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Romania vs. Ukraine

Introduction

RomaniaUkraine
Background"The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist ""people's republic"" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.
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"Ukraine was the center of the first eastern Slavic state, Kyivan Rus, which during the 10th and 11th centuries was the largest and most powerful state in Europe. Weakened by internecine quarrels and Mongol invasions, Kyivan Rus was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and eventually into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The cultural and religious legacy of Kyivan Rus laid the foundation for Ukrainian nationalism through subsequent centuries. A new Ukrainian state, the Cossack Hetmanate, was established during the mid-17th century after an uprising against the Poles. Despite continuous Muscovite pressure, the Hetmanate managed to remain autonomous for well over 100 years. During the latter part of the 18th century, most Ukrainian ethnographic territory was absorbed by the Russian Empire. Following the collapse of czarist Russia in 1917, Ukraine achieved a short-lived period of independence (1917-20), but was reconquered and endured a brutal Soviet rule that engineered two forced famines (1921-22 and 1932-33) in which over 8 million died. In World War II, German and Soviet armies were responsible for 7 to 8 million more deaths. Although Ukraine achieved independence in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR, democracy and prosperity remained elusive as the legacy of state control and endemic corruption stalled efforts at economic reform, privatization, and civil liberties.
A peaceful mass protest referred to as the ""Orange Revolution"" in the closing months of 2004 forced the authorities to overturn a rigged presidential election and to allow a new internationally monitored vote that swept into power a reformist slate under Viktor YUSHCHENKO. Subsequent internal squabbles in the YUSHCHENKO camp allowed his rival Viktor YANUKOVYCH to stage a comeback in parliamentary (Rada) elections, become prime minister in August 2006, and be elected president in February 2010. In October 2012, Ukraine held Rada elections, widely criticized by Western observers as flawed due to use of government resources to favor ruling party candidates, interference with media access, and harassment of opposition candidates. President YANUKOVYCH's backtracking on a trade and cooperation agreement with the EU in November 2013 - in favor of closer economic ties with Russia - and subsequent use of force against students, civil society activists, and other civilians in favor of the agreement led to a three-month protest occupation of Kyiv's central square. The government's use of violence to break up the protest camp in February 2014 led to all out pitched battles, scores of deaths, international condemnation, and the president's abrupt departure for Russia. New elections in the spring allowed pro-West president Petro POROSHENKO to assume office on 7 June 2014.
Shortly after YANUKOVYCH's departure in late February 2014, Russian President PUTIN ordered the invasion of Ukraine's Crimean Peninsula claiming the action was to protect ethnic Russians living there. Two weeks later, a ""referendum"" was held regarding the integration of Crimea into the Russian Federation. The ""referendum"" was condemned as illegitimate by the Ukrainian Government, the EU, the US, and the UN General Assembly (UNGA). In response to Russia's purported annexation of Crimea, 100 members of the UN passed UNGA resolution 68/262, rejecting the ""referendum"" as baseless and invalid and confiming the sovereignty, political independence, unity, and territorial integrity of Ukraine. Russia also continues to supply separatists in two of Ukraine's eastern provinces with manpower, funding, and materiel resulting in an armed conflict with the Ukrainian Government. Representatives from Ukraine, Russia, and the unrecognized separatist republics signed the Minsk Protocol and Memorandum in September 2014 to end the conflict. However, this agreement failed to stop the fighting. In a renewed attempt to alleviate ongoing clashes, leaders of Ukraine, Russia, France, and Germany negotiated a follow-on package of measures in February 2015 to implement the Minsk Agreements. Representatives from Ukraine, Russia, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe also meet regularly to facilitate implementation of the peace deal. More than 33,000 civilians have been killed or wounded in the fighting resulting from Russian aggression in eastern Ukraine.
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Geography

RomaniaUkraine
LocationSoutheastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland, Romania, and Moldova in the west and Russia in the east
Geographic coordinates46 00 N, 25 00 E
49 00 N, 32 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Asia, Europe
Areatotal: 238,391 sq km
land: 229,891 sq km
water: 8,500 sq km
total: 603,550 sq km
land: 579,330 sq km
water: 24,220 sq km
note: approximately 43,133 sq km, or about 7.1% of Ukraine's area, is Russian occupied
Area - comparativetwice the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon
almost four times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundariestotal: 2,844 km
border countries (5): Bulgaria 605 km, Hungary 424 km, Moldova 683 km, Serbia 531 km, Ukraine 601 km
total: 5,618 km
border countries (7): Belarus 1,111 km, Hungary 128 km, Moldova 1,202 km, Poland 535 km, Romania 601 km, Russia 1,944 km, Slovakia 97 km
Coastline225 km
2,782 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m or to the depth of exploitation
Climatetemperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; warm summers across the greater part of the country, hot in the south
Terraincentral Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
mostly fertile plains (steppes) and plateaus, with mountains found only in the west (the Carpathians) or in the extreme south of the Crimean Peninsula
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 414 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
mean elevation: 175 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Hora Hoverla 2,061 m
Natural resourcespetroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 60.7%
arable land 39.1%; permanent crops 1.9%; permanent pasture 19.7%
forest: 28.7%
other: 10.6% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 71.2%
arable land 56.1%; permanent crops 1.5%; permanent pasture 13.6%
forest: 16.8%
other: 12% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land31,490 sq km (2012)
21,670 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsearthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
occasional floods; occasional droughts
Environment - current issuessoil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
inadequate supplies of potable water; air and water pollution; deforestation; radiation contamination in the northeast from 1986 accident at Chornobyl' Nuclear Power Plant
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
Geography - notecontrols the most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine; the Carpathian Mountains dominate the center of the country, while the Danube River forms much of the southern boundary with Serbia and Bulgaria
strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia; second-largest country in Europe after Russia
Population distributionurbanization is not particularly high, and a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; Hungarians, the country's largest minority, have a particularly strong presence in eastern Transylvania
densest settlement in the eastern (Donbas) and western regions; noteable concentrations in and around major urban areas of Kyiv, Kharkiv, Donets'k, Dnipropetrovs'k, and Odesa

Demographics

RomaniaUkraine
Population21,599,736 (July 2016 est.)
44,209,733 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 14.4% (male 1,597,470/female 1,512,701)
15-24 years: 10.76% (male 1,192,310/female 1,131,655)
25-54 years: 45.97% (male 5,023,060/female 4,905,559)
55-64 years: 12.8% (male 1,293,423/female 1,471,480)
65 years and over: 16.07% (male 1,403,211/female 2,068,867) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 15.51% (male 3,528,821/female 3,326,405)
15-24 years: 10.3% (male 2,334,454/female 2,218,718)
25-54 years: 44.47% (male 9,639,404/female 10,020,385)
55-64 years: 13.68% (male 2,587,898/female 3,458,016)
65 years and over: 16.05% (male 2,375,904/female 4,719,728) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 40.7 years
male: 39.3 years
female: 42.1 years (2016 est.)
total: 40.4 years
male: 37.2 years
female: 43.5 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate-0.32% (2016 est.)
-0.39% (2016 est.)
Birth rate9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
10.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate11.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
14.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.75 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 9.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 11 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 75.1 years
male: 71.7 years
female: 78.8 years (2016 est.)
total population: 71.8 years
male: 67.1 years
female: 76.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.34 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.54 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.11% (2013 est.)
0.86% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Romanian(s)
adjective: Romanian
noun: Ukrainian(s)
adjective: Ukrainian
Ethnic groupsRomanian 83.4%, Hungarian 6.1%, Romani 3.1%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.2%, other 0.7%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)
note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–11% of Romania's population
Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%, Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Romanian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS16,200 (2013 est.)
219,000 (2015 est.)
ReligionsEastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 81.9%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformed and Pentecostal) 6.4%, Roman Catholic 4.3%, other (includes Muslim) 0.9%, none or atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.3% (2011 est.)
Orthodox (includes Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox (UAOC), Ukrainian Orthodox - Kyiv Patriarchate (UOC-KP), Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate (UOC-MP)), Ukrainian Greek Catholic, Roman Catholic, Protestant, Muslim, Jewish
note: Ukraine's population is overwhelmingly Christian; the vast majority - up to two-thirds - identify themselves as Orthodox, but many do not specify a particular branch; the UOC-KP and the UOC-MP each represent less than a quarter of the country's population, the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church accounts for 8-10%, and the UAOC accounts for 1-2%; Muslim and Jewish adherents each compose less than 1% of the total population (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths500 (2013 est.)
7,900 (2015 est.)
LanguagesRomanian (official) 85.4%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romani 1.2%, other 1%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)
"Ukrainian (official) 67.5%, Russian (regional language) 29.6%, other (includes small Crimean Tatar-, Moldavian-, and Hungarian-speaking minorities) 2.9% (2001 est.)
note: 2012 legislation enables a language spoken by at least 10% of an oblast's population to be given the status of ""regional language,"" allowing for its use in courts, schools, and other government institutions; Ukrainian remains the country's only official nationwide language
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Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.8%
male: 99.1%
female: 98.5% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2015)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2014)
Education expenditures2.9% of GDP (2012)
6% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 54.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.01% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 69.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.33% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 95.5% of population
rural: 97.8% of population
total: 96.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4.5% of population
rural: 2.2% of population
total: 3.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 92.2% of population
rural: 63.3% of population
total: 79.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7.8% of population
rural: 36.7% of population
total: 20.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 97.4% of population
rural: 92.6% of population
total: 95.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.6% of population
rural: 7.4% of population
total: 4.1% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationBUCHAREST (capital) 1.868 million (2015)
KYIV (capital) 2.942 million; Kharkiv 1.441 million; Odesa 1.01 million; Dnipropetrovsk 957,000; Donetsk 934,000; Zaporizhzhya 753,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate31 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
24 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures5.6% of GDP (2014)
7.1% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.67 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
3 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density6.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
9 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate23.4% (2014)
21.7% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth22 years (2013 est.)
25 years (2013 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 48.9
youth dependency ratio: 23.1
elderly dependency ratio: 25.8
potential support ratio: 3.9 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 43.3
youth dependency ratio: 21.4
elderly dependency ratio: 21.9
potential support ratio: 4.6 (2015 est.)

Government

RomaniaUkraine
Country name"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Romania
local long form: none
local short form: Romania
etymology: the name derives from the Latin ""Romanus"" meaning ""citizen of Rome"" and was used to stress the common ancient heritage of Romania's three main regions - Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia - during their gradual unification between the mid-19th century and early 20th century
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"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Ukraine
local long form: none
local short form: Ukrayina
former: Ukrainian National Republic, Ukrainian State, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: name derives from the Old East Slavic word ""ukraina"" meaning ""borderland or march (militarized border region)"" and began to be used extensively in the 19th century; originally Ukrainians referred to themselves as Rusyny (Rusyns, Ruthenians, or Ruthenes), an endonym derived from the medieval Rus state (Kyivan Rus)
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Government typesemi-presidential republic
semi-presidential republic
Capitalname: Bucharest
geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Kyiv (Kiev)
note: pronounced KAY-yiv
geographic coordinates: 50 26 N, 30 31 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea
24 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast'), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonomna respublika), and 2 municipalities** (mista, singular - misto) with oblast status; Cherkasy, Chernihiv, Chernivtsi, Crimea or Avtonomna Respublika Krym* (Simferopol'), Dnipropetrovs'k (Dnipro), Donets'k, Ivano-Frankivs'k, Kharkiv, Kherson, Khmel'nyts'kyy, Kirovohrad (Kropyvnyts'kyy), Kyiv**, Kyiv, Luhans'k, L'viv, Mykolayiv, Odesa, Poltava, Rivne, Sevastopol'**, Sumy, Ternopil', Vinnytsya, Volyn' (Luts'k), Zakarpattya (Uzhhorod), Zaporizhzhya, Zhytomyr
note 1: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses); plans include the eventual renaming of Dnipropetrovsk and Kirovohrad oblasts, but because these names are mentioned in the Constitution of Ukraine, the change will require a constitutional amendment
note 2: the US Government does not recognize Russia's annexation of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the municipality of Sevastopol, nor their redesignation as the Republic of Crimea and the Federal City of Sevastopol
Independence9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; 13 July 1878 independence recognized by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)
24 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: ca. 982 (VOLODYMYR I consolidates Kyivan Rus), 1648 (establishment of the Cossack Hetmanate)
National holidayUnification Day (unification of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)
Independence Day, 24 August (1991); note - 22 January 1918, the day Ukraine first declared its independence from Soviet Russia, and the date the short-lived Western and Greater (Eastern) Ukrainian republics united (1919), is now celebrated as Unity Day
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 21 November 1991, approved by referendum and effective 8 December 1991
amendments: initiated by the president of Romania through a proposal by the government, by at least one-fourth of deputies or senators in Parliament, or by petition of eligible voters representing at least one-half of Romania’s counties; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by both chambers or – if mediation is required - by three-fourths majority vote in a joint session, followed by approval in a referendum; articles including those on national sovereignty, form of government, political pluralism, and fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended 2003 (2016)
history: several previous; latest adopted and ratified 28 June 1996
amendments: proposed by the president of Ukraine or by at least one-third of the Supreme Council members; adoption requires simple majority vote by the Council and at least two-thirds majority vote in its next regular session; adoption of proposals relating to general constitutional principles, elections, and amendment procedures requires two-thirds majority vote by the Council and approval in a referendum; constitutional articles on personal rights and freedoms, national independence, and territorial integrity cannot be amended; amended 2004, 2010, 2015 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system
civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Klaus Werner IOHANNIS (since 21 December 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Mihai TUDOSE (since 29 June 2017); Deputy Prime Minister Sevil SHHAIDEH and Deputy Premier Gratiela GAVRILESCU (since 3 April 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 2 November 2014 with a runoff on 16 November 2014 (next to be held around 16 November 2019); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of Parliament
election results: Klaus IOHANNIS elected president; percent of vote in runoff - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 54.4%, Victor PONTA (PSD) 45.6%; Mihai TUDOSE approved as prime minister 275-102
chief of state: President Petro POROSHENKO (since 7 June 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Volodymyr HROYSMAN (since 14 April 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister Stepan KUBIV (since 14 April 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, approved by the Verkhovna Rada
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 25 May 2014 (next to be held in 2019); prime minister nominated by the president, confirmed by the Verkhovna Rada
election results: Petro POROSHENKO elected president; percent of vote - Petro POROSHENKO (independent) 54.5%, Yuliya TYMOSHENKO (Fatherland) 12.9%, Oleh LYASHKO (Radical Party) 8.4%, other 24.2%; Volodymyr HROYSMAN elected prime minister; Verkhovna Rada vote 257-50
note: there is also a National Security and Defense Council or NSDC originally created in 1992 as the National Security Council; the NSDC staff is tasked with developing national security policy on domestic and international matters and advising the president; a presidential administration helps draft presidential edicts and provides policy support to the president
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (136 seats, 2 reserved for the diaspora; members serve 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (329 seats, 17 reserved for non-Hungarian national minorities and 4 for the diaspora; members serve 4-year terms); in 2016, the elections returned to a party list vote-proportional representation voting system
elections: Senate - last held on 11 December 2016 (next to be held by December 2020); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 11 December 2016 (next to be held by December 2020)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PSD 45.7%, PNL 20.4%, USR 8.9%, UDMR 6.2%, ALDE 6%, PMP 5.7%, other 7.1%; seats by party - PSD 67, PNL 30, USR 13, UDMR 9, ALDE 9, PMP 8; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PSD 45.5%, PNL 20%, USR 8.9%, UDMR 6.2%, ALDE 5.6%, PMP 5.3%, other 8.5%; seats by party - PSD 154, PNL 69, USR 30, UDMR 21, ALDE 20, PMP 18, minorities 17
description: unicameral Supreme Council or Verkhovna Rada (450 seats; 225 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 225 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - because of the Russian annexation of Crimea and the partial occupation of two eastern provinces, 27 of the 450 seats remain unfilled
elections: last held on 26 October 2014 (next to be held fall of 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - NF 22.1%, BPP 21.8%, Samopomich 11.0%, OB 9.4%, Radical 7.4%, Batkivshchyna 5.7%, Svoboda 4.7%, CPU 3.9%, other 13.9%; seats by party - BPP 132, NF 82, Samopomich 33, OB 29, Radical 22, Batkivshchyna 19, Svoboda 6, other 4, independent 96, vacant 27; note - voting not held in Crimea and parts of two Russian-occupied eastern oblasts leaving 27 seats vacant; seats as of December 2015 - BPP 139, NF 81, OB 43, Samopomich 26, Vidrozhennya 23, Radical 21, Batkivshchyna 19, VN 20, independent 50, vacant 28
Judicial branchhighest court(s): High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 111 judges organized into civil, penal, commercial, contentious administrative and fiscal business, and joint sections); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, a 19-member body of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court members - 6 elected by Parliament and 3 appointed by the president; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Ukraine or SCU (consists of 95 judges organized into civil, criminal, commercial, and administrative chambers, and a military panel); Constitutional Court (consists of 18 justices)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges proposed by the Supreme Council of Justice or SCJ (a 20-member independent body of judicial officials and other appointees) and appointed by presidential decree; judges initially appointed for 5 years and, if approved by the SCJ, serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court justices appointed - 6 each by the president, by the SCU, and by the Verkhovna Rada; justices appointed for 9-year non-renewable terms
subordinate courts: specialized high courts; Courts of Cassation; Courts of Appeal; regional, district, city, and town courts
Political parties and leadersChristian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU]
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]
Ecologist Party of Romania [Danut POP]
Greater Romania Party [Adrian POPESCU]
M10 Party [Monica MACOVEI]
National Liberal Party or PNL [Raluca TURCAN]
New Republic Party or NR [Alin Ioan BOTA]
Our Romania Alliance [Marian MUNTEANU]
Popular Movement Party or PMP [Traian BASESCU]
Party of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats or ALDE [Calin POPESCU TARICEANU, Daniel CONSTANTIN]
Romanian Social Party or PSRo [Mircea GEOANA]
Save Romania Union Party or USR [Nicusor DAN]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Liviu DRAGNEA]
United Romania Party or PRU [vacant, previously Bogdan DIACONU]
"Batkivshchyna (""Fatherland"") [Yuliya TYMOSHENKO]
Bloc of Petro Poroshenko – Solidarnist or BPP [Vitaliy KLYCHKO] (formed from the merger of Solidarnist and UDAR)
Narodnyy Front (""People's Front"") or NF [Arseniy YATSENIUK]
Opposition Bloc or OB [Yuriy BOYKO]
Radical Party [Oleh LYASHKO]
Samopomich (""Self Reliance"") [Andriy SADOVYY]
Svoboda (""Freedom"") [Oleh TYAHNYBOK]
Ukrainian Association of Patriots or UKROP [Taras BATENKO]
Vidrozhennya (""Revival"") [Vitaliy KHOMUTYNNIK] (parliamentary group)
Volya Narodu (“People's Will”) or VN [Yaroslav MOSKALENKO] (parliamentary group)
"
Political pressure groups and leadersother: various human rights and professional associations
Centre UA [Oleh RYBACHUK]
OPORA Civic Network [Olha AIVAZOVSKA]
International organization participationAustralia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Australia Group, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CICA (observer), CIS (participating member, has not signed the 1993 CIS charter), EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador George Cristian MAIOR (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Valeriy CHALYY (since 3 August 2015)
chancery: 3350 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 349-2920
FAX: [1] (202) 333-0817
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Hans G. KLEMM (since 21 September 2015)
embassy: 4-6, Dr. Liviu Librescu Blvd., District 1, Bucharest, 015118
mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
telephone: [40] (21) 200-3300
FAX: [40] (21) 200-3442
chief of mission: Ambassador Marie YOVANOVITCH (since 29 August 2016)
embassy: 4 Igor Sikorsky Street, 04112 Kyiv
mailing address: 5850 Kyiv Place, Washington, DC 20521-5850
telephone: [380] (44) 521-5000
FAX: [380] (44) 521-5155
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of cobalt blue (hoist side), chrome yellow, and vermilion red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed
note: now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova
two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden yellow represent grain fields under a blue sky
National anthem"name: ""Desteapta-te romane!"" (Wake up, Romanian!)
lyrics/music: Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN
note: adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution
"
"name: ""Shche ne vmerla Ukraina"" (Ukraine Has Not Yet Perished)
lyrics/music: Paul CHUBYNSKYI/Mikhail VERBYTSKYI
note: music adopted 1991, lyrics adopted 2003; song first performed in 1864 at the Ukraine Theatre in Lviv; the lyrics, originally written in 1862, were revised in 2003
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)golden eagle; national colors: blue, yellow, red
tryzub (trident); national colors: blue, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Romania
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Ukraine
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

RomaniaUkraine
Economy - overviewRomania, which joined the EU on 1 January 2007, began the transition from communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address Romania's widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment.

In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, Romania signed a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders, but GDP contracted until 2011. In March 2011, Romania and the IMF/EU/World Bank signed a 24-month precautionary standby agreement, worth $6.6 billion, to promote fiscal discipline, encourage progress on structural reforms, and strengthen financial sector stability; no funds were drawn. In September 2013, Romanian authorities and the IMF/EU agreed to a follow-on standby agreement, worth $5.4 billion, to continue with reforms. This agreement expired in September 2015, and no funds were drawn. Progress on structural reforms has been uneven, and the economy still is vulnerable to external shocks.

Economic growth rebounded in 2013-16, driven by strong industrial exports and excellent agricultural harvests, and the fiscal deficit was reduced substantially. Industry outperformed other sectors of the economy in 2016. Exports remained an engine of economic growth, led by trade with the EU, which accounts for roughly 70% of Romania trade. Domestic demand was a second driver, due to the mid-2015 cut, from 24% to 9%, of the VAT levied upon foodstuffs. In 2015, the government of Romania succeeded in meeting its annual target for the budget deficit, the external deficit remained low, even if it rose due to increasing imports. For the first time since 1989, inflation turned into deflation, allowing for a gradual loosening of monetary policy throughout the period.

An aging population, significant tax evasion, insufficient health care, and an aggressive loosening of the fiscal package jeopardize the low fiscal deficit and public debt and are the economy's top vulnerabilities.
After Russia, the Ukrainian republic was the most important economic component of the former Soviet Union, producing about four times the output of the next-ranking republic. Its fertile black soil generated more than one-fourth of Soviet agricultural output, and its farms provided substantial quantities of meat, milk, grain, and vegetables to other republics. Likewise, its diversified heavy industry supplied unique equipment, such as, large diameter pipes and vertical drilling apparatus, and raw materials to industrial and mining sites in other regions of the former USSR.

Shortly after independence in August 1991, the Ukrainian Government liberalized most prices and erected a legal framework for privatization, but widespread resistance to reform within the government and the legislature soon stalled reform efforts and led to some backtracking. Output by 1999 had fallen to less than 40% of the 1991 level. Outside institutions - particularly the IMF –encouraged Ukraine to quicken the pace and scope of reforms to foster economic growth. Ukrainian Government officials eliminated most tax and customs privileges in a March 2005 budget law, bringing more economic activity out of Ukraine's large shadow economy. From 2000 until mid-2008, Ukraine's economy was buoyant despite political turmoil between the prime minister and president. The economy contracted nearly 15% in 2009, among the worst economic performances in the world. In April 2010, Ukraine negotiated a price discount on Russian gas imports in exchange for extending Russia's lease on its naval base in Crimea.

Ukraine’s oligarch-dominated economy grew slowly from 2010 to 2013. After former President YANUKOVYCH fled the country during the Revolution of Dignity, the international community began efforts to stabilize the Ukrainian economy, including a March 2014 IMF assistance package of $17.5 billion, of which Ukraine has received four disbursements, most recently in April 2017, bringing the total disbursed as of that date to approximately $8.4 billion. Ukraine has made significant progress on reforms designed to make the country prosperous, democratic, and transparent. But more improvements are needed, including fighting corruption, developing capital markets, and improving the legislative framework.

Russia’s occupation of Crimea in March 2014 and on-going aggression in eastern Ukraine have hurt economic growth. With the loss of a major portion of Ukraine’s heavy industry in Donbas and ongoing violence, Ukraine’s economy contracted by 6.6% in 2014 and by 14.3% in 2015, but grew by 2.3% in 2016 as key reforms took hold. After the EU and Ukraine enacted the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area and Russia imposed a series of trade restrictions, the EU replaced Russia as Ukraine’s largest trading partner. Analysts predict approximately 2% growth in 2017, but a new prohibition on commercial trade with separatist-controlled territories will have an uncertain effect on Ukraine’s key industrial sectors.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$441 billion (2016 est.)
$420.2 billion (2015 est.)
$405 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$352.6 billion (2016 est.)
$344.6 billion (2015 est.)
$402.1 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate5% (2016 est.)
3.8% (2015 est.)
3% (2014 est.)
2.3% (2016 est.)
-14.3% (2015 est.)
-6.6% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$22,300 (2016 est.)
$21,100 (2015 est.)
$20,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$8,200 (2016 est.)
$8,100 (2015 est.)
$8,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 3.3%
industry: 35.4%
services: 61.3% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 14.4%
industry: 26.3%
services: 59.3%
(2016 est.)
Population below poverty line22.4% (2012 est.)
24.1% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 15.3%
highest 10%: 7.6% (2014 est.)
lowest 10%: 3.8%
highest 10%: 22.5% (2011 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)-1.1% (2016 est.)
-0.6% (2015 est.)
13.5% (2016 est.)
48.7% (2015 est.)
note: Excluding the temporarily occupied territories of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, the city of Sevastopol and part of the anti-terrorist operation zone
Labor force9.133 million (2016 est.)
18.04 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 28.3%
industry: 28.9%
services: 42.8% (2014)
agriculture: 5.8%
industry: 26.5%
services: 67.8%
(2014)
Unemployment rate6.7% (2016 est.)
6.8% (2015 est.)
10% (2016 est.)
9.1% (2015 est.)
note: officially registered workers; large number of unregistered or underemployed workers
Distribution of family income - Gini index27.3 (2012)
28.2 (2010)
24.6 (2013)
28.2 (2009)
Budgetrevenues: $56.84 billion
expenditures: $62.14 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $27.8 billion
expenditures: $30.87 billion
note: this is the planned, consolidated budget (2016 est.)
Industrieselectric machinery and equipment, auto assembly, textiles and footwear, light machinery, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining, mining, timber, construction materials
coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food processing
Industrial production growth rate2% (2016 est.)
2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables; beef, milk
Exports$56.03 billion (2016 est.)
$54.52 billion (2015 est.)
$33.97 billion (2016 est.)
$35.5 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, agricultural products and foodstuffs, metals and metal products, chemicals, minerals and fuels, raw materials
ferrous and nonferrous metals, fuel and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, foodstuffs
Exports - partnersGermany 19.8%, Italy 12.5%, France 6.8%, Hungary 5.4%, UK 4.4% (2015)
Russia 12.7%, Turkey 7.3%, China 6.3%, Egypt 5.5%, Italy 5.2%, Poland 5.2% (2015)
Imports$66.45 billion (2016 est.)
$63.12 billion (2015 est.)
$38.3 billion (2016 est.)
$38.94 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, chemicals, agricultural products and foodstuffs, fuels and minerals, metals and metal products, raw materials
energy, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Imports - partnersGermany 19.8%, Italy 10.9%, Hungary 8%, France 5.6%, Poland 4.9%, China 4.6%, Netherlands 4% (2015)
Russia 20%, Germany 10.4%, China 10.1%, Belarus 6.5%, Poland 6.2%, Hungary 4.2% (2015)
Debt - external$101.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$102.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$127.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$119.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange rateslei (RON) per US dollar -
4.15 (2016 est.)
4.0057 (2015 est.)
4.0057 (2014 est.)
3.3492 (2013 est.)
3.47 (2012 est.)
hryvnia (UAH) per US dollar -
25.26 (2016 est.)
21.8447 (2015 est.)
21.8447 (2014 est.)
11.8867 (2013 est.)
7.99 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt39.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
38.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds
78.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
79.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: the total public debt of $64.5 billion consists of: domestic public debt ($23.8 billion); external public debt ($26.1 billion); and sovereign guarantees ($14.6 billion)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$39.86 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$38.71 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$16.01 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$13.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$4.56 billion (2016 est.)
-$2.157 billion (2015 est.)
-$3.367 billion (2016 est.)
-$251 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$186.5 billion (2016 est.)
$87.2 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$76.41 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$72.21 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$65.95 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$60.95 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$4.018 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.618 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$7.983 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.183 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$36.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$41.04 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$42.59 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$20.71 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$25.56 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$39.46 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate1.75% (31 December 2015)
2.75% (31 December 2014)
22% (23 December 2015)
7.5% (31 January 2012)
Commercial bank prime lending rate6% (31 December 2016 est.)
6.77% (31 December 2015 est.)
18.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
21.82% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$65.93 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$64.47 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$60.72 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$62.77 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$30.67 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$36.06 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$19.81 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$19.68 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$71.58 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$78.18 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$78.02 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$113.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues30.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
31.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
-3.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 24%
male: 23.6%
female: 24.7% (2014 est.)
total: 23.1%
male: 23.7%
female: 22.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 69.4%
government consumption: 6.7%
investment in fixed capital: 25.2%
investment in inventories: 0.3%
exports of goods and services: 40.9%
imports of goods and services: -42.5% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 69.3%
government consumption: 20.3%
investment in fixed capital: 13.3%
investment in inventories: 0.5%
exports of goods and services: 55.9%
imports of goods and services: -59.3% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving23% of GDP (2016 est.)
24.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
24.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
14.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
15% of GDP (2015 est.)
9.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

RomaniaUkraine
Electricity - production62 billion kWh (2014 est.)
171 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption48 billion kWh (2014 est.)
143 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports9.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
8.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports2.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
89 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production82,650 bbl/day (2015 est.)
35,910 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports111,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
24,180 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports1,234 bbl/day (2013 est.)
668.1 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves600 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
400 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves105.5 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
1.104 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production11.26 billion cu m (2015 est.)
19.9 billion cu m (2015)
Natural gas - consumption11.54 billion cu m (2015 est.)
33.8 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports1.078 million cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - imports277.1 million cu m (2015 est.)
20 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity24 million kW (2014 est.)
56 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels44.3% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
63.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants30% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
9.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels6.1% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
23.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources19.6% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
1.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production216,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
96,210 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption192,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
257,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports79,250 bbl/day (2013 est.)
19,250 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports50,280 bbl/day (2013 est.)
153,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy76 million Mt (2013 est.)
291 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

RomaniaUkraine
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 4.27 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 9,113,061
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 21 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 23.12 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 107 (July 2015 est.)
total: 60.72 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 137 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: the telecommunications sector is being expanded and modernized; domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially mobile-cellular services
domestic: more than 90% of telephone network is automatic; fixed-line teledensity is about 20 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity over 100 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 40; the Black Sea Fiber-Optic Cable System provides connectivity to Bulgaria and Turkey; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2014)
general assessment: Ukraine's telecommunication development plan emphasizes improving domestic trunk lines, international connections, and the mobile-cellular system
domestic: the country's former sole telephone provider, Ukrtelekom, was successfully privatized 2011 and independent foreign-invested private companies now provide substantial telecommunications services; the mobile-cellular telephone system's expansion has slowed, largely due to saturation of the market that is now over 135 mobile phones per 100 persons
international: country code - 380; 2 new domestic trunk lines are a part of the fiber-optic Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) system and 3 Ukrainian links have been installed in the fiber-optic Trans-European Lines (TEL) project that connects 18 countries; additional international service is provided by the Italy-Turkey-Ukraine-Russia (ITUR) fiber-optic submarine cable and by an unknown number of earth stations in the Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems (2015)
Internet country code.ro
.ua
Internet userstotal: 12.082 million
percent of population: 55.8% (July 2015 est.)
total: 21.886 million
percent of population: 49.3% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediaa mixture of public and private TV stations; there are 7 public TV stations (2 national, 5 regional) using terrestrial broadcasting and 187 private TV stations (out of which 171 offer local coverage) using terrestrial broadcasting, plus 11 public TV stations using satellite broadcasting and 86 private TV stations using satellite broadcasting; state-owned public radio broadcaster operates 4 national networks and regional and local stations, having in total 20 public radio stations by terrestrial broadcasting plus 4 public radio stations by satellite broadcasting; there are 502 operational private radio stations using terrestrial broadcasting and 26 private radio stations using satellite broadcasting (2014)
state-controlled nationwide TV broadcast channel (UT1) and a number of privately owned TV networks provide basic TV coverage; multi-channel cable and satellite TV services are available; Russian television broadcasts have a small audience nationwide, but larger audiences in the eastern and southern regions; the radio broadcast market, a mix of independent and state-owned networks, is comprised of some 300 stations (2007)

Transportation

RomaniaUkraine
Railwaystotal: 11,268 km
broad gauge: 60 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 10,781 km 1.435-m gauge (3,292 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)
total: 21,733 km
broad gauge: 21,684 km 1.524-m gauge (9,250 km electrified)
standard gauge: 49 km 1.435-m gauge (49 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 84,185 km
paved: 49,873 km (includes 337 km of expressways)
unpaved: 34,312 km (2012)
total: 169,694 km
paved: 166,095 km (includes 17 km of expressways)
unpaved: 3,599 km (2012)
Waterways1,731 km (includes 1,075 km on the Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals) (2010)
1,672 km (most on Dnieper River) (2012)
Pipelinesgas 3,726 km; oil 2,451 km (2013)
gas 36,720 km; oil 4,514 km; refined products 4,363 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Constanta, Midia
river port(s): Braila, Galati (Galatz), Mancanului (Giurgiu), Tulcea (Danube River)
major seaport(s): Feodosiya (Theodosia), Illichivsk, Mariupol', Mykolayiv, Odesa, Yuzhnyy
Merchant marinetotal: 5
by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 1 (Russia 1)
registered in other countries: 31 (Georgia 7, Liberia 3, Malta 7, Marshall Islands 2, Moldova 2, Panama 3, Russia 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Sierra Leone 2, Tanzania 1, Togo 1, unknown 1) (2010)
total: 134
by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 98, chemical tanker 1, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 8, refrigerated cargo 11, specialized tanker 2
registered in other countries: 172 (Belize 6, Cambodia 35, Comoros 10, Cyprus 3, Dominica 1, Georgia 10, Liberia 10, Malta 29, Marshall Islands 1, Moldova 14, Mongolia 1, Panama 8, Russia 12, Saint Kitts and Nevis 8, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 12, Sierra Leone 5, Slovakia 2, unknown 5) (2010)
Airports45 (2013)
187 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 26
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 108
over 3,047 m: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 42
1,524 to 2,437 m: 22
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 28 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 14 (2013)
total: 79
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 69 (2013)
Heliports2 (2013)
9 (2013)

Military

RomaniaUkraine
Military branchesGround Forces, Navy, Air Force (2016)
Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air Forces (2013)
Military service age and obligationconscription ended 2006; 18 years of age for male and female voluntary service; all military inductees (including women) contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive 3-year terms until age 36 (2015)
20-27 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 18 months (2015)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.42% of GDP (2016)
1.45% of GDP (2015)
1.35% of GDP (2014)
1.28% of GDP (2013)
1.22% of GDP (2012)
3.8% of GDP (2016)
4% of GDP (2015)
3.02% of GDP (2014)
2.39% of GDP (2013)
2.35% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

RomaniaUkraine
Disputes - internationalthe ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea
1997 boundary delimitation treaty with Belarus remains unratified due to unresolved financial claims, stalling demarcation and reducing border security; delimitation of land boundary with Russia is complete and demarcation began in 2012; the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov is suspended due to the occupation of Crimea by Russia; Ukraine and Moldova signed an agreement officially delimiting their border in 1999, but the border has not been demarcated due to Moldova's difficulties with the break-away region of Transnistria; Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor transit of people and commodities through Moldova's Transnistria Region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops; the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea
Illicit drugsmajor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering, which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos
limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; some synthetic drug production for export to the West; limited government eradication program; used as transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Africa, Latin America, and Turkey to Europe and Russia; Ukraine has improved anti-money-laundering controls, resulting in its removal from the Financial Action Task Force's (FATF's) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List in February 2004; Ukraine's anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 249 (2016)
IDPs: 1,641,895 (Russian-sponsored separatist violence in Crimea and eastern Ukraine) (2017)
stateless persons: 35,363 (2016); note - citizens of the former USSR who were permanently resident in Ukraine were granted citizenship upon Ukraine's independence in 1991, but some missed this window of opportunity; people arriving after 1991, Crimean Tatars, ethnic Koreans, people with expired Soviet passports, and people with no documents have difficulty acquiring Ukrainian citizenship; following the fall of the Soviet Union in 1989, thousands of Crimean Tatars and their descendants deported from Ukraine under the STALIN regime returned to their homeland, some being stateless and others holding the citizenship of Uzbekistan or other former Soviet republics; a 1998 bilateral agreement between Ukraine and Uzbekistan simplified the process of renouncing Uzbek citizenship and obtaining Ukrainian citizenship

Source: CIA Factbook