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Portugal vs. Spain

Introduction

PortugalSpain
BackgroundFollowing its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil, its wealthiest colony, in 1822. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.
Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World War I and II but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). A peaceful transition to democracy following the death of dictator Francisco FRANCO in 1975, and rapid economic modernization (Spain joined the EU in 1986) gave Spain a dynamic and rapidly growing economy and made it a global champion of freedom and human rights. More recently Spain has emerged from a severe economic recession that began in mid-2008, posting three straight years of GDP growth above the EU average. Unemployment has fallen, but remains high especially among youth. Spain is the Eurozone’s fourth largest economy.

Geography

PortugalSpain
LocationSouthwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain
Southwestern Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Bay of Biscay, and Pyrenees Mountains; southwest of France
Geographic coordinates39 30 N, 8 00 W
40 00 N, 4 00 W
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 92,090 sq km
land: 91,470 sq km
water: 620 sq km
note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands
total: 505,370 sq km
land: 498,980 sq km
water: 6,390 sq km
note: there are two autonomous cities - Ceuta and Melilla - and 17 autonomous communities including Balearic Islands and Canary Islands, and three small Spanish possessions off the coast of Morocco - Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Virginia
almost five times the size of Kentucky; slightly more than twice the size of Oregon
Land boundariestotal: 1,224 km
border countries (1): Spain 1,224 km
total: 1,952.7 km
border countries (5): Andorra 63 km, France 646 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1,224 km, Morocco (Ceuta) 8 km, Morocco (Melilla) 10.5 km
note: an additional 75-meter border segment exists between Morocco and the Spanish exclave of Penon de Velez de la Gomera
Coastline1,793 km
4,964 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (applies only to the Atlantic Ocean)
Climatemaritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south
temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast
Terrainthe west-flowing Tagus River divides the country: the north is mountainous toward the interior, while the south is characterized by rolling plains
large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees Mountains in north
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 372 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m
mean elevation: 660 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico de Teide (Tenerife) on Canary Islands 3,718 m
Natural resourcesfish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower
coal, lignite, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, tungsten, mercury, pyrites, magnesite, fluorspar, gypsum, sepiolite, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 39.7%
arable land 11.9%; permanent crops 7.8%; permanent pasture 20%
forest: 37.8%
other: 22.5% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 54.1%
arable land 24.9%; permanent crops 9.1%; permanent pasture 20.1%
forest: 36.8%
other: 9.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land5,400 sq km (2012)
38,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsAzores subject to severe earthquakes
volcanism: limited volcanic activity in the Azores Islands; Fayal or Faial (elev. 1,043 m) last erupted in 1958; most volcanoes have not erupted in centuries; historically active volcanoes include Agua de Pau, Furnas, Pico, Picos Volcanic System, San Jorge, Sete Cidades, and Terceira
periodic droughts, occasional flooding
volcanism: volcanic activity in the Canary Islands, located off Africa's northwest coast; Teide (elev. 3,715 m) has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; La Palma (elev. 2,426 m), which last erupted in 1971, is the most active of the Canary Islands volcanoes; Lanzarote is the only other historically active volcano
Environment - current issuessoil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas
pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - noteAzores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar
strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar; Spain controls a number of territories in northern Morocco including the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas
Population distributionconcentrations are primarily along or near the Atlantic coast; both Lisbon and the second largest city, Porto, are coastal cities
with the notable exception of Madrid, Sevilla, and Zaragoza, the largest urban agglomerations are found along the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts; numerous smaller cities are spread throughout the interior reflecting Spain's agrarian heritage; dense settlement is found around the capital of Madrid, as well as the port city of Barcelona

Demographics

PortugalSpain
Population10,833,816 (July 2016 est.)
48,563,476 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 15.5% (male 874,807/female 804,483)
15-24 years: 11.4% (male 655,234/female 579,669)
25-54 years: 41.88% (male 2,300,872/female 2,236,077)
55-64 years: 12.07% (male 610,886/female 697,287)
65 years and over: 19.15% (male 849,506/female 1,224,995) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 15.43% (male 3,854,687/female 3,638,288)
15-24 years: 9.56% (male 2,400,188/female 2,243,311)
25-54 years: 45.24% (male 11,200,786/female 10,771,652)
55-64 years: 11.91% (male 2,820,933/female 2,963,050)
65 years and over: 17.85% (male 3,700,832/female 4,969,749) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 41.8 years
male: 39.8 years
female: 44 years (2016 est.)
total: 42.3 years
male: 41.2 years
female: 43.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.07% (2016 est.)
0.84% (2016 est.)
Birth rate9.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate11.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate2.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 79.3 years
male: 76.1 years
female: 82.8 years (2016 est.)
total population: 81.7 years
male: 78.7 years
female: 84.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.53 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.49 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
0.39% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Portuguese (singular and plural)
adjective: Portuguese
noun: Spaniard(s)
adjective: Spanish
Ethnic groupshomogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990 East Europeans have entered Portugal
composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
148,900 (2015 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 81%, other Christian 3.3%, other (includes Jewish, Muslim, other) 0.6%, none 6.8%, unspecified 8.3%
note: represents population 15 years of age and older (2011 est.)
Roman Catholic 67.8%, atheist 9.1%, other 2.2%, non-believer 18.4%, unspecified 2.5% (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
1,200 (2015 est.)
LanguagesPortuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)
Castilian Spanish (official nationwide) 74%, Catalan (official in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and the Valencian Community (where it is known as Valencian)) 17%, Galician (official in Galicia) 7%, Basque (official in the Basque Country and in the Basque-speaking area of Navarre) 2%, Aranese (official in the northwest corner of Catalonia (Vall d'Aran) along with Catalan; <5,000 speakers)
note: Aragonese, Aranese Asturian, Basque, Calo, Catalan, Galician, and Valencian are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.7%
male: 97.1%
female: 94.4% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.1%
male: 98.7%
female: 97.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 17 years
male: 17 years
female: 17 years (2014)
total: 18 years
male: 18 years
female: 18 years (2015)
Education expenditures5.3% of GDP (2013)
4.3% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 63.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.97% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 79.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.52% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 99.6% of population
rural: 99.8% of population
total: 99.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.4% of population
rural: 0.2% of population
total: 0.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.8% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 99.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.2% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0.1% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationLISBON (capital) 2.884 million; Porto 1.299 million (2015)
MADRID (capital) 6.199 million; Barcelona 5.258 million; Valencia 810,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate10 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
5 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures9.5% of GDP (2014)
9% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density4.43 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
3.82 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density3.4 beds/1,000 population (2011)
3.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate22.1% (2014)
26.5% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth29.5 years (2012 est.)
29.8 years (2010 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 53.5
youth dependency ratio: 21.6
elderly dependency ratio: 31.9
potential support ratio: 3.1 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 50.8
youth dependency ratio: 22.4
elderly dependency ratio: 28.3
potential support ratio: 3.5 (2015 est.)

Government

PortugalSpain
Country name"conventional long form: Portuguese Republic
conventional short form: Portugal
local long form: Republica Portuguesa
local short form: Portugal
etymology: name derives from the Roman designation ""Portus Cale"" meaning ""Port of Cale""; Cale was an ancient Celtic town and port in present-day northern Portugal
"
"conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain
conventional short form: Spain
local long form: Reino de Espana
local short form: Espana
etymology: derivation of the name ""Espana"" is uncertain, but may come from the Phoenician term ""span,"" related to the word ""spy,"" meaning ""to forge metals,"" so, ""i-spn-ya"" would mean ""place where metals are forged""; the ancient Phoenicians long exploited the Iberian Peninsula for its mineral wealth
"
Government typesemi-presidential republic
parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Capitalname: Lisbon
geographic coordinates: 38 43 N, 9 08 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Madrid
geographic coordinates: 40 24 N, 3 41 W
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
note: Spain has two time zones including the Canary Islands
Administrative divisions18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa (Lisbon), Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu
17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma) and 2 autonomous cities* (ciudades autonomas, singular - ciudad autonoma); Andalucia; Aragon; Asturias; Canarias (Canary Islands); Cantabria; Castilla-La Mancha; Castilla-Leon; Cataluna (Castilian), Catalunya (Catalan), Catalonha (Aranese) [Catalonia]; Ceuta*; Comunidad Valenciana (Castilian), Comunitat Valenciana (Valencian) [Valencian Community]; Extremadura; Galicia; Illes Baleares (Balearic Islands); La Rioja; Madrid; Melilla*; Murcia; Navarra (Castilian), Nafarroa (Basque) [Navarre]; Pais Vasco (Castilian), Euskadi (Basque) [Basque Country]
note: the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla plus three small islands of Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, administered directly by the Spanish central government, are all along the coast of Morocco and are collectively referred to as Places of Sovereignty (Plazas de Soberania)
Independence1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)
1492; the Iberian peninsula was characterized by a variety of independent kingdoms prior to the Muslim occupation that began in the early 8th century A.D. and lasted nearly seven centuries; the small Christian redoubts of the north began the reconquest almost immediately, culminating in the seizure of Granada in 1492; this event completed the unification of several kingdoms and is traditionally considered the forging of present-day Spain
National holidayPortugal Day (Dia de Portugal), 10 June (1580); note - also called Camoes Day, the day that revered national poet Luis de Camoes (1524-80) died
National Day (Hispanic Day), 12 October (1492); note - commemorates COLUMBUS' arrival in the Americas
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1976, effective 25 April 1976
amendments: proposed by the Assembly of the Republic; adoption requires two-thirds majority vote of Assembly members; amended several times, last in 2005 (2016)
history: previous 1812; latest approved by the General Courts 31 October 1978, passed by referendum 6 December 1978, signed by the king 27 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978
amendments: proposed by the government, by the General Courts (the Congress or the Senate), or by the self-governing communities submitted through the government; passage requires three-fifths majority vote by both houses and passage by referendum if requested by one-tenth of members of either house; proposals disapproved by both houses are submitted to a joint committee, which submits an agreed upon text for another vote; passage requires two-thirds vote in Congress and simple majority vote in the Senate; amended 1992, 2007, 2011 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts
civil law system with regional variations
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (since 9 March 2016)
head of government: Prime Minister Antonio Luis Santos da COSTA (since 24 November 2015)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 January 2016 (next to be held in January 2021); following legislative elections last held in October 2015, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition was appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA elected president; percent of vote - Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (PSD) 52%, Antonio Sampaio da NOVA (independent) 22.9%, Marisa MATISA (BE) 10.1%, Maria de BELEM (independent) 4.2%, other 10.8%
note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president
chief of state: King FELIPE VI (since 19 June 2014); Heir Apparent Princess LEONOR, Princess of Asturias, daughter of the monarch, born 31 October 2005
head of government: President of the Government or Prime Minister Mariano RAJOY (since 20 December 2011); Vice President (and Minister of the President's Office) Soraya SAENZ DE SANTAMARIA (since 22 December 2011)
cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the monarch usually proposes the leader of the party or coalition with the largest majority of seats as president, who is then indirectly elected by the Congress of Deputies; election last held on 26 June 2016; vice president and Council of Ministers appointed by the president
election results: percent of National Assembly vote - NA
note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government, but its recommendations are non-binding
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; 226 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 4 members - 2 each in 2 constituencies representing Portuguese living abroad - directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 4 October 2015 (next to be held by October 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - Portugal Ahead Coalition (PAF) 36.9%, PS 32.3%, B.E. 10.2%, CDU 8.2%, PPD/PSD (Azores and Madeira) 1.5%, PAN 1.4%, other 9.5%; seats by party - PAF 102, PS 86, B.E. 19, CDU 17, PPD/PSD (Azores and Madeira) 5, PAN 1
description: bicameral General Courts or Las Cortes Generales consists of the Senate or Senado (266 seats as of 2017; 208 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 58 appointed by the regional legislatures; members serve 4-year terms) and the Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; 348 members directly elected in 50 multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 directly elected from the North African Ceuta and Melilla enclaves by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms or until the government is dissolved)
elections: Senate - last held on 26 June 2016; Congress of Deputies - last held on 26 June 2016 (next to be held no later than June 2020)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PP 149, PSOE 62, Podemos 20, ERC 12, EAJ/PNV 6, other 17; Congress of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PP 33.0%, PSOE 22.7%, Podemos 21.1%, C's 13.0%, ERC-CatSi 2.6%, CDC 2.0%, EAJ/PNV 1.2%, other 4.4%; seats by party - PP 134, PSOE 84, Podemos 67, C's 32, ERC-CatSi 9, EAJ/PNV 5, other 19
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of 12 justices); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 13 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president and appointed by the Assembly of the Republic; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges - 10 elected by the Assembly and 3 elected by the other Constitutional Court judges; judges elected for 6-year non-renewable terms
subordinate courts: Supreme Administrative Court (Supremo Tribunal Administrativo); Audit Court (Tribunal de Contas); appellate, district, and municipal courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo (consists of the court president and organized into the Civil Room with a president and 9 judges, the Penal Room with a president and 14 judges, the Administrative Room with a president and 32 judges, the Social Room with a president and 12 judges, and the Military Room with a president and 7 judges); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional de Espana (consists of 12 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch from candidates proposed by the General Council of the Judiciary Power, a 20-member governing board chaired by the monarch that includes presidential appointees, and lawyers and jurists confirmed by the National Assembly; judges can serve until age 70; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the National Assembly, executive branch, and the General Council of the Judiciary, and appointed by the monarch for 9-year terms
subordinate courts: National High Court; High Courts of Justice (in each of the autonomous communities); provincial courts; courts of first instance
Political parties and leadersDemocratic and Social Center/Popular Party or CDS/PP [Assuncao CRISTAS]
People_Animals_Nature Party or PAN [Andre SILVA]
Portuguese Communist Party or PCP [Jeronimo DE SOUSA]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Pedro Passos COELHO]
Socialist Party or PS [Antonio COSTA]
The Left Bloc or BE [Catarina MARTINS]
Amaiur [Xabier ERREKONDO] (a separatist political coalition that advocates Basque independence from Spain)
Asturias Forum or FAC [Cristina COTO]
Basque Country Unite (Euskal Herria Bildu) or EH Bildu [Pello URIZAR] (coalition of 4 Basque pro-independence parties)
Basque Nationalist Party or PNV or EAJ [Andoni ORTUZAR]
Canarian Coalition or CC [Claudina MORALES Rodriguez] (coalition of five parties)
Canarian Nationalist Party or PNC [Juan Manuel GARCIA Ramos]
Catalan Agreement of Progress (Entesa Catalonia de Progress) or ECP [Carles BONET i Reves] (Senate coalition of Catalan parties - PSC, ERC, ICV, EUA)
Catalan European Democratic Party or PDeCat [Artur MAS]
Ciudadanos Party or C's [Albert RIVERA]
Compromis [Monica Oltra JARQUE]
Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Ana PONTON Mondelo]
Gomera Socialist Group or ASG
Initiative for Catalonia Greens or ICV [Joan HERRERA i Torres and Dolors CAMATS]
Podemos [Pablo IGLESIAS Turrion]
Popular Party or PP [Mariano RAJOY Brey]
Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Oriol JUNQUERAS i Vies]
Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Pedro SANCHEZ]
Union of People of Navarra or UPN [Javier ESPARZA]
Union, Progress and Democracy or UPyD [Gorka MAEIRO]
United Left or IU [Alberto GARZON] (a coalition of parties including the Communist Party of Spain or PCE and other small parties; ran as Popular Unity or UP in 2015 election)
Yes to the Future or Geroa Bai [Koldo MARTINEZ] (a coalition of four Navarran parties)
Political pressure groups and leadersArmed Forces Officers' Association or AOFA [Lieutenant Colonel Antonio SILVA]
General Workers Union or General Confederation of Portuguese Workers or UGT [Carlos SILVA]
Portuguese National Workers' Conference or CGTP [Armenio CARLOS]
TugaLeaks (a website that has become a mouthpiece for publicizing diverse protest action)
other: the media; labor unions
Association for Victims of Terrorism or AVT (grassroots organization devoted primarily to supporting victims of the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) terrorist organization)
Catholic Church
Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT (includes the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO)
Trade Union Confederation of Workers' Commissions or CC.OO.
Spanish Confederation of Employers' Organizations or CEOE
other: business and landowning interests; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977); university students
International organization participationADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CERN, CPLP, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Domingos T?eixeira de Abreu Fezas VITAL (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 328-8610
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726
consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, San Francisco
consulate(s): New Bedford (MA), Newark (NJ), Providence (RI)
chief of mission: Ambassador Pedro MORENES Eulate (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 2375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 452-0100, 728-2340
FAX: [1] (202) 833-5670
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Kansas City (MO)
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Herro MUSTAFA (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600-081 Lisbon
mailing address: Apartado 43033, 1601-301 Lisboa; PSC 83, APO AE 09726
telephone: [351] (21) 727-3300
FAX: [351] (21) 726-9109
consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kris URS (since January 2017) note - also accredited to Andorra
embassy: Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid
mailing address: PSC 61, APO AE 09642
telephone: [34] (91) 587-2200
FAX: [34] (91) 587-2303
consulate(s) general: Barcelona
Flag descriptiontwo vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the national coat of arms (armillary sphere and Portuguese shield) centered on the dividing line; explanations for the color meanings are ambiguous, but a popular interpretation has green symbolizing hope and red the blood of those defending the nation
"three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms is quartered to display the emblems of the traditional kingdoms of Spain (clockwise from upper left, Castile, Leon, Navarre, and Aragon) while Granada is represented by the stylized pomegranate at the bottom of the shield; the arms are framed by two columns representing the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar; the red scroll across the two columns bears the imperial motto of ""Plus Ultra"" (further beyond) referring to Spanish lands beyond Europe; the triband arrangement with the center stripe twice the width of the outer dates to the 18th century
note: the red and yellow colors are related to those of the oldest Spanish kingdoms: Aragon, Castile, Leon, and Navarre
"
National anthem"name: ""A Portugesa"" (The Song of the Portuguese)
lyrics/music: Henrique LOPES DE MENDOCA/Alfredo KEIL
note: adopted 1910; ""A Portuguesa"" was originally written to protest the Portuguese monarchy's acquiescence to the 1890 British ultimatum forcing Portugal to give up areas of Africa; the lyrics refer to the ""insult"" that resulted from the event
"
"name: ""Himno Nacional Espanol"" (National Anthem of Spain)
lyrics/music: no lyrics/unknown
note: officially in use between 1770 and 1931, restored in 1939; the Spanish anthem is the first anthem to be officially adopted, but it has no lyrics; in the years prior to 1931 it became known as ""Marcha Real"" (The Royal March); it first appeared in a 1761 military bugle call book and was replaced by ""Himno de Riego"" in the years between 1931 and 1939; the long version of the anthem is used for the king, while the short version is used for the prince, prime minister, and occasions such as sporting events
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)armillary sphere (a spherical astrolabe modeling objects in the sky and representing the Republic); national colors: red, green
Pillars of Hercules; national colors: red, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Portugal
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years; 6 years if from a Portuguese speaking country
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Spain
dual citizenship recognized: only with select Latin American countries
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years for persons with no ties to Spain

Economy

PortugalSpain
Economy - overviewPortugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community - the EU's predecessor - in 1986. Over the following two decades, successive governments privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country joined the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999 and began circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU members.

The economy grew by more than the EU average for much of the 1990s, but the rate of growth slowed in 2001-08. The economy contracted in 2009, and fell again from 2011 to 2013, as the government implemented spending cuts and tax increases to comply with conditions of an EU-IMF financial rescue package, signed in May 2011. Portugal successfully exited its EU-IMF program in May 2014. A modest recovery gathered steam in 2015 due to strong export performance and a rebound in private consumption. Growth slowed slightly in the first half of 2016, but rebounded in the last two quarters of the year to register at 1.4 percent for the year. Unemployment remains high, at 10.2%, at the end of 2016, but has improved steadily since peaking at 18% in 2013.

The center-left minority Socialist government has unwound some unpopular austerity measures while managing to remain within most EU fiscal targets. The budget deficit fell from 11.2% of GDP in 2010 to 2.0% in 2016, the country’s lowest since democracy was restored in 1974, and surpassing the EU and-IMF projections of 3%. Portugal is expected to exit the EU’s excessive deficit procedure by mid-2017.
After experiencing a prolonged recession in the wake of the global financial crisis that began in 2008, in 2016 Spain marked the third full year of positive economic growth in nine years, largely due to increased private consumption. At the onset of the financial crisis, Spain's GDP contracted by 3.7% in 2009, ending a 16-year growth trend, and continued contracting through most of 2013. In 2013, the government successfully shored up struggling banks - exposed to the collapse of Spain's depressed real estate and construction sectors - and in January 2014 completed an EU-funded restructuring and recapitalization program for its financial sector.

Until 2014, credit contraction in the private sector, fiscal austerity, and high unemployment weighed on domestic consumption and investment. The unemployment rate rose from a low of about 8% in 2007 to more than 26% in 2013, but labor reforms prompted a modest reduction to 19.7% in 2016. High unemployment has strained Spain's public finances, as spending on social benefits increased while tax revenues fell. Spain’s budget deficit peaked at 11.4% of GDP in 2010, but Spain gradually reduced the deficit to about 5% of GDP in 2015, and 4.1% of GDP in 2016. Public debt has increased substantially – from 60.1% of GDP in 2010 to nearly 99.5% in 2016.

Exports were resilient throughout the economic downturn and helped to bring Spain's current account into surplus in 2013 for the first time since 1986, where it remained in 2014-16. Rising labor productivity and an internal devaluation resulting from moderating labor costs and lower inflation have helped to improve foreign investor interest in the economy and positive FDI flows have been restored.

Political gridlock after the national elections in December 2015 and June 2016 and ensuing government formation process constrained the caretaker government’s ability to implement needed labor, pension, healthcare, tax, and education reforms— in 2016. The European Commission criticized Spain’s 2016 budget for its easing of austerity measures and its alleged overly optimistic growth and deficit projections. Spain’s borrowing costs are dramatically lower since their peak in mid-2012, and despite the recent uptick in economic activity, inflation has dropped sharply, from 1.5% in 2013 to a negative 0.3% in 2016.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$297.1 billion (2016 est.)
$294.1 billion (2015 est.)
$289.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1.69 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.64 trillion (2015 est.)
$1.589 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate1% (2016 est.)
1.5% (2015 est.)
0.9% (2014 est.)
3.1% (2016 est.)
3.2% (2015 est.)
1.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$28,500 (2016 est.)
$28,300 (2015 est.)
$27,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$36,500 (2016 est.)
$35,300 (2015 est.)
$34,200 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 2.4%
industry: 21.9%
services: 75.9% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 2.5%
industry: 22.4%
services: 75.1% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line19% (2015 est.)
21.1% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 25.9% (2015 est.)
lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 24% (2011)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)0.8% (2016 est.)
0.5% (2015 est.)
-0.3% (2016 est.)
-0.6% (2015 est.)
Labor force5.167 million (2016 est.)
22.89 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 8.6%
industry: 23.9%
services: 67.5% (2014 est.)
agriculture: 4.2%
industry: 24%
services: 71.7% (2009)
Unemployment rate10.2% (2016 est.)
12.4% (2015 est.)
19.7% (2016 est.)
22.1% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index33.9 (2015 est.)
34 (2014 est.)
35.9 (2012)
32 (2005)
Budgetrevenues: $87.26 billion
expenditures: $92.25 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $461.3 billion
expenditures: $512.9 billion (2016 est.)
Industriestextiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper and pulp, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, automobiles and auto parts, base metals, minerals, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; dairy products, wine, other foodstuffs; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism, plastics, financial services, optics
textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment
Industrial production growth rate0.9% (2016 est.)
2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsgrain, potatoes, tomatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, dairy products; fish
grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish
Exports$52.2 billion (2016 est.)
$54.33 billion (2015 est.)
$266.3 billion (2016 est.)
$277.9 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesagricultural products, foodstuffs, wine, oil products, chemical products, plastics and rubber, hides, leather, wood and cork, wood pulp and paper, textile materials, clothing, footwear, machinery and tools, base metals
machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, medicines, other consumer goods
Exports - partnersSpain 25%, France 12.1%, Germany 11.8%, UK 6.7%, US 5.2%, Angola 4.2%, Netherlands 4% (2015)
France 15.7%, Germany 11%, Italy 7.4%, UK 7.4%, Portugal 7.1%, US 4.5% (2015)
Imports$61.7 billion (2016 est.)
$64.49 billion (2015 est.)
$287.9 billion (2016 est.)
$302.6 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesagricultural products, chemical products, vehicles and other transport material, optical and precision instruments, computer accessories and parts, semiconductors and related devices, oil products, base metals, food products, textile materials
machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semi-finished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, measuring and medical control instruments
Imports - partnersSpain 32.9%, Germany 12.9%, France 7.4%, Italy 5.4%, Netherlands 5.1% (2015)
Germany 14.4%, France 11.7%, China 7.1%, Italy 6.5%, Netherlands 5%, UK 4.9% (2015)
Debt - external$449 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$447 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
$2.094 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$1.963 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
Exchange rateseuros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.7525 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.7525 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt126.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
129% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
99.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
99.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$19.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$19.62 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$53.97 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$50.35 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Current Account Balance$1.722 billion (2016 est.)
$138 million (2015 est.)
$24.66 billion (2016 est.)
$16.34 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$205.9 billion (2016 est.)
$1.252 trillion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$138.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$138.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$781.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$758.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$88.27 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$87.44 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$770.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$720.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$59.84 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$57.77 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$79.18 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$787.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$992.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.117 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate0% (2016)
0.05% (2015)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
0.05% (10 September 2014)
0.25% (13 November 2013)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
Commercial bank prime lending rate4.1% (31 December 2016 est.)
4.49% (31 December 2015 est.)
2.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.74% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$321.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$326.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.135 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.279 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$87.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$72.29 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
$827.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$745 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
Stock of broad money$296.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$316.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.257 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.369 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues42.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
36.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
-4.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 34.8%
male: 34.2%
female: 35.4% (2014 est.)
total: 53.2%
male: 53.4%
female: 52.9% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 66.3%
government consumption: 18.1%
investment in fixed capital: 14.7%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 39.9%
imports of goods and services: -38.9% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 57.2%
government consumption: 19%
investment in fixed capital: 20.8%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 32.2%
imports of goods and services: -29.3% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving15% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
15.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
22.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
22.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
20.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

PortugalSpain
Electricity - production50 billion kWh (2014 est.)
264 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption46 billion kWh (2014 est.)
234 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports6.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
16 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports7.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
12 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
4,652 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports308,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
1.349 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports912.3 bbl/day (2015 est.)
54,230 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
150 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
2.548 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2014 est.)
24 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption4.079 billion cu m (2014 est.)
27.23 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2014 est.)
8.219 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports4.07 billion cu m (2014 est.)
36.38 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity19 million kW (2014 est.)
102.3 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels38.7% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
43% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants30% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
19.6% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
7.7% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources30.7% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
30% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production320,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
1.352 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption244,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
1.241 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports138,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
416,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports60,010 bbl/day (2015 est.)
302,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy43.98 million Mt (2014 est.)
276 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

PortugalSpain
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 4,682,997
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 43 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 19,180,192
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 40 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 11.715 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 108 (July 2015 est.)
total: 50.926 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: Portugal's telephone system has a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities
domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations
international: country code - 351; a combination of submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, North and East Africa, South Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores (2015)
general assessment: well-developed, modern facilities
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 145 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 34; submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Middle East, Asia, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries (2015)
Internet country code.pt
.es
Internet userstotal: 7.43 million
percent of population: 68.6% (July 2015 est.)
total: 37.886 million
percent of population: 78.7% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediaRadio e Televisao de Portugal (RTP), the publicly owned TV broadcaster, operates 4 domestic channels and external service channels to Africa; overall, roughly 40 domestic TV stations; viewers have widespread access to international broadcasters with more than half of all households connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems; publicly owned radio operates 3 national networks and provides regional and external services; several privately owned national radio stations and some 300 regional and local commercial radio stations (2014)
a mixture of both publicly operated and privately owned TV and radio stations; overall, hundreds of TV channels are available including national, regional, local, public, and international channels; satellite and cable TV systems available; multiple national radio networks, a large number of regional radio networks, and a larger number of local radio stations; overall, hundreds of radio stations (2008)

Transportation

PortugalSpain
Railwaystotal: 3,075.1 km
broad gauge: 2,439 km 1.668-m gauge (1,633.4 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 108.1 km 1.000-m gauge
other: 528 km (gauge unspecified) (2014)
total: 16,101.5 km
broad gauge: 11,873 km 1.668-m gauge (6,488 km electrified)
standard gauge: 2,312 km 1.435-m gauge (2,312 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,884.9 km 1.000-m gauge (807 km electrified); 28 km 0.914-m gauge (28 km electrified); 3.6 km 0.600-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 82,900 km
paved: 71,294 km (includes 2,613 km of expressways)
unpaved: 11,606 km (2008)
total: 683,175 km
paved: 683,175 km (includes 16,205 km of expressways) (2011)
Waterways210 km (on Douro River from Porto) (2011)
1,000 km (2012)
Pipelinesgas 1,344 km; oil 11 km; refined products 188 km (2013)
gas 10,481 km; oil 616 km; refined products 3,461 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Leixoes, Lisbon, Setubal, Sines
LNG terminal(s) (import): Sines
major seaport(s): Algeciras, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cartagena, Huelva, Tarragona, Valencia (all in Spain); Las Palmas, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (in the Canary Islands)
container port(s) (TEUs): Algeciras (3,608,301), Barcelona (2,033,747), Valencia (4,327,371); Las Palmas (1,287,389)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Barcelona, Bilbao, Cartagena, Huelva, Mugardos, Sagunto
Merchant marinetotal: 109
by type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 35, carrier 1, chemical tanker 21, container 7, liquefied gas 6, passenger 13, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 9
foreign-owned: 81 (Belgium 8, Colombia 1, Denmark 4, Germany 14, Greece 2, Italy 12, Japan 9, Mexico 1, Norway 2, Spain 18, Sweden 3, Switzerland 3, US 4)
registered in other countries: 15 (Cyprus 2, Malta 3, Panama 10) (2010)
total: 132
by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 19, chemical tanker 8, container 5, liquefied gas 12, passenger/cargo 43, petroleum tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 9, vehicle carrier 7
foreign-owned: 27 (Canada 4, Germany 4, Italy 1, Mexico 1, Norway 10, Russia 6, Switzerland 1)
registered in other countries: 103 (Angola 1, Argentina 3, Bahamas 6, Brazil 12, Cabo Verde 1, Cyprus 6, Ireland 1, Malta 8, Morocco 9, Panama 30, Peru 1, Portugal 18, Uruguay 5, Venezuela 1, unknown 1) (2010)
Airports64 (2013)
150 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 43
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 8 (2013)
total: 99
over 3,047 m: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 24
under 914 m: 24 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 21
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 20 (2013)
total: 51
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 36 (2013)

Military

PortugalSpain
Military branchesPortuguese Army (Exercito Portuguesa), Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa; includes Marine Corps), Portuguese Air Force (Forca Aerea Portuguesa, FAP) (2013)
Spanish Armed Forces: Army (Ejercito de Tierra), Spanish Navy (Armada Espanola, AE, includes Marine Corps), Spanish Air Force (Ejercito del Aire Espanola, EdA) (2013)
Military service age and obligation18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service, but conscription possible if insufficient volunteers available; women serve in the armed forces, on naval ships since 1993, but are prohibited from serving in some combatant specialties; reserve obligation to age 35 (2012)
18-26 years of age for voluntary military service by a Spanish citizen or legal immigrant, 2-3 year obligation; women allowed to serve in all SAF branches, including combat units; no conscription, but Spanish Government retains right to mobilize citizens 19-25 years of age in a national emergency; mandatory retirement of non-NCO enlisted personnel at age 45 or 58, depending on service length (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.85% of GDP (2015)
1.79% of GDP (2014)
2.09% of GDP (2013)
1.91% of GDP (2012)
2% of GDP (2011)
0.91% of GDP (2017)
1.18% of GDP (2015)
1.23% of GDP (2014)
1.26% of GDP (2013)
1.41% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

PortugalSpain
Disputes - internationalPortugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz
"in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any ""shared sovereignty"" arrangement; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; after voters in the UK chose to leave the EU in a June 2016 referendum, Spain again proposed shared sovereignty of Gibraltar; UK officials rejected Spain’s joint sovereignty proposal; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); Morocco serves as the primary launching site of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz
"
Illicit drugsseizing record amounts of Latin American cocaine destined for Europe; a European gateway for Southwest Asian heroin; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin
despite rigorous law enforcement efforts, North African, Latin American, Galician, and other European traffickers take advantage of Spain's long coastline to land large shipments of cocaine and hashish for distribution to the European market; consumer for Latin American cocaine and North African hashish; destination and minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin; money-laundering site for Colombian narcotics trafficking organizations and organized crime
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 14 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 8,205 (Afghanistan) (2016)
stateless persons: 1,011 (2016)
note: 24,118 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015 - June 2017)

Source: CIA Factbook