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Peru vs. Colombia

Introduction

PeruColombia
BackgroundAncient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peru declared its independence in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces were defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his resignation in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw a new election in the spring of 2001, which installed Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of indigenous ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, oversaw a robust economic rebound. Former army officer Ollanta HUMALA Tasso was elected president in June 2011, and carried on the sound, market-oriented economic policies of the three preceding administrations. Poverty and unemployment levels have fallen dramatically in the last decade, and today Peru boasts one of the best performing economies in Latin America. Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard won a very narrow presidential runoff election in June 2016.
Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged after the dissolution of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others are Ecuador and Venezuela). A decades-long conflict between government forces and antigovernment insurgent groups, principally the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) heavily funded by the drug trade, escalated during the 1990s. More than 31,000 former paramilitaries demobilized by the end of 2006 and the United Self Defense Forces of Colombia as a formal organization ceased to operate. In the wake of the paramilitary demobilization, organized criminal groups arose, whose members include some former paramilitaries. After four years of formal peace negotiations, the Colombian Government signed a revised final peace accord with the FARC in November 2016, which was subsequently ratified by the Colombian Congress. The accord calls for members of the FARC to demobilize, disarm, and reincorporate into society and politics, and it creates an alternative system for transitional justice that includes a “Special Jurisdiction for Peace” to address accountability for conflict-related crimes and established truth-telling mechanisms. The Colombian Government has stepped up efforts to reassert government control throughout the country, and now has a presence in every one of its administrative departments. Despite decades of internal conflict and drug related security challenges, Colombia maintains relatively strong democratic institutions characterized by peaceful, transparent elections and the protection of civil liberties.

Geography

PeruColombia
LocationWestern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador
Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama
Geographic coordinates10 00 S, 76 00 W
4 00 N, 72 00 W
Map referencesSouth America
South America
Areatotal: 1,285,216 sq km
land: 1,279,996 sq km
water: 5,220 sq km
total: 1,138,910 sq km
land: 1,038,700 sq km
water: 100,210 sq km
note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, and Serrana Bank
Area - comparativealmost twice the size of Texas; slightly smaller than Alaska
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 7,062 km
border countries (5): Bolivia 1,212 km, Brazil 2,659 km, Chile 168 km, Colombia 1,494 km, Ecuador 1,529 km
total: 6,672 km
border countries (5): Brazil 1,790 km, Ecuador 708 km, Panama 339 km, Peru 1,494 km, Venezuela 2,341 km
Coastline2,414 km
3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatevaries from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
Terrainwestern coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains (Llanos)
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,555 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
mean elevation: 593 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m
note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also has the same elevation
Natural resourcescopper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 18.8%
arable land 3.1%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 14.6%
forest: 53%
other: 28.2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 37.5%
arable land 1.4%; permanent crops 1.6%; permanent pasture 34.5%
forest: 54.4%
other: 8.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land25,800 sq km (2012)
10,900 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsearthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains; Ubinas (elev. 5,672 m), which last erupted in 2009, is the country's most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes include El Misti, Huaynaputina, Sabancaya, and Yucamane
highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts
volcanism: Galeras (elev. 4,276 m) is one of Colombia's most active volcanoes, having erupted in 2009 and 2010 causing major evacuations; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Nevado del Ruiz (elev. 5,321 m), 129 km (80 mi) west of Bogota, erupted in 1985 producing lahars (mudflows) that killed 23,000 people; the volcano last erupted in 1991; additionally, after 500 years of dormancy, Nevado del Huila reawakened in 2007 and has experienced frequent eruptions since then; other historically active volcanoes include Cumbal, Dona Juana, Nevado del Tolima, and Purace
Environment - current issuesdeforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
deforestation; soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - noteshares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River
only South American country with coastlines on both the North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea
Population distributionapproximately one-third of the population resides along the desert coastal belt in the west, with a strong focus on the capital city of Lima; the Andean highlands, or sierra, which is strongly identified with the country's Amerindian population, contains roughly half of the overall population; the eastern slopes of the Andes, and adjoining rainforest, are sparsely populated
the majority of people live in the north and west where agricultural opportunities and natural resources are found; the vast grasslands of the llanos to the south and east, which make up approximately 60% of the country, are sparsely populated

Demographics

PeruColombia
Population30,741,062 (July 2016 est.)
47,220,856 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 26.62% (male 4,164,681/female 4,019,436)
15-24 years: 18.63% (male 2,868,743/female 2,859,476)
25-54 years: 39.91% (male 5,892,065/female 6,377,681)
55-64 years: 7.62% (male 1,135,938/female 1,205,579)
65 years and over: 7.21% (male 1,049,409/female 1,168,054) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 24.57% (male 5,940,903/female 5,659,594)
15-24 years: 17.54% (male 4,216,437/female 4,066,079)
25-54 years: 41.82% (male 9,788,057/female 9,958,982)
55-64 years: 8.9% (male 1,973,215/female 2,230,609)
65 years and over: 7.17% (male 1,412,209/female 1,974,771) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 27.7 years
male: 26.9 years
female: 28.4 years (2016 est.)
total: 29.6 years
male: 28.7 years
female: 30.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.96% (2016 est.)
1.02% (2016 est.)
Birth rate18 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
16.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
5.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-2.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 19 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 14.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 17.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 73.7 years
male: 71.7 years
female: 75.9 years (2016 est.)
total population: 75.7 years
male: 72.6 years
female: 79 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.15 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.02 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.33% (2015 est.)
0.48% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian
noun: Colombian(s)
adjective: Colombian
Ethnic groupsAmerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
mestizo and white 84.2%, Afro-Colombian (includes mulatto, Raizal, and Palenquero) 10.4%, Amerindian 3.4%, Romani <.01, unspecified 2.1% (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS66,200 (2015 est.)
146,000 (2015 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 81.3%, Evangelical 12.5%, other 3.3%, none 2.9% (2007 est.)
Catholic 79%, Protestant 14% (includes Pentecostal 6%, mainline Protestant 2%, other 6%), other 2%, unspecified 5% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths1,600 (2015 est.)
2,300 (2015 est.)
LanguagesSpanish (official) 84.1%, Quechua (official) 13%, Aymara (official) 1.7%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.7%, other (includes foreign languages and sign language) 0.2% (2007 est.)
Spanish (official)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.5%
male: 97.3%
female: 91.7% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.7%
male: 94.6%
female: 94.8% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever, malaria, and Bartonellosis (Oroya fever)
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2010)
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2015)
Education expenditures3.9% of GDP (2015)
4.5% of GDP (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 78.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.69% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 76.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.66% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 91.4% of population
rural: 69.2% of population
total: 86.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 8.6% of population
rural: 30.8% of population
total: 13.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 96.8% of population
rural: 73.8% of population
total: 91.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.2% of population
rural: 26.2% of population
total: 8.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 82.5% of population
rural: 53.2% of population
total: 76.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 17.5% of population
rural: 46.8% of population
total: 23.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 85.2% of population
rural: 67.9% of population
total: 81.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 14.8% of population
rural: 32.1% of population
total: 18.9% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationLIMA (capital) 9.897 million; Arequipa 850,000; Trujillo 798,000 (2015)
BOGOTA (capital) 9.765 million; Medellin 3.911 million; Cali 2.646 million; Barranquilla 1.991 million; Bucaramanga 1.215 million; Cartagena 1.092 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate68 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
64 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight3.1% (2014)
3.4% (2010)
Health expenditures5.5% of GDP (2014)
7.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.12 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
1.57 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density1.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
1.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate20.4% (2014)
20.7% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 2,545,855
percentage: 34%
note: data represents children ages 5-17 (2007 est.)
total number: 988,362
percentage: 9%
note: data represent children ages 5-17 (2009 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth22.2 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)
21.4 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
Demographic profilePeru's urban and coastal communities have benefited much more from recent economic growth than rural, Afro-Peruvian, indigenous, and poor populations of the Amazon and mountain regions. The poverty rate has dropped substantially during the last decade but remains stubbornly high at about 30% (more than 55% in rural areas). After remaining almost static for about a decade, Peru's malnutrition rate began falling in 2005, when the government introduced a coordinated strategy focusing on hygiene, sanitation, and clean water. School enrollment has improved, but achievement scores reflect ongoing problems with educational quality. Many poor children temporarily or permanently drop out of school to help support their families. About a quarter to a third of Peruvian children aged 6 to 14 work, often putting in long hours at hazardous mining or construction sites.
Peru was a country of immigration in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but has become a country of emigration in the last few decades. Beginning in the 19th century, Peru brought in Asian contract laborers mainly to work on coastal plantations. Populations of Chinese and Japanese descent - among the largest in Latin America - are economically and culturally influential in Peru today. Peruvian emigration began rising in the 1980s due to an economic crisis and a violent internal conflict, but outflows have stabilized in the last few years as economic conditions have improved. Nonetheless, more than 2 million Peruvians have emigrated in the last decade, principally to the US, Spain, and Argentina.
Colombia is in the midst of a demographic transition resulting from steady declines in its fertility, mortality, and population growth rates. The birth rate has fallen from more than 6 children per woman in the 1960s to just above replacement level today as a result of increased literacy, family planning services, and urbanization. However, income inequality is among the worst in the world, and more than a third of the population lives below the poverty line.
Colombia experiences significant legal and illegal economic emigration and refugee flows. Large-scale labor emigration dates to the 1960s; Venezuela and the United States continue to be the main host countries. Colombia is the largest source of Latin American refugees in Latin America, nearly 400,000 of whom live primarily in Venezuela and Ecuador. Forced displacement remains prevalent because of violence among guerrillas, paramilitary groups, and Colombian security forces. Afro-Colombian and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. As of February 2017, an estimated 7.4 million persons have been internally displaced since 1985, the highest amount in the world. These estimates may undercount actual numbers because not all internally displaced persons are registered. Historically, Colombia also has one of the world's highest levels of forced disappearances. About 30,000 cases have been recorded over the last four decades - although the number is likely to be much higher - including human rights activists, trade unionists, Afro-Colombians, indigenous people, and farmers in rural conflict zones.
Forced displacement continues to be prevalent because of violence among guerrillas, paramilitary groups, and Colombian security forces. Afro-Colombian and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Even with the Colombian Government’s December 2016 peace agreement with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the risk of displacement remains as other rebel groups fill the void left by the FARC. As of February 2017, an estimated 7.4 million persons have been internally displaced since 1985, the highest total in the world. These estimates may undercount actual numbers because many internally displaced persons are not registered. Historically, Colombia also has one of the world’s highest levels of forced disappearances. About 30,000 cases have been recorded over the last four decades—although the number is likely to be much higher—including human rights activists, trade unionists, Afro-Colombians, indigenous people, and farmers in rural conflict zones.
Because of political violence and economic problems, Colombia received limited numbers of immigrants during the 19th and 20th centuries, mostly from the Middle East, Europe, and Japan. More recently, growth in the oil, mining, and manufacturing sectors has attracted increased labor migration; the primary source countries are Venezuela, the US, Mexico, and Argentina. Colombia has also become a transit area for illegal migrants from Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean who are en route to the US or Canada.
Contraceptive prevalence rate74.6% (2014)
79.1% (2009/10)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 53.2
youth dependency ratio: 42.7
elderly dependency ratio: 10.5
potential support ratio: 9.6 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 45.6
youth dependency ratio: 35.4
elderly dependency ratio: 10.2
potential support ratio: 9.8 (2015 est.)

Government

PeruColombia
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru
etymology: exact meaning is obscure, but the name may derive from a native word ""biru"" meaning ""river""
"
conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
conventional short form: Colombia
local long form: Republica de Colombia
local short form: Colombia
etymology: the country is named after explorer Christopher COLUMBUS
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Lima
geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Bogota
geographic coordinates: 4 36 N, 74 05 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
note: Callao, the largest port in Peru, is also referred to as a constitutional province, the only province of the Callao region
32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, Archipielago de San Andres, Providencia y Santa Catalina (colloquially San Andres y Providencia), Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada
Independence28 July 1821 (from Spain)
20 July 1810 (from Spain)
National holidayIndependence Day, 28-29 July (1821)
Independence Day, 20 July (1810)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest promulgated 29 December 1993, enacted 31 December 1993; amended several times, last in 2015 (2016)
several previous; latest promulgated 5 July 1991; amended many times, last in 2015 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system
civil law system influenced by the Spanish and French civil codes
Suffrage18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (since 28 July 2016); First Vice President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA Cornejo (since 28 July 2016); Second Vice President Mercedes Rosalba ARAOZ Fernandez (since 28 July 2016); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (since 28 July 2016); First Vice President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA Cornejo (since 28 July 2016); Second Vice President Mercedes Rosalba ARAOZ Fernandez (since 28 July 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 10 April 2016 with runoff on 5 June 2016 (next to be held in April 2021)
election results: Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard elected president; first round election results from 10 April 2016: percent of vote - Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi 39.85%, Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard 21%, Veronika MENDOZA 18.82%, Alfredo BARNECHEA 6.97%, Alan GARCIA 5.82%; second round election results from 5 June 2016: percent of vote - Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (Peruanos Por el Kambio) 50.1%, Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi (Fuerza Popular) 49.9%
note: Prime Minister Fernando ZAVALA Lombardi (since 28 July 2016) does not exercise executive power; this power rests with the president
chief of state: President Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon (since 7 August 2010); Vice President Ret. Gen. Oscar Adolfo NARANJO Trujillo (since 30 March 2017); note - Vice President German VARGAS Lleras' resignation on 15 March 2017 became effective on 21 March 2017, the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon (since 7 August 2010); Vice President Ret. Gen. Oscar Adolfo NARANJO Trujillo (since 30 March 2017)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term; election last held on 25 May 2014 with a runoff held on 15 June 2014 (next to be held on 27 May 2018); note - recent political reform eliminated presidential reelection; beginning in 2018, presidents can only serve one 4-year term
election results: Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon reelected president in runoff; percent of vote - Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon (U Party) 51.0%, Oscar Ivan ZULUAGA (CD) 45.0%, other 4.0%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (130 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed party list proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 10 April 2016 with run-off election on 6 June 2016 (next to be held in April 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - Fuerza Popular 36.34%, PPK 16.47%, Frente Amplio 13.94%, APP 9.23%; APRA 8.31%; AP 7.20%, other 8.51%; seats by party - Fuerza Popular 71, PPK 20, Frente Amplio 20, APP 9; APRA 5; AP 5
description: bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Senate or Senado (102 seats; 100 members elected nationally - not by district or state - and two elected on a special ballot for indigenous communities to serve 4-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (166 seats; members elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 9 March 2014 (next to be held in March 2018); Chamber of Representatives - last held on 9 March 2014 (next to be held in March 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - U Party 21, CD 20, PC 18, PL 17, CR 9, PDA 5, Green Party 5, other 7; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PL 39, U Party 37, PC 27, CD 19, CR 16, Green Party 6, PDA 3, other 19
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 16 judges and divided into civil, criminal, and constitutional-social sectors)
judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the National Council of the Judiciary or National Judicial Council (a 7-member independent body), nominated by the president, and confirmed by the Congress (all appointments reviewed by the Council every 7 years); justices appointed for life or until age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Constitutional Guarantees; Superior Courts or Cortes Superiores; specialized civil, criminal, and mixed courts; 2 types of peace courts in which professional judges and selected members of the local communities preside
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of the Civil-Agrarian and Labor Chambers each with 7 judges, and the Penal Chamber with 9 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 magistrates); Council of State (consists of 31 members); Superior Judiciary Council (consists of 13 magistrates)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the Supreme Court members from candidates submitted by the Superior Judiciary Council; judges elected for individual 8-year terms; Constitutional Court magistrates - nominated by the president, by the Supreme Court, and elected by the Senate; judges elected for individual 8-year terms; Council of State members appointed by the State Council plenary from lists nominated by the Superior Judiciary Council
subordinate courts: Superior Tribunals (appellate courts for each of the judicial districts); regional courts; civil municipal courts; Superior Military Tribunal; first instance administrative courts
Political parties and leadersAlliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso) or APP [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]
Broad Front (Frente Amplio; also known as El Frente Amplio por Justicia, Vida y Libertad), a coalition of left-of-center parties including Nuevo Peru [Veronika Mendoza], Tierra y Libertad [Marco ARANA Zegarra], and Fuerza Social [Susana VILLARAN de la Puente]
Fuerza Popular (formerly Fuerza 2011) [Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi]
National Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional) or SN [Luis CASTANEDA Lossio]
Peru Posible or PP (a coalition of Accion Popular and Somos Peru) [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique]
Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Javier VELASQUEZ Quesquen] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA)
Peruvian Nationalist Party [Ollanta HUMALA]
Peruvians for Change (Peruanos Por el Kambio) or PPK [Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI]
Popular Action (Accion Popular) or AP [Mesias GUEVARA Amasifuen]
Popular Christian Party (Partido Popular Cristiano) or PPC [Lourdes FLORES Nano]
Alternative Democratic Pole or PDA [Clara LOPEZ]
Conservative Party or PC [David BARGUIL]
Democratic Center Party or CD [Alvaro URIBE Velez, Oscar Ivan ZULUAGA, Carlos HOLMES TRUJILLO, Ivan DUQUE]
Green Alliance [Jorge LONDONO, Antonio SANGUINO, Luis AVELLANEDA, Camilo ROMERO]
Liberal Party or PL [Horacio SERPA]
Citizens Option (Opcion Ciudadana) or OC (formerly known as the National Integration Party or PIN) [Angel ALIRIO Moreno]
Radical Change or CR [Carlos Fernando GALAN]
Social National Unity Party or U Party [Roy BARRERAS, Jose David NAME]
note: Colombia has eight major political parties, and numerous smaller movements
Political pressure groups and leadersGeneral Workers Confederation of Peru (Confederacion General de Trabajadores del Peru) or CGTP [Mario HUAMAN]
Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) or SL [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Victor QUISPE Palomino (top leader at-large)] (leftist guerrilla group)
Central Union of Workers or CUT
Colombian Confederation of Workers or CTC
General Confederation of Workers or CGT
National Liberation Army or ELN
International organization participationAPEC, BIS, CAN, CD, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
BCIE, BIS, CAN, Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CELAC, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-3, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Carlos Jose PAREJA Rios (since 16 September 2016)
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (NJ), San Francisco, Washington DC
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338
FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Newark (NJ), Orlando, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Boston, Chicago, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Brian A. NICHOLS (since 30 June 2014)
embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17 s/n, Surco, Lima 33
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000
telephone: [51] (1) 618-2000
FAX: [51] (1) 618-2397
chief of mission: Ambassador Kevin WHITAKER (since 11 June 2014)
embassy: Calle 24 Bis No. 48-50, Bogota, D.C.
mailing address: Carrera 45 No. 24B-27, Bogota, D.C.
telephone: [57] (1) 275-2000
FAX: [57] (1) 275-4600
Flag descriptionthree equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna (representing fauna), a cinchona tree (the source of quinine, signifying flora), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out coins (denoting mineral wealth); red recalls blood shed for independence, white symbolizes peace
three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; the flag retains the three main colors of the banner of Gran Colombia, the short-lived South American republic that broke up in 1830; various interpretations of the colors exist and include: yellow for the gold in Colombia's land, blue for the seas on its shores, and red for the blood spilled in attaining freedom; alternatively, the colors have been described as representing more elemental concepts such as sovereignty and justice (yellow), loyalty and vigilance (blue), and valor and generosity (red); or simply the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity
note: similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center
National anthem"name: ""Himno Nacional del Peru"" (National Anthem of Peru)
lyrics/music: Jose DE LA TORRE Ugarte/Jose Bernardo ALZEDO
note: adopted 1822; the song won a national anthem contest
"
"name: ""Himno Nacional de la Republica de Colombia"" (National Anthem of the Republic of Colombia)
lyrics/music: Rafael NUNEZ/Oreste SINDICI
note: adopted 1920; the anthem was created from an inspirational poem written by President Rafael NUNEZ
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)vicuna (a camelid related to the llama); national colors: red, white
Andean condor; national colors: yellow, blue, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: least one parent must be a citizen or permanent resident of Colombia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

PeruColombia
Economy - overviewPeru's economy reflects its varied topography - an arid lowland coastal region, the central high sierra of the Andes, and the dense forest of the Amazon. A wide range of important mineral resources are found in the mountainous and coastal areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. Peru is the world's second largest producer of silver and copper.

The Peruvian economy grew by an average of 5.6% per year from 2009-13 with a stable exchange rate and low inflation, which in 2013 was just below the upper limit of the Central Bank target range of 1% to 3%. This growth was due partly to high international prices for Peru's metals and minerals exports, which account for 55% of the country's total exports. Growth slipped from 2014 to 2016, due to weaker world prices for these resources. Despite Peru's strong macroeconomic performance, dependence on minerals and metals exports and imported foodstuffs makes the economy vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices.

Peru's rapid expansion coupled with cash transfers and other programs have helped to reduce the national poverty rate by over 35 percentage points since 2004, but inequality persists and continued to pose a challenge for the Ollanta HUMALA administration, which championed a policy of social inclusion and a more equitable distribution of income. Poor infrastructure hinders the spread of growth to Peru's non-coastal areas. The HUMALA administration passed several economic stimulus packages in 2014 to bolster growth, including reforms to environmental regulations in order to spur investment in Peru’s lucrative mining sector, a move that was opposed by some environmental groups. However, in 2015, mining investment fell as global commodity prices remained low and social conflicts plagued the sector.

Peru's free trade policy continued under the HUMALA administration; since 2006, Peru has signed trade deals with the US, Canada, Singapore, China, Korea, Mexico, Japan, the EU, the European Free Trade Association, Chile, Thailand, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, Honduras, concluded negotiations with Guatemala and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, and begun trade talks with El Salvador, India, and Turkey. Peru also has signed a trade pact with Chile, Colombia, and Mexico, called the Pacific Alliance, that seeks integration of services, capital, investment and movement of people. Since the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement entered into force in February 2009, total trade between Peru and the US has doubled. President Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI succeeded HUMALA in July 2016 and is focusing on economic reforms and free market policies aimed at boosting investment in Peru. Mining output increased significantly in 2016, which helped Peru attain one of the highest GDP growth rates in Latin America, and Peru should maintain strong growth in 2017. However, 2016 economic performance fell short of initial projections depressed by delays in infrastructure mega-projects and the start of a corruption scandal associated with a Brazilian firm, which have lowered 2017 growth estimates. Massive flooding in early 2017 may also be a drag on growth, offset somewhat by additional public spending aimed at recovery efforts.
Colombia’s economy benefits from free trade and sound fiscal policies but it has slowed in 2016 because of falling global oil prices, a strong dollar, and moderate inflation. Colombia heavily depends on energy and mining exports, making it vulnerable to a drop in commodity prices. Colombia is the world's fourth largest coal exporter, the world’s second largest coffee and cut flowers exporter, and Latin America’s fourth largest oil producer. Economic development is hampered by inadequate infrastructure, poverty, narcotrafficking, and an uncertain security situation.

Although real GDP growth averaged 4.7% for the past decade, growth fell to 2.0% in 2016. The El Ni?o weather pattern in early 2016 and a 40 day truckers strike caused food and energy prices to rise, with inflation spiking to a high of nearly 9% in July 2016. Declining oil prices have reduced government revenues. Colombia received about $1 billion in oil revenue in 2016, compared with $6 billion in 2014; oil accounts for 20% of government revenues. President Juan Manuel SANTOS signed into law a tax reform bill in December 2016 aimed at offsetting lost revenue from the drop in oil prices by decreasing corporate taxes to incentivize investment and by increasing the value added tax. The enactment of the tax reform bill was key to maintaining Colombia’s BBB investment-grade credit rating. Foreign investment has been hampered by Colombia’s struggle to address its fiscal problems. As of September 2016, FDI in Colombia had risen to $10.2 billion, up from $9.3 billion over the same period in 2015.

Colombia has signed or is negotiating Free Trade Agreements (FTA) with more than a dozen countries; the US-Colombia FTA went into force in May 2012. The US and Colombia have benefitted from the FTA, but Colombia’s ability to take full advantage of its enhanced access to American markets continues to be constrained by lack of export diversification. Nontariff measures remain a point of contention for bilateral trade relations. The Colombian government acted in 2016 to address several bilateral trade irritants with the US, including truck scrappage, distilled spirits, pharmaceuticals, ethanol imports, and labor rights. US and industry stakeholders are still evaluating the implementation of recent reforms. Colombia is a founding member of the Pacific Alliance - a regional trade block formed in 2012 by Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru to promote regional trade and economic integration. In 2013, Colombia began its accession process to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$410.4 billion (2016 est.)
$395 billion (2015 est.)
$382.5 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$688 billion (2016 est.)
$674.5 billion (2015 est.)
$654.2 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.9% (2016 est.)
3.3% (2015 est.)
2.4% (2014 est.)
2% (2016 est.)
3.1% (2015 est.)
4.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$13,000 (2016 est.)
$12,700 (2015 est.)
$12,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$14,100 (2016 est.)
$13,800 (2015 est.)
$13,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 7.3%
industry: 34.2%
services: 58.5% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 6.8%
industry: 34%
services: 59.2% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line22.7% (2014 est.)
27.8% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.4%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2010 est.)
lowest 10%: 1.1%
highest 10%: 42.2% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)3.6% (2016 est.)
3.5% (2015 est.)
note: data are for metropolitan Lima, annual average
5.8% (2016 est.)
6.8% (2015 est.)
Labor force17.12 million
note: individuals older than 14 years of age (2016 est.)
24.43 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 25.8%
industry: 17.4%
services: 56.8% (2011)
agriculture: 17%
industry: 21%
services: 62% (2011 est.)
Unemployment rate6% (2016 est.)
6% (2015 est.)
note: data are for metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment
9.2% (2016 est.)
8.9% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index45.3 (2012)
51 (2005)
53.5 (2014)
56.9 (1996)
Budgetrevenues: $60.84 billion
expenditures: $66.46 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $78.1 billion
expenditures: $88 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesmining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas and natural gas liquefaction; fishing and fish processing, cement, glass, textiles, clothing, food processing, beer, soft drinks, rubber, machinery, electrical machinery, chemicals, furniture
textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds
Industrial production growth rate3.2% (2016 est.)
1.9% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsartichokes, asparagus, avocados, blueberries, coffee, cocoa, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, pineapples, guavas, bananas, apples, lemons, pears, coca, tomatoes, mangoes, barley, medicinal plants, quinoa, palm oil, marigold, onion, wheat, dry beans; poultry, beef, pork, dairy products; guinea pigs; fish
coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; shrimp; forest products
Exports$36.84 billion (2016 est.)
$34.24 billion (2015 est.)
$32.7 billion (2016 est.)
$35.7 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiescopper, gold, lead, zinc, tin, iron ore, molybdenum, silver; crude petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas; coffee, asparagus and other vegetables, fruit, apparel and textiles, fishmeal, fish, chemicals, fabricated metal products and machinery, alloys
petroleum, coal, emeralds, coffee, nickel, cut flowers, bananas, apparel
Exports - partnersChina 22.1%, US 15.2%, Switzerland 8.1%, Canada 7% (2015)
US 27.5%, Panama 7.2%, China 5.2%, Spain 4.4%, Ecuador 4% (2015)
Imports$35.11 billion (2016 est.)
$37.39 billion (2015 est.)
$44.89 billion (2016 est.)
$54.06 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiespetroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, plastics, machinery, vehicles, TV sets, power shovels, front-end loaders, telephones and telecommunication equipment, iron and steel, wheat, corn, soybean products, paper, cotton, vaccines and medicines
industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity
Imports - partnersChina 22.7%, US 20.7%, Brazil 5.1%, Mexico 4.5% (2015)
US 28.8%, China 18.6%, Mexico 7.1%, Germany 4.2% (2015)
Debt - external$69.78 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$67.87 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$109.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$110.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesnuevo sol (PEN) per US dollar -
3.363 (2016 est.)
3.185 (2015 est.)
3.185 (2014 est.)
2.8383 (2013 est.)
2.64 (2012 est.)
Colombian pesos (COP) per US dollar -
3,051.1 (2016 est.)
2,741.8 (2015 est.)
2,001 (2014 est.)
2,001.1 (2013 est.)
1,798 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt26.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
23.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities
44.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
41.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$60.41 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$61.59 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$46.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$46.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$5.463 billion (2016 est.)
-$9.402 billion (2015 est.)
-$12.54 billion (2016 est.)
-$18.78 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$180.3 billion (2016 est.)
$274.1 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$94.26 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$86.11 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$161.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$163.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$2.914 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.815 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$50.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$47.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$56.56 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$78.84 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$80.98 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$85.96 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$146.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$202.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate4.25% (31 December 2016 est.)
5.05% (31 December 2012)
7.5% (31 December 2016)
6.5% (31 December 2014)
Commercial bank prime lending rate16.1% (31 December 2016 est.)
16.1% (31 December 2015 est.)
note: domestic currency lending rate, 90 day maturity
14.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
11.45% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$57.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$49.92 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$140.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$140.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$32.72 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$29.86 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$38.29 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$34.43 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$91.26 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$84.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$138.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$123.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues33.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
-3.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 8.8%
male: 8.3%
female: 9.3% (2013 est.)
total: 18.7%
male: 14.6%
female: 24.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 62.8%
government consumption: 13.6%
investment in fixed capital: 23.5%
investment in inventories: 1.4%
exports of goods and services: 22.3%
imports of goods and services: -23.6% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 63.3%
government consumption: 18.8%
investment in fixed capital: 26.3%
investment in inventories: 0.9%
exports of goods and services: 13.5%
imports of goods and services: -22.8% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving20.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
22.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
21.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
21.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

PeruColombia
Electricity - production44 billion kWh (2014 est.)
68 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption39 billion kWh (2014 est.)
60 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports13 million kWh (2014 est.)
800 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports5 million kWh (2013 est.)
47 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production58,010 bbl/day (2015 est.)
1.019 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports84,280 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - exports14,770 bbl/day (2013 est.)
859,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - proved reserves700 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
2.3 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves414.1 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
134.7 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production12.9 billion cu m (2014 est.)
11.86 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption7.66 billion cu m (2014 est.)
10.9 billion cu m (1 June 2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports5.24 billion cu m (2014 est.)
1.102 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity12 million kW (2014 est.)
16 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels63.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
28.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants35.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
68.5% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
3.1% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production208,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
323,700 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption229,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
299,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports103,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
97,820 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports75,330 bbl/day (2013 est.)
76,180 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy41 million Mt (2013 est.)
74 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 2,900,000
electrification - total population: 91%
electrification - urban areas: 98%
electrification - rural areas: 73% (2013)
population without electricity: 1,200,000
electrification - total population: 97%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 88% (2013)

Telecommunications

PeruColombia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 2,912,316
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 7,109,254
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 34.236 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 112 (July 2015 est.)
total: 57.327 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 123 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: adequate for most requirements; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is only about 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, exceeds 110 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 51; the South America-1 (SAM-1) and Pan American (PAN-AM) submarine cable systems provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: modern system in many respects with a nationwide microwave radio relay system, a domestic satellite system with 41 earth stations, and a fiber-optic network linking 50 cities; telecommunications sector liberalized during the 1990s; multiple providers of both fixed-line and mobile-cellular services
domestic: fixed-line connections stand at about 15 per 100 persons; mobile cellular telephone subscribership is about 120 per 100 persons; competition among cellular service providers is resulting in falling local and international calling rates and contributing to the steep decline in the market share of fixed-line services
international: country code - 57; multiple submarine cable systems provide links to the US, parts of the Caribbean, and Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 10 (6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 3 fully digitalized international switching centers) (2011)
Internet country code.pe
.co
Internet userstotal: 12.452 million
percent of population: 40.9% (July 2015 est.)
total: 26.128 million
percent of population: 55.9% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast media10 major TV networks of which only one, Television Nacional de Peru, is state owned; multi-channel cable TV services are available; in excess of 2,000 radio stations including a substantial number of indigenous language stations (2010)
combination of state-owned and privately owned broadcast media provide service; more than 500 radio stations and many national, regional, and local TV stations (2007)

Transportation

PeruColombia
Railwaystotal: 1,854.4 km
standard gauge: 1,730.4 km 1.435-m gauge (34 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 124 km 0.914-m gauge (2014)
total: 2,141 km
standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 1,991 km 0.914-m gauge (2015)
Roadwaystotal: 140,672 km (18,699 km paved)
note: includes 24,593 km of national roads (14,748 km paved), 24,235 km of departmental roads (2,340 km paved), and 91,844 km of local roads (1,611 km paved) (2012)
total: 204,855 km (2015)
Waterways8,808 km (8,600 km of navigable tributaries on the Amazon system and 208 km on Lago Titicaca) (2011)
24,725 km (18,300 km navigable; the most important waterway, the River Magdalena, of which 1,488 km is navigable, is dredged regularly to ensure safe passage of cargo vessels and container barges) (2012)
Pipelinesextra heavy crude 786 km; gas 1,526 km; liquid petroleum gas 679 km; oil 1,033 km; refined products 15 km (2013)
gas 4,991 km; oil 6,796 km; refined products 3,429 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Callao, Matarani, Paita
river port(s): Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas (Amazon)
oil terminal(s): Conchan oil terminal, La Pampilla oil terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Callao (1,616,365)
major seaport(s): Atlantic Ocean (Caribbean) - Cartagena, Santa Marta, Turbo; Pacific Ocean - Buenaventura
river port(s): Barranquilla (Rio Magdalena)
oil terminal(s): Covenas offshore terminal
dry bulk cargo port(s): Puerto Bolivar (coal)
container port(s) (TEUs): Cartagena (1,853,342)
Merchant marinetotal: 22
by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 13
foreign-owned: 8 (Chile 6, Ecuador 1, Spain 1)
registered in other countries: 9 (Panama 9) (2010)
total: 12
by type: cargo 9, chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker 2
registered in other countries: 4 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Panama 2, Portugal 1) (2010)
Airports191 (2013)
836 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 59
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
total: 121
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 39
914 to 1,523 m: 53
under 914 m: 18 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 132
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 30
under 914 m: 82 (2013)
total: 715
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 25
914 to 1,523 m: 201
under 914 m: 488 (2013)
Heliports5 (2013)
3 (2013)

Military

PeruColombia
Military branchesPeruvian Army (Ejercito Peruano), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru, MGP, includes naval air, naval infantry, and Coast Guard), Air Force of Peru (Fuerza Aerea del Peru, FAP) (2013)
National Army (Ejercito Nacional), Republic of Colombia Navy (Armada Republica de Colombia, ARC, includes Naval Aviation, Naval Infantry (Infanteria de Marina, IM), and Coast Guard), Colombian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Colombia, FAC) (2012)
Military service age and obligation18-50 years of age for male and 18-45 years of age for female voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
18-24 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; service obligation is 18 months (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.18% of GDP (2016)
1.17% of GDP (2015)
1.48% of GDP (2014)
1.54% of GDP (2013)
1.28% of GDP (2012)
3.24% of GDP (2016)
3.38% of GDP (2015)
3.13% of GDP (2014)
3.29% of GDP (2013)
3.17% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

PeruColombia
Disputes - internationalChile and Ecuador rejected Peru's November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favor Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru rejects Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border
in December 2007, ICJ allocated San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina islands to Colombia under 1928 Treaty but did not rule on 82 degrees W meridian as maritime boundary with Nicaragua; managed dispute with Venezuela over maritime boundary and Venezuelan-administered Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics, guerrilla, and paramilitary activities penetrate all neighboring borders and have caused Colombian citizens to flee mostly into neighboring countries; Colombia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Jamaica, and the US assert various claims to Bajo Nuevo and Serranilla Bank
Illicit drugsuntil 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru is now the world's second largest producer of coca leaf, though it lags far behind Colombia; cultivation of coca in Peru was estimated at 40,000 hectares in 2009, a slight decrease over 2008; second largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 225 metric tons of potential pure cocaine in 2009; finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil, Chile, Argentina, and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipment to Europe and Africa; increasing domestic drug consumption
illicit producer of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis; world's leading coca cultivator with 83,000 hectares in coca cultivation in 2011, a 17% decrease over 2010, producing a potential of 195 mt of pure cocaine; the world's largest producer of coca derivatives; supplies cocaine to nearly all of the US market and the great majority of other international drug markets; in 2012, aerial eradication dispensed herbicide to treat over 100,549 hectares combined with manual eradication of 30,486 hectares; a significant portion of narcotics proceeds are either laundered or invested in Colombia through the black market peso exchange; important supplier of heroin to the US market; opium poppy cultivation is estimated to have fallen to 1,100 hectares in 2009 while pure heroin production declined to 2.1 mt; most Colombian heroin is destined for the US market (2013)
Refugees and internally displaced personsIDPs: 62,000 (civil war from 1980-2000; most IDPs are indigenous peasants in Andean and Amazonian regions; as of 2011, no new information on the situation of these IDPs) (2016)
IDPs: 7,401,031 (conflict between government and illegal armed groups and drug traffickers since 1985; about 300,000 new IDPs each year since 2000) (2017)
stateless persons: 11 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook