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Romania vs. Serbia

Introduction

RomaniaSerbia
Background"The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist ""people's republic"" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.
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"The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Communist Partisans resisted the Axis occupation and division of Yugoslavia from 1941 to 1945 and fought nationalist opponents and collaborators as well. The military and political movement headed by Josip Broz ""TITO"" (Partisans) took full control of Yugoslavia when their domestic rivals and the occupiers were defeated in 1945. Although communists, TITO and his successors (Tito died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In 1989, Slobodan MILOSEVIC became president of the Republic of Serbia and his ultranationalist calls for Serbian domination led to the violent breakup of Yugoslavia along ethnic lines. In 1991, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia declared independence, followed by Bosnia in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in April 1992 and under MILOSEVIC's leadership, Serbia led various military campaigns to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a ""Greater Serbia."" These actions ultimately failed and, after international intervention, led to the signing of the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995.
MILOSEVIC retained control over Serbia and eventually became president of the FRY in 1997. In 1998, an ethnic Albanian insurgency in the formerly autonomous Serbian province of Kosovo provoked a Serbian counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo. The MILOSEVIC government's rejection of a proposed international settlement led to NATO's bombing of Serbia in the spring of 1999. Serbian military and police forces withdrew from Kosovo in June 1999, and the UN Security Council authorized an interim UN administration and a NATO-led security force in Kosovo. FRY elections in late 2000 led to the ouster of MILOSEVIC and the installation of democratic government. In 2003, the FRY became the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, a loose federation of the two republics. Widespread violence predominantly targeting ethnic Serbs in Kosovo in March 2004 led to more intense calls to address Kosovo's status, and the UN began facilitating status talks in 2006. In June 2006, Montenegro seceded from the federation and declared itself an independent nation. Serbia subsequently gave notice that it was the successor state to the union of Serbia and Montenegro.
In February 2008, after nearly two years of inconclusive negotiations, Kosovo declared itself independent of Serbia - an action Serbia refuses to recognize. At Serbia's request, the UN General Assembly (UNGA) in October 2008 sought an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on whether Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence was in accordance with international law. In a ruling considered unfavorable to Serbia, the ICJ issued an advisory opinion in July 2010 stating that international law did not prohibit declarations of independence. In late 2010, Serbia agreed to an EU-drafted UNGA Resolution acknowledging the ICJ's decision and calling for a new round of talks between Serbia and Kosovo, this time on practical issues rather than Kosovo's status. Serbia and Kosovo signed the first agreement of principles governing the normalization of relations between the two countries in April 2013 and are in the process of implementing its provisions. In 2015, Serbia and Kosovo reached four additional agreements within the Brussels Dialogue framework. These included agreements on the Community of Serb-Majority Municipalities; telecommunications; energy production and distribution; and freedom of movement. Prime Minister Aleksandar VUCIC, has promoted an ambitious goal of Serbia joining the EU by 2020. Under his leadership, in January 2014 Serbia opened formal negotiations for accession. Serbia has opened 8 chapters of the EU acquis and provisionally closed 2 chapters.
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Geography

RomaniaSerbia
LocationSoutheastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Southeastern Europe, between Macedonia and Hungary
Geographic coordinates46 00 N, 25 00 E
44 00 N, 21 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 238,391 sq km
land: 229,891 sq km
water: 8,500 sq km
total: 77,474 sq km
land: 77,474 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparativetwice the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon
slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundariestotal: 2,844 km
border countries (5): Bulgaria 605 km, Hungary 424 km, Moldova 683 km, Serbia 531 km, Ukraine 601 km
total: 2,322 km
border countries (8): Bosnia and Herzegovina 345 km, Bulgaria 344 km, Croatia 314 km, Hungary 164 km, Kosovo 366 km, Macedonia 101 km, Montenegro 157 km, Romania 531 km
Coastline225 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
none (landlocked)
Climatetemperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well-distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)
Terraincentral Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 414 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
mean elevation: 442 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Danube and Timok Rivers 35 m
highest point: Midzor 2,169 m
Natural resourcespetroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
oil, gas, coal, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, chromite, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 60.7%
arable land 39.1%; permanent crops 1.9%; permanent pasture 19.7%
forest: 28.7%
other: 10.6% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 57.9%
arable land 37.7%; permanent crops 3.4%; permanent pasture 16.8%
forest: 31.6%
other: 10.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land31,490 sq km (2012)
950 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsearthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issuessoil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notecontrols the most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine; the Carpathian Mountains dominate the center of the country, while the Danube River forms much of the southern boundary with Serbia and Bulgaria
controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East
Population distributionurbanization is not particularly high, and a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; Hungarians, the country's largest minority, have a particularly strong presence in eastern Transylvania
a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations

Demographics

RomaniaSerbia
Population21,599,736 (July 2016 est.)
7,143,921
note: does not include the population of Kosovo (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 14.4% (male 1,597,470/female 1,512,701)
15-24 years: 10.76% (male 1,192,310/female 1,131,655)
25-54 years: 45.97% (male 5,023,060/female 4,905,559)
55-64 years: 12.8% (male 1,293,423/female 1,471,480)
65 years and over: 16.07% (male 1,403,211/female 2,068,867) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 14.64% (male 539,189/female 506,727)
15-24 years: 11.34% (male 417,692/female 392,379)
25-54 years: 41.41% (male 1,492,799/female 1,465,270)
55-64 years: 14.58% (male 502,172/female 539,349)
65 years and over: 18.03% (male 530,827/female 757,517) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 40.7 years
male: 39.3 years
female: 42.1 years (2016 est.)
total: 42.3 years
male: 40.7 years
female: 44 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate-0.32% (2016 est.)
-0.46% (2016 est.)
Birth rate9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate11.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
13.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 9.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 11 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 5.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 75.1 years
male: 71.7 years
female: 78.8 years (2016 est.)
total population: 75.5 years
male: 72.6 years
female: 78.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.34 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.43 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.11% (2013 est.)
0.05% (2013 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Romanian(s)
adjective: Romanian
noun: Serb(s)
adjective: Serbian
Ethnic groupsRomanian 83.4%, Hungarian 6.1%, Romani 3.1%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.2%, other 0.7%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)
note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–11% of Romania's population
Serb 83.3%, Hungarian 3.5%, Romani 2.1%, Bosniak 2%, other 5.7%, undeclared or unknown 3.4% (2011 est.)
note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–11% of Serbia's population
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS16,200 (2013 est.)
3,000 (2013 est.)
ReligionsEastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 81.9%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformed and Pentecostal) 6.4%, Roman Catholic 4.3%, other (includes Muslim) 0.9%, none or atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.3% (2011 est.)
Orthodox 84.6%, Catholic 5%, Muslim 3.1%, Protestant 1%, atheist 1.1%, other 0.8% (includes agnostics, other Christians, Eastern religionists, Jewish), undeclared or unknown 4.5% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths500 (2013 est.)
100 (2013 est.)
LanguagesRomanian (official) 85.4%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romani 1.2%, other 1%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)
Serbian (official) 88.1%, Hungarian 3.4%, Bosnian 1.9%, Romani 1.4%, other 3.4%, undeclared or unknown 1.8%
note: Serbian, Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, and Ruthenian (Rusyn) are official in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (2011 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.8%
male: 99.1%
female: 98.5% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.1%
male: 99.1%
female: 97.2% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2015)
total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2015)
Education expenditures2.9% of GDP (2012)
4.2% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 54.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.01% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 55.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.34% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 98.9% of population
total: 99.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 1.1% of population
total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 92.2% of population
rural: 63.3% of population
total: 79.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7.8% of population
rural: 36.7% of population
total: 20.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 98.2% of population
rural: 94.2% of population
total: 96.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.8% of population
rural: 5.8% of population
total: 3.6% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationBUCHAREST (capital) 1.868 million (2015)
BELGRADE (capital) 1.182 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate31 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
17 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures5.6% of GDP (2014)
10.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.67 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
2.46 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density6.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
5.4 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate23.4% (2014)
21.1% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth22 years (2013 est.)
27.8 years (2013 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 48.9
youth dependency ratio: 23.1
elderly dependency ratio: 25.8
potential support ratio: 3.9 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 50.1
youth dependency ratio: 24.5
elderly dependency ratio: 25.6
potential support ratio: 3.9 (2015 est.)

Government

RomaniaSerbia
Country name"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Romania
local long form: none
local short form: Romania
etymology: the name derives from the Latin ""Romanus"" meaning ""citizen of Rome"" and was used to stress the common ancient heritage of Romania's three main regions - Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia - during their gradual unification between the mid-19th century and early 20th century
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conventional long form: Republic of Serbia
conventional short form: Serbia
local long form: Republika Srbija
local short form: Srbija
former: People's Republic of Serbia, Socialist Republic of Serbia
etymology: the origin of the name in uncertain, but seems to be related to the name of the West Slavic Sorbs who reside in the Lusatian region in present-day eastern Germany; by tradition, the Serbs migrated from that region to the Balkans in about the 6th century A.D.
Government typesemi-presidential republic
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Bucharest
geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Belgrade (Beograd)
geographic coordinates: 44 50 N, 20 30 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea
119 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina) and 26 cities (gradovi, singular - grad)
municipalities: Ada*, Aleksandrovac, Aleksinac, Alibunar*, Apatin*, Arandelovac, Arilje, Babusnica, Bac*, Backa Palanka*, Backa Topola*, Backi Petrovac*, Bajina Basta, Batocina, Becej*, Bela Crkva*, Bela Palanka, Beocin*, Blace, Bogatic, Bojnik, Boljevac, Bor, Bosilegrad, Brus, Bujanovac, Cajetina, Cicevac, Coka*, Crna Trava, Cuprija, Despotovac, Dimitrov, Doljevac, Gadzin Han, Golubac, Gornji Milanovac, Indija*, Irig*, Ivanjica, Kanjiza*, Kladovo, Knic, Knjazevac, Koceljeva, Kosjeric, Kovacica*, Kovin*, Krupanj, Kucevo, Kula*, Kursumlija, Lajkovac, Lapovo, Lebane, Ljig, Ljubovija, Lucani, Majdanpek, Mali Idos*, Mali Zvornik, Malo Crnice, Medveda, Merosina, Mionica, Negotin, Nova Crnja*, Nova Varos, Novi Becej*, Novi Knezevac*, Odzaci*, Opovo*, Osecina, Paracin, Pecinci*, Petrovac na Mlavi, Plandiste*, Pozega, Presevo, Priboj, Prijepolje, Prokuplje, Raca, Raska, Razanj, Rekovac, Ruma*, Secanj*, Senta*, Sid*, Sjenica, Smederevska Palanka, Sokobanja, Srbobran*, Sremski Karlovci*, Stara Pazova*, Surdulica, Svilajnac, Svrljig, Temerin*, Titel*, Topola, Trgoviste, Trstenik, Tutin, Ub, Varvarin, Velika Plana, Veliko Gradiste, Vladicin Han, Vladimirci, Vlasotince, Vrbas*, Vrnjacka Banja, Zabalj*, Zabari, Zagubica, Zitiste*, Zitorada
cities: Beograd, Cacak, Jagodina, Kikinda*, Kragujevac, Kraljevo, Krusevac, Leskovac, Loznica, Nis, Novi Pazar, Novi Sad*, Pancevo*, Pirot, Pozarevac, Sabac, Smederevo, Sombor*, Sremska Mitrovica*, Subotica*, Uzice, Valjevo, Vranje, Vrsac, Zajecar, Zrenjanin*
note: the northern 39 municipalities and 6 cities - about 28% of Serbia's area - compose the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina and are indicated with *
Independence9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; 13 July 1878 independence recognized by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)
5 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro)
National holidayUnification Day (unification of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)
National Day (Statehood Day), 15 February (1835), the day the first constitution of the country was adopted
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 21 November 1991, approved by referendum and effective 8 December 1991
amendments: initiated by the president of Romania through a proposal by the government, by at least one-fourth of deputies or senators in Parliament, or by petition of eligible voters representing at least one-half of Romania’s counties; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by both chambers or – if mediation is required - by three-fourths majority vote in a joint session, followed by approval in a referendum; articles including those on national sovereignty, form of government, political pluralism, and fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended 2003 (2016)
history: many previous; latest adopted 30 September 2006, approved by referendum 28-29 October 2006, effective 8 November 2006
amendments: proposed by at least one-third of deputies in the National Assembly, by the president of the republic, by the government, or by petition of at least 150,000 voters; passage of proposals and draft amendments each requires at least two-thirds majority vote in the Assembly; amendments to constitutional articles including the preamble, constitutional principles, and human and minority rights and freedoms also require a referendum with passage by simple majority vote (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system
civil law system
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Klaus Werner IOHANNIS (since 21 December 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Mihai TUDOSE (since 29 June 2017); Deputy Prime Minister Sevil SHHAIDEH and Deputy Premier Gratiela GAVRILESCU (since 3 April 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 2 November 2014 with a runoff on 16 November 2014 (next to be held around 16 November 2019); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of Parliament
election results: Klaus IOHANNIS elected president; percent of vote in runoff - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 54.4%, Victor PONTA (PSD) 45.6%; Mihai TUDOSE approved as prime minister 275-102
chief of state: President Aleksandar VUCIC (since 31 May 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Ana BRNABIC (since 29 June 2017)
cabinet: Cabinet elected by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 2 April 2017 (next to be held in 2022); prime minister elected by the National Assembly
election results: Aleksandar VUCIC elected president; percent of vote - Aleksandar VUCIC (SNS) 55.1%, Sasa JANKOVIC (independent) 16.4%, Luka MAKSIMOVIC (independent) 9.4%, Vuk JEREMIC (independent) 5.7%, Vojislav SESELJ (SRS) 4.5%, Bosko OBRADOVIC (Dveri) 2.3%, other 5.0%, invalid/blank 1.6%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (136 seats, 2 reserved for the diaspora; members serve 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (329 seats, 17 reserved for non-Hungarian national minorities and 4 for the diaspora; members serve 4-year terms); in 2016, the elections returned to a party list vote-proportional representation voting system
elections: Senate - last held on 11 December 2016 (next to be held by December 2020); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 11 December 2016 (next to be held by December 2020)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PSD 45.7%, PNL 20.4%, USR 8.9%, UDMR 6.2%, ALDE 6%, PMP 5.7%, other 7.1%; seats by party - PSD 67, PNL 30, USR 13, UDMR 9, ALDE 9, PMP 8; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PSD 45.5%, PNL 20%, USR 8.9%, UDMR 6.2%, ALDE 5.6%, PMP 5.3%, other 8.5%; seats by party - PSD 154, PNL 69, USR 30, UDMR 21, ALDE 20, PMP 18, minorities 17
description: unicameral National Assembly or Narodna Skupstina (250 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 24 April 2016 (next to be held by April 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - Serbia is Winning 48.2%, SPS-JS-ZS-KP 11.0%, SRS 8.1%, For a Just Serbia 6.0%, Enough is Enough 6.0%, Alliance for a Better Serbia 5.0%, Dveri-DSS 5.0%, SVM 1.5%, other 9.2%; seats by party/coalition Serbia is Winning 131, SPS-JS-ZS-KP 29, SRS 22, For a Just Serbia 16, Enough is Enough 16, Alliance for a Better Serbia 13, Dveri-DSS 13, SVM 4, other 6
Judicial branchhighest court(s): High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 111 judges organized into civil, penal, commercial, contentious administrative and fiscal business, and joint sections); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, a 19-member body of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court members - 6 elected by Parliament and 3 appointed by the president; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation (consists of more than 60 judges organized into 3- and 5-member panels for criminal, civil, and administrative cases); Constitutional Court (consists of 15 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices proposed by the High Judicial Council (HJC), an 11-member body of which 7 are judges, and elected by the National Assembly; Constitutional Court judges appointed - 5 each by the National Assembly, the president, and the Supreme Court of Cassation; judges of both courts appointed to permanent tenure by the HJC
subordinate courts: appellate courts, higher courts, and municipal and district courts; courts of special jurisdiction include the Administrative Court, Appellate Commercial Court, and 2 levels of misdemeanor courts
note: in 2003, specialized panels on war crimes were established within the Serbian court system; the panels have jurisdiction over alleged violations of the Basic Criminal Code and crimes against humanity, international law, and criminal acts as defined by the Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
Political parties and leadersChristian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU]
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]
Ecologist Party of Romania [Danut POP]
Greater Romania Party [Adrian POPESCU]
M10 Party [Monica MACOVEI]
National Liberal Party or PNL [Raluca TURCAN]
New Republic Party or NR [Alin Ioan BOTA]
Our Romania Alliance [Marian MUNTEANU]
Popular Movement Party or PMP [Traian BASESCU]
Party of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats or ALDE [Calin POPESCU TARICEANU, Daniel CONSTANTIN]
Romanian Social Party or PSRo [Mircea GEOANA]
Save Romania Union Party or USR [Nicusor DAN]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Liviu DRAGNEA]
United Romania Party or PRU [vacant, previously Bogdan DIACONU]
Alliance for a Better Serbia - coalition includes LDP, LSV, SDS
Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Istvan PASZTOR]
Communist Party or KP [Josip Joska BROZ]
Democratic Alliance of Croats in Vojvodina [Petar KUNTIC]
Democratic Party or DS [Dragan SUTANOVAC]
Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Milos Jovanovic]
Dveri [Bosko OBRADOVIC]
Enough of Enough [Sasa RADULOVIC]
For a Just Serbia - coalition includes DS, NS, RS, DSVH, VVS, Together for Sumadija
Greens of Serbia or ZS [Ivan KARIC]
League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina or LSV [Nenad CANAK]
Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Cedomir JOVANOVIC]
Movement of Socialists or PS [Aleksandar VULIN]
New Serbia or NS [Velimir ILIC]
Party for Democratic Action or PDD [Riza HALIMI]
Party of Democratic Action of the Sandzak or SDA [Sulejman UGLJANIN]
Party of United Pensioners of Serbia or PUPS [Milan KRKOBABIC]
Reformist Party or RS [Aleksandar VISNJIC]
Serbia is Winning - coalition includes SNS, SDPS, PUPS, NS, SPO, PS, PSS, NDSS, SNP
Serbian People's Party or SNP [Nenad POPOVIC]
Serbian Progressive Party or SNS [Aleksandar VUCIC]
Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ]
Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC]
Social Democratic Party or SDS [Boris TADIC]
Social Democratic Party of Serbia or SDPS [Rasim LJAJIC]
Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS [Ivica DACIC]
Strength of Serbia or PSS [Bogoljub KARIC]
Together for Serbia or ZZS [Dusan PETROVIC]
Together for Sumadija [Veroljub STEVANOVIC]
note: as of April 2016, Serbia had 111 registered political parties and citizens' associations
Political pressure groups and leadersother: various human rights and professional associations
Independent Association of Journalists of Serbia or NUNS
Journalists Association of Serbia (Udruzenje novinara Srbije) or UNS
Obraz (Orthodox clero-fascist organization)
SNP 1389 (Serbian nationalist movement)
SNP NASI 1389 (Serbian National Movement NASI)
Eastern Alternative (pro-Russian association)
International organization participationAustralia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU (candidate country), FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador George Cristian MAIOR (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Djerdj MATKOVIC (since 23 February 2015)
telephone: [1] (202) 332-0333
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3933
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
chancery: 2233 Wisconsin Ave NW
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Hans G. KLEMM (since 21 September 2015)
embassy: 4-6, Dr. Liviu Librescu Blvd., District 1, Bucharest, 015118
mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
telephone: [40] (21) 200-3300
FAX: [40] (21) 200-3442
chief of mission: Ambassador Kyle SCOTT (since 4 February 2016)
embassy: 92 Bulevar kneza Aleksandra Karadjordjevica, 11040 Belgrade, Serbia
mailing address: 5070 Belgrade Place, Washington, DC 20521-5070
telephone: [381] (11) 706-4000
FAX: [381] (11) 706-4005
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of cobalt blue (hoist side), chrome yellow, and vermilion red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed
note: now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova
"three equal horizontal stripes of red (top), blue, and white - the Pan-Slav colors representing freedom and revolutionary ideals; charged with the coat of arms of Serbia shifted slightly to the hoist side; the principal field of the coat of arms represents the Serbian state and displays a white two-headed eagle on a red shield; a smaller red shield on the eagle represents the Serbian nation, and is divided into four quarters by a white cross; interpretations vary as to the meaning and origin of the white, curved symbols resembling firesteels or Cyrillic ""C's"" in each quarter; a royal crown surmounts the coat of arms
note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia
"
National anthem"name: ""Desteapta-te romane!"" (Wake up, Romanian!)
lyrics/music: Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN
note: adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution
"
"name: ""Boze pravde"" (God of Justice)
lyrics/music: Jovan DORDEVIC/Davorin JENKO
note: adopted 1904; song originally written as part of a play in 1872 and has been used as an anthem by the Serbian people throughout the 20th and 21st centuries
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)golden eagle; national colors: blue, yellow, red
double-headed eagle; national colors: red, blue, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Romania
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Serbia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

Economy

RomaniaSerbia
Economy - overviewRomania, which joined the EU on 1 January 2007, began the transition from communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address Romania's widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment.

In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, Romania signed a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders, but GDP contracted until 2011. In March 2011, Romania and the IMF/EU/World Bank signed a 24-month precautionary standby agreement, worth $6.6 billion, to promote fiscal discipline, encourage progress on structural reforms, and strengthen financial sector stability; no funds were drawn. In September 2013, Romanian authorities and the IMF/EU agreed to a follow-on standby agreement, worth $5.4 billion, to continue with reforms. This agreement expired in September 2015, and no funds were drawn. Progress on structural reforms has been uneven, and the economy still is vulnerable to external shocks.

Economic growth rebounded in 2013-16, driven by strong industrial exports and excellent agricultural harvests, and the fiscal deficit was reduced substantially. Industry outperformed other sectors of the economy in 2016. Exports remained an engine of economic growth, led by trade with the EU, which accounts for roughly 70% of Romania trade. Domestic demand was a second driver, due to the mid-2015 cut, from 24% to 9%, of the VAT levied upon foodstuffs. In 2015, the government of Romania succeeded in meeting its annual target for the budget deficit, the external deficit remained low, even if it rose due to increasing imports. For the first time since 1989, inflation turned into deflation, allowing for a gradual loosening of monetary policy throughout the period.

An aging population, significant tax evasion, insufficient health care, and an aggressive loosening of the fiscal package jeopardize the low fiscal deficit and public debt and are the economy's top vulnerabilities.
Serbia has a transitional economy largely dominated by market forces, but the state sector remains significant in certain areas. The economy relies on manufacturing and exports, driven largely by foreign investment. MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of international economic sanctions, civil war, and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during the NATO airstrikes in 1999 left the economy worse off than it was in 1990. In 2015, Serbia’s GDP was 27.5% below where it was in 1989.

After former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC was ousted in September 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government implemented stabilization measures and embarked on a market reform program. Serbia renewed its membership in the IMF in December 2000 and rejoined the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Serbia has made progress in trade liberalization and enterprise restructuring and privatization, but many large enterprises - including the power utilities, telecommunications company, natural gas company, and others - remain state-owned. Serbia has made some progress towards EU membership, signing a Stabilization and Association Agreement with Brussels in May 2008, and with full implementation of the Interim Trade Agreement with the EU in February 2010, gained candidate status in March 2012. In January 2014, Serbia's EU accession talks officially opened, and as of March 2017, Serbia had opened eight negotiating chapters. Serbia's negotiations with the WTO are advanced, with the country's complete ban on the trade and cultivation of agricultural biotechnology products representing the primary remaining obstacle to accession. Serbia maintains a three-year Stand-by Arrangement with the IMF worth approximately $1.3 billion that is scheduled to end in February 2018. The government has shown progress implementing economic reforms, such as fiscal consolidation, privatization, and reducing public spending.

High unemployment and stagnant household incomes are ongoing political and economic problems. Serbia is slowly implementing structural economic reforms needed to ensure the country's long-term prosperity. In 2016, Serbia reduced its budget deficit to 1.4% and slowed the rate of growth of its public debt as a percent of GDP, more than doubled between 2008 and 2015. Serbia's concerns about inflation and exchange-rate stability preclude the use of expansionary monetary policy.

Major economic challenges ahead include: high unemployment rates and the need for private sector job creation; structural reforms of state-owned companies; strategic public sector reforms; and the need for new foreign direct investment. Other serious longer-term challenges include an inefficient judicial system, high levels of corruption, and an aging population. Factors favorable to Serbia's economic growth include the economic reforms it is undergoing as part of its EU accession process and IMF agreement, its strategic location, a relatively inexpensive and skilled labor force, and free trade agreements with the EU, Russia, Turkey, and countries that are members of the Central European Free Trade Agreement.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$441 billion (2016 est.)
$420.2 billion (2015 est.)
$405 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$101.8 billion (2016 est.)
$99.05 billion (2015 est.)
$98.26 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate5% (2016 est.)
3.8% (2015 est.)
3% (2014 est.)
2.8% (2016 est.)
0.8% (2015 est.)
-1.8% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$22,300 (2016 est.)
$21,100 (2015 est.)
$20,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$14,200 (2016 est.)
$13,900 (2015 est.)
$13,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 3.3%
industry: 35.4%
services: 61.3% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 9.7%
industry: 42.7%
services: 47.6% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line22.4% (2012 est.)
8.9% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)-1.1% (2016 est.)
-0.6% (2015 est.)
1.6% (2016 est.)
1.5% (2015 est.)
Labor force9.133 million (2016 est.)
3.141 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 28.3%
industry: 28.9%
services: 42.8% (2014)
agriculture: 17.8%
industry: 25.6%
services: 56.6% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate6.7% (2016 est.)
6.8% (2015 est.)
13.8% (2016 est.)
17.9% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index27.3 (2012)
28.2 (2010)
38.7 (2014 est.)
28.2 (2008 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $56.84 billion
expenditures: $62.14 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $15.75 billion
expenditures: $16.24 billion
note: this is the consolidated budget, including both central government and local goverment budgets (2016 est.)
Industrieselectric machinery and equipment, auto assembly, textiles and footwear, light machinery, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining, mining, timber, construction materials
automobiles, base metals, furniture, food processing, machinery, chemicals, sugar, tires, clothes, pharmaceuticals
Industrial production growth rate2% (2016 est.)
4.7% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
wheat, maize, sunflower, sugar beets, grapes/wine, fruits (raspberries, apples, sour cherries), vegetables (tomatoes, peppers, potatoes), beef, pork, and meat products, milk and dairy products
Exports$56.03 billion (2016 est.)
$54.52 billion (2015 est.)
$14.89 billion (2016 est.)
$13.36 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, agricultural products and foodstuffs, metals and metal products, chemicals, minerals and fuels, raw materials
automobiles, iron and steel, rubber, clothes, wheat, fruit and vegetables, nonferrous metals, electric appliances, metal products, weapons and ammunition
Exports - partnersGermany 19.8%, Italy 12.5%, France 6.8%, Hungary 5.4%, UK 4.4% (2015)
Italy 16.2%, Germany 12.6%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 8.7%, Romania 5.6%, Russia 5.4% (2015)
Imports$66.45 billion (2016 est.)
$63.12 billion (2015 est.)
$19.26 billion (2016 est.)
$18.21 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, chemicals, agricultural products and foodstuffs, fuels and minerals, metals and metal products, raw materials
machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials
Imports - partnersGermany 19.8%, Italy 10.9%, Hungary 8%, France 5.6%, Poland 4.9%, China 4.6%, Netherlands 4% (2015)
Germany 12.4%, Italy 10.6%, Russia 9.6%, China 8.5%, Hungary 4.8%, Poland 4.2% (2015)
Debt - external$101.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$102.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$28.23 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$28.86 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange rateslei (RON) per US dollar -
4.15 (2016 est.)
4.0057 (2015 est.)
4.0057 (2014 est.)
3.3492 (2013 est.)
3.47 (2012 est.)
Serbian dinars (RSD) per US dollar -
112.4 (2016 est.)
108.811 (2015 est.)
108.811 (2014 est.)
88.405 (2013 est.)
87.99 (2012 est.)
Public debt39.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
38.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds
72.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
74.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued or owned by government entities other than the treasury (for which the Government of Singapore issued guarantees); the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities (for which the GOS also issued guarantees), as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$39.86 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$38.71 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$12.94 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.99 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$4.56 billion (2016 est.)
-$2.157 billion (2015 est.)
-$1.516 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.751 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$186.5 billion (2016 est.)
$37.53 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$76.41 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$72.21 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$28.33 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
$11.95 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$4.018 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.618 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares$36.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$41.04 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$42.59 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$5.064 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.841 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.525 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate1.75% (31 December 2015)
2.75% (31 December 2014)
4% (31 December 2016)
7.5% (12 March 2015)
Commercial bank prime lending rate6% (31 December 2016 est.)
6.77% (31 December 2015 est.)
6.29% (31 December 2016 est.)
7.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$65.93 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$64.47 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$17.06 billion (30 September 2016 est.)
$16.22 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$30.67 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$36.06 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$5.195 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.486 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$71.58 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$78.18 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$18.78 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.58 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues30.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
42% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
-1.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 24%
male: 23.6%
female: 24.7% (2014 est.)
total: 49.4%
male: N/A
female: N/A (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 69.4%
government consumption: 6.7%
investment in fixed capital: 25.2%
investment in inventories: 0.3%
exports of goods and services: 40.9%
imports of goods and services: -42.5% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 73.1%
government consumption: 16.2%
investment in fixed capital: 17.8%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 50.9%
imports of goods and services: -58.2% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving23% of GDP (2016 est.)
24.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
24.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
25% of GDP (2016 est.)
23% of GDP (2015 est.)
22.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

RomaniaSerbia
Electricity - production62 billion kWh (2014 est.)
38.11 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption48 billion kWh (2014 est.)
26.78 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports9.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
6.428 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports2.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
5.065 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production82,650 bbl/day (2015 est.)
21,030 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports111,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
45,790 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - exports1,234 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - proved reserves600 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
366.5 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves105.5 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
30 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production11.26 billion cu m (2015 est.)
586.3 million cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - consumption11.54 billion cu m (2015 est.)
2.25 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - exports1.078 million cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - imports277.1 million cu m (2015 est.)
1.664 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity24 million kW (2014 est.)
7.594 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels44.3% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
59% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants30% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
38.8% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels6.1% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources19.6% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
2.2% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production216,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
67,360 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption192,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
66,230 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports79,250 bbl/day (2013 est.)
12,050 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports50,280 bbl/day (2013 est.)
16,070 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy76 million Mt (2013 est.)
56.55 million Mt (2015 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

RomaniaSerbia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 4.27 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 2,770,462
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 39 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 23.12 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 107 (July 2015 est.)
total: 9.156 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 128 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: the telecommunications sector is being expanded and modernized; domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially mobile-cellular services
domestic: more than 90% of telephone network is automatic; fixed-line teledensity is about 20 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity over 100 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 40; the Black Sea Fiber-Optic Cable System provides connectivity to Bulgaria and Turkey; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2014)
general assessment: replacements of, and upgrades to, telecommunications equipment damaged during the 1999 war resulted in a modern digitalized telecommunications system
domestic: wireless service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing very rapidly; best telecommunications services are centered in urban centers; 4G/LTE mobile network launched in March 2015
international: country code - 381 (2016)
Internet country code.ro
.rs
Internet userstotal: 12.082 million
percent of population: 55.8% (July 2015 est.)
total: 4.688 million
percent of population: 65.3% (July 2015 est.)

Transportation

RomaniaSerbia
Railwaystotal: 11,268 km
broad gauge: 60 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 10,781 km 1.435-m gauge (3,292 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)
total: 5,540 km
standard gauge: 3,809 km 1.435-m gauge (3,526 km one-track lines and 283 km double-track lines) out of which 1,279 km electrified (1,000 km one-track lines and 279 km double-track lines) (2015)
Roadwaystotal: 84,185 km
paved: 49,873 km (includes 337 km of expressways)
unpaved: 34,312 km (2012)
total: 44,248 km
paved: 28,000 km (16,162 km state roads, out of which 741 km highways)
unpaved: 16,248 km (2016)
Waterways1,731 km (includes 1,075 km on the Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals) (2010)
587 km (primarily on the Danube and Sava rivers) (2009)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Constanta, Midia
river port(s): Braila, Galati (Galatz), Mancanului (Giurgiu), Tulcea (Danube River)
river port(s): Belgrade (Danube)
Airports45 (2013)
26 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 26
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 10
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 14 (2013)
total: 16
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Heliports2 (2013)
2 (2012)

Military

RomaniaSerbia
Military branchesGround Forces, Navy, Air Force (2016)
Serbian Armed Forces (Vojska Srbije, VS): Land Forces (includes Riverine Component, consisting of a river flotilla on the Danube), Air and Air Defense Forces (2016)
Military service age and obligationconscription ended 2006; 18 years of age for male and female voluntary service; all military inductees (including women) contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive 3-year terms until age 36 (2015)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished December 2010; reserve obligation to age 60 for men and age 50 for women (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.42% of GDP (2016)
1.45% of GDP (2015)
1.35% of GDP (2014)
1.28% of GDP (2013)
1.22% of GDP (2012)
1.34% of GDP (2017 est.)
1.25% of GDP (2016)
1.41% of GDP (2015)
1.49% of GDP (2014)
1.48% of GDP (2013)

Transnational Issues

RomaniaSerbia
Disputes - internationalthe ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea
Serbia with several other states protest the US and other states' recognition of Kosovo's declaration of its status as a sovereign and independent state in February 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosovo's northern border challenge final status of Kosovo-Serbia boundary; several thousand NATO-led Kosovo Force peacekeepers under UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo authority continue to keep the peace within Kosovo between the ethnic Albanian majority and the Serb minority in Kosovo; Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute
Illicit drugsmajor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering, which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route; economy vulnerable to money laundering
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 249 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 20,346 (Croatia); 9,081 (Bosnia and Herzegovina) (2016)
IDPs: 219,854 (most are Kosovar Serbs, some are Roma, Ashkalis, and Egyptian (RAE); some RAE IDPs are unregistered) (2016)
stateless persons: 2,373 (includes stateless persons in Kosovo) (2016)
note: 678,493 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015 - December 2016)

Source: CIA Factbook