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Slovakia vs. Austria

Introduction

SlovakiaAustria
Background"Slovakia traces its roots to the 9th century state of Great Moravia. Subsequently, the Slovaks became part of the Hungarian Kingdom, where they remained for the next 1,000 years. Following the formation of the dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1867, language and education policies favoring the use of Hungarian (Magyarization) resulted in a strengthening of Slovak nationalism and a cultivation of cultural ties with the closely related Czechs, who were under Austrian rule. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I, the Slovaks joined the Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar period, Slovak nationalist leaders pushed for autonomy within Czechoslovakia, and in 1939 Slovakia became an independent state allied with Nazi Germany. Following World War II, Czechoslovakia was reconstituted and came under communist rule within Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize communist rule and create ""socialism with a human face,"" ushering in a period of repression known as ""normalization."" The peaceful ""Velvet Revolution"" swept the Communist Party from power at the end of 1989 and inaugurated a return to democratic rule and a market economy. On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a nonviolent ""velvet divorce"" into its two national components, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Slovakia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004 and the euro zone on 1 January 2009.
"
"Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's ""perpetual neutrality"" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. The Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 and Austria's entry into the EU in 1995 have altered the meaning of this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country, Austria entered the EU Economic and Monetary Union in 1999.
"

Geography

SlovakiaAustria
LocationCentral Europe, south of Poland
Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia
Geographic coordinates48 40 N, 19 30 E
47 20 N, 13 20 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 49,035 sq km
land: 48,105 sq km
water: 930 sq km
total: 83,871 sq km
land: 82,445 sq km
water: 1,426 sq km
Area - comparativeabout one and a half times the size of Maryland; about twice the size of New Hampshire
about the size of South Carolina; slightly more than two-thirds the size of Pennsylvania
Land boundariestotal: 1,611 km
border countries (5): Austria 105 km, Czech Republic 241 km, Hungary 627 km, Poland 541 km, Ukraine 97 km
total: 2,524 km
border countries (8): Czech Republic 402 km, Germany 801 km, Hungary 321 km, Italy 404 km, Liechtenstein 34 km, Slovakia 105 km, Slovenia 299 km, Switzerland 158 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climatetemperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers
Terrainrugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south
mostly mountains (Alps) in the west and south; mostly flat or gently sloping along the eastern and northern margins
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 458 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m
highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m
mean elevation: 910 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m
highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m
Natural resourceslignite, small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land
oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 40.1%
arable land 28.9%; permanent crops 0.4%; permanent pasture 10.8%
forest: 40.2%
other: 19.7% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 38.4%
arable land 16.5%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 21.1%
forest: 47.2%
other: 14.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land869 sq km (2012)
1,170 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsNA
landslides; avalanches; earthquakes
Environment - current issuesair pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests
some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys
landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere
Population distributiona fairly even distribution throughout most of the country; slightly larger concentration in the west in proximity to the Czech border
the northern and eastern portions of the country are more densely populated; nearly two-thirds of the populace lives in urban areas

Demographics

SlovakiaAustria
Population5,445,802 (July 2016 est.)
8,711,770 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 15.14% (male 422,797/female 401,718)
15-24 years: 11.32% (male 317,775/female 298,954)
25-54 years: 45.13% (male 1,241,212/female 1,216,596)
55-64 years: 13.52% (male 349,089/female 387,394)
65 years and over: 14.88% (male 312,042/female 498,225) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 14.02% (male 625,391/female 596,310)
15-24 years: 11.33% (male 503,333/female 483,748)
25-54 years: 42.71% (male 1,859,985/female 1,860,641)
55-64 years: 12.85% (male 554,191/female 565,189)
65 years and over: 19.09% (male 719,012/female 943,970) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 40.1 years
male: 38.4 years
female: 41.9 years (2016 est.)
total: 43.8 years
male: 42.7 years
female: 44.9 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.01% (2016 est.)
0.51% (2016 est.)
Birth rate9.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate9.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
5.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 77.1 years
male: 73.5 years
female: 80.9 years (2016 est.)
total population: 81.5 years
male: 78.9 years
female: 84.3 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.4 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.47 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.02% (2014 est.)
NA
Nationalitynoun: Slovak(s)
adjective: Slovak
noun: Austrian(s)
adjective: Austrian
Ethnic groupsSlovak 80.7%, Hungarian 8.5%, Romani 2%, other and unspecified 8.8% (2011 est.)
note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 7–11% of Slovakia's population
Austrians 91.1%, former Yugoslavs 4% (includes Croatians, Slovenes, Serbs, and Bosniaks), Turks 1.6%, Germans 0.9%, other or unspecified 2.4% (2001 census)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
NA
ReligionsRoman Catholic 62%, Protestant 8.2%, Greek Catholic 3.8%, other or unspecified 12.5%, none 13.4% (2011 est.)
Catholic 73.8% (includes Roman Catholic 73.6%, other Catholic 0.2%), Protestant 4.9%, Muslim 4.2%, Orthodox 2.2%, other 0.8% (includes other Christian), none 12%, unspecified 2% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsless than 100 (2014 est.)
NA
LanguagesSlovak (official) 78.6%, Hungarian 9.4%, Roma 2.3%, Ruthenian 1%, other or unspecified 8.8% (2011 est.)
German (official nationwide) 88.6%, Turkish 2.3%, Serbian 2.2%, Croatian (official in Burgenland) 1.6%, other (includes Slovene, official in South Carinthia, and Hungarian, official in Burgenland) 5.3% (2001 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 16 years (2014)
total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 16 years (2015)
Education expenditures4.1% of GDP (2013)
5.6% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 53.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.31% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 66% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 98.2% of population
total: 98.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 1.8% of population
total: 1.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationBRATISLAVA (capital) 401,000 (2015)
VIENNA (capital) 1.753 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate6 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
4 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures8.1% of GDP (2014)
11.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density3.39 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
5.15 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density6 beds/1,000 population (2011)
7.6 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate27.4% (2014)
20.1% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth27.4 years (2013 est.)
28.5 years (2011 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 40.8
youth dependency ratio: 21.3
elderly dependency ratio: 19.5
potential support ratio: 5.1 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 49.2
youth dependency ratio: 21.2
elderly dependency ratio: 28
potential support ratio: 3.6 (2015 est.)

Government

SlovakiaAustria
Country name"conventional long form: Slovak Republic
conventional short form: Slovakia
local long form: Slovenska republika
local short form: Slovensko
etymology: related to the Slavic autonym (self-designation) ""Slovenin,"" a derivation from ""slovo"" (word), denoting ""people who speak (the same language)"" (i.e., people who understand each other)
"
"conventional long form: Republic of Austria
conventional short form: Austria
local long form: Republik Oesterreich
local short form: Oesterreich
etymology: the name Oesterreich means ""eastern realm"" or ""eastern march"" and dates to the 10th century; the designation refers to the fact that Austria was the easternmost extension of Bavaria, and in fact of all the Germans; the word Austria is a Latinization of the German name
"
Government typeparliamentary republic
federal parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Bratislava
geographic coordinates: 48 09 N, 17 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC,. during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Vienna
geographic coordinates: 48 12 N, 16 22 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banskobystricky, Bratislavsky, Kosicky, Nitriansky, Presovsky, Trenciansky, Trnavsky, Zilinsky
9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten (Carinthia), Niederoesterreich (Lower Austria), Oberoesterreich (Upper Austria), Salzburg, Steiermark (Styria), Tirol (Tyrol), Vorarlberg, Wien (Vienna)
Independence1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
12 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 976 (Margravate of Austria established); 17 September 1156 (Duchy of Austria founded); 11 August 1804 (Austrian Empire proclaimed)
National holidayConstitution Day, 1 September (1992)
National Day (commemorates passage of the law on permanent neutrality), 26 October (1955)
Constitutionhistory: several previous (preindependence); latest passed by the National Council 1 September 1992, signed 3 September 1992, effective 1 October 1992
amendments: proposed by the National Council; passage requires at least three-fifths majority vote of Council members; amended many times, last in 2017 (2017)
history: several previous; latest adopted 1 October 1920, revised 1929, replaced May 1934 (authoritarian corporate state), replaced by German Weimar constitution in 1938 following German annexation, reinstated 1 May 1945
amendments: proposed through laws designated “constitutional laws” or through the constitutional process if the amendment is part of another law; approval required by at least a two-thirds majority vote by the National Assembly if one-half of the members are present; a referendum is required only if requested by one-third of the National Council or Federal Council membership; passage by referendum requires absolute majority vote; amended many times, last in 2014 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; note - legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe
civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
16 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Andrej KISKA (since 15 June 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Robert FICO (since 4 April 2012); Deputy Prime Ministers Robert KALINAK (since 4 April 2012), Lucia ZITNANSKA and Peter PELLEGRINI (since 23 March 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held in 2 rounds on 15 and 29 March 2014 (next to be held in March 2019); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Andrej KISKA elected president; percent of vote in second round - Andrej KISKA (independent) 59.4%, Robert FICO (Smer-SD) 40.6%
chief of state: Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (since 26 January 2017)
head of government: Chancellor Christian KERN (since 17 May 2016); Vice Chancellor Wolfgang BRANDSTETTER (since 17 May 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 24 April 2016 (first round), 22 May 2016 (second round, which was annulled), and 4 December 2016 (second round re-vote); next presidential elections to be held in April 2022; chancellor appointed by the president but determined by the majority coalition parties in the Federal Assembly; vice chancellor appointed by the president on the advice of the chancellor
election results: percent of vote: first-round results - Norbet HOFER (FPOe) 35.1%, Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (independent, allied with the Greens) 21.3%, Irmgard GRISS (independent) 18.9%, Rudolf HUNDSTORFER (SPOe) 11.3%, Andreas KHOL (OeVP) 11.1%, Richard LUGNER (independent) 2.3%; second round results - Alexander VAN DER BELLEN 53.8%, Norbet HOFER 46.2%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Council or Narodna Rada (150 seats; members directly elected in a single national constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 5 March 2016 (next to be held in March 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - Smer-SD 28.3%, SaS 12.1%, OLaNO-NOVA 11%, SNS 8.6%, LSNS 8%, Sme-Rodina 6.6%, Most-Hid 6.5%, Siet 5.6%, other 13.3%; seats by party - Smer-SD 49, SaS 21, OLaNO-NOVA 19, SNS 15, LSNS 14, Sme-Rodina 11, Most-Hid 11, Siet 10
description: bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of the Federal Council or Bundesrat (62 seats; members appointed by state parliaments with each state receiving 3 to 12 seats in proportion to its population; members serve 5- or 6-year terms) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: National Council - last held on 29 September 2013 (next to be held on 15 October 2017)
election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - SPOe 26.8%, OeVP 24.0%, FPOe 20.5%, Greens 12.4%, Team Stronach 5.7%, NEOS 5.0%, other 5.6%; seats by party - SPOe 52, OeVP 47, FPOe 40, Greens 24, Team Stronach 11, NEOS 9; note - currently: SPOe 52, OeVP 50, FPOe 38, Greens 24, NEOS 9, Team Stronach 6, without faction 4
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic (consists of the court president, vice president, and 79 judges organized into criminal, civil, commercial, and administrative divisions with 3- and 5-judge panels); Constitutional Court (consists of 13 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judge candidates proposed by the Judicial Council of the Slovak Republic, an 18-member independent body to include the Supreme Court chief justice and presidential, governmental, parliamentary, and judiciary appointees; judges appointed by the president for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the National Council of the Republic and appointed by the president; judges appointed for 12-year terms
subordinate courts: regional and district civil courts; Higher Military Court; military district courts; Court of Audit
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Oberster Gerichtshof (consists of 85 judges organized into 17 senates or panels of 5 judges each); Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof (consists of 20 judges including 6 substitutes; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof - 2 judges plus other members depending on the importance of the case)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by executive branch departments and appointed by the president; judges serve for life; Constitutional Court judges nominated by several executive branch departments and approved by the president; judges serve for life; Administrative Court judges recommended by executive branch departments and appointed by the president; terms of judges and members determined by the president
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (4); Regional Courts (20); district courts (120); county courts
Political parties and leadersparties in the Parliament:
Direction-Social Democracy or Smer-SD [Robert FICO]
Bridge or Most-Hid [Bela BUGAR]
Freedom and Solidarity or SaS [Richard SULIK]
Network or Siet [Roman BRECELY]
Ordinary People and Independent Personalities - New Majority or OLaNO-NOVA [Igor MATOVIC]
People's Party - Our Slovakia or LS-NS [Marian KOTLEBA]
Slovak National Party or SNS [Andrej DANKO]
We Are Family or Sme-Rodina [Boris KOLLAR]

selected parties outside the Parliament:
Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Alojz HLINA]
Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Jozsef MENYHART]
"Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Sebastian KURZ]
Communist Party of Austria or KPOe [Mirko MESSNER]
Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Heinz-Christian STRACHE]
The Greens [Eva GLAWISCHNIG]
NEOS - The New Austria [Matthias STROLZ]
Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Christian KERN]
""Team Stronach"" [Frank STRONACH]
"
Political pressure groups and leadersAlliance of Companies Employing 500 or More Employees or Klub500
Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS
Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ
Entrepreneurs Association of Slovakia or ZPS
Federation of Employers' Associations of the Slovak Republic or AZZZ
Medical Trade Association or LOZ
National Union of Employers or RUZ
Slovak Chamber of Commerce and Industry or SOPK
The Business Alliance of Slovakia or PAS
Austrian Trade Union Federation or OeGB (nominally independent but primarily Social Democratic)
Federal Agriculture Chamber (OeVP-dominated)
Federal Economic Chamber (OeVP-dominated)
Labor Chamber or AK (Social Democratic-leaning think tank)
OeVP-oriented Association of Austrian Industrialists or IV
Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action
other: three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, farmers, and other nongovernment organizations in the areas of environment and human rights
International organization participationAustralia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Peter KMEC (since 17 September 2012)
chancery: 3523 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 237-1054
FAX: [1] (202) 237-6438
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Wolfgang WALDNER (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
consulate(s): Chicago
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Adam Sterling (since August 2016)
embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava
mailing address: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava
telephone: [421] (2) 5443-3338
FAX: [421] (2) 5441-8861
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Eugene YOUNG (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [43] (1) 31339-0
FAX: [43] (1) 3100682
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red derive from the Pan-Slav colors; the Slovakian coat of arms (consisting of a red shield bordered in white and bearing a white double-barred cross of St. Cyril and St. Methodius surmounting three blue hills) is centered over the bands but offset slightly to the hoist side
note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red; the flag design is certainly one of the oldest - if not the oldest - national banners in the world; according to tradition, in 1191, following a fierce battle in the Third Crusade, Duke Leopold V of Austria's white tunic became completely blood-spattered; upon removal of his wide belt or sash, a white band was revealed; the red-white-red color combination was subsequently adopted as his banner
National anthem"name: ""Nad Tatrou sa blyska"" (Lightning Over the Tatras)
lyrics/music: Janko MATUSKA/traditional
note: adopted 1993, in use since 1844; music based on the Slovak folk song ""Kopala studienku""
"
"name: ""Bundeshymne"" (Federal Hymn)
lyrics/music: Paula von PRERADOVIC/Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART or Johann HOLZER (disputed)
note: adopted 1947; the anthem is also known as ""Land der Berge, Land am Strome"" (Land of the Mountains, Land by the River); Austria adopted a new national anthem after World War II to replace the former imperial anthem composed by Franz Josef HAYDN, which had been appropriated by Germany in 1922 and was thereafter associated with the Nazi regime; a gendered version of the lyrics was adopted by the Austrian Federal Assembly in fall 2011 and became effective 1 January 2012
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)double-barred cross (Cross of St. Cyril and St. Methodius) surmounting three peaks; national colors: white, blue, red
golden eagle, edelweiss, Alpine gentian; national colors: red, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Slovakia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Austria
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

SlovakiaAustria
Economy - overviewSlovakia’s economy suffered from a slow start in the first years after its separation from the Czech Republic in 1993, due to the country’s authoritarian leadership and high levels of corruption, but economic reforms implemented after 1998 have placed Slovakia on a path of strong growth. With a population of 5.4 million, the Slovak Republic has a small, open economy driven mainly by automobile and electronics exports, which account for more than 80% of GDP. Slovakia joined the EU in 2004 and the euro zone in 2009. The country’s banking sector is sound and predominantly foreign owned.

Slovakia has been a regional FDI champion for several years, attractive due to a relatively low-cost yet skilled labor force, and a favorable geographic location in the heart of Central Europe. Among the most pressing domestic issues potentially threatening the attractiveness of the Slovak market are shortages in qualified labor force, persistent corruption issues, and an inadequate judiciary, as well as a lack of innovation. The energy sector in particular is characterized by unpredictable regulatory oversight and high costs, in part driven by government interference in regulated tariffs.
Austria, with its well-developed market economy, skilled labor force, and high standard of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's. Its economy features a large service sector, a relatively sound industrial sector, and a small, but highly developed agricultural sector.

Economic growth has been relatively weak in recent years, approaching 0.9% in 2015, but rising to 1.4% in 2016. Austria's 5.8% unemployment rate, while low by European standards, is at its highest rate since the end of World War II, driven by an increased number of refugees and EU migrants entering the labor market. Without extensive vocational training programs and generous early retirement, the unemployment rate would be even higher.

Although Austria's fiscal position compares favorably with other euro-zone countries, it faces several external risks, such as unexpectedly weak world economic growth threatening the export market, Austrian banks' continued exposure to Central and Eastern Europe, repercussions from the Hypo Alpe Adria bank collapse, political and economic uncertainties caused by the European sovereign debt crisis, the current refugee crisis, and continued unrest in Russia/Ukraine. The budget deficit stood at 1.4% of GDP in 2016 and public debt reached a post-war high of 86.2% of the GDP in 2015.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$168.8 billion (2016 est.)
$163.8 billion (2015 est.)
$157.8 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$416.6 billion (2016 est.)
$410.4 billion (2015 est.)
$406.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.3% (2016 est.)
3.8% (2015 est.)
2.5% (2014 est.)
1.5% (2016 est.)
0.9% (2015 est.)
0.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$31,200 (2016 est.)
$30,200 (2015 est.)
$29,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$47,900 (2016 est.)
$47,600 (2015 est.)
$47,600 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 3.6%
industry: 31.6%
services: 64.8% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 1.3%
industry: 28.1%
services: 70.6% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line12.3% (2015 est.)
4% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 19.3% (2015 est.)
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 23.5% (2012 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)-0.5% (2016 est.)
-0.3% (2015 est.)
0.9% (2016 est.)
0.8% (2015 est.)
Labor force2.724 million (2016 est.)
3.944 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 3.9%
industry: 22.7%
services: 73.4% (2015)
agriculture: 0.7%
industry: 25.3%
services: 74% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate8.8% (2016 est.)
10.6% (2015 est.)
6.1% (2016 est.)
5.7% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index23.7 (2015)
26.1 (2014)
29.2 (2013)
26.3 (2007)
Budgetrevenues: $34.87 billion
expenditures: $37.04 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $187.3 billion
expenditures: $192.6 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesautomobiles; metal and metal products; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals, synthetic fibers, wood and paper products; machinery; earthenware and ceramics; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products; food and beverages; pharmaceutical
construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals, chemicals, lumber, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism
Industrial production growth rate4.3% (2016 est.)
1.4% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsgrains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products
grains, potatoes, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber and other forestry products
Exports$74.35 billion (2016 est.)
$73.12 billion (2015 est.)
$144.3 billion (2016 est.)
$144.7 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesvehicles and related parts 27%, machinery and electrical equipment 20%, nuclear reactors and furnaces 12%, iron and steel 4%, mineral oils and fuels 5% (2015 est.)
machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs
Exports - partnersGermany 22.7%, Czech Republic 12.5%, Poland 8.5%, Austria 5.7%, Hungary 5.7%, France 5.6%, UK 5.5%, Italy 4.5% (2015)
Germany 30.5%, US 6.6%, Italy 6.4%, Switzerland 5.5%, France 4.1% (2015)
Imports$71.47 billion (2016 est.)
$71.09 billion (2015 est.)
$149.1 billion (2016 est.)
$146.9 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and electrical equipment 20%, vehicles and related parts 14%, nuclear reactors and furnaces 12%, fuel and mineral oils 9% (2015 est.)
machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products, natural gas; foodstuffs
Imports - partnersGermany 19.4%, Czech Republic 17.4%, Austria 9.1%, Hungary 6.3%, Poland 6.3%, South Korea 5.5%, Russia 5.2%, China 4.1% (2015)
Germany 37.2%, Italy 6.2%, China 5.9%, Switzerland 5.3%, Czech Republic 4.3% (2015)
Debt - external$75.04 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$74.19 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
$689.1 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$679.3 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
Exchange rateseuros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt52.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
52.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general Government Gross Debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by Government entities, including sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government, and social security funds
83.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
86.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: this is general government gross debt, defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year; it covers the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; as a percentage of GDP, the GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product in current year prices
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$2.657 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.892 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$25.22 billion (17 February 2017 est.)
$24.94 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Current Account Balance$318 million (2016 est.)
$186 million (2015 est.)
$9.283 billion (2016 est.)
$6.963 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$90.26 billion (2016 est.)
$387.3 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$59.81 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$56.31 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$304.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$294.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$12.11 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$10.71 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$363.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$349.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$4.492 billion (30 November 2016 est.)
$4.634 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.732 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$96.08 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$96.79 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$117.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate2.7% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.78% (31 December 2015 est.)
1.8% (31 December 2016 est.)
2% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$66.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$67.67 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$467 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$462.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$42.43 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$43 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
$203.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$193.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
Stock of broad money$58.76 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$58.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$319.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$317.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues38.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
48.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
-1.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 29.7%
male: 29.5%
female: 30.1% (2014 est.)
total: 10.3%
male: 10.6%
female: 9.9% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 55.9%
government consumption: 18.9%
investment in fixed capital: 22.2%
investment in inventories: -0.2%
exports of goods and services: 94.8%
imports of goods and services: -91.6% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 52.7%
government consumption: 20%
investment in fixed capital: 22.8%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 53.1%
imports of goods and services: -49% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving21.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
21.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
25.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
25% of GDP (2015 est.)
24.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

SlovakiaAustria
Electricity - production27.19 billion kWh (2015 est.)
64.95 billion kWh (2015)
Electricity - consumption29.55 billion kWh (2015 est.)
69.95 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports12.61 billion kWh (2015 est.)
19.31 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports14.97 billion kWh (2015 est.)
29.37 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
16,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports119,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
165,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports501.5 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves9 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
47.5 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
7.9 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production86 million cu m (2015 est.)
1.197 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption4.8 billion cu m (2015 est.)
7.914 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports3 million cu m (2014 est.)
2.529 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports4.704 billion cu m (2015 est.)
5.722 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity8.095 million kW (2015 est.)
24.22 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels33.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
29% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants31.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
62.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels24% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources11.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
8.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production142,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
200,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption82,620 bbl/day (2015 est.)
264,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports83,390 bbl/day (2015 est.)
50,640 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports28,870 bbl/day (2015 est.)
117,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy31.1 million Mt (2015 est.)
78.9 million Mt (2015 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

SlovakiaAustria
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 866,630
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 3,609,900
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 6.676 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 123 (July 2015 est.)
total: 13.471 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 155 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: a modern telecommunications system that has expanded dramatically in recent years with the growth of cellular services
domestic: analog system is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; 4 companies provide nationwide cellular services
international: country code - 421; 3 international exchanges (1 in Bratislava and 2 in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services (2017)
general assessment: highly developed and efficient
domestic: mobile-cellular subscribership is over 90% of the population; cable networks are very extensive, the fiber-optic net is being developed; all telephone applications and Internet services are available; broadband is available in all large municipalities
international: country code - 43; earth stations available in the Astra, Intelsat, Eutelsat satellite systems (2016)
Internet country code.sk
.at
Internet userstotal: 4.629 million
percent of population: 85% (July 2015 est.)
total: 7.273 million
percent of population: 83.9% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-owned public broadcaster, Radio and Television of Slovakia (RTVS), operates 2 national TV stations and multiple national and regional radio networks; roughly 50 privately owned TV stations operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 40% of households are connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV; 32 privately owned radio stations (2016)
worldwide cable and satellite TV are available; the public incumbent ORF competes with three other major, several regional domestic, and up to 400 international TV stations; TV coverage is in principle 100%, but only 90% use broadcast media; Internet streaming not only complements, but increasingly replaces regular TV stations (2016)

Transportation

SlovakiaAustria
Railwaystotal: 3,626 km
broad gauge: 99 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 3,477 km 1.435-m gauge (1,587 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 50 km 1.000-m or 0.750-m gauge (2016)
total: 5,800 km (2016)
standard gauge: 5,267.7 km 1.435-m gauge (3,556.4 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 54,869 km (includes local roads, national roads, and 420 km of highways) (2012)
total: 138,696 km
paved: 138,696 km (includes 2,208 km of expressways) (2016)
Waterways172 km (on Danube River) (2012)
358 km (2011)
Pipelinesgas transmission pipelines 2,270 km; high-pressure gas distribution pipelines 6,278 km; mid- and low-pressure gas distribution pipelines 27,023 km (2016); oil 510 km (2015)
gas 1,888 km; oil 594 km; refined products 157 km (2017)
Ports and terminalsriver port(s): Bratislava, Komarno (Danube)
river port(s): Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna (Danube)
Merchant marinetotal: 11
by type: cargo 9, refrigerated cargo 2
foreign-owned: 11 (Germany 3, Ireland 1, Italy 2, Montenegro 1, Slovenia 1, Turkey 1, Ukraine 2) (2010)
registered in other countries: 3 (Cyprus 1, Kazakhstan 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2010)
Airports35 (2013)
52 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 21
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 11 (2013)
total: 24
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 13 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
total: 28
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 24 (2013)
Heliports1 (2013)
1 (2013)

Military

SlovakiaAustria
Military branchesArmed Forces of the Slovak Republic (Ozbrojene Sily Slovenskej Republiky): Land Forces (Pozemne Sily), Air Forces (Vzdusne Sily) (2010)
Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK) (2014)
Military service age and obligation18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription in peacetime suspended in 2006; women are eligible to serve (2012)
registration requirement at age 17, the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; 18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service (6 months), or optionally, alternative civil/community service (9 months); males 18 to 50 years old in the militia or inactive reserve are subject to compulsory service; in a January 2012 referendum, a majority of Austrians voted in favor of retaining the system of compulsory military service (with the option of alternative/non-military service) instead of switching to a professional army system (2015)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.16% of GDP (2016)
1.15% of GDP (2015)
1.01% of GDP (2014)
1% of GDP (2013)
1.2% of GDP (2012)
0.68% of GDP (2016 est.)
0.67% of GDP (2015)
0.75% of GDP (2014)
0.75% of GDP (2013)
0.78% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

SlovakiaAustria
Disputes - internationalbilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continued between Slovakia and Hungary over Hungary's completion of its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovakia has implemented strict Schengen border rules
none
Illicit drugstransshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for regional market; consumer of ecstasy
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; increasing consumption of European-produced synthetic drugs
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 1,523 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 30,958 (Syria); 20,220 (Afghanistan); 13,773 (Russia); 5,555 (Iraq) (2016)
stateless persons: 937 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook