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Peru vs. Brazil

Introduction

PeruBrazil
BackgroundAncient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peru declared its independence in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces were defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his resignation in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw a new election in the spring of 2001, which installed Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of indigenous ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, oversaw a robust economic rebound. Former army officer Ollanta HUMALA Tasso was elected president in June 2011, and carried on the sound, market-oriented economic policies of the three preceding administrations. Poverty and unemployment levels have fallen dramatically in the last decade, and today Peru boasts one of the best performing economies in Latin America. Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard won a very narrow presidential runoff election in June 2016.
Following more than three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil gained its independence in 1822, maintaining a monarchical system of government until the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent proclamation of a republic by the military in 1889. Brazilian coffee exporters politically dominated the country until populist leader Getulio VARGAS rose to power in 1930. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil underwent more than a half century of populist and military government until 1985, when the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Having successfully weathered a period of global financial difficulty in the late 20th century, Brazil was seen as one of the world’s strongest emerging markets and a contributor to global growth. The awarding of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2016 Summer Olympic Games, the first ever to be held in South America, was seen as symbolic of the country’s rise. However, since about 2013, Brazil has been plagued by a shrinking economy, growing unemployment, and rising inflation. Political scandal resulted in the impeachment of President Dilma ROUSSEFF in May 2016, a conviction that was upheld by the Senate in August 2016; her vice president, Michel TEMER, will serve as president until 2018, completing her second term.

Geography

PeruBrazil
LocationWestern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador
Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
Geographic coordinates10 00 S, 76 00 W
10 00 S, 55 00 W
Map referencesSouth America
South America
Areatotal: 1,285,216 sq km
land: 1,279,996 sq km
water: 5,220 sq km
total: 8,515,770 sq km
land: 8,358,140 sq km
water: 157,630 sq km
note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
Area - comparativealmost twice the size of Texas; slightly smaller than Alaska
slightly smaller than the US
Land boundariestotal: 7,062 km
border countries (5): Bolivia 1,212 km, Brazil 2,659 km, Chile 168 km, Colombia 1,494 km, Ecuador 1,529 km
total: 16,145 km
border countries (10): Argentina 1,263 km, Bolivia 3,403 km, Colombia 1,790 km, French Guiana 649 km, Guyana 1,308 km, Paraguay 1,371 km, Peru 2,659 km, Suriname 515 km, Uruguay 1,050 km, Venezuela 2,137 km
Coastline2,414 km
7,491 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
Climatevaries from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
mostly tropical, but temperate in south
Terrainwestern coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,555 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
mean elevation: 320 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico da Neblina 2,994 m
Natural resourcescopper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber
Land useagricultural land: 18.8%
arable land 3.1%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 14.6%
forest: 53%
other: 28.2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 32.9%
arable land 8.6%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 23.5%
forest: 61.9%
other: 5.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land25,800 sq km (2012)
54,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsearthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains; Ubinas (elev. 5,672 m), which last erupted in 2009, is the country's most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes include El Misti, Huaynaputina, Sabancaya, and Yucamane
recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south
Environment - current issuesdeforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - noteshares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River
largest country in South America and in the Southern Hemisphere; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador
Population distributionapproximately one-third of the population resides along the desert coastal belt in the west, with a strong focus on the capital city of Lima; the Andean highlands, or sierra, which is strongly identified with the country's Amerindian population, contains roughly half of the overall population; the eastern slopes of the Andes, and adjoining rainforest, are sparsely populated
the vast majority of people live along, or relatively near, the Atlantic coast in the east; the population core is in the southeast, anchored by the cities of Sao Paolo, Brazilia, and Rio de Janeiro

Demographics

PeruBrazil
Population30,741,062 (July 2016 est.)
205,823,665 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 26.62% (male 4,164,681/female 4,019,436)
15-24 years: 18.63% (male 2,868,743/female 2,859,476)
25-54 years: 39.91% (male 5,892,065/female 6,377,681)
55-64 years: 7.62% (male 1,135,938/female 1,205,579)
65 years and over: 7.21% (male 1,049,409/female 1,168,054) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 22.79% (male 23,905,185/female 22,994,222)
15-24 years: 16.43% (male 17,146,060/female 16,661,163)
25-54 years: 43.84% (male 44,750,568/female 45,489,430)
55-64 years: 8.89% (male 8,637,011/female 9,656,370)
65 years and over: 8.06% (male 7,059,944/female 9,523,712) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 27.7 years
male: 26.9 years
female: 28.4 years (2016 est.)
total: 31.6 years
male: 30.7 years
female: 32.4 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.96% (2016 est.)
0.75% (2016 est.)
Birth rate18 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
14.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
6.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-2.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 19 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 18 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 73.7 years
male: 71.7 years
female: 75.9 years (2016 est.)
total population: 73.8 years
male: 70.2 years
female: 77.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.15 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.76 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.33% (2015 est.)
0.58% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian
noun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian
Ethnic groupsAmerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
white 47.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 43.1%, black 7.6%, Asian 1.1%, indigenous 0.4% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS66,200 (2015 est.)
826,700 (2015 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 81.3%, Evangelical 12.5%, other 3.3%, none 2.9% (2007 est.)
Roman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%, Protestant 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%, Assembly of God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian 0.7%, Spiritist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths1,600 (2015 est.)
15,300 (2015 est.)
LanguagesSpanish (official) 84.1%, Quechua (official) 13%, Aymara (official) 1.7%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.7%, other (includes foreign languages and sign language) 0.2% (2007 est.)
Portuguese (official and most widely spoken language)
note: less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.5%
male: 97.3%
female: 91.7% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
male: 92.2%
female: 92.9% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever, malaria, and Bartonellosis (Oroya fever)
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2010)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2014)
Education expenditures3.9% of GDP (2015)
6% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 78.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.69% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 85.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.17% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 91.4% of population
rural: 69.2% of population
total: 86.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 8.6% of population
rural: 30.8% of population
total: 13.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 87% of population
total: 98.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 13% of population
total: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 82.5% of population
rural: 53.2% of population
total: 76.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 17.5% of population
rural: 46.8% of population
total: 23.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 88% of population
rural: 51.5% of population
total: 82.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 12% of population
rural: 48.5% of population
total: 17.2% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationLIMA (capital) 9.897 million; Arequipa 850,000; Trujillo 798,000 (2015)
Sao Paulo 21.066 million; Rio de Janeiro 12.902 million; Belo Horizonte 5.716 million; BRASILIA (capital) 4.155 million; Fortaleza 3.88 million; Recife 3.739 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate68 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
44 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight3.1% (2014)
2.2% (2007)
Health expenditures5.5% of GDP (2014)
8.3% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.12 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
1.85 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density1.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
2.3 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate20.4% (2014)
20.1% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 2,545,855
percentage: 34%
note: data represents children ages 5-17 (2007 est.)
total number: 959,942
percentage: 3%
note: data represent children ages 5-13 (2009 est.)
Demographic profilePeru's urban and coastal communities have benefited much more from recent economic growth than rural, Afro-Peruvian, indigenous, and poor populations of the Amazon and mountain regions. The poverty rate has dropped substantially during the last decade but remains stubbornly high at about 30% (more than 55% in rural areas). After remaining almost static for about a decade, Peru's malnutrition rate began falling in 2005, when the government introduced a coordinated strategy focusing on hygiene, sanitation, and clean water. School enrollment has improved, but achievement scores reflect ongoing problems with educational quality. Many poor children temporarily or permanently drop out of school to help support their families. About a quarter to a third of Peruvian children aged 6 to 14 work, often putting in long hours at hazardous mining or construction sites.
Peru was a country of immigration in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but has become a country of emigration in the last few decades. Beginning in the 19th century, Peru brought in Asian contract laborers mainly to work on coastal plantations. Populations of Chinese and Japanese descent - among the largest in Latin America - are economically and culturally influential in Peru today. Peruvian emigration began rising in the 1980s due to an economic crisis and a violent internal conflict, but outflows have stabilized in the last few years as economic conditions have improved. Nonetheless, more than 2 million Peruvians have emigrated in the last decade, principally to the US, Spain, and Argentina.
Brazil's rapid fertility decline since the 1960s is the main factor behind the country's slowing population growth rate, aging population, and fast-paced demographic transition. Brasilia has not taken full advantage of its large working-age population to develop its human capital and strengthen its social and economic institutions but is funding a study abroad program to bring advanced skills back to the country. The current favorable age structure will begin to shift around 2025, with the labor force shrinking and the elderly starting to compose an increasing share of the total population. Well-funded public pensions have nearly wiped out poverty among the elderly, and Bolsa Familia and other social programs have lifted tens of millions out of poverty. More than half of Brazil's population is considered middle class, but poverty and income inequality levels remain high; the Northeast, North, and Center-West, women, and black, mixed race, and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Disparities in opportunities foster social exclusion and contribute to Brazil's high crime rate, particularly violent crime in cities and favelas.
Brazil has traditionally been a net recipient of immigrants, with its southeast being the prime destination. After the importation of African slaves was outlawed in the mid-19th century, Brazil sought Europeans (Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Germans) and later Asians (Japanese) to work in agriculture, especially coffee cultivation. Recent immigrants come mainly from Argentina, Chile, and Andean countries (many are unskilled illegal migrants) or are returning Brazilian nationals. Since Brazil's economic downturn in the 1980s, emigration to the United States, Europe, and Japan has been rising but is negligible relative to Brazil's total population. The majority of these emigrants are well-educated and middle-class. Fewer Brazilian peasants are emigrating to neighboring countries to take up agricultural work.
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 53.2
youth dependency ratio: 42.7
elderly dependency ratio: 10.5
potential support ratio: 9.6 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 44.7
youth dependency ratio: 33.3
elderly dependency ratio: 11.3
potential support ratio: 8.8 (2015 est.)

Government

PeruBrazil
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru
etymology: exact meaning is obscure, but the name may derive from a native word ""biru"" meaning ""river""
"
conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
conventional short form: Brazil
local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
local short form: Brasil
etymology: the country name derives from the brazilwood tree that used to grow plentifully along the coast of Brazil and that was used to produce a deep red dye
Government typepresidential republic
federal presidential republic
Capitalname: Lima
geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Brasilia
geographic coordinates: 15 47 S, 47 55 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins third Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in February
note: Brazil has three time zones, including one for the Fernando de Noronha Islands
Administrative divisions25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
note: Callao, the largest port in Peru, is also referred to as a constitutional province, the only province of the Callao region
26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins
Independence28 July 1821 (from Spain)
7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
National holidayIndependence Day, 28-29 July (1821)
Independence Day, 7 September (1822)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest promulgated 29 December 1993, enacted 31 December 1993; amended several times, last in 2015 (2016)
several previous; latest ratified 5 October 1988; amended many times, last in 2016 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system
civil law; note - a new civil law code was enacted in 2002 replacing the 1916 code
Suffrage18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70
voluntary between 16 to 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory between 18 to 70 years of age; note - military conscripts by law cannot vote
Executive branchchief of state: President Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (since 28 July 2016); First Vice President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA Cornejo (since 28 July 2016); Second Vice President Mercedes Rosalba ARAOZ Fernandez (since 28 July 2016); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (since 28 July 2016); First Vice President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA Cornejo (since 28 July 2016); Second Vice President Mercedes Rosalba ARAOZ Fernandez (since 28 July 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 10 April 2016 with runoff on 5 June 2016 (next to be held in April 2021)
election results: Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard elected president; first round election results from 10 April 2016: percent of vote - Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi 39.85%, Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard 21%, Veronika MENDOZA 18.82%, Alfredo BARNECHEA 6.97%, Alan GARCIA 5.82%; second round election results from 5 June 2016: percent of vote - Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (Peruanos Por el Kambio) 50.1%, Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi (Fuerza Popular) 49.9%
note: Prime Minister Fernando ZAVALA Lombardi (since 28 July 2016) does not exercise executive power; this power rests with the president
chief of state: President Michel Miguel Elias TEMER Lulia (since 31 August 2016); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Michel Miguel Elias TEMER Lulia (since 31 August 2016); Vice President (vacant)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5 October 2014 with runoff on 26 October 2014 (next to be held October 2018)
election results: Dilma ROUSSEFF reelected president in a runoff election; percent of vote - Dilma ROUSSEFF (PT) 51.6%, Aecio NEVES (PSDB) 48.4%
note: on 12 May 2016, Brazil's Senate voted to hold an impeachment trial of President Dilma ROUSSEFF, who was then suspended from her executive duties; Vice President Michel TEMER then took over as acting president; on 31 August 2016 the Senate voted 61-20 in favor of conviction and her removal from office; TEMER will now serve as president for the remainder of ROUSSEFF's term until 1 January 2019
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (130 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed party list proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 10 April 2016 with run-off election on 6 June 2016 (next to be held in April 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - Fuerza Popular 36.34%, PPK 16.47%, Frente Amplio 13.94%, APP 9.23%; APRA 8.31%; AP 7.20%, other 8.51%; seats by party - Fuerza Popular 71, PPK 20, Frente Amplio 20, APP 9; APRA 5; AP 5
description: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members each from 26 states and 3 from the federal district directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 8-year terms, with one-third and two-thirds of the membership elected alternately every 4 years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: Federal Senate - last held on 5 October 2014 for one-third of the Senate (next to be held in October 2018 for two-thirds of the Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 5 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018)
election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PMDB 5, PSDB 4, PDT 4, PSB 3, DEM (formerly PFL) 3, PT 2, PSD 2, PTB 2, PP 1, PR 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PT 70, PMDB 66, PSDB 54, PSD 37, PP 36, PR 34, PSB 34, PTB 25, DEM (formerly PFL) 22, PRB 21, PDT 19, SD 15, PSC 12, PROS 11, PCdoB 10, PPS 10, PV 8, PHS 5, PSOL 5, PTN 4, PMN 3, PRP 3, PEN 2, PTC 2, PSDC 2, PTdoB 1, PSL 1, PRTB 1
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 16 judges and divided into civil, criminal, and constitutional-social sectors)
judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the National Council of the Judiciary or National Judicial Council (a 7-member independent body), nominated by the president, and confirmed by the Congress (all appointments reviewed by the Council every 7 years); justices appointed for life or until age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Constitutional Guarantees; Superior Courts or Cortes Superiores; specialized civil, criminal, and mixed courts; 2 types of peace courts in which professional judges and selected members of the local communities preside
highest court(s): Supreme Federal Court or Supremo Tribunal Federal (consists of 11 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president and approved by the Federal Senate; justices appointed to serve until mandatory retirement at age 75
subordinate courts: Tribunal of the Union, Federal Appeals Court, Superior Court of Justice, Superior Electoral Court, regional federal courts; state court system
Political parties and leadersAlliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso) or APP [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]
Broad Front (Frente Amplio; also known as El Frente Amplio por Justicia, Vida y Libertad), a coalition of left-of-center parties including Nuevo Peru [Veronika Mendoza], Tierra y Libertad [Marco ARANA Zegarra], and Fuerza Social [Susana VILLARAN de la Puente]
Fuerza Popular (formerly Fuerza 2011) [Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi]
National Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional) or SN [Luis CASTANEDA Lossio]
Peru Posible or PP (a coalition of Accion Popular and Somos Peru) [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique]
Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Javier VELASQUEZ Quesquen] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA)
Peruvian Nationalist Party [Ollanta HUMALA]
Peruvians for Change (Peruanos Por el Kambio) or PPK [Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI]
Popular Action (Accion Popular) or AP [Mesias GUEVARA Amasifuen]
Popular Christian Party (Partido Popular Cristiano) or PPC [Lourdes FLORES Nano]
Brazilian Communist Party or PCB [Ivan Martins PINHEIRO]
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER]
Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Cristiane BRASIL]
Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy FIDELIX da Cruz]
Brazilian Republican Party or PRB [Marcos Antonio PEREIRA]
Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Aecio NEVES]
Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Carlos Roberto SIQUEIRA de Barros]
Christian Labor Party or PTC [Daniel TOURINHO]
Christian Social Democratic Party or PSDC [Jose Maria EYMAEL]
Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO]
Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI]
The Democrats or DEM [Jose AGRIPINO] (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL)
Free Homeland Party or PPL [Sergio RUBENS]
Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz PENNA]
Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS [Eduardo MACHADO]
Labor Party of Brazil or PTdoB [Luis Henrique de Oliveira RESENDE]
National Ecologic Party or PEN [Adilson Barroso OLIVEIRA]
National Labor Party or PTN [Jose Masci de ABREU]
National Mobilization Party or PMN [Telma RIBEIRO dos Santos]
Party of the Republic or PR [Alfredo NASCIMENTO]
Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto Joao Pereira FREIRE]
Progressive Party or PP [Ciro NOGUEIRA]
Progressive Republican Party or PRP [Ovasco Roma Altimari RESENDE]
Republican Social Order Party or PROS [Euripedes JUNIOR]
Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge Abdala NOSSEIS]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Guilherme CAMPOS]
Social Liberal Party or PSL [Luciano Caldas BIVAR]
Socialism and Freedom Party or PSOL [Luiz ARAUJO]
Solidarity or SD [Paulo PEREIRA DA SILVA]
United Socialist Workers' Party or PSTU [Jose Maria DE ALMEIDA]
Workers' Cause Party or PCO [Rui Costa PIMENTA]
Workers' Party or PT [Rui FALCAO]
Political pressure groups and leadersGeneral Workers Confederation of Peru (Confederacion General de Trabajadores del Peru) or CGTP [Mario HUAMAN]
Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) or SL [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Victor QUISPE Palomino (top leader at-large)] (leftist guerrilla group)
Landless Workers' Movement or MST
other: industrial federations; labor unions and federations; large farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical Christian churches and the Catholic Church
International organization participationAPEC, BIS, CAN, CD, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
AfDB (nonregional member), BIS, BRICS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, CPLP, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Carlos Jose PAREJA Rios (since 16 September 2016)
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (NJ), San Francisco, Washington DC
chief of mission: Ambassador Sergio Silva do AMARAL (since 16 September 2016)
chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700
FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Brian A. NICHOLS (since 30 June 2014)
embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17 s/n, Surco, Lima 33
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000
telephone: [51] (1) 618-2000
FAX: [51] (1) 618-2397
chief of mission: Ambassador Liliana AYALDE (since 31 October 2013)
embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia
mailing address: Unit 7500, DPO, AA 34030
telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000
FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136
consulate(s) general: Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
Flag descriptionthree equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna (representing fauna), a cinchona tree (the source of quinine, signifying flora), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out coins (denoting mineral wealth); red recalls blood shed for independence, white symbolizes peace
green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress); the current flag was inspired by the banner of the former Empire of Brazil (1822-1889); on the imperial flag, the green represented the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil, while the yellow stood for the Habsburg Family of his wife; on the modern flag the green represents the forests of the country and the yellow rhombus its mineral wealth (the diamond shape roughly mirrors that of the country); the blue circle and stars, which replaced the coat of arms of the original flag, depict the sky over Rio de Janeiro on the morning of 15 November 1889 - the day the Republic of Brazil was declared; the number of stars has changed with the creation of new states and has risen from an original 21 to the current 27 (one for each state and the Federal District)
note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Eritrea, and Vanuatu
National anthem"name: ""Himno Nacional del Peru"" (National Anthem of Peru)
lyrics/music: Jose DE LA TORRE Ugarte/Jose Bernardo ALZEDO
note: adopted 1822; the song won a national anthem contest
"
"name: ""Hino Nacional Brasileiro"" (Brazilian National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Joaquim Osorio Duque ESTRADA/Francisco Manoel DA SILVA
note: music adopted 1890, lyrics adopted 1922; the anthem's music, composed in 1822, was used unofficially for many years before it was adopted
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)vicuna (a camelid related to the llama); national colors: red, white
Southern Cross constellation; national colors: green, yellow, blue
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years

Economy

PeruBrazil
Economy - overviewPeru's economy reflects its varied topography - an arid lowland coastal region, the central high sierra of the Andes, and the dense forest of the Amazon. A wide range of important mineral resources are found in the mountainous and coastal areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. Peru is the world's second largest producer of silver and copper.

The Peruvian economy grew by an average of 5.6% per year from 2009-13 with a stable exchange rate and low inflation, which in 2013 was just below the upper limit of the Central Bank target range of 1% to 3%. This growth was due partly to high international prices for Peru's metals and minerals exports, which account for 55% of the country's total exports. Growth slipped from 2014 to 2016, due to weaker world prices for these resources. Despite Peru's strong macroeconomic performance, dependence on minerals and metals exports and imported foodstuffs makes the economy vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices.

Peru's rapid expansion coupled with cash transfers and other programs have helped to reduce the national poverty rate by over 35 percentage points since 2004, but inequality persists and continued to pose a challenge for the Ollanta HUMALA administration, which championed a policy of social inclusion and a more equitable distribution of income. Poor infrastructure hinders the spread of growth to Peru's non-coastal areas. The HUMALA administration passed several economic stimulus packages in 2014 to bolster growth, including reforms to environmental regulations in order to spur investment in Peru’s lucrative mining sector, a move that was opposed by some environmental groups. However, in 2015, mining investment fell as global commodity prices remained low and social conflicts plagued the sector.

Peru's free trade policy continued under the HUMALA administration; since 2006, Peru has signed trade deals with the US, Canada, Singapore, China, Korea, Mexico, Japan, the EU, the European Free Trade Association, Chile, Thailand, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, Honduras, concluded negotiations with Guatemala and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, and begun trade talks with El Salvador, India, and Turkey. Peru also has signed a trade pact with Chile, Colombia, and Mexico, called the Pacific Alliance, that seeks integration of services, capital, investment and movement of people. Since the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement entered into force in February 2009, total trade between Peru and the US has doubled. President Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI succeeded HUMALA in July 2016 and is focusing on economic reforms and free market policies aimed at boosting investment in Peru. Mining output increased significantly in 2016, which helped Peru attain one of the highest GDP growth rates in Latin America, and Peru should maintain strong growth in 2017. However, 2016 economic performance fell short of initial projections depressed by delays in infrastructure mega-projects and the start of a corruption scandal associated with a Brazilian firm, which have lowered 2017 growth estimates. Massive flooding in early 2017 may also be a drag on growth, offset somewhat by additional public spending aimed at recovery efforts.
Brazil is the eighth-largest economy in the world, but is recovering from a recession in 2015 and 2016 that ranks as the worst in the country’s history. Falling commodity prices reduced export revenues and investment, which weakened the Brazilian Real and cut tax revenues. The weaker real made existing public debt, which was largely denominated in foreign currency, more expensive. Lower tax revenues strained the government budget.

Economic reforms proposed in 2016 aim to slow the growth of government spending and reduce barriers to foreign investment. Government spending growth helped to push public debt to 70% of GDP at the end of 2016 up from 50% in 2012. Policies to strengthen Brazil’s workforce and industrial sector, such as local content requirements, may have boosted employment at the expense of investment.

Former President Dilma ROUSSEFF was impeached and convicted in August 2016 for moving funds among government budgets; the economy has also been affected by multiple corruption scandals involving private companies and government officials. Sanctions against the firms involved—some of the largest in Brazil—has limited their business opportunities, producing a ripple effect on associated businesses and contractors. In addition, investment in these companies has declined because of the scandals.

Brazil is a member of the Common Market of the South (Mercosur), a trade bloc including Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela. After the Asian and Russian financial crises, the trade bloc adopted a protectionist stance to guard against exposure to the volatility of foreign markets. Brazil and its Mercosur partners have pledged to open the bloc to more trade and investment, but changes require approval of all five members, which makes policy adjustments to difficult to enact.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$410.4 billion (2016 est.)
$395 billion (2015 est.)
$382.5 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3.081 trillion (2016 est.)
$3.192 trillion (2015 est.)
$3.371 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.9% (2016 est.)
3.3% (2015 est.)
2.4% (2014 est.)
-3.5% (2016 est.)
-3.8% (2015 est.)
0.1% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$13,000 (2016 est.)
$12,700 (2015 est.)
$12,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$14,800 (2016 est.)
$15,400 (2015 est.)
$16,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 7.3%
industry: 34.2%
services: 58.5% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 5.2%
industry: 22.7%
services: 72%
(2016 est.)
Population below poverty line22.7% (2014 est.)
"3.7%
note: approximately 4% of the population are below the ""extreme"" poverty line (2016 est.)
"
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.4%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2010 est.)
lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 41.6% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)3.6% (2016 est.)
3.5% (2015 est.)
note: data are for metropolitan Lima, annual average
6.7% (2016 est.)
10.7% (2015 est.)
Labor force17.12 million
note: individuals older than 14 years of age (2016 est.)
101.9 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 25.8%
industry: 17.4%
services: 56.8% (2011)
agriculture: 10%
industry: 39.8%
services: 50.2%
(2016 est.)
Unemployment rate6% (2016 est.)
6% (2015 est.)
note: data are for metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment
11.8% (2016 est.)
8.9% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index45.3 (2012)
51 (2005)
49.7 (2014)
55.3 (2001)
Budgetrevenues: $60.84 billion
expenditures: $66.46 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $311.9 billion
expenditures: $262.6 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesmining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas and natural gas liquefaction; fishing and fish processing, cement, glass, textiles, clothing, food processing, beer, soft drinks, rubber, machinery, electrical machinery, chemicals, furniture
textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment
Industrial production growth rate3.2% (2016 est.)
-8.4% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsartichokes, asparagus, avocados, blueberries, coffee, cocoa, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, pineapples, guavas, bananas, apples, lemons, pears, coca, tomatoes, mangoes, barley, medicinal plants, quinoa, palm oil, marigold, onion, wheat, dry beans; poultry, beef, pork, dairy products; guinea pigs; fish
coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef
Exports$36.84 billion (2016 est.)
$34.24 billion (2015 est.)
$189.7 billion (2016 est.)
$191.1 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiescopper, gold, lead, zinc, tin, iron ore, molybdenum, silver; crude petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas; coffee, asparagus and other vegetables, fruit, apparel and textiles, fishmeal, fish, chemicals, fabricated metal products and machinery, alloys
transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, automobiles
Exports - partnersChina 22.1%, US 15.2%, Switzerland 8.1%, Canada 7% (2015)
China 18.6%, US 12.7%, Argentina 6.7%, Netherlands 5.3% (2015)
Imports$35.11 billion (2016 est.)
$37.39 billion (2015 est.)
$134.2 billion (2016 est.)
$171.4 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiespetroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, plastics, machinery, vehicles, TV sets, power shovels, front-end loaders, telephones and telecommunication equipment, iron and steel, wheat, corn, soybean products, paper, cotton, vaccines and medicines
machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil, automotive parts, electronics
Imports - partnersChina 22.7%, US 20.7%, Brazil 5.1%, Mexico 4.5% (2015)
China 17.9%, US 15.6%, Germany 6.1%, Argentina 6% (2015)
Debt - external$69.78 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$67.87 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$544.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$542.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesnuevo sol (PEN) per US dollar -
3.363 (2016 est.)
3.185 (2015 est.)
3.185 (2014 est.)
2.8383 (2013 est.)
2.64 (2012 est.)
reals (BRL) per US dollar -
3.39 (2016 est.)
3.3315 (2015 est.)
3.3315 (2014 est.)
2.3535 (2013 est.)
1.95 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt26.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
23.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities
73.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
66.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$60.41 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$61.59 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$373.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$368.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$5.463 billion (2016 est.)
-$9.402 billion (2015 est.)
-$23.51 billion (2016 est.)
-$58.88 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$180.3 billion (2016 est.)
$1.77 trillion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$94.26 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$86.11 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$753.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$615 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$2.914 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.815 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$295 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$288.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$56.56 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$78.84 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$80.98 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$490.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$843.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.02 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate4.25% (31 December 2016 est.)
5.05% (31 December 2012)
13.75% (31 December 2016 est.)
14.25% (31 December 2015)
Commercial bank prime lending rate16.1% (31 December 2016 est.)
16.1% (31 December 2015 est.)
note: domestic currency lending rate, 90 day maturity
47.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
43.96% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$57.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$49.92 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.076 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.644 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$32.72 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$29.86 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$107 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$85.64 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$91.26 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$84.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$928.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$835.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues33.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
2.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 8.8%
male: 8.3%
female: 9.3% (2013 est.)
total: 15%
male: 12.3%
female: 18.7% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 62.8%
government consumption: 13.6%
investment in fixed capital: 23.5%
investment in inventories: 1.4%
exports of goods and services: 22.3%
imports of goods and services: -23.6% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 62.2%
government consumption: 20%
investment in fixed capital: 19.8%
investment in inventories: -0.5%
exports of goods and services: 12.8%
imports of goods and services: -14.3% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving20.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
22.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
17.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
16.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
16.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

PeruBrazil
Electricity - production44 billion kWh (2014 est.)
577 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption39 billion kWh (2014 est.)
518 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports13 million kWh (2014 est.)
3 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports5 million kWh (2013 est.)
34 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production58,010 bbl/day (2015 est.)
2.532 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports84,280 bbl/day (2013 est.)
394,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports14,770 bbl/day (2013 est.)
397,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves700 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
16 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves414.1 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
471.1 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production12.9 billion cu m (2014 est.)
20.35 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption7.66 billion cu m (2014 est.)
37.57 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports5.24 billion cu m (2014 est.)
100 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
17.32 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity12 million kW (2014 est.)
135 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels63.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
18.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants35.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
69.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
1.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
10.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production208,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
2.811 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption229,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
3.144 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports103,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
296,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports75,330 bbl/day (2013 est.)
519,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy41 million Mt (2013 est.)
535 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 2,900,000
electrification - total population: 91%
electrification - urban areas: 98%
electrification - rural areas: 73% (2013)
population without electricity: 800,000
electrification - total population: 99.5%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 97% (2013)

Telecommunications

PeruBrazil
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 2,912,316
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 43,677,141
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 21 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 34.236 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 112 (July 2015 est.)
total: 257.814 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 126 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: adequate for most requirements; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is only about 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, exceeds 110 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 51; the South America-1 (SAM-1) and Pan American (PAN-AM) submarine cable systems provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: good working system including an extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations
domestic: fixed-line connections have remained relatively stable in recent years and stand at about 20 per 100 persons; less-expensive mobile-cellular technology has been a major driver in expanding telephone service to the lower-income segments of the population with mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 125 per 100 persons
international: country code - 55; landing point for a number of submarine cables, including Americas-1, Americas-2, Atlantis-2, GlobeNet, South America-1, South American Crossing/Latin American Nautilus, and UNISUR that provide direct connectivity to South and Central America, the Caribbean, the US, Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station (2015)
Internet country code.pe
.br
Internet userstotal: 12.452 million
percent of population: 40.9% (July 2015 est.)
total: 120.676 million
percent of population: 59.1% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast media10 major TV networks of which only one, Television Nacional de Peru, is state owned; multi-channel cable TV services are available; in excess of 2,000 radio stations including a substantial number of indigenous language stations (2010)
state-run Radiobras operates a radio and a TV network; more than 1,000 radio stations and more than 100 TV channels operating - mostly privately owned; private media ownership highly concentrated (2007)

Transportation

PeruBrazil
Railwaystotal: 1,854.4 km
standard gauge: 1,730.4 km 1.435-m gauge (34 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 124 km 0.914-m gauge (2014)
total: 28,538 km
broad gauge: 5,822.3 km 1.600-m gauge (498.3 km electrified)
dual gauge: 492 km 1.600-1.000-m gauge
standard gauge: 194 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 23,341.6 km 1.000-m gauge (24 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 140,672 km (18,699 km paved)
note: includes 24,593 km of national roads (14,748 km paved), 24,235 km of departmental roads (2,340 km paved), and 91,844 km of local roads (1,611 km paved) (2012)
total: 1,580,964 km
paved: 212,798 km
unpaved: 1,368,166 km
note: does not include urban roads (2010)
Waterways8,808 km (8,600 km of navigable tributaries on the Amazon system and 208 km on Lago Titicaca) (2011)
50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2012)
Pipelinesextra heavy crude 786 km; gas 1,526 km; liquid petroleum gas 679 km; oil 1,033 km; refined products 15 km (2013)
condensate/gas 251 km; gas 17,312 km; liquid petroleum gas 352 km; oil 4,831 km; refined products 4,722 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Callao, Matarani, Paita
river port(s): Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas (Amazon)
oil terminal(s): Conchan oil terminal, La Pampilla oil terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Callao (1,616,365)
major seaport(s): Belem, Paranagua, Rio Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Sao Sebastiao, Tubarao
river port(s): Manaus (Amazon)
dry bulk cargo port(s): Sepetiba ore terminal, Tubarao
container port(s) (TEUs): Santos (2,985,922), Itajai (983,985)(2011)
oil terminal(s): DTSE/Gegua oil terminal, Ilha Grande (Gebig), Guaiba Island terminal, Guamare oil terminal
LNG terminal(s) (import): Pecem, Rio de Janiero
Merchant marinetotal: 22
by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 13
foreign-owned: 8 (Chile 6, Ecuador 1, Spain 1)
registered in other countries: 9 (Panama 9) (2010)
total: 109
by type: bulk carrier 18, cargo 16, chemical tanker 7, container 13, liquefied gas 11, petroleum tanker 39, roll on/roll off 5
foreign-owned: 27 (Chile 1, Denmark 3, Germany 6, Greece 1, Norway 3, Spain 12, Turkey 1)
registered in other countries: 36 (Argentina 1, Bahamas 1, Ghana 1, Liberia 20, Marshall Islands 1, Panama 3, Singapore 9) (2010)
Airports191 (2013)
4,093 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 59
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
total: 698
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 179
914 to 1,523 m: 436
under 914 m: 49 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 132
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 30
under 914 m: 82 (2013)
total: 3,395
1,524 to 2,437 m: 92
914 to 1,523 m: 1,619
under 914 m: 1,684 (2013)
Heliports5 (2013)
13 (2013)

Military

PeruBrazil
Military branchesPeruvian Army (Ejercito Peruano), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru, MGP, includes naval air, naval infantry, and Coast Guard), Air Force of Peru (Fuerza Aerea del Peru, FAP) (2013)
Brazilian Army (Exercito Brasileiro, EB), Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil, MB, includes Naval Air and Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais)), Brazilian Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB) (2011)
Military service age and obligation18-50 years of age for male and 18-45 years of age for female voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
"18-45 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 10-12 months; 17-45 years of age for voluntary service; an increasing percentage of the ranks are ""long-service"" volunteer professionals; women were allowed to serve in the armed forces beginning in early 1980s, when the Brazilian Army became the first army in South America to accept women into career ranks; women serve in Navy and Air Force only in Women's Reserve Corps (2012)
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Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.18% of GDP (2016)
1.17% of GDP (2015)
1.48% of GDP (2014)
1.54% of GDP (2013)
1.28% of GDP (2012)
1.39% of GDP (2015)
1.35% of GDP (2014)
1.33% of GDP (2013)
1.38% of GDP (2012)
1.41% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

PeruBrazil
Disputes - internationalChile and Ecuador rejected Peru's November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favor Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru rejects Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border
uncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Brazil's border region with Venezuela
Illicit drugsuntil 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru is now the world's second largest producer of coca leaf, though it lags far behind Colombia; cultivation of coca in Peru was estimated at 40,000 hectares in 2009, a slight decrease over 2008; second largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 225 metric tons of potential pure cocaine in 2009; finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil, Chile, Argentina, and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipment to Europe and Africa; increasing domestic drug consumption
second-largest consumer of cocaine in the world; illicit producer of cannabis; trace amounts of coca cultivation in the Amazon region, used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian, Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics proceeds are often laundered through the financial system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area (2008)
Refugees and internally displaced personsIDPs: 62,000 (civil war from 1980-2000; most IDPs are indigenous peasants in Andean and Amazonian regions; as of 2011, no new information on the situation of these IDPs) (2016)
stateless persons: 4 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook