic commercial TV stations operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 60% of households are connected to multi-channel cable TV; public radio broadcaster operates 3 national and 4 regional stations; more than 75 regional and local commercial and non-commercial radio stations (2007)
mixed system of state-supported public service broadcast media and private broadcasters; the 5 publicly owned TV channels and the 2 main privately owned TV stations are the major national broadcasters; a large number of special interest channels; highly developed market for satellite and cable TV services with about two-thirds of viewers utilizing their services; 4 state-supported public-service radio networks; a large number of local stations including commercial, public service, nonprofit, and community radio stations; digital transition completed at the end of 2013; government-linked businesses have greatly consolidated ownership in broadcast and print media (2016)


Railwaystotal: 1,229 km
standard gauge: 1,229 km 1.435-m gauge (503 km electrified) (2014)
total: 8,049 km
broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 7,794 km 1.435-m gauge (2,889 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 219 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 38,985 km
paved: 38,985 km (includes 769 km of expressways) (2012)
total: 203,601 km
paved: 77,087 km (includes 1,582 km of expressways)
unpaved: 126,514 km (2014)
Waterways(some transport on the Drava River) (2012)
1,622 km (most on Danube River) (2011)
Pipelinesgas 844 km; oil 5 km (2013)
gas (high-pressure transmission system) 5,873 km; gas (low-pressure distribution network) 83,619 km (2015); oil 850 km; refined products 1,200 km (2016)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Koper
river port(s): Baja, Csepel (Budapest), Dunaujvaros, Gyor-Gonyu, Mohacs (Danube)
Airports16 (2013)
41 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 20
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
total: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 11 (2013)


Military branchesSlovenian Armed Forces (Slovenska Vojska, SV): Forces Command (with ground units, naval element, air and air defense brigade); Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief (ACPDR) (2013)
Hungarian Defense Forces: Land Forces, Hungarian Air Force (Magyar Legiero, ML) (2011)
Military service age and obligation18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2003 (2012)
18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; 6-month service obligation (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.93% of GDP (2016)
0.94% of GDP (2015)
0.98% of GDP (2014)
1.06% of GDP (2013)
1.17% of GDP (2012)
0.84% of GDP (2015)
0.87% of GDP (2014)
0.95% of GDP (2013)
1.04% of GDP (2012)
1.05% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - internationalsince the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Piranski Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led Slovenia to lift its objections to Croatia joining the EU; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovenia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties with Croatia; Slovenia continues to impose a hard border Schengen regime with Croatia, which joined the EU in 2013 but has not yet fulfilled Schengen requirements
bilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continue in 2006 with Slovakia over Hungary's failure to complete its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Hungary has implemented the strict Schengen border rules
Illicit drugsminor transit point for cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe, and for precursor chemicals
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine; efforts to counter money laundering, related to organized crime and drug trafficking are improving but remain vulnerable; significant consumer of ecstasy
Refugees and internally displaced personsnote: 477,791 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015 - December 2016)
refugees (countries of origin): 5,950 applicants for forms of legal stay other than asylum (Ukraine) (2015)
stateless persons: 135 (2016)
note: 431,286 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015 - July 2017)

Source: CIA Factbook