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Republic of the Congo vs. Angola

Introduction

Republic of the CongoAngola
BackgroundUpon independence in 1960, the former French region of Middle Congo became the Republic of the Congo. A quarter century of experimentation with Marxism was abandoned in 1990 and a democratically elected government took office in 1992. A brief civil war in 1997 restored former Marxist President Denis SASSOU-Nguesso, and ushered in a period of ethnic and political unrest. Southern-based rebel groups agreed to a final peace accord in March 2003. The Republic of Congo is one of Africa's largest petroleum producers, but with declining production it will need new offshore oil finds to sustain its oil earnings over the long term.
Angola scores low on human development indexes despite using its large oil reserves to rebuild since the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but fighting picked up again in 1993. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - during the more than a quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and cemented the MPLA's hold on power. President DOS SANTOS pushed through a new constitution in 2010 and was elected to a five year term as president in 2012.

Geography

Republic of the CongoAngola
LocationCentral Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and Gabon
Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates1 00 S, 15 00 E
12 30 S, 18 30 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 342,000 sq km
land: 341,500 sq km
water: 500 sq km
total: 1,246,700 sq km
land: 1,246,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Montana
about eight times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 5,008 km
border countries (5): Angola 231 km, Cameroon 494 km, Central African Republic 487 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,229 km, Gabon 2,567 km
total: 5,369 km
border countries (4): Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,646 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 231 km, Namibia 1,427 km, Zambia 1,065 km
Coastline169 km
1,600 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatetropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October); persistent high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate astride the Equator
semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Terraincoastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin
narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 430 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Berongou 903 m
mean elevation: 1,112 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Moca 2,620 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates, gold, magnesium, natural gas, hydropower
petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
Land useagricultural land: 31.1%
arable land 1.6%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 29.3%
forest: 65.6%
other: 3.3% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 47.3%
arable land 3.8%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 43.3%
forest: 46.8%
other: 5.9% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land20 sq km (2012)
860 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsseasonal flooding
locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
Environment - current issuesair pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; tap water is not potable; deforestation
overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - noteabout 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, or along the railroad between them
the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Demographics

Republic of the CongoAngola
Population4,852,412
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
20,172,332
note: results from Angola's 2014 national census estimate the country's population to be 25.8 million (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 41.53% (male 1,016,677/female 998,331)
15-24 years: 17.26% (male 419,248/female 418,397)
25-54 years: 34% (male 831,091/female 818,853)
55-64 years: 4.18% (male 101,118/female 101,879)
65 years and over: 3.03% (male 64,519/female 82,299) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 42.72% (male 4,394,206/female 4,223,246)
15-24 years: 20.72% (male 2,127,140/female 2,053,363)
25-54 years: 29.6% (male 3,013,561/female 2,956,547)
55-64 years: 3.97% (male 388,314/female 413,347)
65 years and over: 2.99% (male 278,853/female 323,755) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 19.7 years
male: 19.6 years
female: 19.9 years (2016 est.)
total: 18.2 years
male: 18 years
female: 18.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.06% (2016 est.)
2.72% (2016 est.)
Birth rate35.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
38.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate9.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
11.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-4.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 56.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 61.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 51.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 76.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 80.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 72.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 59.3 years
male: 58.1 years
female: 60.6 years (2016 est.)
total population: 56 years
male: 54.8 years
female: 57.2 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate4.63 children born/woman (2016 est.)
5.31 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate2.75% (2014 est.)
2.17% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Congolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Congolese or Congo
noun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan
Ethnic groupsKongo 48%, Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%, Teke 17%, Europeans and other 3%
Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS80,700 (2014 est.)
315,400 (2015 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 33.1%, Awakening Churches/Christian Revival 22.3%, Protestant 19.9%, Salutiste 2.2%, Muslim 1.6%, Kimbanguiste 1.5%, other 8.1%, none 11.3% (2010 est.)
Roman Catholic 41.1%, Protestant 38.1%, other 8.6%, none 12.3% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths4,400 (2014 est.)
11,900 (2015 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official), Lingala and Monokutuba (lingua franca trade languages), many local languages and dialects (of which Kikongo is the most widespread)
Portuguese 71.2% (official), Umbundu 23%, Kikongo 8.2%, Kimbundu 7.8%, Chokwe 6.5%, Nhaneca 3.4%, Nganguela 3.1%, Fiote 2.4%, Kwanhama 2.3%, Muhumbi 2.1%, Luvale 1%, other 3.6%
note: most widely spoken languages; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2014 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 79.3%
male: 86.4%
female: 72.9% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.1%
male: 82%
female: 60.7% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria and dengue fever
animal contact disease: rabies
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2012)
total: 10 years
male: 13 years
female: 8 years (2011)
Education expenditures6.2% of GDP (2010)
3.5% of GDP (2010)
Urbanizationurban population: 65.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.22% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 44% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.97% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 95.8% of population
rural: 40% of population
total: 76.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4.2% of population
rural: 60% of population
total: 23.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 75.4% of population
rural: 28.2% of population
total: 49% of population
unimproved:
urban: 24.6% of population
rural: 71.8% of population
total: 51% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 20% of population
rural: 5.6% of population
total: 15% of population
unimproved:
urban: 80% of population
rural: 94.4% of population
total: 85% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 88.6% of population
rural: 22.5% of population
total: 51.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 11.4% of population
rural: 77.5% of population
total: 48.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationBRAZZAVILLE (capital) 1.888 million; Pointe-Noire 969,000 (2015)
LUANDA (capital) 5.506 million; Huambo 1.269 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate442 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
477 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight12.3% (2015)
15.6% (2007)
Health expenditures5.2% of GDP (2014)
3.3% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.11 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
0.14 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate9.7% (2014)
8.5% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 252,171
percentage: 25% (2005 est.)
total number: 832,895
percentage: 24% (2001 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth19.8 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011/12 est.)
19.4 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate30.1% (2014)
17.7% (2008/09)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 86.2
youth dependency ratio: 79.4
elderly dependency ratio: 6.8
potential support ratio: 14.7 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 99.9
youth dependency ratio: 95.2
elderly dependency ratio: 4.6
potential support ratio: 21.6 (2015 est.)

Government

Republic of the CongoAngola
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of the Congo
conventional short form: Congo (Brazzaville)
local long form: Republique du Congo
local short form: Congo
former: French Congo, Middle Congo, People's Republic of the Congo, Congo/Brazzaville
etymology: named for the Congo River, which makes up much of the country's eastern border; the river name derives from Kongo, a Bantu kingdom that occupied its mouth at the time of Portuguese discovery in the late 15th century and whose name stems from its people the Bakongo, meaning ""hunters""
"
"conventional long form: Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola
local long form: Republica de Angola
local short form: Angola
former: People's Republic of Angola
etymology: name derived by the Portuguese from the title ""ngola"" held by kings of the Ndongo (Ndongo was a kingdom in what is now northern Angola)
"
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Brazzaville
geographic coordinates: 4 15 S, 15 17 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Luanda
geographic coordinates: 8 50 S, 13 13 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions12 departments (departments, singular - department); Bouenza, Brazzaville, Cuvette, Cuvette-Ouest, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala, Niari, Plateaux, Pointe-Noire, Pool, Sangha
18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Kwando Kubango, Kwanza Norte, Kwanza Sul, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Independence15 August 1960 (from France)
11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
National holidayIndependence Day, 15 August (1960)
Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Constitutionprevious 1992; latest approved by referendum 20 January 2002; amended 2015; note - the constitutional referendum approved in October 2015 changed the head of government from the president to the prime minister, eliminated the presidential age maximum, reduced the presidential term from 7 to 5 years and limited total presidential terms to 3 (2017)
previous 1975, 1992; latest passed by National Assembly 21 January 2010, adopted 5 February 2010 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of French civil law and customary law
civil legal system based on Portuguese civil law; no judicial review of legislation
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Denis SASSOU-Nguesso (since 25 October 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Clement MOUAMBA (since 23 April 2016); note - a constitutional referendum held in 2015 approved the change of the head of government from the president to the prime minister
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for 2 additional terms); election last held on 20 March 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: Denis SASSOU-Nguesso reelected president; percent of vote - Denis SASSOU-Nguesso (PCT) 60.4%, Guy Price Parfait KOLELAS (MCDDI) 15.1%, Jean-Marie MOKOKO (independent) 13.9%, Pascal Tsaty MABIALA (UPADS) 4.4%, other 6.2%
chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); Vice President Manuel Domingos VICENTE (since 26 September 2012); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); Vice President Manuel Domingos VICENTE (since 26 September 2012)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term); note - according to the 2010 constitution, ballots are cast for parties rather than candidates, and the leader of the winning party becomes president
election results: NA; as leader of the MPLA, Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS elected president following legislative elections on 31 August 2012, inaugurated on 26 September 2012 to serve the first of a possible two terms under the 2010 constitution
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate (72 seats; members indirectly elected by regional councils by simple majority vote to serve 6-year terms with one-half of membership renewed every three years) and the National Assembly (139 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds if needed; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 12 October 2014 for 36 of the expiry seats (next to be held in 2020); National Assembly - last held on 15 July and 5 August 2012 (next to be held on 16 and 30 July 2017)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RMP 33, FDU 23, UPADS 2, other 7, independent 7; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PCT 89, MCDDI 7, UPADS 7, RDPS 5, MAR 4, RC 3, MUST 2, UPDP 2, CPR 1, PRL 1, PUR 1, UFD 1, UR 1, independent 12, vacant 3
description: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members directly elected in a single national constituency and in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 31 August 2012 (next to be held on 23 August 2017)
election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 71.8%, UNITA 18.7%, CASA-CE 6.0%, PRS 1.7%, FNLA 1.1%, other 0.7%; seats by party - MPLA 175, UNITA 32, CASA-CE 8, PRS 3, FNLA 2
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of NA judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members); note - a High Court of Justice, outside the judicial authority, tries cases involving treason by the president of the republic
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges elected by Parliament and serve until age 65; Constitutional Court members appointed by the president of the republic - 3 directly by the president and 6 nominated by Parliament; members appointed for renewable 9-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: Court of Audit and Budgetary Discipline; courts of appeal; regional and district courts; employment tribunals; juvenile courts;
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of the court president, vice president, and a minimum of 16 judges); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 11 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council, an 18-member body chaired by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges - 4 nominated by the president, 4 elected by National Assembly, 2 elected by Supreme National Council, 1 elected by competitive submission of curricula; judges serve single 7-year terms
subordinate courts: provincial and municipal courts
Political parties and leadersAction Movement for Renewal or MAR [Roland BOUITI-VIAUDO]
Citizen's Rally or RC
Congolese Labour Party or PCT [Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO]
Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development or MCDDI [Guy Price Parfait KOLELAS]
Movement for Unity, Solidarity, and Work or MUST [Claudine MUNARI]
Pan-African Union for Social Development or UPADS [Pascal Tsaty MABIALA]
Party for the Unity of the Republic or PUR
Patriotic Union for Democracy and Progress or UPDP [Auguste-Celestin GONGARD NKOUA
Prospects and Realities Club or CPR
Rally for Democracy and Social Progress or RDPS [Bernard BATCHI]
Rally of the Presidential Majority or RMP
Republican and Liberal Party or PRL
Union for the Republic or UR
Union of Democratic Forces
Union for Democracy and Republic or UDR
United Democratic Forces or FDU [Sebastian EBAO]; many smaller parties
Broad Convergence for the Salvation of Angola Electoral Coalition or CASA-CE [Abel CHIVUKUVUKU]
National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA; note - there are two factions of the party; one is led by Lucas NGONDA; the other is led by Ngola KABANGU
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA] (largest opposition party)
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS] (ruling party in power since 1975)
Social Renewal Party or PRS [Eduardo KUANGANA]
Political pressure groups and leadersCongolese Trade Union Congress or CSC
General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students or UGEEC
Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women or URFC
Union of Congolese Socialist Youth or UJSC
Angolan Revolutionary Movement or ARM
Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO]
note: FLEC's small-scale armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province persists despite the signing of a peace accord with the government in August 2006; several factions of FLEC have broken off over the past 30 years, including the FLEC-PM [Rodrigues MINGAS], which was responsible for a deadly attack on the Togolese soccer team in 2010
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, CEMAC, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OPEC, SADC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Serge MOMBOULI (since 31 July 2001)
chancery: 1720 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 726-5500
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1860
chief of mission: Ambassador Agostinho Tavares da Silva NETO (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 2100-2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
FAX: [1] (202) 822-9049
consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Mary DASCHBACH (since January 2015)
embassy: 70-83 Section D, Maya-Maya Boulevard, Brazzaville
mailing address: B.P. 1015, Brazzaville
telephone: [242] 06 612-2000
chief of mission: Ambassador Helen Meagher LA LIME (15 May 2014)
embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda, C.P. 6468
mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: US Embassy Luanda, US Department of State, 2550 Luanda Place, Washington, DC 20521-2550
telephone: [244] 946440977
FAX: [244] (222) 64-1000
Flag descriptiondivided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow band; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is red; green symbolizes agriculture and forests, yellow the friendship and nobility of the people, red is unexplained but has been associated with the struggle for independence
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle); red represents liberty, black the African continent, the symbols characterize workers and peasants
National anthem"name: ""La Congolaise"" (The Congolese)
lyrics/music: Jacques TONDRA and Georges KIBANGHI/Jean ROYER and Joseph SPADILIERE
note: originally adopted 1959, restored 1991
"
"name: ""Angola Avante"" (Forward Angola)
lyrics/music: Manuel Rui Alves MONTEIRO/Rui Alberto Vieira Dias MINGAO
note: adopted 1975
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)lion, elephant; national colors: green, yellow, red
Palanca Negra Gigante (giant black sable antelope); national colors: red, black, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Republic of the Congo
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Angola
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

Republic of the CongoAngola
Economy - overviewThe economy is a mixture of subsistence farming and hunting, an industrial sector based largely on oil and support services, and government spending. Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy, providing a major share of government revenues and exports. Natural gas is increasingly being converted to electricity rather than being flared, greatly improving energy prospects. New mining projects, particularly iron ore, which entered production in late 2013, may add as much as $1 billion to annual government revenue.

Economic reform efforts have been undertaken with the support of international organizations, notably the World Bank and the IMF, including the recently concluded Article IV consultations. The current administration faces difficult economic challenges of stimulating recovery and reducing poverty. The recent drop in oil prices has constrained government spending; lower oil prices forced the government to cut more than $1 billion in planned spending. However, the government increased infrastructure spending for the September 2015 All-Africa Games and the March 2016 presidential election, which put further pressure on the budget. The fiscal deficit exceeded 18% of GDP in 2015. Substantial macroeconomic imbalances continued in 2016 following sustained low oil prices.
Angola's economy is overwhelmingly driven by its oil sector. Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about 50% of GDP, more than 70% of government revenue, and more than 90% of the country's exports. Diamonds contribute an additional 5% to exports. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for most of the people, but half of the country's food is still imported.

Increased oil production supported growth averaging more than 17% per year from 2004 to 2008. A postwar reconstruction boom and resettlement of displaced persons has led to high rates of growth in construction and agriculture as well. Some of the country's infrastructure is still damaged or undeveloped from the 27-year-long civil war. However, the government since 2005 has used billions of dollars in credit from China, Brazil, Portugal, Germany, Spain, and the EU to help rebuild Angola's public infrastructure. Land mines left from the war still mar the countryside, and as a result, the national military, international partners, and private Angolan firms all continue to remove them.

The global recession that started in 2008 stalled Angola’s economic growth. In particular, lower prices for oil and diamonds during the recession slowed GDP growth to 2.4% in 2009, and many construction projects stopped because Luanda accrued $9 billion in arrears to foreign construction companies when government revenue fell. Angola formally abandoned its currency peg in 2009, and in November 2009 signed onto an IMF Stand-By Arrangement loan of $1.4 billion to rebuild international reserves. Consumer inflation declined from 325% in 2000 to less than 9% in 2014, before rising again in 2015-16.

Falling oil prices, the depreciation of the kwanza, and slower than expected growth in non-oil GDP have reduced growth prospects. Corruption, especially in the extractive sectors, is a major long-term challenge that poses an additional threat to the economy. Government spending in the run-up to the 2017 elections is likely to strain Luanda’s budget.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$30.27 billion (2016 est.)
$29.75 billion (2015 est.)
$29.08 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$189 billion (2016 est.)
$187.3 billion (2015 est.)
$181.8 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate1.7% (2016 est.)
2.3% (2015 est.)
6.8% (2014 est.)
0.9% (2016 est.)
3% (2015 est.)
4.8% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$6,800 (2016 est.)
$6,800 (2015 est.)
$6,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$6,800 (2016 est.)
$7,000 (2015 est.)
$7,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 4.9%
industry: 69.8%
services: 25.3% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 10.2%
industry: 61.4%
services: 28.4% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line46.5% (2011 est.)
40.5% (2006 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 37.1% (2005)
lowest 10%: 0.6%
highest 10%: 44.7% (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)4.2% (2016 est.)
2.6% (2015 est.)
26.9% (2016 est.)
10.3% (2015 est.)
Labor force1.807 million (2013 est.)
10.85 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 35.4%
industry: 20.6%
services: 42.2% (2005 est.)
agriculture: 85%
industry and services: 15% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate36% (2014 est.)
NA%
Budgetrevenues: $3.562 billion
expenditures: $4.233 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $27.27 billion
expenditures: $33.5 billion (2016 est.)
Industriespetroleum extraction, cement, lumber, brewing, sugar, palm oil, soap, flour, cigarettes
petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair
Industrial production growth rate3.5% (2016 est.)
0.9% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscassava (manioc, tapioca), sugar, rice, corn, peanuts, vegetables, coffee, cocoa; forest products
bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, cassava (manioc, tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish
Exports$4.777 billion (2016 est.)
$5.231 billion (2015 est.)
$30.04 billion (2016 est.)
$35.55 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiespetroleum, lumber, plywood, sugar, cocoa, coffee, diamonds
crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
Exports - partnersChina 41.9%, Italy 16.8%, India 4.9%, US 4.9%, Portugal 4.2% (2015)
China 44.5%, India 8.9%, US 7.8%, Spain 6.3%, France 4.5%, South Africa 4.2% (2015)
Imports$3.447 billion (2016 est.)
$3.934 billion (2015 est.)
$19.67 billion (2016 est.)
$21.15 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiescapital equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs
machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods
Imports - partnersChina 20.6%, France 14.4%, South Korea 10%, US 4.9%, UK 4.5%, Italy 4.2%, India 4.1% (2015)
China 22.4%, Portugal 14%, South Korea 11.2%, US 7%, UK 4.2%, France 4.1%, South Africa 4.1% (2015)
Debt - external$4.817 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.324 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$37.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$33.83 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesCooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
589.4 (2016 est.)
591.45 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)
kwanza (AOA) per US dollar -
172 (2016 est.)
120.061 (2015 est.)
120.061 (2014 est.)
98.303 (2013 est.)
95.47 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt70% of GDP (2016 est.)
48% of GDP (2015 est.)
57.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
57.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$1.989 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.244 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$20.43 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$24.08 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$2.27 billion (2016 est.)
-$3.668 billion (2015 est.)
-$4.166 billion (2016 est.)
-$10.27 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$8.834 billion (2016 est.)
$91.94 billion (2016 est.)
Central bank discount rate4.25% (31 December 2009)
4.75% (31 December 2008)
9% (31 December 2014)
25% (31 December 2010)
Commercial bank prime lending rate14% (31 December 2016 est.)
14.8% (31 December 2015 est.)
30% (31 December 2016 est.)
16.88% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$1.825 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.807 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$12.52 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.18 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$3.274 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.131 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$24.57 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$25.27 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$4.875 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.858 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$38.85 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$42.15 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues40.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
29.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-7.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
-6.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 50%
government consumption: 10.5%
investment in fixed capital: 48.7%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 44.5%
imports of goods and services: -53.9% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 72.5%
government consumption: 18.1%
investment in fixed capital: 10.3%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 35.3%
imports of goods and services: -36.2% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving22.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
38.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
4.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
0.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
12.4% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

Republic of the CongoAngola
Electricity - production1.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
9.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption900 million kWh (2014 est.)
8.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports22 million kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports18 million kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production269,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
1.842 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports252,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
1.745 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves1.6 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
8.4 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves90.61 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
308 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production1.5 billion cu m (2014 est.)
731 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption1.5 billion cu m (2014 est.)
231 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports39 million cu m (2012 est.)
500 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity500,000 kW (2014 est.)
1.7 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels12.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
50.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants87.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
49.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production18,550 bbl/day (2013 est.)
46,050 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption16,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
132,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports5,426 bbl/day (2013 est.)
33,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports2,615 bbl/day (2013 est.)
97,760 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy6.5 million Mt (2013 est.)
33 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 2,600,000
electrification - total population: 42%
electrification - urban areas: 62%
electrification - rural areas: 5% (2013)
population without electricity: 15,000,000
electrification - total population: 30%
electrification - urban areas: 46%
electrification - rural areas: 18% (2013)

Telecommunications

Republic of the CongoAngola
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 17,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 284,925
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 5.216 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 110 (July 2015 est.)
total: 13.885 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 71 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: primary network consists of microwave radio relay and coaxial cable with services barely adequate for government use; key exchanges are in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; intercity lines frequently out of order
domestic: fixed-line infrastructure inadequate, providing less than 1 connection per 100 persons; in the absence of an adequate fixed-line infrastructure, mobile-cellular subscribership has surged to 110 per 100 persons
international: country code - 242; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: limited system; state-owned telecom had monopoly for fixed lines until 2005; demand outstripped capacity, prices were high, and services poor; Telecom Namibia, through an Angolan company, became the first private licensed operator in Angola's fixed-line telephone network; by 2010, the number of fixed-line providers had expanded to 5; Angola Telecom established mobile-cellular service in Luanda in 1993 and the network has been extended to larger towns; a privately owned, mobile-cellular service provider began operations in 2001
domestic: only about one fixed line per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity about 71 telephones per 100 persons in 2015
international: country code - 244; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 29 (2015)
Internet country code.cg
.ao
Internet userstotal: 362,000
percent of population: 7.6% (July 2015 est.)
total: 2.434 million
percent of population: 12.4% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast media1 state-owned TV and 3 state-owned radio stations; several privately owned TV and radio stations; satellite TV service is available; rebroadcasts of several international broadcasters are available (2007)
state controls all broadcast media with nationwide reach; state-owned Televisao Popular de Angola (TPA) provides terrestrial TV service on 2 channels; a third TPA channel is available via cable and satellite; TV subscription services are available; state-owned Radio Nacional de Angola (RNA) broadcasts on 5 stations; about a half-dozen private radio stations broadcast locally (2009)

Transportation

Republic of the CongoAngola
Railwaystotal: 510 km
narrow gauge: 510 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
total: 2,852 km
narrow gauge: 2,729 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 17,000 km
paved: 1,212 km
unpaved: 15,788 km (2006)
total: 51,429 km
paved: 5,349 km
unpaved: 46,080 km (2001)
Waterways1,120 km (commercially navigable on Congo and Oubanqui Rivers above Brazzaville; there are many ferries across the river to Kinshasa; the Congo south of Brazzaville-Kinshasa to the coast is not navigable because of rapids, necessitating a rail connection to Pointe Noire; other rivers are used for local traffic only) (2011)
1,300 km (2011)
Pipelinesgas 232 km; liquid petroleum gas 4 km; oil 982 km (2013)
gas 352 km; liquid petroleum gas 85 km; oil 1,065 km; oil/gas/water 5 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Pointe-Noire
river port(s): Brazzaville (Congo); Impfondo (Oubangi); Ouesso (Sangha); Oyo (Alima)
oil terminal(s): Djeno
major seaport(s): Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Namibe
LNG terminal(s) (export): Angola Soyo
Merchant marineregistered in other countries: 1 (Democratic Republic of the Congo 1) (2010)
total: 7
by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 1 (Spain 1)
registered in other countries: 17 (Bahamas 6, Curacao 2, Cyprus 1, Liberia 1, Malta 7) (2010)
Airports27 (2013)
176 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 8
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (2013)
total: 31
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
total: 145
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 31
914 to 1,523 m: 66
under 914 m: 43 (2013)

Military

Republic of the CongoAngola
Military branchesCongolese Armed Forces (Forces Armees Congolaises, FAC): Army (Armee de Terre), Navy, Congolese Air Force (Armee de l'Air Congolaise); Gendarmerie; Special Presidential Security Guard (GSSP) (2013)
Angolan Armed Forces (Forcas Armadas Angolanas, FAA): Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra Angola, MGA), Angolan National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional Angolana, FANA; under operational control of the Army) (2012)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; women may serve in the Armed Forces (2012)
20-45 years of age for compulsory male and 18-45 years for voluntary male military service (registration at age 18 is mandatory); 20-45 years of age for voluntary female service; 2-year conscript service obligation; Angolan citizenship required; the Navy (MGA) is entirely staffed with volunteers (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP4.97% of GDP (2014)
2.61% of GDP (2013)
3.52% of GDP (2015)
5.4% of GDP (2014)
4.88% of GDP (2013)
3.59% of GDP (2012)
3.5% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Republic of the CongoAngola
Disputes - internationalthe location of the boundary in the broad Congo River with the Democratic Republic of the Congo is undefined except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area
Democratic Republic of Congo accuses Angola of shifting monuments
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 9,202 (Rwanda) (2016); 30,585 (Central African Republic); 12,280 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2017)
IDPs: 33,000 (multiple civil wars since 1992) (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 12,944 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook