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Poland vs. Slovakia

Introduction

PolandSlovakia
Background"Poland's history as a state began near the middle of the 10th century. By the mid-16th century, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth ruled a vast tract of land in Central and Eastern Europe. During the 18th century, internal disorders weakened the nation, and in a series of agreements between 1772 and 1795, Russia, Prussia, and Austria partitioned Poland among themselves. Poland regained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite state following the war, but its government was comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union ""Solidarity"" that over time became a political force with over 10 million members. Free elections in 1989 and 1990 won Solidarity control of the parliament and the presidency, bringing the communist era to a close. A ""shock therapy"" program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe. Poland joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. With its transformation to a democratic, market-oriented country largely completed and with large investments in defense, energy, and other infrastructure, Poland is an increasingly active member of Euro-Atlantic organizations.
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"Slovakia traces its roots to the 9th century state of Great Moravia. Subsequently, the Slovaks became part of the Hungarian Kingdom, where they remained for the next 1,000 years. Following the formation of the dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1867, language and education policies favoring the use of Hungarian (Magyarization) resulted in a strengthening of Slovak nationalism and a cultivation of cultural ties with the closely related Czechs, who were under Austrian rule. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I, the Slovaks joined the Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar period, Slovak nationalist leaders pushed for autonomy within Czechoslovakia, and in 1939 Slovakia became an independent state allied with Nazi Germany. Following World War II, Czechoslovakia was reconstituted and came under communist rule within Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize communist rule and create ""socialism with a human face,"" ushering in a period of repression known as ""normalization."" The peaceful ""Velvet Revolution"" swept the Communist Party from power at the end of 1989 and inaugurated a return to democratic rule and a market economy. On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a nonviolent ""velvet divorce"" into its two national components, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Slovakia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004 and the euro zone on 1 January 2009.
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Geography

PolandSlovakia
LocationCentral Europe, east of Germany
Central Europe, south of Poland
Geographic coordinates52 00 N, 20 00 E
48 40 N, 19 30 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 312,685 sq km
land: 304,255 sq km
water: 8,430 sq km
total: 49,035 sq km
land: 48,105 sq km
water: 930 sq km
Area - comparativeabout twice the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than New Mexico
about one and a half times the size of Maryland; about twice the size of New Hampshire
Land boundariestotal: 3,071 km
border countries (7): Belarus 418 km, Czech Republic 796 km, Germany 467 km, Lithuania 104 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 210 km, Slovakia 541 km, Ukraine 535 km
total: 1,611 km
border countries (5): Austria 105 km, Czech Republic 241 km, Hungary 627 km, Poland 541 km, Ukraine 97 km
Coastline440 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: defined by international treaties
none (landlocked)
Climatetemperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers
temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrainmostly flat plain; mountains along southern border
rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 173 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: near Raczki Elblaskie -2 m
highest point: Rysy 2,499 m
mean elevation: 458 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m
highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m
Natural resourcescoal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt, amber, arable land
lignite, small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land
Land useagricultural land: 48.2%
arable land 36.2%; permanent crops 1.3%; permanent pasture 10.7%
forest: 30.6%
other: 21.2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 40.1%
arable land 28.9%; permanent crops 0.4%; permanent pasture 10.8%
forest: 40.2%
other: 19.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land970 sq km (2012)
869 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsflooding
NA
Environment - current issuesdecreased emphasis on heavy industry and increased environmental concern by post-communist governments has improved environment; air pollution remains serious because of emissions from coal-fired power plants and the resulting acid rain has caused forest damage; water pollution from industrial and municipal sources is also a problem, as is disposal of hazardous wastes
air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notehistorically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain
landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys
Population distributionpopulation concentrated in the southern (Krakow) and central (Warsaw, Lodz) areas, with an extension to the northern coastal city of Gdansk
a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country; slightly larger concentration in the west in proximity to the Czech border

Demographics

PolandSlovakia
Population38,523,261 (July 2016 est.)
5,445,802 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 14.72% (male 2,915,840/female 2,754,098)
15-24 years: 11.11% (male 2,195,587/female 2,082,634)
25-54 years: 43.5% (male 8,456,789/female 8,301,167)
55-64 years: 14.42% (male 2,623,838/female 2,931,215)
65 years and over: 16.26% (male 2,460,648/female 3,801,445) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 15.14% (male 422,797/female 401,718)
15-24 years: 11.32% (male 317,775/female 298,954)
25-54 years: 45.13% (male 1,241,212/female 1,216,596)
55-64 years: 13.52% (male 349,089/female 387,394)
65 years and over: 14.88% (male 312,042/female 498,225) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 40.3 years
male: 38.6 years
female: 42 years (2016 est.)
total: 40.1 years
male: 38.4 years
female: 41.9 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate-0.11% (2016 est.)
0.01% (2016 est.)
Birth rate9.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate10.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 4.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 77.6 years
male: 73.7 years
female: 81.7 years (2016 est.)
total population: 77.1 years
male: 73.5 years
female: 80.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.34 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.4 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.07% (2014 est.)
0.02% (2014 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Pole(s)
adjective: Polish
noun: Slovak(s)
adjective: Slovak
Ethnic groupsPolish 96.9%, Silesian 1.1%, German 0.2%, Ukrainian 0.1%, other and unspecified 1.7%
note: represents ethnicity declared first (2011 est.)
Slovak 80.7%, Hungarian 8.5%, Romani 2%, other and unspecified 8.8% (2011 est.)
note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 7–11% of Slovakia's population
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
NA
ReligionsCatholic 87.2% (includes Roman Catholic 86.9% and Greek Catholic, Armenian Catholic, and Byzantine-Slavic Catholic .3%), Orthodox 1.3% (almost all are Polish Autocephalous Orthodox), Protestant 0.4% (mainly Augsburg Evangelical and Pentacostal), other 0.4% (includes Jehovah's Witness, Buddhist, Hare Krishna, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Muslim, Jewish, Mormon), unspecified 10.8% (2012 est.)
Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 8.2%, Greek Catholic 3.8%, other or unspecified 12.5%, none 13.4% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
less than 100 (2014 est.)
LanguagesPolish (official) 98.2%, Silesian 1.4%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.3%
note: data represents the language spoken at home; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Poland ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in 2009 recognizing Kashub as a regional language, Czech, Hebrew, Yiddish, Belarusian, Lithuanian, German, Armenian, Russian, Slovak, and Ukrainian as national minority languages, and Karaim, Lemko, Romani (Polska Roma and Bergitka Roma), and Tatar as ethnic minority languages (2011 est.)
Slovak (official) 78.6%, Hungarian 9.4%, Roma 2.3%, Ruthenian 1%, other or unspecified 8.8% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2013)
total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 16 years (2014)
Education expenditures4.9% of GDP (2013)
4.1% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 60.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 53.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.31% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 99.3% of population
rural: 96.9% of population
total: 98.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.7% of population
rural: 3.1% of population
total: 1.7% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 96.7% of population
total: 97.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 3.3% of population
total: 2.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 98.2% of population
total: 98.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 1.8% of population
total: 1.2% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationWARSAW (capital) 1.722 million; Krakow 760,000 (2015)
BRATISLAVA (capital) 401,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate3 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
6 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures6.4% of GDP (2014)
8.1% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.27 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
3.39 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density6.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
6 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate27% (2014)
27.4% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth27.2 years (2013 est.)
27.4 years (2013 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 43.8
youth dependency ratio: 21.5
elderly dependency ratio: 22.3
potential support ratio: 4.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 40.8
youth dependency ratio: 21.3
elderly dependency ratio: 19.5
potential support ratio: 5.1 (2015 est.)

Government

PolandSlovakia
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Poland
conventional short form: Poland
local long form: Rzeczpospolita Polska
local short form: Polska
etymology: name derives from the Polanians, a west Slavic tribe that united several surrounding Slavic groups (9th-10th centuries A.D.) and who passed on their name to the country; the name of the tribe likely comes from the Slavic ""pole"" (field or plain), indicating the flat nature of their country
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"conventional long form: Slovak Republic
conventional short form: Slovakia
local long form: Slovenska republika
local short form: Slovensko
etymology: related to the Slavic autonym (self-designation) ""Slovenin,"" a derivation from ""slovo"" (word), denoting ""people who speak (the same language)"" (i.e., people who understand each other)
"
Government typeparliamentary republic
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Warsaw
geographic coordinates: 52 15 N, 21 00 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Bratislava
geographic coordinates: 48 09 N, 17 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC,. during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions16 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular - wojewodztwo); Dolnoslaskie (Lower Silesia), Kujawsko-Pomorskie (Kuyavia-Pomerania), Lodzkie (Lodz), Lubelskie (Lublin), Lubuskie (Lubusz), Malopolskie (Lesser Poland), Mazowieckie (Masovia), Opolskie (Opole), Podkarpackie (Subcarpathia), Podlaskie, Pomorskie (Pomerania), Slaskie (Silesia), Swietokrzyskie (Holy Cross), Warminsko-Mazurskie (Warmia-Masuria), Wielkopolskie (Greater Poland), Zachodniopomorskie (West Pomerania)
8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banskobystricky, Bratislavsky, Kosicky, Nitriansky, Presovsky, Trenciansky, Trnavsky, Zilinsky
Independence11 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 966 (adoption of Christianity, traditional founding date), 1 July 1569 (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created)
1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
National holidayConstitution Day, 3 May (1791)
Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1997, approved by referendum 25 May 1997, effective 17 October 1997
amendments: proposed by at least one-fifth of Sejm deputies, by the Senate, or by the president of the republic; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote in the Sejm and absolute majority vote in the Senate; amendments to articles relating to sovereignty, personal freedoms, and constitutional amendment procedures also require passage by majority vote in a referendum; amended 2006, 2009, 2015 (2016)
history: several previous (preindependence); latest passed by the National Council 1 September 1992, signed 3 September 1992, effective 1 October 1992
amendments: proposed by the National Council; passage requires at least three-fifths majority vote of Council members; amended many times, last in 2017 (2017)
Legal systemcivil law system; judicial review of legislative, administrative, and other governmental acts; constitutional law rulings of the Constitutional Tribunal are final
civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; note - legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Andrzej DUDA (since 6 August 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Beata SZYDLO (since 16 November 2015); Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Culture and National Heritage Piotr GLINSKI (since 16 November 2015), Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Science and Higher Education Jaroslaw GOWIN (since 16 November 2015), and Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Development Mateusz MORAWIECKI (since 16 November 2015)
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president, and approved by the Sejm
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 and 24 May 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister, deputy prime ministers, and Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the Sejm
election results: Andrzej DUDA elected president; percent of vote in runoff - Andrzej DUDA 51.5%, Bronislaw KOMOROWSKI (independent) 48.5%
chief of state: President Andrej KISKA (since 15 June 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Robert FICO (since 4 April 2012); Deputy Prime Ministers Robert KALINAK (since 4 April 2012), Lucia ZITNANSKA and Peter PELLEGRINI (since 23 March 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held in 2 rounds on 15 and 29 March 2014 (next to be held in March 2019); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Andrej KISKA elected president; percent of vote in second round - Andrej KISKA (independent) 59.4%, Robert FICO (Smer-SD) 40.6%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral legislature consists of the Senate or Senat (100 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms) and the Sejm (460 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); note - the designation National Assembly or Zgromadzenie Narodowe is only used on those rare occasions when the two houses meet jointly
note: the German minority is exempt from the 5% threshold requirement for seats to the Sejm
elections: Senate - last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in October 2019); Sejm - last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in October 2019)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PiS 62, PO 33, PSL 1, independents 4; Sejm - percent of vote by party - PiS 37.6%, PO 24.1%, K15 8.8%, N 7.6%, PSL 5.1% other 16.8%; seats by party - PiS 234, PO 138, K15 40, N 29, PSL 16, independent 2, German minority 1
description: unicameral National Council or Narodna Rada (150 seats; members directly elected in a single national constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 5 March 2016 (next to be held in March 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - Smer-SD 28.3%, SaS 12.1%, OLaNO-NOVA 11%, SNS 8.6%, LSNS 8%, Sme-Rodina 6.6%, Most-Hid 6.5%, Siet 5.6%, other 13.3%; seats by party - Smer-SD 49, SaS 21, OLaNO-NOVA 19, SNS 15, LSNS 14, Sme-Rodina 11, Most-Hid 11, Siet 10
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Sad Najwyzszy (consists of the president of the Supreme Court and 116 judges organized in criminal, civil, labor and social insurance, and military chambers)
judge selection and term of office: president of the Supreme Court nominated by the General Assembly of the Supreme Court and selected by the president of Poland; other judges nominated by the 25-member National Judiciary Council, and appointed by the president of Poland; judges appointed until retirement, usually at age 65, but tenure can be extended
subordinate courts: Constitutional Tribunal; State Tribunal, administrative courts; regional and appellate courts subdivided into military, civil, criminal, labor, and family courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic (consists of the court president, vice president, and 79 judges organized into criminal, civil, commercial, and administrative divisions with 3- and 5-judge panels); Constitutional Court (consists of 13 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judge candidates proposed by the Judicial Council of the Slovak Republic, an 18-member independent body to include the Supreme Court chief justice and presidential, governmental, parliamentary, and judiciary appointees; judges appointed by the president for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the National Council of the Republic and appointed by the president; judges appointed for 12-year terms
subordinate courts: regional and district civil courts; Higher Military Court; military district courts; Court of Audit
Political parties and leaders"Civic Platform or PO [Grzegorz SCHETYNA, chairperson; Slawomir NEUMANN, parliamentary caucus leader]
Coalition for the Renewal of the Republic-Liberty and Hope or KORWiN [Janusz KORWIN-MIKKE, chairman]
Democratic Left Alliance or SLD [Wlodzimierz CZARZASTY, chairman]
German Minority of Lower Silesia or MNSO [Ryszard GALLA, representative]
Kukiz 15 [Pawel KUKIZ; chairman, parliamentary caucus leader]
Law and Justice or PiS [Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI, chairman; Ryszard TERLECKI, parliamentary caucus leader]
Nowoczesna (""Modern"") or N [Ryszard PETRU; chairman, parliamentary caucus leader]
Polish People's Party or PSL [Wladyslaw KOSINIAK-KAMYSZ; chairman, parliamentary caucus leader]
Razem (Together) [no party chair, led by nine-member management board]
"
parties in the Parliament:
Direction-Social Democracy or Smer-SD [Robert FICO]
Bridge or Most-Hid [Bela BUGAR]
Freedom and Solidarity or SaS [Richard SULIK]
Network or Siet [Roman BRECELY]
Ordinary People and Independent Personalities - New Majority or OLaNO-NOVA [Igor MATOVIC]
People's Party - Our Slovakia or LS-NS [Marian KOTLEBA]
Slovak National Party or SNS [Andrej DANKO]
We Are Family or Sme-Rodina [Boris KOLLAR]

selected parties outside the Parliament:
Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Alojz HLINA]
Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Jozsef MENYHART]
Political pressure groups and leaders"All Poland Trade Union Alliance or OPZZ [Jan GUZ] (trade union)
Independent Self-Governing Trade Union ""Solidarity"" [Piotr DUDA]
Roman Catholic Church [Archbishop Wojciech POLAK, Archbishop Stanislaw GADECKI]
"
Alliance of Companies Employing 500 or More Employees or Klub500
Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS
Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ
Entrepreneurs Association of Slovakia or ZPS
Federation of Employers' Associations of the Slovak Republic or AZZZ
Medical Trade Association or LOZ
National Union of Employers or RUZ
Slovak Chamber of Commerce and Industry or SOPK
The Business Alliance of Slovakia or PAS
International organization participationArctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Piotr WILCZEK (since October 2016)
chancery: 2640 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 499-1700
FAX: [1] (202) 328-6271
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter KMEC (since 17 September 2012)
chancery: 3523 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 237-1054
FAX: [1] (202) 237-6438
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Paul JONES (since 7 October 2015)
embassy: Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31 00-540 Warsaw
mailing address: American Embassy Warsaw, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5010 (pouch)
telephone: [48] (22) 504-2000
FAX: [48] (22) 504-2688
consulate(s) general: Krakow
chief of mission: Ambassador Adam Sterling (since August 2016)
embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava
mailing address: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava
telephone: [421] (2) 5443-3338
FAX: [421] (2) 5441-8861
Flag descriptiontwo equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; colors derive from the Polish emblem - a white eagle on a red field
note: similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and white
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red derive from the Pan-Slav colors; the Slovakian coat of arms (consisting of a red shield bordered in white and bearing a white double-barred cross of St. Cyril and St. Methodius surmounting three blue hills) is centered over the bands but offset slightly to the hoist side
note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia
National anthem"name: ""Mazurek Dabrowskiego"" (Dabrowski's Mazurka)
lyrics/music: Jozef WYBICKI/traditional
note: adopted 1927; the anthem, commonly known as ""Jeszcze Polska nie zginela"" (Poland Has Not Yet Perished), was written in 1797; the lyrics resonate strongly with Poles because they reflect the numerous occasions in which the nation's lands have been occupied
"
"name: ""Nad Tatrou sa blyska"" (Lightning Over the Tatras)
lyrics/music: Janko MATUSKA/traditional
note: adopted 1993, in use since 1844; music based on the Slovak folk song ""Kopala studienku""
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International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)white eagle; national colors: white, red
double-barred cross (Cross of St. Cyril and St. Methodius) surmounting three peaks; national colors: white, blue, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Poland
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Slovakia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

PolandSlovakia
Economy - overviewPoland has the sixth-largest economy in the EU and has long had a reputation as a business-friendly country with largely sound macroeconomic policies. Since 1990, Poland has pursued a policy of economic liberalization. During the 2008-09 economic slowdown Poland was the only EU country to avoid a recession, in part because of the government’s loose fiscal policy combined with a commitment to rein in spending in the medium-term. However, since 2015 Warsaw’s prioritization of spending on social welfare programs has prompted investors to decrease Poland’s economic growth projections for the next few years.

The Polish economy performed well during 2014-16, with the real GDP growth rate exceeding 3%, in part because of the government’s fiscal prudence. Poland’s economic growth in 2017 is projected by some credit rating agencies to slow, however, because of Poland’s government’s increase in social spending since 2015, including the provision of cash transfers for low income families, families with more than one child, and the reduction of the retirement age which will take effect in October 2017. The government has tried to introduce new taxes and boost tax compliance to offset the costs of the social spending programs and relieve upward pressure on the budget deficit. Some credit ratings agencies estimate that Poland will exceed the EU’s 3%-of-GDP limit on budget deficits, possibly impacting its access to future EU funds.

Poland faces several systemic challenges, which include addressing some of the remaining deficiencies in its road and rail infrastructure, business environment, rigid labor code, commercial court system, government red tape, and burdensome tax system, especially for entrepreneurs. Additional long-term challenges include diversifying Poland’s energy mix, strengthening investments in innovation, research, and development, as well as stemming the outflow of educated young Poles to other EU member states, especially in light of a coming demographic contraction due to emigration, persistently low fertility rates, and the aging of the Solidarity-era baby boom generation.
Slovakia’s economy suffered from a slow start in the first years after its separation from the Czech Republic in 1993, due to the country’s authoritarian leadership and high levels of corruption, but economic reforms implemented after 1998 have placed Slovakia on a path of strong growth. With a population of 5.4 million, the Slovak Republic has a small, open economy driven mainly by automobile and electronics exports, which account for more than 80% of GDP. Slovakia joined the EU in 2004 and the euro zone in 2009. The country’s banking sector is sound and predominantly foreign owned.

Slovakia has been a regional FDI champion for several years, attractive due to a relatively low-cost yet skilled labor force, and a favorable geographic location in the heart of Central Europe. Among the most pressing domestic issues potentially threatening the attractiveness of the Slovak market are shortages in qualified labor force, persistent corruption issues, and an inadequate judiciary, as well as a lack of innovation. The energy sector in particular is characterized by unpredictable regulatory oversight and high costs, in part driven by government interference in regulated tariffs.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$1.052 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.02 trillion (2015 est.)
$984.4 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$168.8 billion (2016 est.)
$163.8 billion (2015 est.)
$157.8 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.1% (2016 est.)
3.7% (2015 est.)
3.3% (2014 est.)
3.3% (2016 est.)
3.8% (2015 est.)
2.5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$27,700 (2016 est.)
$26,800 (2015 est.)
$25,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$31,200 (2016 est.)
$30,200 (2015 est.)
$29,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 2.7%
industry: 38.5%
services: 58.9% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 3.6%
industry: 31.6%
services: 64.8% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line17.6% (2015 est.)
12.3% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 23.9% (2015 est.)
lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 19.3% (2015 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)-0.8% (2016 est.)
-1% (2015 est.)
-0.5% (2016 est.)
-0.3% (2015 est.)
Labor force17.78 million (2016 est.)
2.724 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 11.5%
industry: 30.4%
services: 57.6% (2015)
agriculture: 3.9%
industry: 22.7%
services: 73.4% (2015)
Unemployment rate9.6% (2016 est.)
10.5% (2015 est.)
8.8% (2016 est.)
10.6% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index30.8 (2015)
33.7 (2008)
23.7 (2015)
26.1 (2014)
Budgetrevenues: $73.4 billion
expenditures: $86.56 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $34.87 billion
expenditures: $37.04 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesmachine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles
automobiles; metal and metal products; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals, synthetic fibers, wood and paper products; machinery; earthenware and ceramics; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products; food and beverages; pharmaceutical
Industrial production growth rate4.2% (2016 est.)
4.3% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productspotatoes, fruits, vegetables, wheat; poultry, eggs, pork, dairy
grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products
Exports$188.3 billion (2016 est.)
$190.8 billion (2015 est.)
$74.35 billion (2016 est.)
$73.12 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesmachinery and transport equipment 37.8%, intermediate manufactured goods 23.7%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 17.1%, food and live animals 7.6% (2012 est.)
vehicles and related parts 27%, machinery and electrical equipment 20%, nuclear reactors and furnaces 12%, iron and steel 4%, mineral oils and fuels 5% (2015 est.)
Exports - partnersGermany 27.1%, UK 6.8%, Czech Republic 6.6%, France 5.5%, Italy 4.8%, Netherlands 4.4% (2015)
Germany 22.7%, Czech Republic 12.5%, Poland 8.5%, Austria 5.7%, Hungary 5.7%, France 5.6%, UK 5.5%, Italy 4.5% (2015)
Imports$189.5 billion (2016 est.)
$188.4 billion (2015 est.)
$71.47 billion (2016 est.)
$71.09 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and transport equipment 38%, intermediate manufactured goods 21%, chemicals 15%, minerals, fuels, lubricants, and related materials 9% (2011 est.)
machinery and electrical equipment 20%, vehicles and related parts 14%, nuclear reactors and furnaces 12%, fuel and mineral oils 9% (2015 est.)
Imports - partnersGermany 27.6%, China 7.5%, Russia 7.2%, Netherlands 5.9%, Italy 5.2%, France 4.1% (2015)
Germany 19.4%, Czech Republic 17.4%, Austria 9.1%, Hungary 6.3%, Poland 6.3%, South Korea 5.5%, Russia 5.2%, China 4.1% (2015)
Debt - external$344.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$332.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$75.04 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$74.19 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
Exchange rateszlotych (PLN) per US dollar -
4.056 (2016 est.)
3.7721 (2015 est.)
3.7721 (2014 est.)
3.1538 (2013 est.)
3.26 (2012 est.)
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt44.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
45% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities, the data include subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
52.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
52.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general Government Gross Debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by Government entities, including sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government, and social security funds
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$90.21 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$94.91 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.657 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.892 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$1.395 billion (2016 est.)
-$2.932 billion (2015 est.)
$318 million (2016 est.)
$186 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$467.4 billion (2016 est.)
$90.26 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$228.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$221.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$59.81 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$56.31 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$64.62 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$62.12 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$12.11 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$10.71 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$261.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$277.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$351.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$4.492 billion (30 November 2016 est.)
$4.634 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.732 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate1.5% (31 December 2016)
2% (31 December 2015)
0% (31 December 2016 est.)
0.05% (31 December 2015 est.)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks from the euro area; Slovakia became a member of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) on 1 January 2009
Commercial bank prime lending rate5.1% (31 December 2016 est.)
4.92% (31 December 2015 est.)
2.7% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.78% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$344.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$337.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$66.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$67.67 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$186.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$177.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$42.43 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$43 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
Stock of broad money$306.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$318.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$58.76 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$58.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues15.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
38.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
-2.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 23.9%
male: 22.7%
female: 25.5% (2014 est.)
total: 29.7%
male: 29.5%
female: 30.1% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 57.4%
government consumption: 17.8%
investment in fixed capital: 19.8%
investment in inventories: 0.8%
exports of goods and services: 50.5%
imports of goods and services: -46.3% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 55.9%
government consumption: 18.9%
investment in fixed capital: 22.2%
investment in inventories: -0.2%
exports of goods and services: 94.8%
imports of goods and services: -91.6% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving20.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
18.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
21.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
21.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

PolandSlovakia
Electricity - production150 billion kWh (2014 est.)
27.19 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption142 billion kWh (2014 est.)
29.55 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports11 billion kWh (2014)
12.61 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports14 billion kWh (2014 est.)
14.97 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production17,140 bbl/day (2015 est.)
200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports532,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
119,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports4,761 bbl/day (2015 est.)
501.5 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves100 million bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
9 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves81.66 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production3.954 billion cu m (2015 est.)
86 million cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption14.79 billion cu m (2015 est.)
4.8 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports76 million cu m (2014 est.)
3 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports11.82 billion cu m (2014 est.)
4.704 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity40.34 million kW (2015 est.)
8.095 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels87.1% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
33.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants1.7% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
31.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
24% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources11.1% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
11.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production568,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
142,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption536,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
82,620 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports160,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)
83,390 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports128,800 bbl/day (2015 est.)
28,870 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy296 million Mt (2015 est.)
31.1 million Mt (2015 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

PolandSlovakia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 4.245 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 11 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 866,630
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 56.838 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 147 (July 2015 est.)
total: 6.676 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 123 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: modernization of the telecommunications network has accelerated with market-based competition; fixed-line service, dominated by the former state-owned company, is dwarfed by the growth in mobile-cellular services
domestic: several nation-wide networks provide mobile-cellular service; coverage is generally good; fixed-line service lags in rural areas
international: country code - 48; international direct dialing with automated exchanges; satellite earth station - 1 with access to Intelsat, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik (2015)
general assessment: a modern telecommunications system that has expanded dramatically in recent years with the growth of cellular services
domestic: analog system is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; 4 companies provide nationwide cellular services
international: country code - 421; 3 international exchanges (1 in Bratislava and 2 in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services (2017)
Internet country code.pl
.sk
Internet userstotal: 26.221 million
percent of population: 68% (July 2015 est.)
total: 4.629 million
percent of population: 85% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-run public TV operates 2 national channels supplemented by 16 regional channels and several niche channels; privately owned entities operate several national TV networks and a number of special interest channels; many privately owned channels broadcasting locally; roughly half of all households are linked to either satellite or cable TV systems providing access to foreign television networks; state-run public radio operates 5 national networks and 17 regional radio stations; 2 privately owned national radio networks, several commercial stations broadcasting to multiple cities, and many privately owned local radio stations (2007)
state-owned public broadcaster, Radio and Television of Slovakia (RTVS), operates 2 national TV stations and multiple national and regional radio networks; roughly 50 privately owned TV stations operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 40% of households are connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV; 32 privately owned radio stations (2016)

Transportation

PolandSlovakia
Railwaystotal: 19,231 km
broad gauge: 395 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 18,836 km 1.435-m gauge (11,865 km electrified) (2015)
total: 3,626 km
broad gauge: 99 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 3,477 km 1.435-m gauge (1,587 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 50 km 1.000-m or 0.750-m gauge (2016)
Roadwaystotal: 417,026 km
paved: 287,650 km (includes 1,492 km of expressways)
unpaved: 129,376 km (2014)
total: 54,869 km (includes local roads, national roads, and 420 km of highways) (2012)
Waterways3,997 km (navigable rivers and canals) (2009)
172 km (on Danube River) (2012)
Pipelinesgas 14,198 km; oil 1,374 km; refined products 777 km (2013)
gas transmission pipelines 2,270 km; high-pressure gas distribution pipelines 6,278 km; mid- and low-pressure gas distribution pipelines 27,023 km (2016); oil 510 km (2015)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Gdansk, Gdynia, Swinoujscie
river port(s): Szczecin (River Oder)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Swinoujscie
river port(s): Bratislava, Komarno (Danube)
Merchant marinetotal: 9
by type: cargo 7, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 1
registered in other countries: 106 (Antigua and Barbuda 2, Bahamas 34, Cyprus 24, Liberia 13, Malta 21, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Vanuatu 9) (2010)
total: 11
by type: cargo 9, refrigerated cargo 2
foreign-owned: 11 (Germany 3, Ireland 1, Italy 2, Montenegro 1, Slovenia 1, Turkey 1, Ukraine 2) (2010)
Airports126 (2013)
35 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 87
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 30
1,524 to 2,437 m: 36
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 6 (2013)
total: 21
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 11 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 39
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 21 (2013)
total: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Heliports6 (2013)
1 (2013)

Military

PolandSlovakia
Military branchesPolish Armed Forces: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Special Forces, Territorial Defense Force (2017)
note: Territorial Defense Force only began recruitment in winter 2016
Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic (Ozbrojene Sily Slovenskej Republiky): Land Forces (Pozemne Sily), Air Forces (Vzdusne Sily) (2010)
Military service age and obligation18-28 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; conscription phased out in 2009-12; service obligation shortened from 12 to 9 months in 2005; women only allowed to serve as officers and noncommissioned officers (2013)
18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription in peacetime suspended in 2006; women are eligible to serve (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP2% of GDP (2016 est.)
2.23% of GDP (2015)
1.85% of GDP (2014)
1.72% of GDP (2013)
1.74% of GDP (2012)
1.16% of GDP (2016)
1.15% of GDP (2015)
1.01% of GDP (2014)
1% of GDP (2013)
1.2% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

PolandSlovakia
Disputes - internationalas a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Poland has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to restrict illegal immigration and trade along its eastern borders with Belarus and Ukraine
bilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continued between Slovakia and Hungary over Hungary's completion of its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovakia has implemented strict Schengen border rules
Illicit drugsdespite diligent counternarcotics measures and international information sharing on cross-border crimes, a major illicit producer of synthetic drugs for the international market; minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and Latin American cocaine to Western Europe
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for regional market; consumer of ecstasy
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 71,302 applicants for forms of legal stay other than asylum (Ukraine) (2015); 9,864 (Russia) (2016)
stateless persons: 10,825 (2016)
stateless persons: 1,523 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook