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Peru vs. Bolivia

Introduction

PeruBolivia
BackgroundAncient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peru declared its independence in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces were defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his resignation in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw a new election in the spring of 2001, which installed Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of indigenous ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, oversaw a robust economic rebound. Former army officer Ollanta HUMALA Tasso was elected president in June 2011, and carried on the sound, market-oriented economic policies of the three preceding administrations. Poverty and unemployment levels have fallen dramatically in the last decade, and today Peru boasts one of the best performing economies in Latin America. Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard won a very narrow presidential runoff election in June 2016.
Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has consisted of a series of coups and countercoups, with the last coup occurring in 1978. Democratic civilian rule was established in 1982, but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and illegal drug production.
In December 2005, Bolivians elected Movement Toward Socialism leader Evo MORALES president - by the widest margin of any leader since the restoration of civilian rule in 1982 - after he ran on a promise to change the country's traditional political class and empower the nation's poor, indigenous majority. In December 2009 and October 2014, President MORALES easily won reelection. His party maintained control of the legislative branch of the government, which has allowed him to continue his process of change. In February 2016, MORALES narrowly lost a referendum to approve a constitutional amendment that would have allowed him to compete in the 2019 presidential election. Despite the loss, MORALES has already been chosen by his party to run again in 2019, via a still-undetermined method for him to appear on the ballot.

Geography

PeruBolivia
LocationWestern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador
Central South America, southwest of Brazil
Geographic coordinates10 00 S, 76 00 W
17 00 S, 65 00 W
Map referencesSouth America
South America
Areatotal: 1,285,216 sq km
land: 1,279,996 sq km
water: 5,220 sq km
total: 1,098,581 sq km
land: 1,083,301 sq km
water: 15,280 sq km
Area - comparativealmost twice the size of Texas; slightly smaller than Alaska
slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Land boundariestotal: 7,062 km
border countries (5): Bolivia 1,212 km, Brazil 2,659 km, Chile 168 km, Colombia 1,494 km, Ecuador 1,529 km
total: 7,252 km
border countries (5): Argentina 942 km, Brazil 3,403 km, Chile 942 km, Paraguay 753 km, Peru 1,212 km
Coastline2,414 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
none (landlocked)
Climatevaries from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
Terrainwestern coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,555 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
mean elevation: 1,192 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m
highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m
Natural resourcescopper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 18.8%
arable land 3.1%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 14.6%
forest: 53%
other: 28.2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 34.3%
arable land 3.6%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 30.5%
forest: 52.5%
other: 13.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land25,800 sq km (2012)
3,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsearthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains; Ubinas (elev. 5,672 m), which last erupted in 2009, is the country's most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes include El Misti, Huaynaputina, Sabancaya, and Yucamane
flooding in the northeast (March to April)
volcanism: volcanic activity in Andes Mountains on the border with Chile; historically active volcanoes in this region are Irruputuncu (elev. 5,163 m), which last erupted in 1995, and Olca-Paruma
Environment - current issuesdeforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking and irrigation
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - noteshares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River
landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru
Population distributionapproximately one-third of the population resides along the desert coastal belt in the west, with a strong focus on the capital city of Lima; the Andean highlands, or sierra, which is strongly identified with the country's Amerindian population, contains roughly half of the overall population; the eastern slopes of the Andes, and adjoining rainforest, are sparsely populated
a high altitude plain in the west between two cordillera of the Andes, known as the Altiplano, is the focal area for most of the population; a dense settlement pattern is also found in and around the city of Santa Cruz, located on the eastern side of the Andes

Demographics

PeruBolivia
Population30,741,062 (July 2016 est.)
10,969,649 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 26.62% (male 4,164,681/female 4,019,436)
15-24 years: 18.63% (male 2,868,743/female 2,859,476)
25-54 years: 39.91% (male 5,892,065/female 6,377,681)
55-64 years: 7.62% (male 1,135,938/female 1,205,579)
65 years and over: 7.21% (male 1,049,409/female 1,168,054) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 32.36% (male 1,808,567/female 1,740,760)
15-24 years: 19.55% (male 1,086,134/female 1,058,584)
25-54 years: 37.08% (male 1,986,514/female 2,081,415)
55-64 years: 5.83% (male 296,197/female 343,394)
65 years and over: 5.18% (male 250,749/female 317,335) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 27.7 years
male: 26.9 years
female: 28.4 years (2016 est.)
total: 24 years
male: 23.3 years
female: 24.7 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.96% (2016 est.)
1.54% (2016 est.)
Birth rate18 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
22.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-2.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 19 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 36.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 39.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 32.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 73.7 years
male: 71.7 years
female: 75.9 years (2016 est.)
total population: 69.2 years
male: 66.4 years
female: 72.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.15 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.68 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.33% (2015 est.)
0.29% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian
noun: Bolivian(s)
adjective: Bolivian
Ethnic groupsAmerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
"mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 68%, indigenous 20%, white 5%, cholo/chola 2%, black 1%, other 1%, unspecified 3% ; 44% of respondents indicated feeling part of some indigenous group, predominantly Quechua or Aymara
note: results among surveys vary based on the wording of the ethnicity question and the available response choices; the 2001 national census did not provide ""mestizo"" as a response choice, resulting in a much higher proportion of respondents identifying themselves as belonging to one of the available indigenous ethnicity choices; the use of ""mestizo"" and ""cholo"" varies among response choices in surveys, with surveys using the terms interchangeably, providing one or the other as a response choice, or providing the two as separate response choices (2009 est.)
"
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS66,200 (2015 est.)
18,200 (2015 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 81.3%, Evangelical 12.5%, other 3.3%, none 2.9% (2007 est.)
Roman Catholic 76.8%, Evangelical and Pentecostal 8.1%, Protestant 7.9%, other 1.7%, none 5.5% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths1,600 (2015 est.)
800 (2015 est.)
LanguagesSpanish (official) 84.1%, Quechua (official) 13%, Aymara (official) 1.7%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.7%, other (includes foreign languages and sign language) 0.2% (2007 est.)
Spanish (official) 60.7%, Quechua (official) 21.2%, Aymara (official) 14.6%, foreign languages 2.4%, Guarani (official) 0.6%, other native languages 0.4%, none 0.1%
note: Bolivia's 2009 constitution designates Spanish and all indigenous languages as official; 36 indigenous languages are specified, including some that are extinct (2001 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.5%
male: 97.3%
female: 91.7% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.7%
male: 97.8%
female: 93.6% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever, malaria, and Bartonellosis (Oroya fever)
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2010)
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2007)
Education expenditures3.9% of GDP (2015)
7.3% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 78.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.69% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 68.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.26% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 91.4% of population
rural: 69.2% of population
total: 86.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 8.6% of population
rural: 30.8% of population
total: 13.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 96.7% of population
rural: 75.6% of population
total: 90% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.3% of population
rural: 24.4% of population
total: 10% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 82.5% of population
rural: 53.2% of population
total: 76.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 17.5% of population
rural: 46.8% of population
total: 23.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 60.8% of population
rural: 27.5% of population
total: 50.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 39.2% of population
rural: 72.5% of population
total: 49.7% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationLIMA (capital) 9.897 million; Arequipa 850,000; Trujillo 798,000 (2015)
Santa Cruz 2.107 million; LA PAZ (capital) 1.816 million; Cochabamba 1.24 million; Sucre (constitutional capital) 372,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate68 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
206 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight3.1% (2014)
4.5% (2008)
Health expenditures5.5% of GDP (2014)
6.3% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.12 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
0.47 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
Hospital bed density1.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
1.1 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate20.4% (2014)
15.8% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 2,545,855
percentage: 34%
note: data represents children ages 5-17 (2007 est.)
total number: 757,352
percentage: 26.4%
note: data represent children ages 5-17 (2008 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth22.2 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)
21.2 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2008 est.)
Demographic profilePeru's urban and coastal communities have benefited much more from recent economic growth than rural, Afro-Peruvian, indigenous, and poor populations of the Amazon and mountain regions. The poverty rate has dropped substantially during the last decade but remains stubbornly high at about 30% (more than 55% in rural areas). After remaining almost static for about a decade, Peru's malnutrition rate began falling in 2005, when the government introduced a coordinated strategy focusing on hygiene, sanitation, and clean water. School enrollment has improved, but achievement scores reflect ongoing problems with educational quality. Many poor children temporarily or permanently drop out of school to help support their families. About a quarter to a third of Peruvian children aged 6 to 14 work, often putting in long hours at hazardous mining or construction sites.
Peru was a country of immigration in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but has become a country of emigration in the last few decades. Beginning in the 19th century, Peru brought in Asian contract laborers mainly to work on coastal plantations. Populations of Chinese and Japanese descent - among the largest in Latin America - are economically and culturally influential in Peru today. Peruvian emigration began rising in the 1980s due to an economic crisis and a violent internal conflict, but outflows have stabilized in the last few years as economic conditions have improved. Nonetheless, more than 2 million Peruvians have emigrated in the last decade, principally to the US, Spain, and Argentina.
Bolivia ranks at or near the bottom among Latin American countries in several areas of health and development, including poverty, education, fertility, malnutrition, mortality, and life expectancy. On the positive side, more children are being vaccinated and more pregnant women are getting prenatal care and having skilled health practitioners attend their births. Bolivia's income inequality is the highest in Latin America and one of the highest in the world. Public education is of poor quality, and educational opportunities are among the most unevenly distributed in Latin America, with girls and indigenous and rural children less likely to be literate or to complete primary school. The lack of access to education and family planning services helps to sustain Bolivia's high fertility rate - approximately three children per woman. Bolivia's lack of clean water and basic sanitation, especially in rural areas, contributes to health problems.
Almost 7% of Bolivia's population lives abroad, primarily to work in Argentina, Brazil, Spain, and the United States. In recent years, more restrictive immigration policies in Europe and the United States have increased the flow of Bolivian emigrants to neighboring Argentina and Brazil.
Contraceptive prevalence rate74.6% (2014)
60.5% (2008)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 53.2
youth dependency ratio: 42.7
elderly dependency ratio: 10.5
potential support ratio: 9.6 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 63.7
youth dependency ratio: 53.1
elderly dependency ratio: 10.6
potential support ratio: 9.4 (2015 est.)

Government

PeruBolivia
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru
etymology: exact meaning is obscure, but the name may derive from a native word ""biru"" meaning ""river""
"
conventional long form: Plurinational State of Bolivia
conventional short form: Bolivia
local long form: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia
local short form: Bolivia
etymology: the country is named after Simon BOLIVAR, a 19th-century leader in the South American wars for independence
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Lima
geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: La Paz (administrative capital); Sucre (constitutional [legislative and judicial] capital)
geographic coordinates: 16 30 S, 68 09 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
note: Callao, the largest port in Peru, is also referred to as a constitutional province, the only province of the Callao region
9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija
Independence28 July 1821 (from Spain)
6 August 1825 (from Spain)
National holidayIndependence Day, 28-29 July (1821)
Independence Day, 6 August (1825)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest promulgated 29 December 1993, enacted 31 December 1993; amended several times, last in 2015 (2016)
many previous; latest drafted 6 August 2006 - 9 December 2008, approved by referendum 25 January 2009, effective 7 February 2009; amended 2013 (2015)
Legal systemcivil law system
civil law system with influences from Roman, Spanish, canon (religious), French, and indigenous law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70
18 years of age, universal and compulsory
Executive branchchief of state: President Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (since 28 July 2016); First Vice President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA Cornejo (since 28 July 2016); Second Vice President Mercedes Rosalba ARAOZ Fernandez (since 28 July 2016); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (since 28 July 2016); First Vice President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA Cornejo (since 28 July 2016); Second Vice President Mercedes Rosalba ARAOZ Fernandez (since 28 July 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 10 April 2016 with runoff on 5 June 2016 (next to be held in April 2021)
election results: Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard elected president; first round election results from 10 April 2016: percent of vote - Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi 39.85%, Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard 21%, Veronika MENDOZA 18.82%, Alfredo BARNECHEA 6.97%, Alan GARCIA 5.82%; second round election results from 5 June 2016: percent of vote - Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (Peruanos Por el Kambio) 50.1%, Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi (Fuerza Popular) 49.9%
note: Prime Minister Fernando ZAVALA Lombardi (since 28 July 2016) does not exercise executive power; this power rests with the president
chief of state: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in 2019); note - a presidential candidate wins an election one of 3 ways
election results: Juan Evo MORALES Ayma reelected president; percent of vote - Juan Evo MORALES Ayma 61%; Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana 24.5%; Jorge QUIROGA 9.1%; other 5.4%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (130 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed party list proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 10 April 2016 with run-off election on 6 June 2016 (next to be held in April 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - Fuerza Popular 36.34%, PPK 16.47%, Frente Amplio 13.94%, APP 9.23%; APRA 8.31%; AP 7.20%, other 8.51%; seats by party - Fuerza Popular 71, PPK 20, Frente Amplio 20, APP 9; APRA 5; AP 5
description: bicameral Plurinational Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa Plurinacional consists of the Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (36 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; 70 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 53 indirectly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote, and 7 - apportioned to non-contiguous, rural areas in 7 of the 9 states - directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MAS 25, UD 9, PDC 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MAS 88, UD 32, PDC 10
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 16 judges and divided into civil, criminal, and constitutional-social sectors)
judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the National Council of the Judiciary or National Judicial Council (a 7-member independent body), nominated by the president, and confirmed by the Congress (all appointments reviewed by the Council every 7 years); justices appointed for life or until age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Constitutional Guarantees; Superior Courts or Cortes Superiores; specialized civil, criminal, and mixed courts; 2 types of peace courts in which professional judges and selected members of the local communities preside
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (consists of 12 judges or ministros organized into civil, penal, social, and administrative chambers); Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal (consists of 7 primary and 7 alternate magistrates); Plurinational Electoral Organ (consists of 7 members and 6 alternates); National Agro-Environment Court (consists of 5 primary and 5 alternate judges; Council of the Judiciary (consists of 3 primary and 3 alternate judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court, Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal, National Agro-Environmental Court, and Council of the Judiciary candidates pre-selected by the Plurinational Legislative Assembly and elected by direct popular vote; judges elected for 6-year terms; Plurinational Electoral Organ judges appointed - 6 by the Legislative Assembly and 1 by the president of the republic; members serve single 6-year terms
subordinate courts: District Courts (in each of the 9 administrative departments); Agro-Environmental lower courts
Political parties and leadersAlliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso) or APP [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]
Broad Front (Frente Amplio; also known as El Frente Amplio por Justicia, Vida y Libertad), a coalition of left-of-center parties including Nuevo Peru [Veronika Mendoza], Tierra y Libertad [Marco ARANA Zegarra], and Fuerza Social [Susana VILLARAN de la Puente]
Fuerza Popular (formerly Fuerza 2011) [Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi]
National Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional) or SN [Luis CASTANEDA Lossio]
Peru Posible or PP (a coalition of Accion Popular and Somos Peru) [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique]
Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Javier VELASQUEZ Quesquen] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA)
Peruvian Nationalist Party [Ollanta HUMALA]
Peruvians for Change (Peruanos Por el Kambio) or PPK [Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI]
Popular Action (Accion Popular) or AP [Mesias GUEVARA Amasifuen]
Popular Christian Party (Partido Popular Cristiano) or PPC [Lourdes FLORES Nano]
Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez]
Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Juan Evo MORALES Ayma]
National Unity or UN [Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana]
Political pressure groups and leadersGeneral Workers Confederation of Peru (Confederacion General de Trabajadores del Peru) or CGTP [Mario HUAMAN]
Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) or SL [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Victor QUISPE Palomino (top leader at-large)] (leftist guerrilla group)
Bolivian Workers Central or COB
Federation of Neighborhood Councils of El Alto or FEJUVE-El Alto
Landless Movement or MST
National Confederation of Native Rural Indigenous Women of Bolivia or Bartolina Sisa
National Coordinator for Change or CONALCAM
Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB
other: Cocalero unions; indigenous organizations (including Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of Eastern Bolivia or CIDOB and National Council of Ayullus and Markas of Quollasuyu or CONAMAQ); Interculturales union or CSCIB; labor unions (including the Central Bolivian Workers' Union or COB and Cooperative Miners Federation or FENCOMIN); various federations of neighborhood councils or FEJUVEs (including the national organization)
International organization participationAPEC, BIS, CAN, CD, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
CAN, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Carlos Jose PAREJA Rios (since 16 September 2016)
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (NJ), San Francisco, Washington DC
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Freddy BERSATTI Tudela
chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 328-4155
FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712
consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Washington,DC
note: in September 2008, the US expelled the Bolivian ambassador to the US in reciprocity for Bolivia expelling the US ambassador to Bolivia
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Brian A. NICHOLS (since 30 June 2014)
embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17 s/n, Surco, Lima 33
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000
telephone: [51] (1) 618-2000
FAX: [51] (1) 618-2397
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Peter Brennan (since June 2014)
embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, Casilla 425, La Paz
mailing address: 3220 La Paz Place, Dulles, VA, 20189-3220
telephone: [591] (2) 216-8000
FAX: [591] (2) 216-8111
note: in September 2008, the Bolivian Government expelled the US Ambassador to Bolivia, and the countries have yet to reinstate ambassadors
Flag descriptionthree equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna (representing fauna), a cinchona tree (the source of quinine, signifying flora), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out coins (denoting mineral wealth); red recalls blood shed for independence, white symbolizes peace
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; red stands for bravery and the blood of national heroes, yellow for the nation's mineral resources, and green for the fertility of the land
note: similar to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; in 2009, a presidential decree made it mandatory for a so-called wiphala - a square, multi-colored flag representing the country's indigenous peoples - to be used alongside the traditional flag
National anthem"name: ""Himno Nacional del Peru"" (National Anthem of Peru)
lyrics/music: Jose DE LA TORRE Ugarte/Jose Bernardo ALZEDO
note: adopted 1822; the song won a national anthem contest
"
"name: ""Cancion Patriotica"" (Patriotic Song)
lyrics/music: Jose Ignacio de SANJINES/Leopoldo Benedetto VINCENTI
note: adopted 1852
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)vicuna (a camelid related to the llama); national colors: red, white
llama, Andean condor; national colors: red, yellow, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

Economy

PeruBolivia
Economy - overviewPeru's economy reflects its varied topography - an arid lowland coastal region, the central high sierra of the Andes, and the dense forest of the Amazon. A wide range of important mineral resources are found in the mountainous and coastal areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. Peru is the world's second largest producer of silver and copper.

The Peruvian economy grew by an average of 5.6% per year from 2009-13 with a stable exchange rate and low inflation, which in 2013 was just below the upper limit of the Central Bank target range of 1% to 3%. This growth was due partly to high international prices for Peru's metals and minerals exports, which account for 55% of the country's total exports. Growth slipped from 2014 to 2016, due to weaker world prices for these resources. Despite Peru's strong macroeconomic performance, dependence on minerals and metals exports and imported foodstuffs makes the economy vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices.

Peru's rapid expansion coupled with cash transfers and other programs have helped to reduce the national poverty rate by over 35 percentage points since 2004, but inequality persists and continued to pose a challenge for the Ollanta HUMALA administration, which championed a policy of social inclusion and a more equitable distribution of income. Poor infrastructure hinders the spread of growth to Peru's non-coastal areas. The HUMALA administration passed several economic stimulus packages in 2014 to bolster growth, including reforms to environmental regulations in order to spur investment in Peru’s lucrative mining sector, a move that was opposed by some environmental groups. However, in 2015, mining investment fell as global commodity prices remained low and social conflicts plagued the sector.

Peru's free trade policy continued under the HUMALA administration; since 2006, Peru has signed trade deals with the US, Canada, Singapore, China, Korea, Mexico, Japan, the EU, the European Free Trade Association, Chile, Thailand, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, Honduras, concluded negotiations with Guatemala and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, and begun trade talks with El Salvador, India, and Turkey. Peru also has signed a trade pact with Chile, Colombia, and Mexico, called the Pacific Alliance, that seeks integration of services, capital, investment and movement of people. Since the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement entered into force in February 2009, total trade between Peru and the US has doubled. President Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI succeeded HUMALA in July 2016 and is focusing on economic reforms and free market policies aimed at boosting investment in Peru. Mining output increased significantly in 2016, which helped Peru attain one of the highest GDP growth rates in Latin America, and Peru should maintain strong growth in 2017. However, 2016 economic performance fell short of initial projections depressed by delays in infrastructure mega-projects and the start of a corruption scandal associated with a Brazilian firm, which have lowered 2017 growth estimates. Massive flooding in early 2017 may also be a drag on growth, offset somewhat by additional public spending aimed at recovery efforts.
Bolivia is a resource rich country with strong growth attributed to captive markets for natural gas exports – to Brazil and Argentina. However, the country remains one of the least developed countries in Latin America because of state-oriented policies that deter investment and growth.

Following a disastrous economic crisis during the early 1980s, reforms spurred private investment, stimulated economic growth, and cut poverty rates in the 1990s. The period 2003-05 was characterized by political instability, racial tensions, and violent protests against plans - subsequently abandoned - to export Bolivia's newly discovered natural gas reserves to large Northern Hemisphere markets. In 2005, the government passed a controversial hydrocarbons law that imposed significantly higher royalties and required foreign firms then operating under risk-sharing contracts to surrender all production to the state energy company in exchange for a predetermined service fee. High commodity prices between 2010 and 2014 sustained rapid growth and large trade surpluses with GDP growing 6.8% in 2013 and 5.4% in 2014. The global decline in oil prices that began in late 2014 exerted downward pressure on the price Bolivia receives for exported gas and resulted in lower GDP growth rates - 4.9% in 2015 and 4.3% in 2016 - and losses in government revenue as well as fiscal and trade deficits.

A lack of foreign investment in the key sectors of mining and hydrocarbons, along with conflict among social groups, pose challenges for the Bolivian economy. In 2015, President Evo MORALES expanded efforts to court international investment and boost Bolivia’s energy production capacity. MORALES passed an investment law and promised not to nationalize additional industries in an effort to improve the investment climate. In early 2016, the Government of Bolivia approved the 2016-2020 National Economic and Social Development Plan aimed at maintaining growth of 5% and reducing poverty.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$410.4 billion (2016 est.)
$395 billion (2015 est.)
$382.5 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$78.66 billion (2016 est.)
$75.41 billion (2015 est.)
$71.89 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.9% (2016 est.)
3.3% (2015 est.)
2.4% (2014 est.)
4.3% (2016 est.)
4.9% (2015 est.)
5.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$13,000 (2016 est.)
$12,700 (2015 est.)
$12,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$7,200 (2016 est.)
$7,000 (2015 est.)
$6,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 7.3%
industry: 34.2%
services: 58.5% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 12.9%
industry: 29.3%
services: 57.7% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line22.7% (2014 est.)
38.6%
note: based on percent of population living on less than the international standard of $2/day (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.4%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2010 est.)
lowest 10%: 0.9%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)3.6% (2016 est.)
3.5% (2015 est.)
note: data are for metropolitan Lima, annual average
4% (2016 est.)
3% (2015 est.)
Labor force17.12 million
note: individuals older than 14 years of age (2016 est.)
4.993 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 25.8%
industry: 17.4%
services: 56.8% (2011)
agriculture: 29.4%
industry: 22%
services: 48.6% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate6% (2016 est.)
6% (2015 est.)
note: data are for metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment
4.1% (2016 est.)
4.4% (2015 est.)
note: data are for urban areas; widespread underemployment
Distribution of family income - Gini index45.3 (2012)
51 (2005)
47 (2016 est.)
57.9 (1999)
Budgetrevenues: $60.84 billion
expenditures: $66.46 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $14.69 billion
expenditures: $16.93 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesmining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas and natural gas liquefaction; fishing and fish processing, cement, glass, textiles, clothing, food processing, beer, soft drinks, rubber, machinery, electrical machinery, chemicals, furniture
mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing, jewelry
Industrial production growth rate3.2% (2016 est.)
6.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsartichokes, asparagus, avocados, blueberries, coffee, cocoa, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, pineapples, guavas, bananas, apples, lemons, pears, coca, tomatoes, mangoes, barley, medicinal plants, quinoa, palm oil, marigold, onion, wheat, dry beans; poultry, beef, pork, dairy products; guinea pigs; fish
soybeans, quinoa, Brazil nuts, sugarcane, coffee, corn, rice, potatoes, chia, coca
Exports$36.84 billion (2016 est.)
$34.24 billion (2015 est.)
$7.214 billion (2016 est.)
$8.909 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiescopper, gold, lead, zinc, tin, iron ore, molybdenum, silver; crude petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas; coffee, asparagus and other vegetables, fruit, apparel and textiles, fishmeal, fish, chemicals, fabricated metal products and machinery, alloys
natural gas, silver, zinc, lead, tin, gold, quinoa, soybeans and soy products
Exports - partnersChina 22.1%, US 15.2%, Switzerland 8.1%, Canada 7% (2015)
Brazil 28.1%, Argentina 16.9%, US 12.1%, Colombia 6.3%, China 5.3%, Japan 4.7%, South Korea 4.3% (2015)
Imports$35.11 billion (2016 est.)
$37.39 billion (2015 est.)
$8.427 billion (2016 est.)
$9.682 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiespetroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, plastics, machinery, vehicles, TV sets, power shovels, front-end loaders, telephones and telecommunication equipment, iron and steel, wheat, corn, soybean products, paper, cotton, vaccines and medicines
machinery, petroleum products, vehicles, iron and steel, plastics
Imports - partnersChina 22.7%, US 20.7%, Brazil 5.1%, Mexico 4.5% (2015)
China 17.9%, Brazil 16.5%, Argentina 11.8%, US 10.6%, Peru 6.2%, Japan 5.2%, Chile 4.6% (2015)
Debt - external$69.78 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$67.87 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$7.268 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.341 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesnuevo sol (PEN) per US dollar -
3.363 (2016 est.)
3.185 (2015 est.)
3.185 (2014 est.)
2.8383 (2013 est.)
2.64 (2012 est.)
bolivianos (BOB) per US dollar -
6.91 (2016 est.)
6.91 (2015 est.)
6.91 (2014 est.)
6.91 (2013 est.)
6.94 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt26.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
23.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities
34% of GDP (2016 est.)
33.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$60.41 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$61.59 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$10.08 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$13.06 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$5.463 billion (2016 est.)
-$9.402 billion (2015 est.)
-$1.876 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.854 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$180.3 billion (2016 est.)
$34.04 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$94.26 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$86.11 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.059 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.084 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$2.914 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.815 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$0 (31 December 2016 est.)
$0 (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$56.56 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$78.84 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$80.98 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$12.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$11.11 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$9.833 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate4.25% (31 December 2016 est.)
5.05% (31 December 2012)
1.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.5% (31 December 2015 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate16.1% (31 December 2016 est.)
16.1% (31 December 2015 est.)
note: domestic currency lending rate, 90 day maturity
7.6% (31 December 2016 est.)
8.07% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$57.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$49.92 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$19.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$16.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$32.72 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$29.86 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$10.22 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$10.26 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$91.26 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$84.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$17.77 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.45 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues33.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
43.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
-6.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 8.8%
male: 8.3%
female: 9.3% (2013 est.)
total: 6.2%
male: 5.1%
female: 7.8% (2011 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 62.8%
government consumption: 13.6%
investment in fixed capital: 23.5%
investment in inventories: 1.4%
exports of goods and services: 22.3%
imports of goods and services: -23.6% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 69.1%
government consumption: 17.5%
investment in fixed capital: 20.8%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 24.6%
imports of goods and services: -32% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving20.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
22.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
12.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
13.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
20.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

PeruBolivia
Electricity - production44 billion kWh (2014 est.)
8.759 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption39 billion kWh (2014 est.)
8.378 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports13 million kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports5 million kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production58,010 bbl/day (2015 est.)
60,920 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports84,280 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - exports14,770 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - proved reserves700 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
209.8 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves414.1 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
295.9 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production12.9 billion cu m (2014 est.)
21.1 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - consumption7.66 billion cu m (2014 est.)
5.366 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - exports5.24 billion cu m (2014 est.)
15.73 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2015 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity12 million kW (2014 est.)
1.855 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels63.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
72% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants35.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
26% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
1% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production208,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
11,630 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption229,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
78,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports103,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
7,292 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports75,330 bbl/day (2013 est.)
19,940 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy41 million Mt (2013 est.)
16 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 2,900,000
electrification - total population: 91%
electrification - urban areas: 98%
electrification - rural areas: 73% (2013)
population without electricity: 1,200,000
electrification - total population: 90%
electrification - urban areas: 99%
electrification - rural areas: 72% (2013)

Telecommunications

PeruBolivia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 2,912,316
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 881,084
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 34.236 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 112 (July 2015 est.)
total: 10.163 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 94 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: adequate for most requirements; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is only about 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, exceeds 110 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 51; the South America-1 (SAM-1) and Pan American (PAN-AM) submarine cable systems provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: Bolivian National Telecommunications Company was privatized in 1995 but re-nationalized in 2007; the primary trunk system is being expanded and employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; system operations, reliability, and coverage have steadily improved
domestic: most telephones are concentrated in La Paz, Santa Cruz, and other capital cities; mobile-cellular telephone use expanding rapidly and, in 2015, teledensity reached about 95 per 100 persons
international: country code - 591; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.pe
.bo
Internet userstotal: 12.452 million
percent of population: 40.9% (July 2015 est.)
total: 4.871 million
percent of population: 45.1% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast media10 major TV networks of which only one, Television Nacional de Peru, is state owned; multi-channel cable TV services are available; in excess of 2,000 radio stations including a substantial number of indigenous language stations (2010)
large number of radio and TV stations broadcasting with private media outlets dominating; state-owned and private radio and TV stations generally operating freely, although both pro-government and anti-government groups have attacked media outlets in response to their reporting (2010)

Transportation

PeruBolivia
Railwaystotal: 1,854.4 km
standard gauge: 1,730.4 km 1.435-m gauge (34 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 124 km 0.914-m gauge (2014)
total: 3,504 km
narrow gauge: 3,504 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 140,672 km (18,699 km paved)
note: includes 24,593 km of national roads (14,748 km paved), 24,235 km of departmental roads (2,340 km paved), and 91,844 km of local roads (1,611 km paved) (2012)
total: 90,568 km
paved: 9,792 km
unpaved: 80,776 km (2017)
Waterways8,808 km (8,600 km of navigable tributaries on the Amazon system and 208 km on Lago Titicaca) (2011)
10,000 km (commercially navigable almost exclusively in the northern and eastern parts of the country) (2012)
Pipelinesextra heavy crude 786 km; gas 1,526 km; liquid petroleum gas 679 km; oil 1,033 km; refined products 15 km (2013)
gas 5,457 km; liquid petroleum gas 51 km; oil 2,511 km; refined products 1,627 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Callao, Matarani, Paita
river port(s): Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas (Amazon)
oil terminal(s): Conchan oil terminal, La Pampilla oil terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Callao (1,616,365)
river port(s): Puerto Aguirre (Paraguay/Parana)
note: Bolivia has free port privileges in maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay
Merchant marinetotal: 22
by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 13
foreign-owned: 8 (Chile 6, Ecuador 1, Spain 1)
registered in other countries: 9 (Panama 9) (2010)
total: 18
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 14, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 2
foreign-owned: 5 (Syria 4, UK 1, (2010)
Airports191 (2013)
855 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 59
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
total: 21
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 132
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 30
under 914 m: 82 (2013)
total: 834
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 47
914 to 1,523 m: 151
under 914 m: 631 (2013)

Military

PeruBolivia
Military branchesPeruvian Army (Ejercito Peruano), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru, MGP, includes naval air, naval infantry, and Coast Guard), Air Force of Peru (Fuerza Aerea del Peru, FAP) (2013)
Bolivian Armed Forces: Bolivian Army (Ejercito Boliviano, EB), Bolivian Naval Force (Fuerza Naval Boliviana, FNB, includes Marines), Bolivian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana, FAB) (2017)
Military service age and obligation18-50 years of age for male and 18-45 years of age for female voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
16-49 years of age for 12-month voluntary male and female military service; Bolivian citizenship required; minimum age of combat is 18; when annual number of volunteers falls short of goal, compulsory recruitment is effected, including conscription of boys as young as 14; 15-19 years of age for voluntary premilitary service, provides exemption from further military service (2017)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.18% of GDP (2016)
1.17% of GDP (2015)
1.48% of GDP (2014)
1.54% of GDP (2013)
1.28% of GDP (2012)
1.18% of GDP (2016)
1.24% of GDP (2015)
1.39% of GDP (2014)
1.45% of GDP (2013)
1.47% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

PeruBolivia
Disputes - internationalChile and Ecuador rejected Peru's November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favor Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru rejects Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border
Chile and Peru rebuff Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, but Chile offers instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile for Bolivian products; contraband smuggling, human trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of its border regions with all of its neighbors (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Peru)
Illicit drugsuntil 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru is now the world's second largest producer of coca leaf, though it lags far behind Colombia; cultivation of coca in Peru was estimated at 40,000 hectares in 2009, a slight decrease over 2008; second largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 225 metric tons of potential pure cocaine in 2009; finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil, Chile, Argentina, and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipment to Europe and Africa; increasing domestic drug consumption
world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru) with an estimated 30,000 hectares under cultivation in 2011, a decrease of 13 percent over 2010; third largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 265 metric tons potential pure cocaine in 2011, a 29 percent increase over 2010; transit country for Peruvian and Colombian cocaine destined for Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Europe; weak border controls; some money-laundering activity related to narcotics trade; major cocaine consumption (2013)

Source: CIA Factbook