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Serbia vs. Bulgaria

Introduction

SerbiaBulgaria
Background"The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Communist Partisans resisted the Axis occupation and division of Yugoslavia from 1941 to 1945 and fought nationalist opponents and collaborators as well. The military and political movement headed by Josip Broz ""TITO"" (Partisans) took full control of Yugoslavia when their domestic rivals and the occupiers were defeated in 1945. Although communists, TITO and his successors (Tito died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In 1989, Slobodan MILOSEVIC became president of the Republic of Serbia and his ultranationalist calls for Serbian domination led to the violent breakup of Yugoslavia along ethnic lines. In 1991, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia declared independence, followed by Bosnia in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in April 1992 and under MILOSEVIC's leadership, Serbia led various military campaigns to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a ""Greater Serbia."" These actions ultimately failed and, after international intervention, led to the signing of the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995.
MILOSEVIC retained control over Serbia and eventually became president of the FRY in 1997. In 1998, an ethnic Albanian insurgency in the formerly autonomous Serbian province of Kosovo provoked a Serbian counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo. The MILOSEVIC government's rejection of a proposed international settlement led to NATO's bombing of Serbia in the spring of 1999. Serbian military and police forces withdrew from Kosovo in June 1999, and the UN Security Council authorized an interim UN administration and a NATO-led security force in Kosovo. FRY elections in late 2000 led to the ouster of MILOSEVIC and the installation of democratic government. In 2003, the FRY became the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, a loose federation of the two republics. Widespread violence predominantly targeting ethnic Serbs in Kosovo in March 2004 led to more intense calls to address Kosovo's status, and the UN began facilitating status talks in 2006. In June 2006, Montenegro seceded from the federation and declared itself an independent nation. Serbia subsequently gave notice that it was the successor state to the union of Serbia and Montenegro.
In February 2008, after nearly two years of inconclusive negotiations, Kosovo declared itself independent of Serbia - an action Serbia refuses to recognize. At Serbia's request, the UN General Assembly (UNGA) in October 2008 sought an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on whether Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence was in accordance with international law. In a ruling considered unfavorable to Serbia, the ICJ issued an advisory opinion in July 2010 stating that international law did not prohibit declarations of independence. In late 2010, Serbia agreed to an EU-drafted UNGA Resolution acknowledging the ICJ's decision and calling for a new round of talks between Serbia and Kosovo, this time on practical issues rather than Kosovo's status. Serbia and Kosovo signed the first agreement of principles governing the normalization of relations between the two countries in April 2013 and are in the process of implementing its provisions. In 2015, Serbia and Kosovo reached four additional agreements within the Brussels Dialogue framework. These included agreements on the Community of Serb-Majority Municipalities; telecommunications; energy production and distribution; and freedom of movement. Prime Minister Aleksandar VUCIC, has promoted an ambitious goal of Serbia joining the EU by 2020. Under his leadership, in January 2014 Serbia opened formal negotiations for accession. Serbia has opened 8 chapters of the EU acquis and provisionally closed 2 chapters.
"
The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman Turks. Northern Bulgaria attained autonomy in 1878 and all of Bulgaria became independent from the Ottoman Empire in 1908. Having fought on the losing side in both World Wars, Bulgaria fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in 1946. Communist domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its first multiparty election since World War II and began the contentious process of moving toward political democracy and a market economy while combating inflation, unemployment, corruption, and crime. The country joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.

Geography

SerbiaBulgaria
LocationSoutheastern Europe, between Macedonia and Hungary
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey
Geographic coordinates44 00 N, 21 00 E
43 00 N, 25 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 77,474 sq km
land: 77,474 sq km
water: 0 sq km
total: 110,879 sq km
land: 108,489 sq km
water: 2,390 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than South Carolina
almost identical in size to Virginia; slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundariestotal: 2,322 km
border countries (8): Bosnia and Herzegovina 345 km, Bulgaria 344 km, Croatia 314 km, Hungary 164 km, Kosovo 366 km, Macedonia 101 km, Montenegro 157 km, Romania 531 km
total: 1,806 km
border countries (5): Greece 472 km, Macedonia 162 km, Romania 605 km, Serbia 344 km, Turkey 223 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
354 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatein the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well-distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)
temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers
Terrainextremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills
mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 442 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Danube and Timok Rivers 35 m
highest point: Midzor 2,169 m
mean elevation: 472 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Musala 2,925 m
Natural resourcesoil, gas, coal, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, chromite, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, arable land
bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 57.9%
arable land 37.7%; permanent crops 3.4%; permanent pasture 16.8%
forest: 31.6%
other: 10.5% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 46.9%
arable land 29.9%; permanent crops 1.5%; permanent pasture 15.5%
forest: 36.7%
other: 16.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land950 sq km (2012)
1,020 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsdestructive earthquakes
earthquakes; landslides
Environment - current issuesair pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notecontrols one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East
strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia
Population distributiona fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations
a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger populations

Demographics

SerbiaBulgaria
Population7,143,921
note: does not include the population of Kosovo (July 2016 est.)
7,144,653 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 14.64% (male 539,189/female 506,727)
15-24 years: 11.34% (male 417,692/female 392,379)
25-54 years: 41.41% (male 1,492,799/female 1,465,270)
55-64 years: 14.58% (male 502,172/female 539,349)
65 years and over: 18.03% (male 530,827/female 757,517) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 14.54% (male 535,131/female 503,540)
15-24 years: 9.73% (male 362,805/female 332,358)
25-54 years: 43.33% (male 1,589,183/female 1,506,285)
55-64 years: 13.38% (male 447,865/female 507,805)
65 years and over: 19.03% (male 552,217/female 807,464) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 42.3 years
male: 40.7 years
female: 44 years (2016 est.)
total: 42.4 years
male: 40.6 years
female: 44.5 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate-0.46% (2016 est.)
-0.6% (2016 est.)
Birth rate9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
8.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate13.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
14.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 5.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 8.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 75.5 years
male: 72.6 years
female: 78.5 years (2016 est.)
total population: 74.5 years
male: 71.2 years
female: 78 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.43 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.46 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.05% (2013 est.)
NA
Nationalitynoun: Serb(s)
adjective: Serbian
noun: Bulgarian(s)
adjective: Bulgarian
Ethnic groupsSerb 83.3%, Hungarian 3.5%, Romani 2.1%, Bosniak 2%, other 5.7%, undeclared or unknown 3.4% (2011 est.)
note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–11% of Serbia's population
Bulgarian 76.9%, Turkish 8%, Romani 4.4%, other 0.7% (including Russian, Armenian, and Vlach), other (unknown) 10% (2011 est.)
note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 9–11% of Bulgaria's population
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS3,000 (2013 est.)
NA
ReligionsOrthodox 84.6%, Catholic 5%, Muslim 3.1%, Protestant 1%, atheist 1.1%, other 0.8% (includes agnostics, other Christians, Eastern religionists, Jewish), undeclared or unknown 4.5% (2011 est.)
Eastern Orthodox 59.4%, Muslim 7.8%, other (including Catholic, Protestant, Armenian Apostolic Orthodox, and Jewish) 1.7%, none 3.7%, unspecified 27.4% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths100 (2013 est.)
NA
LanguagesSerbian (official) 88.1%, Hungarian 3.4%, Bosnian 1.9%, Romani 1.4%, other 3.4%, undeclared or unknown 1.8%
note: Serbian, Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, and Ruthenian (Rusyn) are official in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (2011 est.)
Bulgarian (official) 76.8%, Turkish 8.2%, Romani 3.8%, other 0.7%, unspecified 10.5% (2011 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.1%
male: 99.1%
female: 97.2% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.4%
male: 98.7%
female: 98.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2015)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2015)
Education expenditures4.2% of GDP (2014)
4.1% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 55.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.34% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 73.9% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.31% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 98.9% of population
total: 99.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 1.1% of population
total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.6% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.4% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 98.2% of population
rural: 94.2% of population
total: 96.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.8% of population
rural: 5.8% of population
total: 3.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 86.8% of population
rural: 83.7% of population
total: 86% of population
unimproved:
urban: 13.2% of population
rural: 16.3% of population
total: 14% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationBELGRADE (capital) 1.182 million (2015)
SOFIA (capital) 1.226 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate17 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
11 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures10.4% of GDP (2014)
8.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.46 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
4 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density5.4 beds/1,000 population (2009)
6.4 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate21.1% (2014)
25.6% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth27.8 years (2013 est.)
26.5 years (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate58.4% (2014)
69.2%
note: percent of women age 20-49 (2007)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 50.1
youth dependency ratio: 24.5
elderly dependency ratio: 25.6
potential support ratio: 3.9 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 51.9
youth dependency ratio: 21.5
elderly dependency ratio: 30.4
potential support ratio: 3.3 (2015 est.)

Government

SerbiaBulgaria
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Serbia
conventional short form: Serbia
local long form: Republika Srbija
local short form: Srbija
former: People's Republic of Serbia, Socialist Republic of Serbia
etymology: the origin of the name in uncertain, but seems to be related to the name of the West Slavic Sorbs who reside in the Lusatian region in present-day eastern Germany; by tradition, the Serbs migrated from that region to the Balkans in about the 6th century A.D.
conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria
conventional short form: Bulgaria
local long form: Republika Bulgaria
local short form: Bulgaria
etymology: named after the Bulgar tribes who settled the lower Balkan region in the 7th century A.D.
Government typeparliamentary republic
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Belgrade (Beograd)
geographic coordinates: 44 50 N, 20 30 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Sofia
geographic coordinates: 42 41 N, 23 19 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions119 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina) and 26 cities (gradovi, singular - grad)
municipalities: Ada*, Aleksandrovac, Aleksinac, Alibunar*, Apatin*, Arandelovac, Arilje, Babusnica, Bac*, Backa Palanka*, Backa Topola*, Backi Petrovac*, Bajina Basta, Batocina, Becej*, Bela Crkva*, Bela Palanka, Beocin*, Blace, Bogatic, Bojnik, Boljevac, Bor, Bosilegrad, Brus, Bujanovac, Cajetina, Cicevac, Coka*, Crna Trava, Cuprija, Despotovac, Dimitrov, Doljevac, Gadzin Han, Golubac, Gornji Milanovac, Indija*, Irig*, Ivanjica, Kanjiza*, Kladovo, Knic, Knjazevac, Koceljeva, Kosjeric, Kovacica*, Kovin*, Krupanj, Kucevo, Kula*, Kursumlija, Lajkovac, Lapovo, Lebane, Ljig, Ljubovija, Lucani, Majdanpek, Mali Idos*, Mali Zvornik, Malo Crnice, Medveda, Merosina, Mionica, Negotin, Nova Crnja*, Nova Varos, Novi Becej*, Novi Knezevac*, Odzaci*, Opovo*, Osecina, Paracin, Pecinci*, Petrovac na Mlavi, Plandiste*, Pozega, Presevo, Priboj, Prijepolje, Prokuplje, Raca, Raska, Razanj, Rekovac, Ruma*, Secanj*, Senta*, Sid*, Sjenica, Smederevska Palanka, Sokobanja, Srbobran*, Sremski Karlovci*, Stara Pazova*, Surdulica, Svilajnac, Svrljig, Temerin*, Titel*, Topola, Trgoviste, Trstenik, Tutin, Ub, Varvarin, Velika Plana, Veliko Gradiste, Vladicin Han, Vladimirci, Vlasotince, Vrbas*, Vrnjacka Banja, Zabalj*, Zabari, Zagubica, Zitiste*, Zitorada
cities: Beograd, Cacak, Jagodina, Kikinda*, Kragujevac, Kraljevo, Krusevac, Leskovac, Loznica, Nis, Novi Pazar, Novi Sad*, Pancevo*, Pirot, Pozarevac, Sabac, Smederevo, Sombor*, Sremska Mitrovica*, Subotica*, Uzice, Valjevo, Vranje, Vrsac, Zajecar, Zrenjanin*
note: the northern 39 municipalities and 6 cities - about 28% of Serbia's area - compose the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina and are indicated with *
28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas, Dobrich, Gabrovo, Haskovo, Kardzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana, Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen, Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofia, Sofia-Grad (Sofia City), Stara Zagora, Targovishte, Varna, Veliko Tarnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol
Independence5 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro)
3 March 1878 (as an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire); 22 September 1908 (complete independence from the Ottoman Empire)
National holidayNational Day (Statehood Day), 15 February (1835), the day the first constitution of the country was adopted
Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)
Constitutionhistory: many previous; latest adopted 30 September 2006, approved by referendum 28-29 October 2006, effective 8 November 2006
amendments: proposed by at least one-third of deputies in the National Assembly, by the president of the republic, by the government, or by petition of at least 150,000 voters; passage of proposals and draft amendments each requires at least two-thirds majority vote in the Assembly; amendments to constitutional articles including the preamble, constitutional principles, and human and minority rights and freedoms also require a referendum with passage by simple majority vote (2016)
"history: several previous; latest drafted between late 1990 and early 1991, adopted 13 July 1991
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly or by the president of the republic; passage requires three-fourths majority vote of National Assembly members in three ballots; signed by the National Assembly chairperson; note - under special circumstances, a ""Grand National Assembly"" is elected with the authority to write a new constitution and amend certain articles of the constitution, including those affecting basic civil rights and national sovereignty; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote in each of several readings; amended several times, last in 2015 (2016)
"
Legal systemcivil law system
civil law
Suffrage18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Aleksandar VUCIC (since 31 May 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Ana BRNABIC (since 29 June 2017)
cabinet: Cabinet elected by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 2 April 2017 (next to be held in 2022); prime minister elected by the National Assembly
election results: Aleksandar VUCIC elected president; percent of vote - Aleksandar VUCIC (SNS) 55.1%, Sasa JANKOVIC (independent) 16.4%, Luka MAKSIMOVIC (independent) 9.4%, Vuk JEREMIC (independent) 5.7%, Vojislav SESELJ (SRS) 4.5%, Bosko OBRADOVIC (Dveri) 2.3%, other 5.0%, invalid/blank 1.6%
chief of state: President Rumen RADEV (since 22 January 2017); Vice President Iliana YOTOVA (since 22 January 2017)
head of government: Boyko BORISSOV (since 4 May 2017); note - BORISSOV served two previous terms as prime minister (27 July 2009-13 March 2013 and 7 November 2014-27 January 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 6 and 13 November 2016 (next to be held fall 2021); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) elected by the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly
election results: Rumen RADEV elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - Rumen RADEV (independent, supported by Bulgarian Socialist Party) 59.4%, Tsetska TSACHEVA (GERB) 36.2%, neither 4.5%; Boyko BORISSOV elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 133 to 100
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Narodna Skupstina (250 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 24 April 2016 (next to be held by April 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - Serbia is Winning 48.2%, SPS-JS-ZS-KP 11.0%, SRS 8.1%, For a Just Serbia 6.0%, Enough is Enough 6.0%, Alliance for a Better Serbia 5.0%, Dveri-DSS 5.0%, SVM 1.5%, other 9.2%; seats by party/coalition Serbia is Winning 131, SPS-JS-ZS-KP 29, SRS 22, For a Just Serbia 16, Enough is Enough 16, Alliance for a Better Serbia 13, Dveri-DSS 13, SVM 4, other 6
description: unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sabranie (240 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); note - the National Assembly was dissolved on 27 January 2017 and Bulgaria will not have a legislative body until after a general election scheduled for 26 March 2017
elections: last held on 26 March 2017 (next to be held spring 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - GERB 32.7%, BSP 27.2%, United Patriots 9.1%, DPS 9%, Volya 4.1%, other 17.9%; seats by party - GERB 95, BSP 80, United Patriots 27, DPS 26, Volya 12
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation (consists of more than 60 judges organized into 3- and 5-member panels for criminal, civil, and administrative cases); Constitutional Court (consists of 15 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices proposed by the High Judicial Council (HJC), an 11-member body of which 7 are judges, and elected by the National Assembly; Constitutional Court judges appointed - 5 each by the National Assembly, the president, and the Supreme Court of Cassation; judges of both courts appointed to permanent tenure by the HJC
subordinate courts: appellate courts, higher courts, and municipal and district courts; courts of special jurisdiction include the Administrative Court, Appellate Commercial Court, and 2 levels of misdemeanor courts
note: in 2003, specialized panels on war crimes were established within the Serbian court system; the panels have jurisdiction over alleged violations of the Basic Criminal Code and crimes against humanity, international law, and criminal acts as defined by the Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation (consists of a chairman and approximately 72 judges organized into penal, civil, and commercial colleges); Supreme Administrative Court (organized in 2 colleges with various panels of 5 judges each); Constitutional Court (consists of 12 justices); note - Constitutional Court resides outside the judiciary
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Cassation and Supreme Administrative judges elected by the Supreme Judicial Council or SJC (consists of 25 members with extensive legal experience) and appointed by the president; judges can serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court justices elected by the National Assembly and appointed by the president and the SJC; justices appointed for 9-year terms with renewal of 4 justices every 3 years
subordinate courts: appeals courts; regional and district courts; administrative courts; courts martial
Political parties and leadersAlliance for a Better Serbia - coalition includes LDP, LSV, SDS
Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Istvan PASZTOR]
Communist Party or KP [Josip Joska BROZ]
Democratic Alliance of Croats in Vojvodina [Petar KUNTIC]
Democratic Party or DS [Dragan SUTANOVAC]
Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Milos Jovanovic]
Dveri [Bosko OBRADOVIC]
Enough of Enough [Sasa RADULOVIC]
For a Just Serbia - coalition includes DS, NS, RS, DSVH, VVS, Together for Sumadija
Greens of Serbia or ZS [Ivan KARIC]
League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina or LSV [Nenad CANAK]
Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Cedomir JOVANOVIC]
Movement of Socialists or PS [Aleksandar VULIN]
New Serbia or NS [Velimir ILIC]
Party for Democratic Action or PDD [Riza HALIMI]
Party of Democratic Action of the Sandzak or SDA [Sulejman UGLJANIN]
Party of United Pensioners of Serbia or PUPS [Milan KRKOBABIC]
Reformist Party or RS [Aleksandar VISNJIC]
Serbia is Winning - coalition includes SNS, SDPS, PUPS, NS, SPO, PS, PSS, NDSS, SNP
Serbian People's Party or SNP [Nenad POPOVIC]
Serbian Progressive Party or SNS [Aleksandar VUCIC]
Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ]
Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC]
Social Democratic Party or SDS [Boris TADIC]
Social Democratic Party of Serbia or SDPS [Rasim LJAJIC]
Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS [Ivica DACIC]
Strength of Serbia or PSS [Bogoljub KARIC]
Together for Serbia or ZZS [Dusan PETROVIC]
Together for Sumadija [Veroljub STEVANOVIC]
note: as of April 2016, Serbia had 111 registered political parties and citizens' associations
Alternative for Bulgarian Revival or ABV [Konstantin PRODANOV]
Attack (Ataka) [Volen Nikolov SIDEROV]
Bulgarian Agrarian People’s Union [Nikolay NENCHEV]
Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Korneliya NINOVA]
Bulgaria of the Citizens or DBG [Meglena KUNEVA]
Citizens for the European Development of Bulgaria or GERB [Boyko BORISSOV]
Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria or DSB [Radan KANEV]
Democrats for Responsibility, Solidarity, and Tolerance or DOST [Lyutvi MESTAN]
IMRO - Bulgarian National Movement or IMRO-BNM [Krasimir KARAKACHANOV]
Movement for Rights and Freedoms or DPS [Mustafa KARADAYA]
National Front for the Salvation of Bulgaria or NFSB [Valeri SIMEONOV]
New Republic (alliance of DSB and other center-right parties) [Radan KANEV]
Patriotic Front (alliance of IMRO-BNM, NFSB, and other smaller parties, but not including Attack)
Reformist Bloc or RB (a four-party alliance including DBG and SDS)
United Patriots Front (alliance of IMRO-BNM, NFSB, and Attack)
Union of Democratic Forces or SDS [Bozhidar LUKARSKI]
Yes! Bulgaria [Hristo IVANOV]
Political pressure groups and leadersIndependent Association of Journalists of Serbia or NUNS
Journalists Association of Serbia (Udruzenje novinara Srbije) or UNS
Obraz (Orthodox clero-fascist organization)
SNP 1389 (Serbian nationalist movement)
SNP NASI 1389 (Serbian National Movement NASI)
Eastern Alternative (pro-Russian association)
Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB
Podkrepa Labor Confederation
other: numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas
International organization participationBIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU (candidate country), FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EU, FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Djerdj MATKOVIC (since 23 February 2015)
telephone: [1] (202) 332-0333
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3933
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
chancery: 2233 Wisconsin Ave NW
chief of mission: Ambassador Tihomir Anguelov STOYTCHEV (since 27 June 2016)
chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-0174
FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Kyle SCOTT (since 4 February 2016)
embassy: 92 Bulevar kneza Aleksandra Karadjordjevica, 11040 Belgrade, Serbia
mailing address: 5070 Belgrade Place, Washington, DC 20521-5070
telephone: [381] (11) 706-4000
FAX: [381] (11) 706-4005
chief of mission: Ambassador Eric RUBIN (since February 2016)
embassy: 16 Kozyak Street, Sofia 1408
mailing address: American Embassy Sofia, US Department of State, 5740 Sofia Place, Washington, DC 20521-5740
telephone: [359] (2) 937-5100
FAX: [359] (2) 937-5320
Flag description"three equal horizontal stripes of red (top), blue, and white - the Pan-Slav colors representing freedom and revolutionary ideals; charged with the coat of arms of Serbia shifted slightly to the hoist side; the principal field of the coat of arms represents the Serbian state and displays a white two-headed eagle on a red shield; a smaller red shield on the eagle represents the Serbian nation, and is divided into four quarters by a white cross; interpretations vary as to the meaning and origin of the white, curved symbols resembling firesteels or Cyrillic ""C's"" in each quarter; a royal crown surmounts the coat of arms
note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia
"
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the pan-Slavic white-blue-red colors were modified by substituting a green band (representing freedom) for the blue
note: the national emblem, formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe, has been removed
National anthem"name: ""Boze pravde"" (God of Justice)
lyrics/music: Jovan DORDEVIC/Davorin JENKO
note: adopted 1904; song originally written as part of a play in 1872 and has been used as an anthem by the Serbian people throughout the 20th and 21st centuries
"
"name: ""Mila Rodino"" (Dear Homeland)
lyrics/music: Tsvetan Tsvetkov RADOSLAVOV
note: adopted 1964; composed in 1885 by a student en route to fight in the Serbo-Bulgarian War
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)double-headed eagle; national colors: red, blue, white
lion; national colors: white, green, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Serbia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bulgaria
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

SerbiaBulgaria
Economy - overviewSerbia has a transitional economy largely dominated by market forces, but the state sector remains significant in certain areas. The economy relies on manufacturing and exports, driven largely by foreign investment. MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of international economic sanctions, civil war, and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during the NATO airstrikes in 1999 left the economy worse off than it was in 1990. In 2015, Serbia’s GDP was 27.5% below where it was in 1989.

After former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC was ousted in September 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government implemented stabilization measures and embarked on a market reform program. Serbia renewed its membership in the IMF in December 2000 and rejoined the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Serbia has made progress in trade liberalization and enterprise restructuring and privatization, but many large enterprises - including the power utilities, telecommunications company, natural gas company, and others - remain state-owned. Serbia has made some progress towards EU membership, signing a Stabilization and Association Agreement with Brussels in May 2008, and with full implementation of the Interim Trade Agreement with the EU in February 2010, gained candidate status in March 2012. In January 2014, Serbia's EU accession talks officially opened, and as of March 2017, Serbia had opened eight negotiating chapters. Serbia's negotiations with the WTO are advanced, with the country's complete ban on the trade and cultivation of agricultural biotechnology products representing the primary remaining obstacle to accession. Serbia maintains a three-year Stand-by Arrangement with the IMF worth approximately $1.3 billion that is scheduled to end in February 2018. The government has shown progress implementing economic reforms, such as fiscal consolidation, privatization, and reducing public spending.

High unemployment and stagnant household incomes are ongoing political and economic problems. Serbia is slowly implementing structural economic reforms needed to ensure the country's long-term prosperity. In 2016, Serbia reduced its budget deficit to 1.4% and slowed the rate of growth of its public debt as a percent of GDP, more than doubled between 2008 and 2015. Serbia's concerns about inflation and exchange-rate stability preclude the use of expansionary monetary policy.

Major economic challenges ahead include: high unemployment rates and the need for private sector job creation; structural reforms of state-owned companies; strategic public sector reforms; and the need for new foreign direct investment. Other serious longer-term challenges include an inefficient judicial system, high levels of corruption, and an aging population. Factors favorable to Serbia's economic growth include the economic reforms it is undergoing as part of its EU accession process and IMF agreement, its strategic location, a relatively inexpensive and skilled labor force, and free trade agreements with the EU, Russia, Turkey, and countries that are members of the Central European Free Trade Agreement.
Bulgaria, a former communist country that entered the EU in 2007, has an open economy that has historically has demonstrated strong growth, but its per-capita income remains one of the lowest among EU members and its reliance on energy imports and foreign demand for its exports makes its growth sensitive to external market conditions.

The government undertook significant structural economic reforms in the 1990s to move the economy from a centralized, planned economy to a more liberal, market-driven economy. These reforms included the privatization of state-owned enterprises, the liberalization of trade, and strengthening of the tax system - changes that initially caused some economic hardships but later helped to attract investment, spur growth, and make gradual improvements to living conditions. From 2000 through 2008, Bulgaria maintained robust, average annual real GDP growth in excess of 6%, which was followed by a deep recession in 2009 as the financial crisis caused domestic demand, exports, capital inflows and industrial production to contract, prompting the government to rein in spending. Real GDP growth remained slow - less than 2% annually - until 2015, when demand from EU countries for Bulgarian exports, plus an inflow of EU development funds, boosted growth to more than 3%. In recent years, low international energy prices have contributed to Bulgaria’s economic growth and helped to ease inflation, but, in 2017, rising international gas prices could dampen Bulgaria’s growth prospects.

Bulgaria is heavily reliant on energy imports from Russia, a potential vulnerability, and is a participant in EU-backed efforts to diversify regional natural gas supplies. In late 2016, the Bulgarian Government provided funding to Bulgaria’s National Electric Company to cover the $695 million compensation owed to Russian nuclear equipment manufacture Atomstroyexport for the cancellation of the Belene Nuclear Power Plant project, which the Bulgarian Government terminated in 2012. In 2016 the Bulgarian Government established the State eGovernment Agency. This new agency is responsible for the implementation of projects related to electronic governance as well as coordination of national policies in the area with the EU requirements and practices, as well as to strengthen cybersecurity.

Despite a favorable investment regime, including low, flat corporate income taxes, significant challenges remain. Corruption in public administration, a weak judiciary, low productivity, and the presence of organized crime continue to hamper the country's investment climate and economic prospects.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$101.8 billion (2016 est.)
$99.05 billion (2015 est.)
$98.26 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$143.1 billion (2016 est.)
$138.9 billion (2015 est.)
$134.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2.8% (2016 est.)
0.8% (2015 est.)
-1.8% (2014 est.)
3% (2016 est.)
3% (2015 est.)
1.5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$14,200 (2016 est.)
$13,900 (2015 est.)
$13,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$20,100 (2016 est.)
$19,400 (2015 est.)
$18,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 9.7%
industry: 42.7%
services: 47.6% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 5.1%
industry: 27.5%
services: 67.5% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line8.9% (2014 est.)
22% (2015 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1.6% (2016 est.)
1.5% (2015 est.)
-0.8% (2016 est.)
-0.1% (2015 est.)
Labor force3.141 million (2016 est.)
3.017 million
note: number of employed persons (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 17.8%
industry: 25.6%
services: 56.6% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 6.8%
industry: 26.6%
services: 66.6% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate13.8% (2016 est.)
17.9% (2015 est.)
8% (2016 est.)
10% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index38.7 (2014 est.)
28.2 (2008 est.)
37 (2015)
35.4 (2014)
Budgetrevenues: $15.75 billion
expenditures: $16.24 billion
note: this is the consolidated budget, including both central government and local goverment budgets (2016 est.)
revenues: $18.25 billion
expenditures: $17.46 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesautomobiles, base metals, furniture, food processing, machinery, chemicals, sugar, tires, clothes, pharmaceuticals
electricity, gas, water; food, beverages, tobacco; machinery and equipment, automotive parts, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel; outsourcing centers
Industrial production growth rate4.7% (2016 est.)
2.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, maize, sunflower, sugar beets, grapes/wine, fruits (raspberries, apples, sour cherries), vegetables (tomatoes, peppers, potatoes), beef, pork, and meat products, milk and dairy products
vegetables, fruits, tobacco, wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets; livestock
Exports$14.89 billion (2016 est.)
$13.36 billion (2015 est.)
$23.72 billion (2016 est.)
$23.95 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesautomobiles, iron and steel, rubber, clothes, wheat, fruit and vegetables, nonferrous metals, electric appliances, metal products, weapons and ammunition
clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels, agriculture, tobacco, IT components
Exports - partnersItaly 16.2%, Germany 12.6%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 8.7%, Romania 5.6%, Russia 5.4% (2015)
Germany 12.5%, Italy 9.2%, Turkey 8.5%, Romania 8.2%, Greece 6.5%, France 4.2% (2015)
Imports$19.26 billion (2016 est.)
$18.21 billion (2015 est.)
$25.66 billion (2016 est.)
$26.81 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials
machinery and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics; fuels, minerals, and raw materials
Imports - partnersGermany 12.4%, Italy 10.6%, Russia 9.6%, China 8.5%, Hungary 4.8%, Poland 4.2% (2015)
Germany 12.9%, Russia 12%, Italy 7.6%, Romania 6.8%, Turkey 5.7%, Greece 4.8%, Spain 4.8% (2015)
Debt - external$28.23 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$28.86 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$36.52 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$37.25 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesSerbian dinars (RSD) per US dollar -
112.4 (2016 est.)
108.811 (2015 est.)
108.811 (2014 est.)
88.405 (2013 est.)
87.99 (2012 est.)
leva (BGN) per US dollar -
1.802 (2016 est.)
1.7644 (2015 est.)
1.7644 (2014 est.)
1.4742 (2013 est.)
1.52 (2012 est.)
Public debt72.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
74.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued or owned by government entities other than the treasury (for which the Government of Singapore issued guarantees); the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities (for which the GOS also issued guarantees), as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
26.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
26.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
note:: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$12.94 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.99 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$25.13 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$22.16 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$1.516 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.751 billion (2015 est.)
$2.201 billion (2016 est.)
-$67 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$37.53 billion (2016 est.)
$50.45 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$28.33 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
$11.95 billion (2006 est.)
$42.21 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$41.47 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$NA
$2.033 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.925 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$5.064 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.841 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.525 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$5.205 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.797 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$5.45 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate4% (31 December 2016)
7.5% (12 March 2015)
0% (31 December 2016)
0.01% (31 December 2015)
note: Bulgarian National Bank (BNB) has had no independent monetary policy since the introduction of the Currency Board regime in 1997; this is BNB's base interest rate
Commercial bank prime lending rate6.29% (31 December 2016 est.)
7.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
6.58% (31 December 2016 est.)
6.59% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$17.06 billion (30 September 2016 est.)
$16.22 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$27.38 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$29.72 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$5.195 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.486 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$21.95 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$20.09 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$18.78 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.58 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$42.79 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$41.32 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues42% of GDP (2016 est.)
36.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-1.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
1.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 49.4%
male: N/A
female: N/A (2013 est.)
total: 23.8%
male: 23.8%
female: 23.7% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 73.1%
government consumption: 16.2%
investment in fixed capital: 17.8%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 50.9%
imports of goods and services: -58.2% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 60.8%
government consumption: 15.9%
investment in fixed capital: 20.4%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 69.1%
imports of goods and services: -66.3% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving25% of GDP (2016 est.)
23% of GDP (2015 est.)
22.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
22.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
22.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
22.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

SerbiaBulgaria
Electricity - production38.11 billion kWh (2016 est.)
44.35 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption26.78 billion kWh (2016 est.)
33.91 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports6.428 billion kWh (2016 est.)
10.94 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports5.065 billion kWh (2016 est.)
4.566 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production21,030 bbl/day (2016 est.)
1,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports45,790 bbl/day (2016 est.)
129,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016)
Oil - proved reserves366.5 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
15 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves30 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production586.3 million cu m (2016 est.)
94 million cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - consumption2.25 billion cu m (2016 est.)
3.209 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2016 est.)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - imports1.664 billion cu m (2016 est.)
3.093 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity7.594 million kW (2016 est.)
12.13 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels59% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
36.3% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants38.8% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
30% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
17.3% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources2.2% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
16.4% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production67,360 bbl/day (2016 est.)
139,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption66,230 bbl/day (2016 est.)
84,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports12,050 bbl/day (2016 est.)
92,350 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports16,070 bbl/day (2016 est.)
41,320 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy56.55 million Mt (2015 est.)
49.92 million Mt (2016 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

SerbiaBulgaria
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 2,770,462
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 39 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 1,654,535
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 23 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 9.156 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 128 (July 2015 est.)
total: 9.195 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 128 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: replacements of, and upgrades to, telecommunications equipment damaged during the 1999 war resulted in a modern digitalized telecommunications system
domestic: wireless service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing very rapidly; best telecommunications services are centered in urban centers; 4G/LTE mobile network launched in March 2015
international: country code - 381 (2016)
general assessment: inherited an extensive but antiquated telecommunications network from the Soviet era; quality has improved with a modern digital trunk line now connecting switching centers in most of the regions; remaining areas are connected by digital microwave radio relay
domestic: the Bulgaria Telecommunications Company's fixed-line monopoly terminated in 2005 in an effort to upgrade fixed-line services; mobile-cellular teledensity, fostered by multiple service providers, is over 125 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 359; submarine cable provides connectivity to Ukraine and Russia; a combination submarine cable and land fiber-optic system provides connectivity to Italy, Albania, and Macedonia; satellite earth stations - 3 (1 Intersputnik in the Atlantic Ocean region, 2 Intelsat in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions) (2015)
Internet country code.rs
.bg
Internet userstotal: 4.688 million
percent of population: 65.3% (July 2015 est.)
total: 4.072 million
percent of population: 56.7% (July 2015 est.)

Transportation

SerbiaBulgaria
Railwaystotal: 5,540 km
standard gauge: 3,809 km 1.435-m gauge (3,526 km one-track lines and 283 km double-track lines) out of which 1,279 km electrified (1,000 km one-track lines and 279 km double-track lines) (2015)
total: 5,114 km
standard gauge: 4,989 km 1.435-m gauge (2,880 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 125 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 44,248 km
paved: 28,000 km (16,162 km state roads, out of which 741 km highways)
unpaved: 16,248 km (2016)
total: 19,512 km
paved: 19,235 km (includes 458 km of expressways)
unpaved: 277 km
note: does not include Category IV local roads (2011)
Waterways587 km (primarily on the Danube and Sava rivers) (2009)
470 km (2009)
Ports and terminalsriver port(s): Belgrade (Danube)
major seaport(s): Burgas, Varna (Black Sea)
Airports26 (2013)
68 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 10
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
total: 57
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 17
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
under 914 m: 26 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 16
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
total: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 9 (2013)
Heliports2 (2012)
1 (2013)

Military

SerbiaBulgaria
Military branchesSerbian Armed Forces (Vojska Srbije, VS): Land Forces (includes Riverine Component, consisting of a river flotilla on the Danube), Air and Air Defense Forces (2016)
Bulgarian Armed Forces: Land Forces (aka Army), Naval Forces, Bulgarian Air Forces (Voennovazdyshni Sily, VVS) (2017)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished December 2010; reserve obligation to age 60 for men and age 50 for women (2013)
18-27 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription ended in January 2008; service obligation 6-9 months (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.34% of GDP (2017 est.)
1.25% of GDP (2016)
1.41% of GDP (2015)
1.49% of GDP (2014)
1.48% of GDP (2013)
1.35% of GDP (2016 est.)
1.29% of GDP (2015)
1.32% of GDP (2014)
1.46% of GDP (2013)
1.35% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

SerbiaBulgaria
Disputes - internationalSerbia with several other states protest the US and other states' recognition of Kosovo's declaration of its status as a sovereign and independent state in February 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosovo's northern border challenge final status of Kosovo-Serbia boundary; several thousand NATO-led Kosovo Force peacekeepers under UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo authority continue to keep the peace within Kosovo between the ethnic Albanian majority and the Serb minority in Kosovo; Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute
none
Illicit drugstransshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route; economy vulnerable to money laundering
major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals; vulnerable to money laundering because of corruption, organized crime; some money laundering of drug-related proceeds through financial institutions (2008)
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 20,346 (Croatia); 9,081 (Bosnia and Herzegovina) (2016)
IDPs: 219,854 (most are Kosovar Serbs, some are Roma, Ashkalis, and Egyptian (RAE); some RAE IDPs are unregistered) (2016)
stateless persons: 2,373 (includes stateless persons in Kosovo) (2016)
note: 678,493 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015 - December 2016)
refugees (country of origin): 15,027 (Syria) (2016)
stateless persons: 67 (2016)
note: 47,509 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015 - July 2017)

Source: CIA Factbook