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Romania vs. Bulgaria

Introduction

RomaniaBulgaria
Background"The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist ""people's republic"" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.
"
The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman Turks. Northern Bulgaria attained autonomy in 1878 and all of Bulgaria became independent from the Ottoman Empire in 1908. Having fought on the losing side in both World Wars, Bulgaria fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in 1946. Communist domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its first multiparty election since World War II and began the contentious process of moving toward political democracy and a market economy while combating inflation, unemployment, corruption, and crime. The country joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.

Geography

RomaniaBulgaria
LocationSoutheastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey
Geographic coordinates46 00 N, 25 00 E
43 00 N, 25 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 238,391 sq km
land: 229,891 sq km
water: 8,500 sq km
total: 110,879 sq km
land: 108,489 sq km
water: 2,390 sq km
Area - comparativetwice the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon
almost identical in size to Virginia; slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundariestotal: 2,844 km
border countries (5): Bulgaria 605 km, Hungary 424 km, Moldova 683 km, Serbia 531 km, Ukraine 601 km
total: 1,806 km
border countries (5): Greece 472 km, Macedonia 162 km, Romania 605 km, Serbia 344 km, Turkey 223 km
Coastline225 km
354 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatetemperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers
Terraincentral Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 414 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
mean elevation: 472 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Musala 2,925 m
Natural resourcespetroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 60.7%
arable land 39.1%; permanent crops 1.9%; permanent pasture 19.7%
forest: 28.7%
other: 10.6% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 46.9%
arable land 29.9%; permanent crops 1.5%; permanent pasture 15.5%
forest: 36.7%
other: 16.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land31,490 sq km (2012)
1,020 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsearthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
earthquakes; landslides
Environment - current issuessoil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notecontrols the most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine; the Carpathian Mountains dominate the center of the country, while the Danube River forms much of the southern boundary with Serbia and Bulgaria
strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia
Population distributionurbanization is not particularly high, and a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; Hungarians, the country's largest minority, have a particularly strong presence in eastern Transylvania
a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger populations

Demographics

RomaniaBulgaria
Population21,599,736 (July 2016 est.)
7,144,653 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 14.4% (male 1,597,470/female 1,512,701)
15-24 years: 10.76% (male 1,192,310/female 1,131,655)
25-54 years: 45.97% (male 5,023,060/female 4,905,559)
55-64 years: 12.8% (male 1,293,423/female 1,471,480)
65 years and over: 16.07% (male 1,403,211/female 2,068,867) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 14.54% (male 535,131/female 503,540)
15-24 years: 9.73% (male 362,805/female 332,358)
25-54 years: 43.33% (male 1,589,183/female 1,506,285)
55-64 years: 13.38% (male 447,865/female 507,805)
65 years and over: 19.03% (male 552,217/female 807,464) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 40.7 years
male: 39.3 years
female: 42.1 years (2016 est.)
total: 42.4 years
male: 40.6 years
female: 44.5 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate-0.32% (2016 est.)
-0.6% (2016 est.)
Birth rate9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
8.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate11.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
14.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 9.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 11 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 8.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 75.1 years
male: 71.7 years
female: 78.8 years (2016 est.)
total population: 74.5 years
male: 71.2 years
female: 78 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.34 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.46 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.11% (2013 est.)
NA
Nationalitynoun: Romanian(s)
adjective: Romanian
noun: Bulgarian(s)
adjective: Bulgarian
Ethnic groupsRomanian 83.4%, Hungarian 6.1%, Romani 3.1%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.2%, other 0.7%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)
note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–11% of Romania's population
Bulgarian 76.9%, Turkish 8%, Romani 4.4%, other 0.7% (including Russian, Armenian, and Vlach), other (unknown) 10% (2011 est.)
note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 9–11% of Bulgaria's population
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS16,200 (2013 est.)
NA
ReligionsEastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 81.9%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformed and Pentecostal) 6.4%, Roman Catholic 4.3%, other (includes Muslim) 0.9%, none or atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.3% (2011 est.)
Eastern Orthodox 59.4%, Muslim 7.8%, other (including Catholic, Protestant, Armenian Apostolic Orthodox, and Jewish) 1.7%, none 3.7%, unspecified 27.4% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths500 (2013 est.)
NA
LanguagesRomanian (official) 85.4%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romani 1.2%, other 1%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)
Bulgarian (official) 76.8%, Turkish 8.2%, Romani 3.8%, other 0.7%, unspecified 10.5% (2011 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.8%
male: 99.1%
female: 98.5% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.4%
male: 98.7%
female: 98.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2015)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2015)
Education expenditures2.9% of GDP (2012)
4.1% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 54.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.01% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 73.9% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.31% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.6% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.4% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 92.2% of population
rural: 63.3% of population
total: 79.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7.8% of population
rural: 36.7% of population
total: 20.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 86.8% of population
rural: 83.7% of population
total: 86% of population
unimproved:
urban: 13.2% of population
rural: 16.3% of population
total: 14% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationBUCHAREST (capital) 1.868 million (2015)
SOFIA (capital) 1.226 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate31 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
11 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures5.6% of GDP (2014)
8.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.67 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
4 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density6.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
6.4 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate23.4% (2014)
25.6% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth22 years (2013 est.)
26.5 years (2013 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 48.9
youth dependency ratio: 23.1
elderly dependency ratio: 25.8
potential support ratio: 3.9 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 51.9
youth dependency ratio: 21.5
elderly dependency ratio: 30.4
potential support ratio: 3.3 (2015 est.)

Government

RomaniaBulgaria
Country name"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Romania
local long form: none
local short form: Romania
etymology: the name derives from the Latin ""Romanus"" meaning ""citizen of Rome"" and was used to stress the common ancient heritage of Romania's three main regions - Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia - during their gradual unification between the mid-19th century and early 20th century
"
conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria
conventional short form: Bulgaria
local long form: Republika Bulgaria
local short form: Bulgaria
etymology: named after the Bulgar tribes who settled the lower Balkan region in the 7th century A.D.
Government typesemi-presidential republic
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Bucharest
geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Sofia
geographic coordinates: 42 41 N, 23 19 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea
28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas, Dobrich, Gabrovo, Haskovo, Kardzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana, Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen, Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofia, Sofia-Grad (Sofia City), Stara Zagora, Targovishte, Varna, Veliko Tarnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol
Independence9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; 13 July 1878 independence recognized by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)
3 March 1878 (as an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire); 22 September 1908 (complete independence from the Ottoman Empire)
National holidayUnification Day (unification of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)
Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 21 November 1991, approved by referendum and effective 8 December 1991
amendments: initiated by the president of Romania through a proposal by the government, by at least one-fourth of deputies or senators in Parliament, or by petition of eligible voters representing at least one-half of Romania’s counties; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by both chambers or – if mediation is required - by three-fourths majority vote in a joint session, followed by approval in a referendum; articles including those on national sovereignty, form of government, political pluralism, and fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended 2003 (2016)
"history: several previous; latest drafted between late 1990 and early 1991, adopted 13 July 1991
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly or by the president of the republic; passage requires three-fourths majority vote of National Assembly members in three ballots; signed by the National Assembly chairperson; note - under special circumstances, a ""Grand National Assembly"" is elected with the authority to write a new constitution and amend certain articles of the constitution, including those affecting basic civil rights and national sovereignty; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote in each of several readings; amended several times, last in 2015 (2016)
"
Legal systemcivil law system
civil law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Klaus Werner IOHANNIS (since 21 December 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Mihai TUDOSE (since 29 June 2017); Deputy Prime Minister Sevil SHHAIDEH and Deputy Premier Gratiela GAVRILESCU (since 3 April 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 2 November 2014 with a runoff on 16 November 2014 (next to be held around 16 November 2019); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of Parliament
election results: Klaus IOHANNIS elected president; percent of vote in runoff - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 54.4%, Victor PONTA (PSD) 45.6%; Mihai TUDOSE approved as prime minister 275-102
chief of state: President Rumen RADEV (since 22 January 2017); Vice President Iliana YOTOVA (since 22 January 2017)
head of government: Boyko BORISSOV (since 4 May 2017); note - BORISSOV served two previous terms as prime minister (27 July 2009-13 March 2013 and 7 November 2014-27 January 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 6 and 13 November 2016 (next to be held fall 2021); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) elected by the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly
election results: Rumen RADEV elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - Rumen RADEV (independent, supported by Bulgarian Socialist Party) 59.4%, Tsetska TSACHEVA (GERB) 36.2%, neither 4.5%; Boyko BORISSOV elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 133 to 100
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (136 seats, 2 reserved for the diaspora; members serve 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (329 seats, 17 reserved for non-Hungarian national minorities and 4 for the diaspora; members serve 4-year terms); in 2016, the elections returned to a party list vote-proportional representation voting system
elections: Senate - last held on 11 December 2016 (next to be held by December 2020); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 11 December 2016 (next to be held by December 2020)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PSD 45.7%, PNL 20.4%, USR 8.9%, UDMR 6.2%, ALDE 6%, PMP 5.7%, other 7.1%; seats by party - PSD 67, PNL 30, USR 13, UDMR 9, ALDE 9, PMP 8; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PSD 45.5%, PNL 20%, USR 8.9%, UDMR 6.2%, ALDE 5.6%, PMP 5.3%, other 8.5%; seats by party - PSD 154, PNL 69, USR 30, UDMR 21, ALDE 20, PMP 18, minorities 17
description: unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sabranie (240 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); note - the National Assembly was dissolved on 27 January 2017 and Bulgaria will not have a legislative body until after a general election scheduled for 26 March 2017
elections: last held on 26 March 2017 (next to be held spring 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - GERB 32.7%, BSP 27.2%, United Patriots 9.1%, DPS 9%, Volya 4.1%, other 17.9%; seats by party - GERB 95, BSP 80, United Patriots 27, DPS 26, Volya 12
Judicial branchhighest court(s): High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 111 judges organized into civil, penal, commercial, contentious administrative and fiscal business, and joint sections); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, a 19-member body of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court members - 6 elected by Parliament and 3 appointed by the president; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation (consists of a chairman and approximately 72 judges organized into penal, civil, and commercial colleges); Supreme Administrative Court (organized in 2 colleges with various panels of 5 judges each); Constitutional Court (consists of 12 justices); note - Constitutional Court resides outside the judiciary
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Cassation and Supreme Administrative judges elected by the Supreme Judicial Council or SJC (consists of 25 members with extensive legal experience) and appointed by the president; judges can serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court justices elected by the National Assembly and appointed by the president and the SJC; justices appointed for 9-year terms with renewal of 4 justices every 3 years
subordinate courts: appeals courts; regional and district courts; administrative courts; courts martial
Political parties and leadersChristian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU]
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]
Ecologist Party of Romania [Danut POP]
Greater Romania Party [Adrian POPESCU]
M10 Party [Monica MACOVEI]
National Liberal Party or PNL [Raluca TURCAN]
New Republic Party or NR [Alin Ioan BOTA]
Our Romania Alliance [Marian MUNTEANU]
Popular Movement Party or PMP [Traian BASESCU]
Party of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats or ALDE [Calin POPESCU TARICEANU, Daniel CONSTANTIN]
Romanian Social Party or PSRo [Mircea GEOANA]
Save Romania Union Party or USR [Nicusor DAN]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Liviu DRAGNEA]
United Romania Party or PRU [vacant, previously Bogdan DIACONU]
Alternative for Bulgarian Revival or ABV [Konstantin PRODANOV]
Attack (Ataka) [Volen Nikolov SIDEROV]
Bulgarian Agrarian People’s Union [Nikolay NENCHEV]
Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Korneliya NINOVA]
Bulgaria of the Citizens or DBG [Meglena KUNEVA]
Citizens for the European Development of Bulgaria or GERB [Boyko BORISSOV]
Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria or DSB [Radan KANEV]
Democrats for Responsibility, Solidarity, and Tolerance or DOST [Lyutvi MESTAN]
IMRO - Bulgarian National Movement or IMRO-BNM [Krasimir KARAKACHANOV]
Movement for Rights and Freedoms or DPS [Mustafa KARADAYA]
National Front for the Salvation of Bulgaria or NFSB [Valeri SIMEONOV]
New Republic (alliance of DSB and other center-right parties) [Radan KANEV]
Patriotic Front (alliance of IMRO-BNM, NFSB, and other smaller parties, but not including Attack)
Reformist Bloc or RB (a four-party alliance including DBG and SDS)
United Patriots Front (alliance of IMRO-BNM, NFSB, and Attack)
Union of Democratic Forces or SDS [Bozhidar LUKARSKI]
Yes! Bulgaria [Hristo IVANOV]
Political pressure groups and leadersother: various human rights and professional associations
Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB
Podkrepa Labor Confederation
other: numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas
International organization participationAustralia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EU, FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador George Cristian MAIOR (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Tihomir Anguelov STOYTCHEV (since 27 June 2016)
chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-0174
FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Hans G. KLEMM (since 21 September 2015)
embassy: 4-6, Dr. Liviu Librescu Blvd., District 1, Bucharest, 015118
mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
telephone: [40] (21) 200-3300
FAX: [40] (21) 200-3442
chief of mission: Ambassador Eric RUBIN (since February 2016)
embassy: 16 Kozyak Street, Sofia 1408
mailing address: American Embassy Sofia, US Department of State, 5740 Sofia Place, Washington, DC 20521-5740
telephone: [359] (2) 937-5100
FAX: [359] (2) 937-5320
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of cobalt blue (hoist side), chrome yellow, and vermilion red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed
note: now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the pan-Slavic white-blue-red colors were modified by substituting a green band (representing freedom) for the blue
note: the national emblem, formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe, has been removed
National anthem"name: ""Desteapta-te romane!"" (Wake up, Romanian!)
lyrics/music: Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN
note: adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution
"
"name: ""Mila Rodino"" (Dear Homeland)
lyrics/music: Tsvetan Tsvetkov RADOSLAVOV
note: adopted 1964; composed in 1885 by a student en route to fight in the Serbo-Bulgarian War
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)golden eagle; national colors: blue, yellow, red
lion; national colors: white, green, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Romania
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bulgaria
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

RomaniaBulgaria
Economy - overviewRomania, which joined the EU on 1 January 2007, began the transition from communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address Romania's widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment.

In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, Romania signed a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders, but GDP contracted until 2011. In March 2011, Romania and the IMF/EU/World Bank signed a 24-month precautionary standby agreement, worth $6.6 billion, to promote fiscal discipline, encourage progress on structural reforms, and strengthen financial sector stability; no funds were drawn. In September 2013, Romanian authorities and the IMF/EU agreed to a follow-on standby agreement, worth $5.4 billion, to continue with reforms. This agreement expired in September 2015, and no funds were drawn. Progress on structural reforms has been uneven, and the economy still is vulnerable to external shocks.

Economic growth rebounded in 2013-16, driven by strong industrial exports and excellent agricultural harvests, and the fiscal deficit was reduced substantially. Industry outperformed other sectors of the economy in 2016. Exports remained an engine of economic growth, led by trade with the EU, which accounts for roughly 70% of Romania trade. Domestic demand was a second driver, due to the mid-2015 cut, from 24% to 9%, of the VAT levied upon foodstuffs. In 2015, the government of Romania succeeded in meeting its annual target for the budget deficit, the external deficit remained low, even if it rose due to increasing imports. For the first time since 1989, inflation turned into deflation, allowing for a gradual loosening of monetary policy throughout the period.

An aging population, significant tax evasion, insufficient health care, and an aggressive loosening of the fiscal package jeopardize the low fiscal deficit and public debt and are the economy's top vulnerabilities.
Bulgaria, a former communist country that entered the EU in 2007, has an open economy that has historically has demonstrated strong growth, but its per-capita income remains one of the lowest among EU members and its reliance on energy imports and foreign demand for its exports makes its growth sensitive to external market conditions.

The government undertook significant structural economic reforms in the 1990s to move the economy from a centralized, planned economy to a more liberal, market-driven economy. These reforms included the privatization of state-owned enterprises, the liberalization of trade, and strengthening of the tax system - changes that initially caused some economic hardships but later helped to attract investment, spur growth, and make gradual improvements to living conditions. From 2000 through 2008, Bulgaria maintained robust, average annual real GDP growth in excess of 6%, which was followed by a deep recession in 2009 as the financial crisis caused domestic demand, exports, capital inflows and industrial production to contract, prompting the government to rein in spending. Real GDP growth remained slow - less than 2% annually - until 2015, when demand from EU countries for Bulgarian exports, plus an inflow of EU development funds, boosted growth to more than 3%. In recent years, low international energy prices have contributed to Bulgaria’s economic growth and helped to ease inflation, but, in 2017, rising international gas prices could dampen Bulgaria’s growth prospects.

Bulgaria is heavily reliant on energy imports from Russia, a potential vulnerability, and is a participant in EU-backed efforts to diversify regional natural gas supplies. In late 2016, the Bulgarian Government provided funding to Bulgaria’s National Electric Company to cover the $695 million compensation owed to Russian nuclear equipment manufacture Atomstroyexport for the cancellation of the Belene Nuclear Power Plant project, which the Bulgarian Government terminated in 2012. In 2016 the Bulgarian Government established the State eGovernment Agency. This new agency is responsible for the implementation of projects related to electronic governance as well as coordination of national policies in the area with the EU requirements and practices, as well as to strengthen cybersecurity.

Despite a favorable investment regime, including low, flat corporate income taxes, significant challenges remain. Corruption in public administration, a weak judiciary, low productivity, and the presence of organized crime continue to hamper the country's investment climate and economic prospects.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$441 billion (2016 est.)
$420.2 billion (2015 est.)
$405 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$143.1 billion (2016 est.)
$138.9 billion (2015 est.)
$134.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate5% (2016 est.)
3.8% (2015 est.)
3% (2014 est.)
3% (2016 est.)
3% (2015 est.)
1.5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$22,300 (2016 est.)
$21,100 (2015 est.)
$20,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$20,100 (2016 est.)
$19,400 (2015 est.)
$18,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 3.3%
industry: 35.4%
services: 61.3% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 5.1%
industry: 27.5%
services: 67.5% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line22.4% (2012 est.)
22% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 15.3%
highest 10%: 7.6% (2014 est.)
lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 28.4% (2015)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)-1.1% (2016 est.)
-0.6% (2015 est.)
-0.8% (2016 est.)
-0.1% (2015 est.)
Labor force9.133 million (2016 est.)
3.017 million
note: number of employed persons (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 28.3%
industry: 28.9%
services: 42.8% (2014)
agriculture: 6.8%
industry: 26.6%
services: 66.6% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate6.7% (2016 est.)
6.8% (2015 est.)
8% (2016 est.)
10% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index27.3 (2012)
28.2 (2010)
37 (2015)
35.4 (2014)
Budgetrevenues: $56.84 billion
expenditures: $62.14 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $18.25 billion
expenditures: $17.46 billion (2016 est.)
Industrieselectric machinery and equipment, auto assembly, textiles and footwear, light machinery, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining, mining, timber, construction materials
electricity, gas, water; food, beverages, tobacco; machinery and equipment, automotive parts, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel; outsourcing centers
Industrial production growth rate2% (2016 est.)
2.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
vegetables, fruits, tobacco, wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets; livestock
Exports$56.03 billion (2016 est.)
$54.52 billion (2015 est.)
$23.72 billion (2016 est.)
$23.95 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, agricultural products and foodstuffs, metals and metal products, chemicals, minerals and fuels, raw materials
clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels, agriculture, tobacco, IT components
Exports - partnersGermany 19.8%, Italy 12.5%, France 6.8%, Hungary 5.4%, UK 4.4% (2015)
Germany 12.5%, Italy 9.2%, Turkey 8.5%, Romania 8.2%, Greece 6.5%, France 4.2% (2015)
Imports$66.45 billion (2016 est.)
$63.12 billion (2015 est.)
$25.66 billion (2016 est.)
$26.81 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, chemicals, agricultural products and foodstuffs, fuels and minerals, metals and metal products, raw materials
machinery and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics; fuels, minerals, and raw materials
Imports - partnersGermany 19.8%, Italy 10.9%, Hungary 8%, France 5.6%, Poland 4.9%, China 4.6%, Netherlands 4% (2015)
Germany 12.9%, Russia 12%, Italy 7.6%, Romania 6.8%, Turkey 5.7%, Greece 4.8%, Spain 4.8% (2015)
Debt - external$101.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$102.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$36.52 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$37.25 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange rateslei (RON) per US dollar -
4.15 (2016 est.)
4.0057 (2015 est.)
4.0057 (2014 est.)
3.3492 (2013 est.)
3.47 (2012 est.)
leva (BGN) per US dollar -
1.802 (2016 est.)
1.7644 (2015 est.)
1.7644 (2014 est.)
1.4742 (2013 est.)
1.52 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt39.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
38.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds
26.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
26.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
note:: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$39.86 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$38.71 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$25.13 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$22.16 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$4.56 billion (2016 est.)
-$2.157 billion (2015 est.)
$2.201 billion (2016 est.)
-$67 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$186.5 billion (2016 est.)
$50.45 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$76.41 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$72.21 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$42.21 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$41.47 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$4.018 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.618 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.033 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.925 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$36.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$41.04 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$42.59 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$5.205 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.797 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$5.45 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate1.75% (31 December 2015)
2.75% (31 December 2014)
0% (31 December 2016)
0.01% (31 December 2015)
note: Bulgarian National Bank (BNB) has had no independent monetary policy since the introduction of the Currency Board regime in 1997; this is BNB's base interest rate
Commercial bank prime lending rate6% (31 December 2016 est.)
6.77% (31 December 2015 est.)
6.58% (31 December 2016 est.)
6.59% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$65.93 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$64.47 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$27.38 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$29.72 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$30.67 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$36.06 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$21.95 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$20.09 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$71.58 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$78.18 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$42.79 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$41.32 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues30.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
36.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
1.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 24%
male: 23.6%
female: 24.7% (2014 est.)
total: 23.8%
male: 23.8%
female: 23.7% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 69.4%
government consumption: 6.7%
investment in fixed capital: 25.2%
investment in inventories: 0.3%
exports of goods and services: 40.9%
imports of goods and services: -42.5% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 60.8%
government consumption: 15.9%
investment in fixed capital: 20.4%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 69.1%
imports of goods and services: -66.3% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving23% of GDP (2016 est.)
24.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
24.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
22.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
22.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
22.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

RomaniaBulgaria
Electricity - production62 billion kWh (2014 est.)
44.35 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption48 billion kWh (2014 est.)
33.91 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports9.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
10.94 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports2.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
4.566 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production82,650 bbl/day (2015 est.)
1,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports111,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
129,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports1,234 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016)
Oil - proved reserves600 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
15 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves105.5 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production11.26 billion cu m (2015 est.)
94 million cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - consumption11.54 billion cu m (2015 est.)
3.209 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - exports1.078 million cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - imports277.1 million cu m (2015 est.)
3.093 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity24 million kW (2014 est.)
12.13 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels44.3% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
36.3% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants30% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
30% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels6.1% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
17.3% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources19.6% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
16.4% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production216,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
139,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption192,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
84,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports79,250 bbl/day (2013 est.)
92,350 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports50,280 bbl/day (2013 est.)
41,320 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy76 million Mt (2013 est.)
49.92 million Mt (2016 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

RomaniaBulgaria
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 4.27 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 1,654,535
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 23 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 23.12 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 107 (July 2015 est.)
total: 9.195 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 128 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: the telecommunications sector is being expanded and modernized; domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially mobile-cellular services
domestic: more than 90% of telephone network is automatic; fixed-line teledensity is about 20 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity over 100 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 40; the Black Sea Fiber-Optic Cable System provides connectivity to Bulgaria and Turkey; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2014)
general assessment: inherited an extensive but antiquated telecommunications network from the Soviet era; quality has improved with a modern digital trunk line now connecting switching centers in most of the regions; remaining areas are connected by digital microwave radio relay
domestic: the Bulgaria Telecommunications Company's fixed-line monopoly terminated in 2005 in an effort to upgrade fixed-line services; mobile-cellular teledensity, fostered by multiple service providers, is over 125 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 359; submarine cable provides connectivity to Ukraine and Russia; a combination submarine cable and land fiber-optic system provides connectivity to Italy, Albania, and Macedonia; satellite earth stations - 3 (1 Intersputnik in the Atlantic Ocean region, 2 Intelsat in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions) (2015)
Internet country code.ro
.bg
Internet userstotal: 12.082 million
percent of population: 55.8% (July 2015 est.)
total: 4.072 million
percent of population: 56.7% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediaa mixture of public and private TV stations; there are 7 public TV stations (2 national, 5 regional) using terrestrial broadcasting and 187 private TV stations (out of which 171 offer local coverage) using terrestrial broadcasting, plus 11 public TV stations using satellite broadcasting and 86 private TV stations using satellite broadcasting; state-owned public radio broadcaster operates 4 national networks and regional and local stations, having in total 20 public radio stations by terrestrial broadcasting plus 4 public radio stations by satellite broadcasting; there are 502 operational private radio stations using terrestrial broadcasting and 26 private radio stations using satellite broadcasting (2014)
4 national terrestrial TV stations with 1 state-owned and 3 privately owned; a vast array of TV stations are available from cable and satellite TV providers; state-owned national radio broadcasts over 3 networks; large number of private radio stations broadcasting, especially in urban areas (2010)

Transportation

RomaniaBulgaria
Railwaystotal: 11,268 km
broad gauge: 60 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 10,781 km 1.435-m gauge (3,292 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)
total: 5,114 km
standard gauge: 4,989 km 1.435-m gauge (2,880 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 125 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 84,185 km
paved: 49,873 km (includes 337 km of expressways)
unpaved: 34,312 km (2012)
total: 19,512 km
paved: 19,235 km (includes 458 km of expressways)
unpaved: 277 km
note: does not include Category IV local roads (2011)
Waterways1,731 km (includes 1,075 km on the Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals) (2010)
470 km (2009)
Pipelinesgas 3,726 km; oil 2,451 km (2013)
gas 2,765 km; oil 346 km; refined products 378 km (2017)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Constanta, Midia
river port(s): Braila, Galati (Galatz), Mancanului (Giurgiu), Tulcea (Danube River)
major seaport(s): Burgas, Varna (Black Sea)
Merchant marinetotal: 5
by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 1 (Russia 1)
registered in other countries: 31 (Georgia 7, Liberia 3, Malta 7, Marshall Islands 2, Moldova 2, Panama 3, Russia 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Sierra Leone 2, Tanzania 1, Togo 1, unknown 1) (2010)
total: 22
by type: bulk carrier 9, cargo 8, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 2
foreign-owned: 14 (Germany 12, Russia 2)
registered in other countries: 30 (Belize 1, Comoros 4, Georgia 1, Malta 8, Moldova 1, Panama 6, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9) (2010)
Airports45 (2013)
68 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 26
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 57
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 17
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
under 914 m: 26 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 14 (2013)
total: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 9 (2013)
Heliports2 (2013)
1 (2013)

Military

RomaniaBulgaria
Military branchesGround Forces, Navy, Air Force (2016)
Bulgarian Armed Forces: Land Forces (aka Army), Naval Forces, Bulgarian Air Forces (Voennovazdyshni Sily, VVS) (2017)
Military service age and obligationconscription ended 2006; 18 years of age for male and female voluntary service; all military inductees (including women) contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive 3-year terms until age 36 (2015)
18-27 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription ended in January 2008; service obligation 6-9 months (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.42% of GDP (2016)
1.45% of GDP (2015)
1.35% of GDP (2014)
1.28% of GDP (2013)
1.22% of GDP (2012)
1.35% of GDP (2016 est.)
1.29% of GDP (2015)
1.32% of GDP (2014)
1.46% of GDP (2013)
1.35% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

RomaniaBulgaria
Disputes - internationalthe ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea
none
Illicit drugsmajor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering, which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos
major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals; vulnerable to money laundering because of corruption, organized crime; some money laundering of drug-related proceeds through financial institutions (2008)
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 249 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 15,027 (Syria) (2016)
stateless persons: 67 (2016)
note: 47,509 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015 - July 2017)

Source: CIA Factbook