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Senegal vs. Guinea-Bissau

Introduction

SenegalGuinea-Bissau
BackgroundThe French colonies of Senegal and French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. The envisaged integration of the two countries was never implemented, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s. Several peace deals have failed to resolve the conflict, but an unofficial cease-fire has remained largely in effect since 2012. Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa and has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation. Senegal was ruled by a Socialist Party for 40 years until Abdoulaye WADE was elected president in 2000. He was reelected in 2007 and during his two terms amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and weaken the opposition. His decision to run for a third presidential term sparked a large public backlash that led to his defeat in a March 2012 runoff with Macky SALL, whose term runs until 2019. A 2016 constitutional referendum reduced the term to five years with a maximum of two consecutive terms for future presidents.
Since independence from Portugal in 1974, Guinea-Bissau has experienced considerable political and military upheaval. In 1980, a military coup established authoritarian General Joao Bernardo 'Nino' VIEIRA as president. Despite eventually setting a path to a market economy and multiparty system, VIEIRA's regime was characterized by the suppression of political opposition and the purging of political rivals. Several coup attempts through the 1980s and early 1990s failed to unseat him. In 1994 VIEIRA was elected president in the country's first free, multiparty election. A military mutiny and resulting civil war in 1998 eventually led to VIEIRA's ouster in May 1999. In February 2000, a transitional government turned over power to opposition leader Kumba YALA after he was elected president in transparent polling. In September 2003, after only three years in office, YALA was overthrown in a bloodless military coup, and businessman Henrique ROSA was sworn in as interim president. In 2005, former President VIEIRA was reelected, pledging to pursue economic development and national reconciliation; he was assassinated in March 2009. Malam Bacai SANHA was elected in an emergency election held in June 2009, but he passed away in January 2012 from a long-term illness. A military coup in April 2012 prevented Guinea-Bissau's second-round presidential election - to determine SANHA's successor - from taking place. Following mediation by the Economic Community of Western African States, a civilian transitional government assumed power in 2012 and remained until Jose Mario VAZ won a free and fair election in 2014. A long-running dispute between factions in the ruling PAIGC party has brought the government to a political impasse; there have been five prime ministers since August 2015.

Geography

SenegalGuinea-Bissau
LocationWestern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea and Senegal
Geographic coordinates14 00 N, 14 00 W
12 00 N, 15 00 W
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 196,722 sq km
land: 192,530 sq km
water: 4,192 sq km
total: 36,125 sq km
land: 28,120 sq km
water: 8,005 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than South Dakota
slightly less than three times the size of Connecticut
Land boundariestotal: 2,684 km
border countries (5): The Gambia 749 km, Guinea 363 km, Guinea-Bissau 341 km, Mali 489 km, Mauritania 742 km
total: 762 km
border countries (2): Guinea 421 km, Senegal 341 km
Coastline531 km
350 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatetropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
Terraingenerally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
mostly low-lying coastal plain with a deeply indented estuarine coastline rising to savanna in east; numerous off-shore islands including the Arquipelago Dos Bijagos consisting of 18 main islands and many small islets
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 69 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed elevation southwest of Kedougou 581 m
mean elevation: 70 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed elevation in the eastern part of the country 300 m
Natural resourcesfish, phosphates, iron ore
fish, timber, phosphates, bauxite, clay, granite, limestone, unexploited deposits of petroleum
Land useagricultural land: 46.8%
arable land 17.4%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 29.1%
forest: 43.8%
other: 9.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 44.8%
arable land 8.2%; permanent crops 6.9%; permanent pasture 29.7%
forest: 55.2%
other: 0% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,200 sq km (2012)
250 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardslowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season; brush fires
Environment - current issueswildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing
deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; overfishing
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notewesternmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal
this small country is swampy along its western coast and low-lying inland

Demographics

SenegalGuinea-Bissau
Population14,320,055 (July 2016 est.)
1,759,159 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 41.85% (male 3,011,233/female 2,981,128)
15-24 years: 20.36% (male 1,452,415/female 1,462,989)
25-54 years: 30.93% (male 2,031,035/female 2,398,788)
55-64 years: 3.91% (male 242,429/female 317,439)
65 years and over: 2.95% (male 189,201/female 233,398) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 39.28% (male 344,976/female 346,102)
15-24 years: 20.17% (male 176,050/female 178,842)
25-54 years: 32.53% (male 285,258/female 286,955)
55-64 years: 4.62% (male 31,030/female 50,215)
65 years and over: 3.4% (male 22,121/female 37,610) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 18.7 years
male: 17.8 years
female: 19.6 years (2016 est.)
total: 20 years
male: 19.5 years
female: 20.5 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.42% (2016 est.)
1.88% (2016 est.)
Birth rate34 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
32.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate8.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
14.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.76 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.62 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 50.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 56.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 44.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 87.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 96.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 77.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 61.7 years
male: 59.7 years
female: 63.8 years (2016 est.)
total population: 50.6 years
male: 48.6 years
female: 52.7 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate4.36 children born/woman (2016 est.)
4.16 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.52% (2015 est.)
3.69% (2014 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Senegalese
noun: Bissau-Guinean(s)
adjective: Bissau-Guinean
Ethnic groupsWolof 38.7%, Pular 26.5%, Serer 15%, Mandinka 4.2%, Jola 4%, Soninke 2.3%, other 9.3% (includes Europeans and persons of Lebanese descent) (2010-11 est.)
Fulani 28.5%, Balanta 22.5%, Mandinga 14.7%, Papel 9.1%, Manjaco 8.3%, Beafada 3.5%, Mancanha 3.1%, Bijago 2.1%, Felupe 1.7%, Mansoanca 1.4%, Balanta Mane 1%, other 1.8%, none 2.2% (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS45,800 (2015 est.)
42,000 (2014 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 95.4% (most adhere to one of the four main Sufi brotherhoods), Christian 4.2% (mostly Roman Catholic), animist 0.4% (2010-11 est.)
Muslim 45.1%, Christian 22.1%, animist 14.9%, none 2%, unspecified 15.9% (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths2,200 (2015 est.)
1,900 (2014 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official), Wolof, Pular, Jola, Mandinka, Serer, Soninke
Crioulo (lingua franca), Portuguese (official; largely used as a second or third language), Pular (a Fula language), Mandingo
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.7%
male: 69.7%
female: 46.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 59.9%
male: 71.8%
female: 48.3% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Education expenditures7.2% of GDP (2014)
2.2% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 43.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.59% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 49.3% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.13% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 92.9% of population
rural: 67.3% of population
total: 78.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7.1% of population
rural: 32.7% of population
total: 21.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 98.8% of population
rural: 60.3% of population
total: 79.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.2% of population
rural: 39.7% of population
total: 20.7% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 65.4% of population
rural: 33.8% of population
total: 47.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 34.6% of population
rural: 66.2% of population
total: 52.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 33.5% of population
rural: 8.5% of population
total: 20.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 66.5% of population
rural: 91.5% of population
total: 79.2% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationDAKAR (capital) 3.52 million (2015)
BISSAU (capital) 492,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate315 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
549 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight12.8% (2014)
17% (2014)
Health expenditures4.7% of GDP (2014)
5.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density0.3 beds/1,000 population (2008)
1 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate8.3% (2014)
6.3% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 657,216
percentage: 22% (2005 est.)
total number: 226,316
percentage: 57% (2010 est.)
Demographic profileSenegal has a large and growing youth population but has not been successful in developing its potential human capital. Senegal’s high total fertility rate of almost 4.5 children per woman continues to bolster the country’s large youth cohort – more than 60% of the population is under the age of 25. Fertility remains high because of the continued desire for large families, the low use of family planning, and early childbearing. Because of the country’s high illiteracy rate (more than 40%), high unemployment (even among university graduates), and widespread poverty, Senegalese youths face dim prospects; women are especially disadvantaged.
Senegal historically was a destination country for economic migrants, but in recent years West African migrants more often use Senegal as a transit point to North Africa – and sometimes illegally onward to Europe. The country also has been host to several thousand black Mauritanian refugees since they were expelled from their homeland during its 1989 border conflict with Senegal. The country’s economic crisis in the 1970s stimulated emigration; departures accelerated in the 1990s. Destinations shifted from neighboring countries, which were experiencing economic decline, civil wars, and increasing xenophobia, to Libya and Mauritania because of their booming oil industries and to developed countries (most notably former colonial ruler France, as well as Italy and Spain). The latter became attractive in the 1990s because of job opportunities and their periodic regularization programs (legalizing the status of illegal migrants).
Additionally, about 16,000 Senegalese refugees still remain in The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau as a result of more than 30 years of fighting between government forces and rebel separatists in southern Senegal’s Casamance region.
Guinea-Bissau’s young and growing population is sustained by high fertility; approximately 60% of the population is under the age of 25. Its large reproductive-age population and total fertility rate of more than 4 children per woman offsets the country’s high infant and maternal mortality rates. The latter is among the world’s highest because of the prevalence of early childbearing, a lack of birth spacing, the high percentage of births outside of health care facilities, and a shortage of medicines and supplies.
Guinea-Bissau’s history of political instability, a civil war, and several coups (the latest in 2012) have resulted in a fragile state with a weak economy, high unemployment, rampant corruption, widespread poverty, and thriving drug and child trafficking. With the country lacking educational infrastructure, school funding and materials, and qualified teachers, and with the cultural emphasis placed on religious education, parents frequently send boys to study in residential Koranic schools (daaras) in Senegal and The Gambia. They often are extremely deprived and are forced into street begging or agricultural work by marabouts (Muslim religious teachers), who enrich themselves at the expense of the children. Boys who leave their marabouts often end up on the streets of Dakar or other large Senegalese towns and are vulnerable to even worse abuse.
Some young men lacking in education and job prospects become involved in the flourishing international drug trade. Local drug use and associated violent crime are growing.
Contraceptive prevalence rate23.3% (2015)
16% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 87.6
youth dependency ratio: 82.1
elderly dependency ratio: 5.5
potential support ratio: 18.2 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 78.4
youth dependency ratio: 72.8
elderly dependency ratio: 5.7
potential support ratio: 17.7 (2015 est.)

Government

SenegalGuinea-Bissau
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
conventional short form: Senegal
local long form: Republique du Senegal
local short form: Senegal
former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation
etymology: named for the Senegal River that forms the northern border of the country; many theories exist for the origin of the river name; perhaps the most widely cited derives the name from ""Azenegue,"" the Portuguese appellation for the Berber Zenaga people who lived north of the river
"
"conventional long form: Republic of Guinea-Bissau
conventional short form: Guinea-Bissau
local long form: Republica da Guine-Bissau
local short form: Guine-Bissau
former: Portuguese Guinea
etymology: the country is named after the Guinea region of West Africa that lies along the Gulf of Guinea and stretches north to the Sahel; ""Bissau,"" the name of the capital city, distinguishes the country from neighboring Guinea
"
Government typepresidential republic
semi-presidential republic
Capitalname: Dakar
geographic coordinates: 14 44 N, 17 38 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Bissau
geographic coordinates: 11 51 N, 15 35 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions14 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
9 regions (regioes, singular - regiao); Bafata, Biombo, Bissau, Bolama/Bijagos, Cacheu, Gabu, Oio, Quinara, Tombali
Independence4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
24 September 1973 (declared); 10 September 1974 (from Portugal)
National holidayIndependence Day, 4 April (1960)
Independence Day, 24 September (1973)
Constitutionprevious 1959 (preindependence), 1963; latest adopted by referendum 7 January 2001, promulgated 22 January 2001; amended many times, last in 2016 (2016)
promulgated 16 May 1984; amended 1991, 1993, 1996; note - constitution suspended following military coup in April 2012 and restored in 2014 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system based on French law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court
mixed legal system of civil law which incorporated Portuguese law at independence and influenced by early French civil code and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Mohammed Abdallah Boun DIONNE (since 4 July 2014)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held on 26 February 2012 with a runoff on 25 March 2012 (next to be held in 2019); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Macky SALL elected president; percent of vote in runoff - Macky SALL (Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar) 65.8%, Abdoulaye WADE (PDS) 34.2%
chief of state: President Jose Mario VAZ (since 17 June 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Umaro SISSOCO Embalo (since 18 November 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 13 April 2014 with a runoff on 18 May 2014 (next to be held in 2019); prime minister appointed by the president after consultation with party leaders in the National People's Assembly
election results: first round - Jose Mario VAZ (PAIGC) 41%, Nuno Gomez NABIAM (independent) 25.1%, other 33.9%; Jose Mario VAZ elected president in second round - Jose Mario VAZ 61.9%, Nuno Gomez NABIAM 38.1%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (150 seats; 90 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 60 directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - following the July 2017 elections, 15 seats will be added for Senegalese diapora
elections: National Assembly - last held on 1 July 2012 (next originally scheduled for 2 July 2017, but postponed until 30 July)
election results: National Assembly results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Benno Bokk Yakaar coalition 119, PDS 12, Bokk Gis Gis coalition 4, MCRN-Bes Du Nakk 4, PVD 2, MRSD 2, URD 1, AJ/PADS 1, other 5
description: unicameral National People's Assembly or Assembleia Nacional Popular (102 seats; members directly elected in 2 single- and 27 multi-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 13 April 2014 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - PAIGC 48.0%, PRS 30.8%, other parties 21.2%; seats by party - PAIGC 57, PRS 41, other 4
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of the president and 12 judges and organized into civil and commercial, criminal, administrative, and social chambers); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionel (consists of 7 members including the court president, vice-president, and 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges' appointed by the president of the republic upon recommendation of the Higher Council of the Judiciary, a body chaired by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Council members appointed 5 by the president and 2 by the National Assembly speaker to serve 6-year terms with the renewal of 2 members every 2 years
subordinate courts: High Court of Justice (for crimes of high treason by the president); Courts of Appeal; Court of Auditors; assize courts; regional and district courts, Labor Court; note - in early 2013, the Extraordinary African Chambers were established by agreement of the African Union and the Government of Senegal to try cases of high-level officials involved in crimes committed in Chad during the period 1982-1990
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Suprema da Tribunal Justica (consists of 9 judges and organized into Civil, Criminal, and Social and Administrative Disputes Chambers); note - the Supreme Court has both appellate and constitutional jurisdiction
judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the Higher Council of the Magistrate, a major government organ responsible for judge appointments, dismissals, and judiciary discipline; judges appointed by the president for life
subordinate courts: Appeal Court; regional (first instance) courts; military court
Political parties and leadersAlliance for the Republic-Yakaar or APR-Yakaar [Macky SALL]
Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]
And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Mamadou DIOP]
And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS-A [Landing SAVANE]
Bokk Gis Gis coalition [Pape DIOP]
Citizen Movement for National Reform or MCRN-Bes Du Nakk
Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Mamadou NDOYE]
Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]
Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]
Grand Party or GP [Malick GACKOU]
Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Magatte THIAM]
Jef-Jel [Talla SYLLA]
National Democratic Rally or RND [Madior DIOUF]
Party for Truth and Development or PVD [Cheikh Ahmadou Kara MBAKE]
People's Labor Party or PTP [El Hadji DIOUF]
Reform Party or PR [Abdourahim AGNE]
Republican Movement for Socialism and Democracy or MRSD
Rewmi Party [Idrissa SECK]
Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]
Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]
Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]
African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cabo Verde or PAIGC [Domingos SIMOES PEREIRA]
Democratic Convergence Party or PCD [Vicente FERNANDES]
New Democracy Party or PND [Mamadu Iaia DJALO]
Party for Social Renewal or PRS [Alberto NAMBEIA]
Republican Party for Independence and Development or PRID [Aristides GOMES]
Union for Change or UM [Agnelo REGALA]
Political pressure groups and leadersother: Catholic clergy; labor; religious groups; students; Sufi brotherhoods, including the Mourides and Tidjanes; teachers
Chamber of Commerce of Agriculture, Industry, and Services [Braima CAMARA]
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, CD, CPLP (associate), ECOWAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AOSIS, AU, CPLP, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Babacar DIAGNE (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 2215 M Street, NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 629-2961
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
chief of mission: none; note - Guinea-Bissau does not have official representation in Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Martina BOUSTANI (since 28 January 2017); note - also accredited to Guinea-Bissau
embassy: Route des Almadies, Dakar
mailing address: B.P. 49, Dakar
telephone: [221] 33-879-4000
FAX: [221] 33-822-2991
the US Embassy suspended operations on 14 June 1998 in the midst of violent conflict between forces loyal to then President VIEIRA and a military-led junta; the US Ambassador to Senegal is accredited to Guinea-Bissau
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; green represents Islam, progress, and hope; yellow signifies natural wealth and progress; red symbolizes sacrifice and determination; the star denotes unity and hope
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Mali and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea
two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a vertical red band on the hoist side; there is a black five-pointed star centered in the red band; yellow symbolizes the sun; green denotes hope; red represents blood shed during the struggle for independence; the black star stands for African unity
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the flag design was heavily influenced by the Ghanaian flag
National anthem"name: ""Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons"" (Pluck Your Koras, Strike the Balafons)
lyrics/music: Leopold Sedar SENGHOR/Herbert PEPPER
note: adopted 1960; lyrics written by Leopold Sedar SENGHOR, Senegal's first president; the anthem sometimes played incorporating the Koras (harp-like stringed instruments) and Balafons (types of xylophones) mentioned in the title
"
"name: ""Esta e a Nossa Patria Bem Amada"" (This Is Our Beloved Country)
lyrics/music: Amilcar Lopes CABRAL/XIAO He
note: adopted 1974; a delegation from then Portuguese Guinea visited China in 1963 and heard music by XIAO He; Amilcar Lopes CABRAL, the leader of Guinea-Bissau's independence movement, asked the composer to create a piece that would inspire his people to struggle for independence
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)lion; national colors: green, yellow, red
black star; national colors: red, yellow, green, black
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Senegal
dual citizenship recognized: no, but Senegalese citizens do not automatically lose their citizenship if they acquire citizenship in another state
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

SenegalGuinea-Bissau
Economy - overviewSenegal’s economy is driven by mining, construction, tourism, fisheries and agriculture, which is the primary source of employment in rural areas. The country's key export industries include phosphate mining, fertilizer production, agricultural products and commercial fishing and it is also working on oil exploration projects. Senegal relies heavily on donor assistance, remittances and foreign direct investment. For the first time in the past twelve years, Senegal reached a growth rate of 6.5% in 2015 and surpassed 6.6% in 2016, due in part to a buoyant performance in agriculture because of higher rainfall and productivity in the sector.

President Macky SALL, who was elected in March 2012 under a reformist policy agenda, inherited an economy with high energy costs, a challenging business environment, and a culture of overspending. President SALL unveiled an ambitious economic plan, the Emerging Senegal Plan (ESP), which aims to implement priority economic reforms and investment projects to increase economic growth while preserving macroeconomic stability and debt sustainability. Bureaucratic bottlenecks and a challenging business climate are among the perennial challenges that may slow the implementation of this plan.

Senegal is receiving technical support from the IMF from 2015-2017 under a Policy Support Instrument (PSI) to assist with implementation of the ESP. The PSI implementation continues to be satisfactory as concluded by the IMF’s second review mission in March 2016. Investors have signaled confidence in the country through Senegal’s successful Eurobond issuances in recent years, including in 2014.

The government will focus on 19 projects under the ESP for the 2016 budget to continue the structural transformation of the economy. These 19 projects include the Thies-Touba Highway, including the new airport- Mbour-Thies Highway. Senegal will increase the national family allowances program and the community development emergency program in 2016. Electricity supply is a chief constraint for Senegal’s development. Electricity prices in Senegal are among the highest in the world. Power Africa, a program led by USAID and OPIC, plans to increase the current 500 mW of generating capacity to over 1,000 mW in the next three to five years. Recent gas discoveries on the Senegal-Mauritanian border, as well as just south of Dakar, will help alleviate some of the energy shortages.
Guinea-Bissau is highly dependent on subsistence agriculture, cashew nut exports, and foreign assistance. Two out of three Bissau-Guineans remain below the absolute poverty line. The legal economy is based on cashews and fishing. Illegal logging and trafficking in narcotics also play significant roles. The combination of limited economic prospects, weak institutions, and favorable geography have made this West African country a way station for drugs bound for Europe.

Guinea-Bissau has substantial potential for development of mineral resources, including phosphates, bauxite, and mineral sands. Offshore oil and gas exploration has begun. The country’s climate and soil make it feasible to grow a wide range of cash crops, fruit, vegetables, and tubers; however, cashews generate more than 80% of export receipts and are the main source of income for many rural communities.

With renewed donor support following elections in April-May 2014 and a successful regional bond issuance, the government of Guinea-Bissau began to make progress paying salaries, settling domestic arrears, and gaining more control over revenues and expenditures, but it was deposed by the President in August 2015. A political stalemate since then has resulted in weak governance and reduced donor support.

The country is participating in a three-year IMF extended credit facility program that was suspended because of a planned bank bailout. The program was renewed in 2017, but the major donors of direct budget support (the EU, World Bank, and African Development Bank) have halted their programs indefinitely. Diversification of the economy remains a key policy goal, but Guinea-Bissau’s poor infrastructure and business climate will constrain this effort.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$39.72 billion (2016 est.)
$37.24 billion (2015 est.)
$34.98 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$2.851 billion (2016 est.)
$2.72 billion (2015 est.)
$2.596 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate6.6% (2016 est.)
6.5% (2015 est.)
4.3% (2014 est.)
4.8% (2016 est.)
4.8% (2015 est.)
2.5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$2,600 (2016 est.)
$2,500 (2015 est.)
$2,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1,600 (2016 est.)
$1,500 (2015 est.)
$1,500 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 15.6%
industry: 24.1%
services: 60.3% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 45%
industry: 13.3%
services: 41.7% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line46.7% (2011 est.)
67% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 31.1% (2011)
lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 28% (2002)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1.6% (2016 est.)
0.1% (2015 est.)
1.5% (2016 est.)
1.4% (2015 est.)
Labor force6.737 million (2016 est.)
731,300 (2013 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 77.5%
industry and services: 22.5% (2007 est.)
agriculture: 82%
industry and services: 18% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate48% (2007 est.)
NA%
Budgetrevenues: $3.839 billion
expenditures: $4.453 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $171.3 million
expenditures: $212.7 million (2016 est.)
Industriesagricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, zircon, and gold mining, construction materials, ship construction and repair
agricultural products processing, beer, soft drinks
Industrial production growth rate7.5% (2016 est.)
0.7% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productspeanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish
rice, corn, beans, cassava (manioc, tapioca), cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, cotton; timber; fish
Exports$2.934 billion (2016 est.)
$2.31 billion (2015 est.)
$163.2 million (2016 est.)
$202.9 million (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesfish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
fish, shrimp; cashews, peanuts, palm kernels, raw and sawn lumber
Exports - partnersMali 12.8%, Switzerland 9.7%, India 5.9%, Cote dIvoire 5.3%, China 5.1%, UAE 4.1%, France 4.1% (2015)
India 63.3%, Nigeria 20.4%, China 5.7%, Togo 5.7% (2015)
Imports$5.001 billion (2016 est.)
$4.918 billion (2015 est.)
$196.8 million (2016 est.)
$199.5 million (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfood and beverages, capital goods, fuels
foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products
Imports - partnersFrance 17.9%, China 10%, Nigeria 8.7%, India 5.6%, Spain 4.9%, Netherlands 4.5% (2015)
Portugal 27.2%, Senegal 12.8%, China 6.5%, Spain 5.5%, Cuba 4.9% (2015)
Debt - external$6.186 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.735 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.095 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$941.5 million (31 December 2000 est.)
Exchange ratesCommunaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
605.7 (2016 est.)
591.45 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
605.7 (2016 est.)
591.45 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Current Account Balance-$1.057 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.013 billion (2015 est.)
$31 million (2016 est.)
-$6 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$14.87 billion (2016 est.)
$1.168 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$NA
Central bank discount rate0.25% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
4.75% (31 December 2008)
Commercial bank prime lending rate14.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
14.3% (31 December 2015 est.)
15% (31 December 2016 est.)
15% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$5.495 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.868 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$255.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$206.5 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$4.759 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.264 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$537.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$454.8 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$7.309 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.549 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$596.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$514.1 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues25.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
-3.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 74.5%
government consumption: 15%
investment in fixed capital: 28.3%
investment in inventories: -0.3%
exports of goods and services: 26.5%
imports of goods and services: -44% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 92.2%
government consumption: 11.4%
investment in fixed capital: 6.1%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 20.7%
imports of goods and services: -30.4% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving20.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
16.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
16.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
11.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
11.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
7.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

SenegalGuinea-Bissau
Electricity - production3.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
34 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
31.62 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports17,240 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves9.911 billion cu m (1 January 2012 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production46 million cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption46 million cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity1 million kW (2014 est.)
39,000 kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels99.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
99% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production16,120 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption41,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
2,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports3,743 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports26,560 bbl/day (2013 est.)
2,423 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy7.3 million Mt (2013 est.)
500,000 Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 6,400,000
electrification - total population: 55%
electrification - urban areas: 90%
electrification - rural areas: 28% (2013)
population without electricity: 1,300,000
electrification - total population: 21%
electrification - urban areas: 37%
electrification - rural areas: 6% (2013)

Telecommunications

SenegalGuinea-Bissau
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 300,219
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 5,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2012 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 14.959 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 107 (July 2015 est.)
total: 1.238 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 72 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: good system with microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system
domestic: generally reliable urban system with a fiber-optic network; about two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar; mobile-cellular service is steadily displacing fixed-line service, even in urban areas
international: country code - 221; the ACE fiber-optic cable connects Senegal to Europe, the SAT-3/WASC provides fiber-optic connectivity to Europe and Asia, and Atlantis-2 provides connectivity to South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2017)
general assessment: small system including a combination of microwave radio relay, open-wire lines, radiotelephone, and mobile cellular communications
domestic: fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile cellular teledensity is roughly 70 per 100 persons
international: country code - 245 (2015)
Internet country code.sn
.gw
Internet userstotal: 3.031 million
percent of population: 21.7% (July 2015 est.)
total: 61,000
percent of population: 3.5% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-run Radiodiffusion Television Senegalaise (RTS) broadcasts TV programs from five cities in Senegal; in most regions of the country, viewers can receive TV programming from at least 7 private broadcasters; a wide range of independent TV programming is available via satellite; RTS operates a national radio network and a number of regional FM stations; at least 7 community radio stations and 18 private-broadcast radio stations are available; transmissions of at least 5 international broadcasters are accessible on FM in Dakar (2017)
1 state-owned TV station and a second station, Radio e Televisao de Portugal (RTP) Africa, is operated by Portuguese public broadcaster (RTP); 1 state-owned radio station, several private radio stations, and some community radio stations; multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)

Transportation

SenegalGuinea-Bissau
Roadwaystotal: 16,496 km
paved: 5,957 km (includes 72 km of expressways)
unpaved: 10,539 km (2017)
total: 3,455 km
paved: 965 km
unpaved: 2,490 km (2002)
Waterways1,000 km (primarily on the Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance Rivers) (2012)
(rivers are partially navigable; many inlets and creeks provide shallow-water access to much of interior) (2012)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Dakar
major seaport(s): Bissau, Buba, Cacheu, Farim
Airports20 (2013)
8 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 9
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 3 (2013)

Military

SenegalGuinea-Bissau
Military branchesSenegalese Armed Forces: Army, Senegalese National Navy (Marine Senegalaise, MNS), Senegalese Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Senegal) (2017)
People's Revolutionary Armed Force (FARP): Army, Navy, National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional); Presidential Guard (2012)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; 20 years of age for selective conscript service; 2-year service obligation; women have been accepted into military service since 2008 (2013)
18-25 years of age for selective compulsory military service (Air Force service is voluntary); 16 years of age or younger, with parental consent, for voluntary service (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.89% of GDP (2017 est.)
1.73% of GDP (2016)
1.58% of GDP (2015)
1.57% of GDP (2014)
1.6% of GDP (2013)
1.76% of GDP (2015)
1.94% of GDP (2014)
2.11% of GDP (2013)
2.46% of GDP (2012)
1.58% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

SenegalGuinea-Bissau
Disputes - internationalcross-border trafficking in persons, timber, wildlife, and cannabis; rebels from the Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance find refuge in Guinea-Bissau
a longstanding low-grade conflict continues in parts of
Illicit drugstransshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of cannabis
increasingly important transit country for South American cocaine en route to Europe; enabling environment for trafficker operations due to pervasive corruption; archipelago-like geography near the capital facilitates drug smuggling
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 13,683 (Mauritania) (2016)
IDPs: 24,000 (clashes between government troops and separatists in Casamance region) (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 8,374 (Senegal) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook