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Senegal vs. The Gambia

Introduction

SenegalThe Gambia
BackgroundThe French colonies of Senegal and French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. The envisaged integration of the two countries was never implemented, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s. Several peace deals have failed to resolve the conflict, but an unofficial cease-fire has remained largely in effect since 2012. Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa and has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation. Senegal was ruled by a Socialist Party for 40 years until Abdoulaye WADE was elected president in 2000. He was reelected in 2007 and during his two terms amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and weaken the opposition. His decision to run for a third presidential term sparked a large public backlash that led to his defeat in a March 2012 runoff with Macky SALL, whose term runs until 2019. A 2016 constitutional referendum reduced the term to five years with a maximum of two consecutive terms for future presidents.
The Gambia gained its independence from the UK in 1965. Geographically surrounded by Senegal, it formed a short-lived Confederation of Senegambia between 1982 and 1989. In 1991 the two nations signed a friendship and cooperation treaty, but tensions have flared up intermittently since then. Yahya JAMMEH led a military coup in 1994 that overthrew the president and banned political activity. A new constitution and presidential election in 1996, followed by parliamentary balloting in 1997, completed a nominal return to civilian rule. JAMMEH was elected president in all subsequent elections including most recently in late 2011. After 22 years of increasingly authoritarian rule, President JAMMEH was defeated in free and fair elections in December 2016. Due to The Gambia’s poor human rights record under JAMMEH, international development partners had distanced themselves, and substantially reduced aid to the country. These channels may re-open under the administration of President

Geography

SenegalThe Gambia
LocationWestern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and Senegal
Geographic coordinates14 00 N, 14 00 W
13 28 N, 16 34 W
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 196,722 sq km
land: 192,530 sq km
water: 4,192 sq km
total: 11,300 sq km
land: 10,120 sq km
water: 1,180 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than South Dakota
slightly less than twice the size of Delaware
Land boundariestotal: 2,684 km
border countries (5): The Gambia 749 km, Guinea 363 km, Guinea-Bissau 341 km, Mali 489 km, Mauritania 742 km
total: 749 km
border countries (1): Senegal 749 km
Coastline531 km
80 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: extent not specified
Climatetropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season (November to May)
Terraingenerally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
flood plain of the Gambia River flanked by some low hills
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 69 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed elevation southwest of Kedougou 581 m
mean elevation: 34 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed elevation 53 m
Natural resourcesfish, phosphates, iron ore
fish, clay, silica sand, titanium (rutile and ilmenite), tin, zircon
Land useagricultural land: 46.8%
arable land 17.4%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 29.1%
forest: 43.8%
other: 9.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 56.1%
arable land 41%; permanent crops 0.5%; permanent pasture 14.6%
forest: 43.9%
other: 0% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,200 sq km (2012)
50 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardslowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
droughts
Environment - current issueswildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing
deforestation; desertification; water-borne diseases prevalent
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notewesternmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal
almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country in Africa

Demographics

SenegalThe Gambia
Population14,320,055 (July 2016 est.)
2,009,648 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 41.85% (male 3,011,233/female 2,981,128)
15-24 years: 20.36% (male 1,452,415/female 1,462,989)
25-54 years: 30.93% (male 2,031,035/female 2,398,788)
55-64 years: 3.91% (male 242,429/female 317,439)
65 years and over: 2.95% (male 189,201/female 233,398) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 37.88% (male 382,215/female 379,029)
15-24 years: 20.64% (male 204,979/female 209,866)
25-54 years: 33.92% (male 333,875/female 347,779)
55-64 years: 4.14% (male 39,978/female 43,177)
65 years and over: 3.42% (male 32,011/female 36,739) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 18.7 years
male: 17.8 years
female: 19.6 years (2016 est.)
total: 20.7 years
male: 20.4 years
female: 21 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.42% (2016 est.)
2.11% (2016 est.)
Birth rate34 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
30.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate8.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.76 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 50.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 56.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 44.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 62 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 67.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 56.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 61.7 years
male: 59.7 years
female: 63.8 years (2016 est.)
total population: 64.9 years
male: 62.5 years
female: 67.3 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate4.36 children born/woman (2016 est.)
3.63 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.52% (2015 est.)
1.82% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Senegalese
noun: Gambian(s)
adjective: Gambian
Ethnic groupsWolof 38.7%, Pular 26.5%, Serer 15%, Mandinka 4.2%, Jola 4%, Soninke 2.3%, other 9.3% (includes Europeans and persons of Lebanese descent) (2010-11 est.)
Mandinka/Jahanka 33.8%, Fulani/Tukulur/Lorobo 22.1%, Wolof 12.2%, Jola/Karoninka 10.9%, Serahuleh 7%, Serer 3.2%, Manjago 2.1%, Bambara 1%, Creole/Aku Marabout 0.8%, other 0.9%, non-Gambian 5.2%, no answer 0.7% (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS45,800 (2015 est.)
20,500 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 95.4% (most adhere to one of the four main Sufi brotherhoods), Christian 4.2% (mostly Roman Catholic), animist 0.4% (2010-11 est.)
Muslim 95.7%, Christian 4.2%, none 0.1%, no answer 0.1% (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths2,200 (2015 est.)
1,000 (2015 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official), Wolof, Pular, Jola, Mandinka, Serer, Soninke
English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous vernaculars
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.7%
male: 69.7%
female: 46.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 55.5%
male: 63.9%
female: 47.6% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 9 years (2015)
total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 9 years (2010)
Education expenditures7.2% of GDP (2014)
2.8% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 43.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.59% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 59.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.33% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 92.9% of population
rural: 67.3% of population
total: 78.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7.1% of population
rural: 32.7% of population
total: 21.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 94.2% of population
rural: 84.4% of population
total: 90.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 5.8% of population
rural: 15.6% of population
total: 9.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 65.4% of population
rural: 33.8% of population
total: 47.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 34.6% of population
rural: 66.2% of population
total: 52.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 61.5% of population
rural: 55% of population
total: 58.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 38.5% of population
rural: 45% of population
total: 41.1% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationDAKAR (capital) 3.52 million (2015)
BANJUL (capital) 504,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate315 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
706 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight12.8% (2014)
16.4% (2013)
Health expenditures4.7% of GDP (2014)
7.3% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
0.11 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density0.3 beds/1,000 population (2008)
1.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate8.3% (2014)
9.1% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 657,216
percentage: 22% (2005 est.)
total number: 103,389
percentage: 25% (2006 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth21.4 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)
20.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)
Demographic profileSenegal has a large and growing youth population but has not been successful in developing its potential human capital. Senegal’s high total fertility rate of almost 4.5 children per woman continues to bolster the country’s large youth cohort – more than 60% of the population is under the age of 25. Fertility remains high because of the continued desire for large families, the low use of family planning, and early childbearing. Because of the country’s high illiteracy rate (more than 40%), high unemployment (even among university graduates), and widespread poverty, Senegalese youths face dim prospects; women are especially disadvantaged.
Senegal historically was a destination country for economic migrants, but in recent years West African migrants more often use Senegal as a transit point to North Africa – and sometimes illegally onward to Europe. The country also has been host to several thousand black Mauritanian refugees since they were expelled from their homeland during its 1989 border conflict with Senegal. The country’s economic crisis in the 1970s stimulated emigration; departures accelerated in the 1990s. Destinations shifted from neighboring countries, which were experiencing economic decline, civil wars, and increasing xenophobia, to Libya and Mauritania because of their booming oil industries and to developed countries (most notably former colonial ruler France, as well as Italy and Spain). The latter became attractive in the 1990s because of job opportunities and their periodic regularization programs (legalizing the status of illegal migrants).
Additionally, about 16,000 Senegalese refugees still remain in The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau as a result of more than 30 years of fighting between government forces and rebel separatists in southern Senegal’s Casamance region.
The Gambia’s youthful age structure – almost 60% of the population is under the age of 25 – is likely to persist because the country’s total fertility rate remains strong at nearly 4 children per woman. The overall literacy rate is around 55%, and is significantly lower for women than for men. At least 70% of the populace are farmers who are reliant on rain-fed agriculture and cannot afford improved seeds and fertilizers. Crop failures caused by droughts between 2011 and 2013 have increased poverty, food shortages, and malnutrition.
The Gambia is a source country for migrants and a transit and destination country for migrants and refugees. Since the 1980s, economic deterioration, drought, and high unemployment, especially among youths, have driven both domestic migration (largely urban) and migration abroad (legal and illegal). Emigrants are largely skilled workers, including doctors and nurses, and provide a significant amount of remittances. The top receiving countries for Gambian emigrants are Spain, the US, Nigeria, Senegal, and the UK. While the Gambia and Spain do not share historic, cultural, or trade ties, rural Gambians have migrated to Spain in large numbers because of its proximity and the availability of jobs in its underground economy (this flow slowed following the onset of Spain’s late 2007 economic crisis).
The Gambia’s role as a host country to refugees is a result of wars in several of its neighboring West African countries. Since 2006, refugees from the Casamance conflict in Senegal have replaced their pattern of flight and return with permanent settlement in The Gambia, often moving in with relatives along the Senegal-Gambia border. The strain of providing for about 7,400 Casamance refugees has increased poverty among Gambian villagers.
Contraceptive prevalence rate23.3% (2015)
9% (2013)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 87.6
youth dependency ratio: 82.1
elderly dependency ratio: 5.5
potential support ratio: 18.2 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 94.2
youth dependency ratio: 89.7
elderly dependency ratio: 4.5
potential support ratio: 22.3 (2015 est.)

Government

SenegalThe Gambia
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
conventional short form: Senegal
local long form: Republique du Senegal
local short form: Senegal
former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation
etymology: named for the Senegal River that forms the northern border of the country; many theories exist for the origin of the river name; perhaps the most widely cited derives the name from ""Azenegue,"" the Portuguese appellation for the Berber Zenaga people who lived north of the river
"
conventional long form: Republic of The Gambia
conventional short form: The Gambia
etymology: named for the Gambia River that flows through the heart of the country
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Dakar
geographic coordinates: 14 44 N, 17 38 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Banjul
geographic coordinates: 13 27 N, 16 34 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions14 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
5 regions, 1 city*, and 1 municipality**; Banjul*, Central River, Kanifing**, Lower River, North Bank, Upper River, West Coast
Independence4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
18 February 1965 (from the UK)
National holidayIndependence Day, 4 April (1960)
Independence Day, 18 February (1965)
Constitutionprevious 1959 (preindependence), 1963; latest adopted by referendum 7 January 2001, promulgated 22 January 2001; amended many times, last in 2016 (2016)
previous 1970; latest adopted 8 April 1996, approved by referendum 8 August 1996, effective 16 January 1997; amended several times, last in 2010 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system based on French law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court
mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Mohammed Abdallah Boun DIONNE (since 4 July 2014)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held on 26 February 2012 with a runoff on 25 March 2012 (next to be held in 2019); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Macky SALL elected president; percent of vote in runoff - Macky SALL (Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar) 65.8%, Abdoulaye WADE (PDS) 34.2%
chief of state: President Adama BARROW (since 19 January 2017); Vice President Fatoumata JALLOW-TAMBAJANG (since 23 January 2017); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Adama BARROW (since 19 January 2017); Vice President Fatoumata JALLOW-TAMBAJANG (since 23 January 2017)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 24 November 2011 (next to be held on 1 December 2016); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Adama BARROW elected president; percent of vote - Adama BARROW (opposition coalition) 45.5%, Yahya JAMMEH (APRC)36.7%, Mamma KANDEH (G
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (150 seats; 90 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 60 directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - following the July 2017 elections, 15 seats will be added for Senegalese diapora
elections: National Assembly - last held on 1 July 2012 (next originally scheduled for 2 July 2017, but postponed until 30 July)
election results: National Assembly results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Benno Bokk Yakaar coalition 119, PDS 12, Bokk Gis Gis coalition 4, MCRN-Bes Du Nakk 4, PVD 2, MRSD 2, URD 1, AJ/PADS 1, other 5
description: unicameral National Assembly (58 seats; 53 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 5 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 6 April 2017 (next to be held in 2022)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UDP 31, APRC 5, NRP 5, GDC, 5, PDOIS 4, PP 2, independent 1
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of the president and 12 judges and organized into civil and commercial, criminal, administrative, and social chambers); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionel (consists of 7 members including the court president, vice-president, and 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges' appointed by the president of the republic upon recommendation of the Higher Council of the Judiciary, a body chaired by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Council members appointed 5 by the president and 2 by the National Assembly speaker to serve 6-year terms with the renewal of 2 members every 2 years
subordinate courts: High Court of Justice (for crimes of high treason by the president); Courts of Appeal; Court of Auditors; assize courts; regional and district courts, Labor Court; note - in early 2013, the Extraordinary African Chambers were established by agreement of the African Union and the Government of Senegal to try cases of high-level officials involved in crimes committed in Chad during the period 1982-1990
highest court(s): Supreme Court of The Gambia (consists of the chief justice and 6 other justices; court sessions held with 5 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president after consultation with the Judicial Service Commission, a 6-member independent body of high-level judicial officials, a presidential appointee, and a National Assembly appointee; justices appointed for life or until mandatory retirement age
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Special Criminal Court; Khadis or Muslim courts; district tribunals; magistrates courts
Political parties and leadersAlliance for the Republic-Yakaar or APR-Yakaar [Macky SALL]
Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]
And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Mamadou DIOP]
And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS-A [Landing SAVANE]
Bokk Gis Gis coalition [Pape DIOP]
Citizen Movement for National Reform or MCRN-Bes Du Nakk
Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Mamadou NDOYE]
Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]
Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]
Grand Party or GP [Malick GACKOU]
Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Magatte THIAM]
Jef-Jel [Talla SYLLA]
National Democratic Rally or RND [Madior DIOUF]
Party for Truth and Development or PVD [Cheikh Ahmadou Kara MBAKE]
People's Labor Party or PTP [El Hadji DIOUF]
Reform Party or PR [Abdourahim AGNE]
Republican Movement for Socialism and Democracy or MRSD
Rewmi Party [Idrissa SECK]
Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]
Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]
Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]
Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction or APRC [Fabakary JATTA]
Coalition 2016 [collective leadership] (electoral coalition including UDP, PDOIS, NRP, GMC, GDC, PPP, GPDP)
Gambia Democratic Congress or GDC [Mama KANDEH]
Gambia Moral Congress or GMC [Mai FATTY]
Gambia Party for Democracy and Progress or GPDP [Henry GOMEZ]
National Reconciliation Party or NRP [Samba JALLOW]
National Convention Party or NCP [Ebrima Janko SANYANG]
People's Democratic Organization for Independence and Socialism or PDOIS [Sidia JATTA]
People's Progressive Party or PPP [Yaya CEESAY)]
United Democratic Party or UDP [Ousainou DARBOE]
Political pressure groups and leadersother: Catholic clergy; labor; religious groups; students; Sufi brotherhoods, including the Mourides and Tidjanes; teachers
The Association of Non-Governmental Organizations or TANGO
Female Lawyers Association of Gambia or FLAG
Gambia Committee on Traditional Practices or GAMCOTRAP
Gambia Press Union or GPU
West African Peace Building Network-Gambian Chapter or WANEB-GAMBIA
Youth Employment Network Gambia or YENGambia
other: special needs group advocates; teachers and principals
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, CD, CPLP (associate), ECOWAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Babacar DIAGNE (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 2215 M Street, NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 629-2961
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Manneh HAMBA (since 3 May 2017)
chancery: 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Georgetown Plaza, Suite 240, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1379, 1399, 1425 [1] (202) 785-1379, 1399, 1425
FAX: [1] (202) 342-0240
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Martina BOUSTANI (since 28 January 2017); note - also accredited to Guinea-Bissau
embassy: Route des Almadies, Dakar
mailing address: B.P. 49, Dakar
telephone: [221] 33-879-4000
FAX: [221] 33-822-2991
chief of mission: Ambassador C. Patricia ALSUP (since 11 January 2016)
embassy: Kairaba Avenue, Fajara, Banjul
mailing address: P.M.B. 19, Banjul
telephone: [220] 439-2856
FAX: [220] 439-2475
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; green represents Islam, progress, and hope; yellow signifies natural wealth and progress; red symbolizes sacrifice and determination; the star denotes unity and hope
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Mali and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue with white edges, and green; red stands for the sun and the savannah, blue represents the Gambia River, and green symbolizes forests and agriculture; the white stripes denote unity and peace
National anthem"name: ""Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons"" (Pluck Your Koras, Strike the Balafons)
lyrics/music: Leopold Sedar SENGHOR/Herbert PEPPER
note: adopted 1960; lyrics written by Leopold Sedar SENGHOR, Senegal's first president; the anthem sometimes played incorporating the Koras (harp-like stringed instruments) and Balafons (types of xylophones) mentioned in the title
"
"name: ""For The Gambia, Our Homeland""
lyrics/music: Virginia Julie HOWE/adapted by Jeremy Frederick HOWE
note: adopted 1965; the music is an adaptation of the traditional Mandinka song ""Foday Kaba Dumbuya""
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)lion; national colors: green, yellow, red
lion; national colors: red, blue, green, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Senegal
dual citizenship recognized: no, but Senegalese citizens do not automatically lose their citizenship if they acquire citizenship in another state
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

SenegalThe Gambia
Economy - overviewSenegal’s economy is driven by mining, construction, tourism, fisheries and agriculture, which is the primary source of employment in rural areas. The country's key export industries include phosphate mining, fertilizer production, agricultural products and commercial fishing and it is also working on oil exploration projects. Senegal relies heavily on donor assistance, remittances and foreign direct investment. For the first time in the past twelve years, Senegal reached a growth rate of 6.5% in 2015 and surpassed 6.6% in 2016, due in part to a buoyant performance in agriculture because of higher rainfall and productivity in the sector.

President Macky SALL, who was elected in March 2012 under a reformist policy agenda, inherited an economy with high energy costs, a challenging business environment, and a culture of overspending. President SALL unveiled an ambitious economic plan, the Emerging Senegal Plan (ESP), which aims to implement priority economic reforms and investment projects to increase economic growth while preserving macroeconomic stability and debt sustainability. Bureaucratic bottlenecks and a challenging business climate are among the perennial challenges that may slow the implementation of this plan.

Senegal is receiving technical support from the IMF from 2015-2017 under a Policy Support Instrument (PSI) to assist with implementation of the ESP. The PSI implementation continues to be satisfactory as concluded by the IMF’s second review mission in March 2016. Investors have signaled confidence in the country through Senegal’s successful Eurobond issuances in recent years, including in 2014.

The government will focus on 19 projects under the ESP for the 2016 budget to continue the structural transformation of the economy. These 19 projects include the Thies-Touba Highway, including the new airport- Mbour-Thies Highway. Senegal will increase the national family allowances program and the community development emergency program in 2016. Electricity supply is a chief constraint for Senegal’s development. Electricity prices in Senegal are among the highest in the world. Power Africa, a program led by USAID and OPIC, plans to increase the current 500 mW of generating capacity to over 1,000 mW in the next three to five years. Recent gas discoveries on the Senegal-Mauritanian border, as well as just south of Dakar, will help alleviate some of the energy shortages.
The government has invested in the agriculture sector because three-quarters of the population depends on the sector for its livelihood and agriculture provides for about one-third of GDP, making The Gambia largely reliant on sufficient rainfall. The agricultural sector has untapped potential - less than half of arable land is cultivated and agricultural productivity is low. Small-scale manufacturing activity features the processing of cashews, groundnuts, fish, and hides. The Gambia's re-export trade accounts for almost 80% of goods exports and China has been its largest trade partner for both exports and imports for several years.

The Gambia has sparse natural resource deposits. It relies heavily on remittances from workers overseas and tourist receipts. Remittance inflows to The Gambia amount to about one-fifth of the country’s GDP. The Gambia's location on the ocean and proximity to Europe has made it one of the most frequented tourist destinations in West Africa, boosted by private sector investments in eco-tourism and facilities. Tourism normally brings in about 20% of GDP, but it suffered in 2014 from tourists’ fears of Ebola virus in neighboring West African countries. Unemployment and underemployment remain high.

Economic progress depends on sustained bilateral and multilateral aid, on responsible government economic management, and on continued technical assistance from multilateral and bilateral donors. International donors and lenders were concerned about the quality of fiscal management under the administration of former President Yahya Jammeh, who reportedly stole hundreds of millions of dollars of the country’s funds during his 22 years in power, but anticipate significant improvements under the new administration of President Adama BARROW, who assumed power on January 19, 2017. As of April 2017, the IMF, the World Bank, the European Union, and the African Development Bank were all negotiating with the new government of The Gambia to provide financial support in the coming months to ease the country’s financial crisis.

The country’s GDP contracted in 2016 largely as a result of the limited availability of foreign exchange, weak agricultural output, the border closure with Senegal during the first half of the year, and a slowdown in tourism during the political impasse that occurred at the height of the tourist season. The country faces a large fiscal deficit and a high domestic debt burden that has crowded out private sector investment and driven interest rates to new highs. The new government has committed to taking steps to reduce the deficit, including through expenditure caps, debt consolidation, and reform of state-owned enterprises.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$39.72 billion (2016 est.)
$37.24 billion (2015 est.)
$34.98 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3.387 billion (2016 est.)
$3.31 billion (2015 est.)
$3.172 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate6.6% (2016 est.)
6.5% (2015 est.)
4.3% (2014 est.)
2.3% (2016 est.)
4.4% (2015 est.)
-0.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$2,600 (2016 est.)
$2,500 (2015 est.)
$2,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1,700 (2016 est.)
$1,700 (2015 est.)
$1,600 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 15.6%
industry: 24.1%
services: 60.3% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 21.4%
industry: 15.6%
services: 63% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line46.7% (2011 est.)
48.4% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 31.1% (2011)
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 36.9% (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1.6% (2016 est.)
0.1% (2015 est.)
7.4% (2016 est.)
6.9% (2015 est.)
Labor force6.737 million (2016 est.)
777,100 (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 77.5%
industry and services: 22.5% (2007 est.)
agriculture: 75%
industry: 19%
services: 6% (1996)
Unemployment rate48% (2007 est.)
NA%
Distribution of family income - Gini index40.3 (2011)
50.2 (1998)

Budgetrevenues: $3.839 billion
expenditures: $4.453 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $231.5 million
expenditures: $323.6 million (2016 est.)
Industriesagricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, zircon, and gold mining, construction materials, ship construction and repair
peanuts, fish, hides, tourism, beverages, agricultural machinery assembly, woodworking, metalworking, clothing
Industrial production growth rate7.5% (2016 est.)
1.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productspeanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish
rice, millet, sorghum, peanuts, corn, sesame, cassava (manioc, tapioca), palm kernels; cattle, sheep, goats
Exports$2.934 billion (2016 est.)
$2.31 billion (2015 est.)
$120 million (2016 est.)
$113.2 million (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesfish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
peanut products, fish, cotton lint, palm kernels
Exports - partnersMali 12.8%, Switzerland 9.7%, India 5.9%, Cote dIvoire 5.3%, China 5.1%, UAE 4.1%, France 4.1% (2015)
China 47.7%, India 27.1%, France 5.9%, UK 4.9% (2015)
Imports$5.001 billion (2016 est.)
$4.918 billion (2015 est.)
$363.9 million (2016 est.)
$365.1 million (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfood and beverages, capital goods, fuels
foodstuffs, manufactures, fuel, machinery and transport equipment
Imports - partnersFrance 17.9%, China 10%, Nigeria 8.7%, India 5.6%, Spain 4.9%, Netherlands 4.5% (2015)
China 34.3%, Brazil 8.2%, Senegal 6.9%, India 5.8%, Netherlands 4.8% (2015)
Debt - external$6.186 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.735 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
g: $541.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$502.5 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesCommunaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
605.7 (2016 est.)
591.45 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)
dalasis (GMD) per US dollar -
44.5 (2016 est.)
41.89 (2015 est.)
41.89 (2014 est.)
41.733 (2013 est.)
32.08 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$2.173 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.012 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$91.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$83.8 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$1.057 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.013 billion (2015 est.)
-$97 million (2016 est.)
-$134 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$14.87 billion (2016 est.)
$886 million (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$NA
Central bank discount rate0.25% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
9% (31 December 2009)
11% (31 December 2008)
Commercial bank prime lending rate14.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
14.3% (31 December 2015 est.)
30.6% (31 December 2016 est.)
30.8% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$5.495 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.868 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$420.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$466.7 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$4.759 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.264 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$236.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$275.4 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$7.309 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.549 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$534.7 million (31 December 2014 est.)
$511.5 million (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues25.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
26.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
-10.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 74.5%
government consumption: 15%
investment in fixed capital: 28.3%
investment in inventories: -0.3%
exports of goods and services: 26.5%
imports of goods and services: -44% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 80.7%
government consumption: 9.7%
investment in fixed capital: 19.1%
investment in inventories: -1.5%
exports of goods and services: 24.8%
imports of goods and services: -32.8% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving20.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
16.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
16.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
11.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
4.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
14.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

SenegalThe Gambia
Electricity - production3.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
300 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
300 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports17,240 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves9.911 billion cu m (1 January 2012 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production46 million cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption46 million cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity1 million kW (2014 est.)
91,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels99.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production16,120 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption41,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
3,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports3,743 bbl/day (2013 est.)
42 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports26,560 bbl/day (2013 est.)
3,552 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy7.3 million Mt (2013 est.)
500,000 Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 6,400,000
electrification - total population: 55%
electrification - urban areas: 90%
electrification - rural areas: 28% (2013)
population without electricity: 1,200,000
electrification - total population: 36%
electrification - urban areas: 60%
electrification - rural areas: 2% (2013)

Telecommunications

SenegalThe Gambia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 300,219
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 45,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 14.959 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 107 (July 2015 est.)
total: 2.586 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 131 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: good system with microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system
domestic: generally reliable urban system with a fiber-optic network; about two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar; mobile-cellular service is steadily displacing fixed-line service, even in urban areas
international: country code - 221; the ACE fiber-optic cable connects Senegal to Europe, the SAT-3/WASC provides fiber-optic connectivity to Europe and Asia, and Atlantis-2 provides connectivity to South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2017)
general assessment: adequate microwave radio relay and open-wire network; state-owned Gambia Telecommunications partially privatized in 2007
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity, aided by multiple mobile-cellular providers, is roughly 130 per 100 persons
international: country code - 220; microwave radio relay links to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; a landing station for the Africa Coast to Europe (ACE) undersea fiber-optic cable completed in 2011 and launched in 2012; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.sn
.gm
Internet userstotal: 3.031 million
percent of population: 21.7% (July 2015 est.)
total: 337,000
percent of population: 17.1% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-run Radiodiffusion Television Senegalaise (RTS) broadcasts TV programs from five cities in Senegal; in most regions of the country, viewers can receive TV programming from at least 7 private broadcasters; a wide range of independent TV programming is available via satellite; RTS operates a national radio network and a number of regional FM stations; at least 7 community radio stations and 18 private-broadcast radio stations are available; transmissions of at least 5 international broadcasters are accessible on FM in Dakar (2017)
state-owned, single-channel TV service; state-owned radio station and 15 privately owned radio stations; 6 community radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available, some via shortwave radio; cable and satellite TV subscription services are obtainable in some parts of the country (2015)

Transportation

SenegalThe Gambia
Roadwaystotal: 16,496 km
paved: 5,957 km (includes 72 km of expressways)
unpaved: 10,539 km (2017)
total: 3,740 km
paved: 711 km
unpaved: 3,029 km (2011)
Waterways1,000 km (primarily on the Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance Rivers) (2012)
390 km (on River Gambia; small oceangoing vessels can reach 190 km) (2010)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Dakar
major seaport(s): Banjul
Merchant marinetotal: 9
by type: passenger 7, cargo 2
note: excludes numerous ocean-going pirogues operating in Senegal's coastal waters and rivers (2017)
total: 4
by type: passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 1 (2010)
Airports20 (2013)
1 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 9
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)

Military

SenegalThe Gambia
Military branchesSenegalese Armed Forces: Army, Senegalese National Navy (Marine Senegalaise, MNS), Senegalese Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Senegal) (2017)
Office of the Chief of Defense Staff: Gambian National Army (GNA), Gambian Navy (GN), Republican National Guard (RNG) (2010)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; 20 years of age for selective conscript service; 2-year service obligation; women have been accepted into military service since 2008 (2013)
18 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; service obligation 6 months (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.89% of GDP (2017 est.)
1.73% of GDP (2016)
1.58% of GDP (2015)
1.57% of GDP (2014)
1.6% of GDP (2013)
1.48% of GDP (2015)
1.72% of GDP (2014)
1.15% of GDP (2013)
1.22% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

SenegalThe Gambia
Disputes - internationalcross-border trafficking in persons, timber, wildlife, and cannabis; rebels from the Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance find refuge in Guinea-Bissau
attempts to stem refugees, cross-border raids, arms smuggling, and other illegal activities by separatists from southern Senegal's Casamance region, as well as from conflicts in other west African states
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 13,683 (Mauritania) (2016)
IDPs: 24,000 (clashes between government troops and separatists in Casamance region) (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 7,470 (Senegal) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook