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Paraguay vs. Brazil

Introduction

ParaguayBrazil
BackgroundParaguay achieved its independence from Spain in 1811. In the disastrous War of the Triple Alliance (1865-70) - between Paraguay and Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay - Paraguay lost two-thirds of its adult males and much of its territory. The country stagnated economically for the next half century. Following the Chaco War of 1932-35 with Bolivia, Paraguay gained a large part of the Chaco lowland region. The 35-year military dictatorship of Alfredo STROESSNER ended in 1989, and, despite a marked increase in political infighting in recent years, Paraguay has held relatively free and regular presidential elections since the country's return to democracy.
Following more than three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil gained its independence in 1822, maintaining a monarchical system of government until the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent proclamation of a republic by the military in 1889. Brazilian coffee exporters politically dominated the country until populist leader Getulio VARGAS rose to power in 1930. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil underwent more than a half century of populist and military government until 1985, when the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Having successfully weathered a period of global financial difficulty in the late 20th century, Brazil was seen as one of the world’s strongest emerging markets and a contributor to global growth. The awarding of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2016 Summer Olympic Games, the first ever to be held in South America, was seen as symbolic of the country’s rise. However, since about 2013, Brazil has been plagued by a shrinking economy, growing unemployment, and rising inflation. Political scandal resulted in the impeachment of President Dilma ROUSSEFF in May 2016, a conviction that was upheld by the Senate in August 2016; her vice president, Michel TEMER, will serve as president until 2018, completing her second term.

Geography

ParaguayBrazil
LocationCentral South America, northeast of Argentina, southwest of Brazil
Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
Geographic coordinates23 00 S, 58 00 W
10 00 S, 55 00 W
Map referencesSouth America
South America
Areatotal: 406,752 sq km
land: 397,302 sq km
water: 9,450 sq km
total: 8,515,770 sq km
land: 8,358,140 sq km
water: 157,630 sq km
note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
Area - comparativeabout three times the size of New York state; slightly smaller than California
slightly smaller than the US
Land boundariestotal: 4,655 km
border countries (3): Argentina 2,531 km, Bolivia 753 km, Brazil 1,371 km
total: 16,145 km
border countries (10): Argentina 1,263 km, Bolivia 3,403 km, Colombia 1,790 km, French Guiana 649 km, Guyana 1,308 km, Paraguay 1,371 km, Peru 2,659 km, Suriname 515 km, Uruguay 1,050 km, Venezuela 2,137 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
7,491 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
Climatesubtropical to temperate; substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, becoming semiarid in the far west
mostly tropical, but temperate in south
Terraingrassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere
mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 178 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of Rio Paraguay and Rio Parana 46 m
highest point: Cerro Pero 842 m
mean elevation: 320 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico da Neblina 2,994 m
Natural resourceshydropower, timber, iron ore, manganese, limestone
bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber
Land useagricultural land: 53.8%
arable land 10.8%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 42.8%
forest: 43.8%
other: 2.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 32.9%
arable land 8.6%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 23.5%
forest: 61.9%
other: 5.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,362 sq km (2012)
54,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardslocal flooding in southeast (early September to June); poorly drained plains may become boggy (early October to June)
recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; water pollution; inadequate means for waste disposal pose health risks for many urban residents; loss of wetlands
deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; lies between Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil; population concentrated in southern part of country
largest country in South America and in the Southern Hemisphere; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador
Population distributionmost of the population resides in the eastern half of the country; to the west lies the Gran Chaco, which accounts for 60% of the land territory, but only 2% of the overall population
the vast majority of people live along, or relatively near, the Atlantic coast in the east; the population core is in the southeast, anchored by the cities of Sao Paolo, Brazilia, and Rio de Janeiro

Demographics

ParaguayBrazil
Population6,862,812 (July 2016 est.)
205,823,665 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 25.04% (male 874,541/female 844,212)
15-24 years: 19.74% (male 680,998/female 673,534)
25-54 years: 40.56% (male 1,392,814/female 1,390,655)
55-64 years: 7.74% (male 270,769/female 260,300)
65 years and over: 6.92% (male 222,435/female 252,554) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 22.79% (male 23,905,185/female 22,994,222)
15-24 years: 16.43% (male 17,146,060/female 16,661,163)
25-54 years: 43.84% (male 44,750,568/female 45,489,430)
55-64 years: 8.89% (male 8,637,011/female 9,656,370)
65 years and over: 8.06% (male 7,059,944/female 9,523,712) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 27.8 years
male: 27.5 years
female: 28 years (2016 est.)
total: 31.6 years
male: 30.7 years
female: 32.4 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.17% (2016 est.)
0.75% (2016 est.)
Birth rate16.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
14.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate4.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
6.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 19.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 22.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 18 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 77.2 years
male: 74.5 years
female: 80 years (2016 est.)
total population: 73.8 years
male: 70.2 years
female: 77.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.91 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.76 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.43% (2015 est.)
0.58% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Paraguayan(s)
adjective: Paraguayan
noun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian
Ethnic groupsmestizo (mixed Spanish and Amerindian) 95%, other 5%
white 47.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 43.1%, black 7.6%, Asian 1.1%, indigenous 0.4% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS17,500 (2015 est.)
826,700 (2015 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 89.6%, Protestant 6.2%, other Christian 1.1%, other or unspecified 1.9%, none 1.1% (2002 census)
Roman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%, Protestant 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%, Assembly of God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian 0.7%, Spiritist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths800 (2015 est.)
15,300 (2015 est.)
LanguagesSpanish (official), Guarani (official)
Portuguese (official and most widely spoken language)
note: less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.9%
male: 94.8%
female: 92.9% (2010 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
male: 92.2%
female: 92.9% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 13 years (2010)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2014)
Education expenditures5% of GDP (2012)
6% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 59.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 85.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.17% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 94.9% of population
total: 98% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 5.1% of population
total: 2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 87% of population
total: 98.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 13% of population
total: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 95.5% of population
rural: 78.4% of population
total: 88.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4.5% of population
rural: 21.6% of population
total: 11.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 88% of population
rural: 51.5% of population
total: 82.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 12% of population
rural: 48.5% of population
total: 17.2% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationASUNCION (capital) 2.356 million (2015)
Sao Paulo 21.066 million; Rio de Janeiro 12.902 million; Belo Horizonte 5.716 million; BRASILIA (capital) 4.155 million; Fortaleza 3.88 million; Recife 3.739 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate132 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
44 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight2.6% (2012)
2.2% (2007)
Health expenditures9.8% of GDP (2014)
8.3% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.29 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
1.85 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density1.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
2.3 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate15.1% (2014)
20.1% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 205,297
percentage: 15% (2004 est.)
total number: 959,942
percentage: 3%
note: data represent children ages 5-13 (2009 est.)
Demographic profileParaguay falls below the Latin American average in several socioeconomic categories, including immunization rates, potable water, sanitation, and secondary school enrollment, and has greater rates of income inequality and child and maternal mortality. Paraguay's poverty rate has declined in recent years but remains high, especially in rural areas, with more than a third of the population below the poverty line. However, the well-being of the poor in many regions has improved in terms of housing quality and access to clean water, telephone service, and electricity. The fertility rate continues to drop, declining sharply from an average 4.3 births per woman in the late 1990s to about 2 in 2013, as a result of the greater educational attainment of women, increased use of contraception, and a desire for smaller families among young women.
Paraguay is a country of emigration; it has not attracted large numbers of immigrants because of political instability, civil wars, years of dictatorship, and the greater appeal of neighboring countries. Paraguay first tried to encourage immigration in 1870 in order to rebound from the heavy death toll it suffered during the War of the Triple Alliance, but it received few European and Middle Eastern immigrants. In the 20th century, limited numbers of immigrants arrived from Lebanon, Japan, South Korea, and China, as well as Mennonites from Canada, Russia, and Mexico. Large flows of Brazilian immigrants have been arriving since the 1960s, mainly to work in agriculture. Paraguayans continue to emigrate to Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, the United States, Italy, Spain, and France.
Brazil's rapid fertility decline since the 1960s is the main factor behind the country's slowing population growth rate, aging population, and fast-paced demographic transition. Brasilia has not taken full advantage of its large working-age population to develop its human capital and strengthen its social and economic institutions but is funding a study abroad program to bring advanced skills back to the country. The current favorable age structure will begin to shift around 2025, with the labor force shrinking and the elderly starting to compose an increasing share of the total population. Well-funded public pensions have nearly wiped out poverty among the elderly, and Bolsa Familia and other social programs have lifted tens of millions out of poverty. More than half of Brazil's population is considered middle class, but poverty and income inequality levels remain high; the Northeast, North, and Center-West, women, and black, mixed race, and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Disparities in opportunities foster social exclusion and contribute to Brazil's high crime rate, particularly violent crime in cities and favelas.
Brazil has traditionally been a net recipient of immigrants, with its southeast being the prime destination. After the importation of African slaves was outlawed in the mid-19th century, Brazil sought Europeans (Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Germans) and later Asians (Japanese) to work in agriculture, especially coffee cultivation. Recent immigrants come mainly from Argentina, Chile, and Andean countries (many are unskilled illegal migrants) or are returning Brazilian nationals. Since Brazil's economic downturn in the 1980s, emigration to the United States, Europe, and Japan has been rising but is negligible relative to Brazil's total population. The majority of these emigrants are well-educated and middle-class. Fewer Brazilian peasants are emigrating to neighboring countries to take up agricultural work.
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 56.6
youth dependency ratio: 47.2
elderly dependency ratio: 9.4
potential support ratio: 10.6 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 44.7
youth dependency ratio: 33.3
elderly dependency ratio: 11.3
potential support ratio: 8.8 (2015 est.)

Government

ParaguayBrazil
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Paraguay
conventional short form: Paraguay
local long form: Republica del Paraguay
local short form: Paraguay
etymology: the precise meaning of the name Paraguay is unclear, but it seems to derive from the river of the same name; one explanation has the name meaning ""water of the Payagua"" (an indigenous tribe that lived along the river)
"
conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
conventional short form: Brazil
local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
local short form: Brasil
etymology: the country name derives from the brazilwood tree that used to grow plentifully along the coast of Brazil and that was used to produce a deep red dye
Government typepresidential republic
federal presidential republic
Capitalname: Asuncion
geographic coordinates: 25 16 S, 57 40 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in October; ends fourth Sunday in March
name: Brasilia
geographic coordinates: 15 47 S, 47 55 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins third Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in February
note: Brazil has three time zones, including one for the Fernando de Noronha Islands
Administrative divisions17 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital city*; Alto Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amambay, Asuncion*, Boqueron, Caaguazu, Caazapa, Canindeyu, Central, Concepcion, Cordillera, Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, Neembucu, Paraguari, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro
26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins
Independence14 May 1811 (from Spain)
7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
National holidayIndependence Day, 14-15 May (1811) (observed 15 May)
Independence Day, 7 September (1822)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest approved and promulgated 20 June 1992; amended 2011, 2014 (2016)
several previous; latest ratified 5 October 1988; amended many times, last in 2016 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system with influences from Argentine, Spanish, Roman, and French civil law models; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice
civil law; note - a new civil law code was enacted in 2002 replacing the 1916 code
Suffrage18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 75
voluntary between 16 to 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory between 18 to 70 years of age; note - military conscripts by law cannot vote
Executive branchchief of state: President Horacio CARTES Jara (since 15 August 2013); Vice President Juan AFARA Maciel (since 15 August 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Horacio CARTES Jara (since 15 August 2013); Vice President Juan AFARA Maciel (since 15 August 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a single 5-year term; election last held on 21 April 2013 (next to be held in April 2018)
election results: Horacio CARTES elected president; percent of vote - Horacio CARTES (ANR) 45.8%, Efrain ALEGRE (PLRA) 36.9%, Mario FERREIRO (AP) 5.9%, Anibal CARRILLO (FG) 3.3%, other 8%
chief of state: President Michel Miguel Elias TEMER Lulia (since 31 August 2016); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Michel Miguel Elias TEMER Lulia (since 31 August 2016); Vice President (vacant)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5 October 2014 with runoff on 26 October 2014 (next to be held October 2018)
election results: Dilma ROUSSEFF reelected president in a runoff election; percent of vote - Dilma ROUSSEFF (PT) 51.6%, Aecio NEVES (PSDB) 48.4%
note: on 12 May 2016, Brazil's Senate voted to hold an impeachment trial of President Dilma ROUSSEFF, who was then suspended from her executive duties; Vice President Michel TEMER then took over as acting president; on 31 August 2016 the Senate voted 61-20 in favor of conviction and her removal from office; TEMER will now serve as president for the remainder of ROUSSEFF's term until 1 January 2019
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (45 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (80 seats; members directly elected in 18 multi-seat constituencies - corresponding to the country's 17 departments and capital city - by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators - last held on 21 April 2013 (next to be held in April 2018); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 21 April 2013 (next to be held in April 2018)
election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ANR 19, PLRA 12, FG 5, PDP 3, Avanza Pais 2, UNACE 2, PEN 1, PPQ 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ANR 44, PLRA 27, Avanza Pais 2, PEN 2, UNACE 2, FG 1, PPQ 1, other 1
description: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members each from 26 states and 3 from the federal district directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 8-year terms, with one-third and two-thirds of the membership elected alternately every 4 years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: Federal Senate - last held on 5 October 2014 for one-third of the Senate (next to be held in October 2018 for two-thirds of the Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 5 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018)
election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PMDB 5, PSDB 4, PDT 4, PSB 3, DEM (formerly PFL) 3, PT 2, PSD 2, PTB 2, PP 1, PR 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PT 70, PMDB 66, PSDB 54, PSD 37, PP 36, PR 34, PSB 34, PTB 25, DEM (formerly PFL) 22, PRB 21, PDT 19, SD 15, PSC 12, PROS 11, PCdoB 10, PPS 10, PV 8, PHS 5, PSOL 5, PTN 4, PMN 3, PRP 3, PEN 2, PTC 2, PSDC 2, PTdoB 1, PSL 1, PRTB 1
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of 9 justices divided 3 each into the Constitutional Court, Civil and Commercial Chamber, and Criminal Division
judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the Council of Magistrates or Consejo de la Magistratura, a 6-member independent body, and appointed by the Chamber of Senators with presidential concurrence; judges appointed until mandatory retirement at age 75
subordinate courts: appellate courts; first instance courts; minor courts, including justices of the peace
highest court(s): Supreme Federal Court or Supremo Tribunal Federal (consists of 11 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president and approved by the Federal Senate; justices appointed to serve until mandatory retirement at age 75
subordinate courts: Tribunal of the Union, Federal Appeals Court, Superior Court of Justice, Superior Electoral Court, regional federal courts; state court system
Political parties and leadersAsociacion Nacional Republicana - Colorado Party or ANR [Pedro ALLIANA]
Avanza Pais coalition [Adolfo FERREIRO]
Broad Front coalition (Frente Guasu) or FG [Esperanza MARTINEZ]
Movimiento Union Nacional de Ciudadanos Eticos or UNACE [Jorge OVIEDO MATTO]
Partido del Movimiento al Socialismo or P-MAS [Camilo Ernesto SOARES Machado]
Partido Democratica Progresista or PDP [Desiree MASI]
Partido Encuentro Nacional or PEN [Fernando CAMACHO Paredes]
Partido Liberal Radical Autentico or PLRA [Miguel ABDON SAGUIER]
Partido Pais Solidario or PPS [Carlos Alberto FILIZZOLA Pallares]
Partido Popular Tekojoja [Sixto PEREIRA]
Patria Querida (Beloved Fatherland Party) or PPQ [Sebastian ACHA]
Brazilian Communist Party or PCB [Ivan Martins PINHEIRO]
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER]
Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Cristiane BRASIL]
Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy FIDELIX da Cruz]
Brazilian Republican Party or PRB [Marcos Antonio PEREIRA]
Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Aecio NEVES]
Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Carlos Roberto SIQUEIRA de Barros]
Christian Labor Party or PTC [Daniel TOURINHO]
Christian Social Democratic Party or PSDC [Jose Maria EYMAEL]
Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO]
Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI]
The Democrats or DEM [Jose AGRIPINO] (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL)
Free Homeland Party or PPL [Sergio RUBENS]
Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz PENNA]
Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS [Eduardo MACHADO]
Labor Party of Brazil or PTdoB [Luis Henrique de Oliveira RESENDE]
National Ecologic Party or PEN [Adilson Barroso OLIVEIRA]
National Labor Party or PTN [Jose Masci de ABREU]
National Mobilization Party or PMN [Telma RIBEIRO dos Santos]
Party of the Republic or PR [Alfredo NASCIMENTO]
Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto Joao Pereira FREIRE]
Progressive Party or PP [Ciro NOGUEIRA]
Progressive Republican Party or PRP [Ovasco Roma Altimari RESENDE]
Republican Social Order Party or PROS [Euripedes JUNIOR]
Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge Abdala NOSSEIS]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Guilherme CAMPOS]
Social Liberal Party or PSL [Luciano Caldas BIVAR]
Socialism and Freedom Party or PSOL [Luiz ARAUJO]
Solidarity or SD [Paulo PEREIRA DA SILVA]
United Socialist Workers' Party or PSTU [Jose Maria DE ALMEIDA]
Workers' Cause Party or PCO [Rui Costa PIMENTA]
Workers' Party or PT [Rui FALCAO]
Political pressure groups and leadersAhorristas Estafados or AE
National Coordinating Board of Campesino Organizations or MCNOC [Luis AGUAYO]
National Federation of Campesinos or FNC [Odilon ESPINOLA]
National Workers Central or CNT [Secretary General Juan TORRALES]
Paraguayan Workers Confederation or CPT
Roman Catholic Church
Unitary Workers Central or CUT [Jorge Guzman ALVARENGA Malgarejo]
Landless Workers' Movement or MST
other: industrial federations; labor unions and federations; large farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical Christian churches and the Catholic Church
International organization participationCAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
AfDB (nonregional member), BIS, BRICS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, CPLP, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador German Hugo ROJAS Irigoyen (since 28 December 2016)
chancery: 2400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-6960 through 6962
FAX: [1] (202) 234-4508
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Miami, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Sergio Silva do AMARAL (since 16 September 2016)
chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700
FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Hugo F. RODRIGUES, Jr. (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: 1776 Avenida Mariscal Lopez, Casilla Postal 402, Asuncion
mailing address: Unit 4711, DPO AA 34036-0001
telephone: [595] (21) 213-715
FAX: [595] (21) 213-728
chief of mission: Ambassador Liliana AYALDE (since 31 October 2013)
embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia
mailing address: Unit 7500, DPO, AA 34030
telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000
FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136
consulate(s) general: Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
Flag descriptionthree equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue with an emblem centered in the white band; unusual flag in that the emblem is different on each side; the obverse (hoist side at the left) bears the national coat of arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a green wreath capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles); the reverse (hoist side at the right) bears a circular seal of the treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of Liberty and the words PAZ Y JUSTICIA (Peace and Justice)); red symbolizes bravery and patriotism, white represents integrity and peace, and blue denotes liberty and generosity
note: the three color bands resemble those on the flag of the Netherlands; one of only three national flags that differ on their obverse and reverse sides - the others are Moldova and Saudi Arabia
green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress); the current flag was inspired by the banner of the former Empire of Brazil (1822-1889); on the imperial flag, the green represented the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil, while the yellow stood for the Habsburg Family of his wife; on the modern flag the green represents the forests of the country and the yellow rhombus its mineral wealth (the diamond shape roughly mirrors that of the country); the blue circle and stars, which replaced the coat of arms of the original flag, depict the sky over Rio de Janeiro on the morning of 15 November 1889 - the day the Republic of Brazil was declared; the number of stars has changed with the creation of new states and has risen from an original 21 to the current 27 (one for each state and the Federal District)
note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Eritrea, and Vanuatu
National anthem"name: ""Paraguayos, Republica o muerte!"" (Paraguayans, The Republic or Death!)
lyrics/music: Francisco Esteban ACUNA de Figueroa/disputed
note: adopted 1934, in use since 1846; officially adopted following its re-arrangement in 1934
"
"name: ""Hino Nacional Brasileiro"" (Brazilian National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Joaquim Osorio Duque ESTRADA/Francisco Manoel DA SILVA
note: music adopted 1890, lyrics adopted 1922; the anthem's music, composed in 1822, was used unofficially for many years before it was adopted
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)lion; national colors: red, white, blue
Southern Cross constellation; national colors: green, yellow, blue
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: at least one parent must be a native-born citizen of Paraguay
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years

Economy

ParaguayBrazil
Economy - overviewLandlocked Paraguay has a market economy distinguished by a large informal sector, featuring re-export of imported consumer goods to neighboring countries, as well as the activities of thousands of microenterprises and urban street vendors. A large percentage of the population, especially in rural areas, derives its living from agricultural activity, often on a subsistence basis. Because of the importance of the informal sector, accurate economic measures are difficult to obtain.

On a per capita basis, real income has grown steadily over the past decade. The economy grew rapidly between 2003 and 2008 as strong world demand for commodities, combined with high prices and favorable weather, supported Paraguay's commodity-based export expansion. Paraguay is the sixth largest soy producer in the world. Drought hit in 2008, reducing agricultural exports and slowing the economy even before the onset of the global recession. The economy fell 3.8% in 2009, as lower world demand and commodity prices caused exports to contract. Severe drought and outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in 2012 led to a brief drop in beef and other agricultural exports. Since 2014, however, Paraguay’s economy has grown at a 4% average annual rate due to strong production and high global prices, at a time when other countries in the region have contracted.

The Paraguayan Government recognizes the need to diversify its economy and has taken steps in recent years to do so. In addition to looking for new commodity markets in the Middle East and Europe, Paraguayan officials have promoted the country’s low labor costs, cheap energy from its massive Itaipu hydroelectric dam, and single-digit tax rate on foreign firms. As a result, the number of factories operating in the country – mostly transplants from Brazil - has tripled since 2014.

Political uncertainty, corruption, limited progress on structural reform, and deficient infrastructure are the main obstacles to long-term growth. Paraguay has been adverse to public debt throughout its history, but has recently changed its anti-debt policies to finance infrastructure improvements to attract foreign investment. Judicial corruption is endemic and is seen as the greatest barrier to attracting more foreign investment.
Brazil is the eighth-largest economy in the world, but is recovering from a recession in 2015 and 2016 that ranks as the worst in the country’s history. Falling commodity prices reduced export revenues and investment, which weakened the Brazilian Real and cut tax revenues. The weaker real made existing public debt, which was largely denominated in foreign currency, more expensive. Lower tax revenues strained the government budget.

Economic reforms proposed in 2016 aim to slow the growth of government spending and reduce barriers to foreign investment. Government spending growth helped to push public debt to 70% of GDP at the end of 2016 up from 50% in 2012. Policies to strengthen Brazil’s workforce and industrial sector, such as local content requirements, may have boosted employment at the expense of investment.

Former President Dilma ROUSSEFF was impeached and convicted in August 2016 for moving funds among government budgets; the economy has also been affected by multiple corruption scandals involving private companies and government officials. Sanctions against the firms involved—some of the largest in Brazil—has limited their business opportunities, producing a ripple effect on associated businesses and contractors. In addition, investment in these companies has declined because of the scandals.

Brazil is a member of the Common Market of the South (Mercosur), a trade bloc including Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela. After the Asian and Russian financial crises, the trade bloc adopted a protectionist stance to guard against exposure to the volatility of foreign markets. Brazil and its Mercosur partners have pledged to open the bloc to more trade and investment, but changes require approval of all five members, which makes policy adjustments to difficult to enact.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$64.67 billion (2016 est.)
$62.48 billion (2015 est.)
$60.61 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3.081 trillion (2016 est.)
$3.192 trillion (2015 est.)
$3.371 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.5% (2016 est.)
3.1% (2015 est.)
4.7% (2014 est.)
-3.5% (2016 est.)
-3.8% (2015 est.)
0.1% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$9,500 (2016 est.)
$9,200 (2015 est.)
$9,200 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$14,800 (2016 est.)
$15,400 (2015 est.)
$16,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 17.1%
industry: 27.3%
services: 55.6% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 5.2%
industry: 22.7%
services: 72%
(2016 est.)
Population below poverty line22.2% (2015 est.)
"3.7%
note: approximately 4% of the population are below the ""extreme"" poverty line (2016 est.)
"
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.5%
highest 10%: 37.6% (2013 est.)
lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 41.6% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)3.8% (2016 est.)
3.1% (2015 est.)
6.7% (2016 est.)
10.7% (2015 est.)
Labor force3.291 million (2016 est.)
101.9 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 26.5%
industry: 18.5%
services: 55% (2008)
agriculture: 10%
industry: 39.8%
services: 50.2%
(2016 est.)
Unemployment rate5.9% (2016 est.)
6.1% (2015 est.)
11.8% (2016 est.)
8.9% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index51.7 (2014)
53.2 (2009)
49.7 (2014)
55.3 (2001)
Budgetrevenues: $5.231 billion
expenditures: $5.231 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $311.9 billion
expenditures: $262.6 billion (2016 est.)
Industriessugar, cement, textiles, beverages, wood products, steel, base metals, electric power
textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment
Industrial production growth rate6.5% (2016 est.)
-8.4% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, sugarcane, soybeans, corn, wheat, tobacco, cassava (manioc, tapioca), fruits, vegetables; beef, pork, eggs, milk; timber
coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef
Exports$8.594 billion (2016 est.)
$8.357 billion (2015 est.)
$189.7 billion (2016 est.)
$191.1 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiessoybeans, livestock feed, cotton, meat, edible oils, wood, leather, gold
transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, automobiles
Exports - partnersBrazil 31.7%, Russia 9.1%, Chile 7.1%, Argentina 7% (2015)
China 18.6%, US 12.7%, Argentina 6.7%, Netherlands 5.3% (2015)
Imports$8.572 billion (2016 est.)
$9.529 billion (2015 est.)
$134.2 billion (2016 est.)
$171.4 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesroad vehicles, consumer goods, tobacco, petroleum products, electrical machinery, tractors, chemicals, vehicle parts
machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil, automotive parts, electronics
Imports - partnersBrazil 25.4%, China 23.7%, Argentina 14.8%, US 7.9% (2015)
China 17.9%, US 15.6%, Germany 6.1%, Argentina 6% (2015)
Debt - external$15.42 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$544.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$542.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesguarani (PYG) per US dollar -
5,689.1 (2016 est.)
5,160.4 (2015 est.)
5,160.4 (2014 est.)
4,462.2 (2013 est.)
4,424.9 (2012 est.)
reals (BRL) per US dollar -
3.39 (2016 est.)
3.3315 (2015 est.)
3.3315 (2014 est.)
2.3535 (2013 est.)
1.95 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt25.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
24.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
73.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
66.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$6.059 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.939 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$373.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$368.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$158 million (2016 est.)
-$287 million (2015 est.)
-$23.51 billion (2016 est.)
-$58.88 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$32.19 billion (2016 est.)
$1.77 trillion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$7.114 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$753.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$615 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$309 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$259 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$295 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$288.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$962.3 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$958.1 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$42 million (31 December 2010 est.)
$490.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$843.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.02 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate5.5% (31 December 2012)
6% (31 December 2011)
13.75% (31 December 2016 est.)
14.25% (31 December 2015)
Commercial bank prime lending rate21% (31 December 2016 est.)
19.74% (31 December 2015 est.)
47.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
43.96% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$13.94 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.06 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.076 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.644 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$4.39 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.974 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$107 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$85.64 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$9.483 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$8.546 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$928.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$835.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues16.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)0% of GDP (2016 est.)
2.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 13%
male: 10%
female: 17.8% (2014 est.)
total: 15%
male: 12.3%
female: 18.7% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 67.4%
government consumption: 12.9%
investment in fixed capital: 15.3%
investment in inventories: 0.3%
exports of goods and services: 43.3%
imports of goods and services: -39.2% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 62.2%
government consumption: 20%
investment in fixed capital: 19.8%
investment in inventories: -0.5%
exports of goods and services: 12.8%
imports of goods and services: -14.3% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving15% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
15.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
17.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
16.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
16.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

ParaguayBrazil
Electricity - production55 billion kWh (2014 est.)
577 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption9.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
518 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports41 billion kWh (2014 est.)
3 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
34 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
2.532 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
394,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
397,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
16 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
471.1 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
20.35 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
37.57 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
100 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
17.32 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity8.8 million kW (2014 est.)
135 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels0.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
18.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants99.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
69.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
1.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
10.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
2.811 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption36,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
3.144 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
296,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports33,270 bbl/day (2013 est.)
519,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy3.9 million Mt (2013 est.)
535 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 100,000
electrification - total population: 98%
electrification - urban areas: 99%
electrification - rural areas: 96% (2013)
population without electricity: 800,000
electrification - total population: 99.5%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 97% (2013)

Telecommunications

ParaguayBrazil
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 384,135
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 43,677,141
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 21 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 7.412 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109 (July 2015 est.)
total: 257.814 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 126 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: the fixed-line market is a state monopoly and fixed-line telephone service is meager; principal switching center is in Asuncion
domestic: deficiencies in provision of fixed-line service have resulted in a rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services fostered by competition among multiple providers
international: country code - 595; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: good working system including an extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations
domestic: fixed-line connections have remained relatively stable in recent years and stand at about 20 per 100 persons; less-expensive mobile-cellular technology has been a major driver in expanding telephone service to the lower-income segments of the population with mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 125 per 100 persons
international: country code - 55; landing point for a number of submarine cables, including Americas-1, Americas-2, Atlantis-2, GlobeNet, South America-1, South American Crossing/Latin American Nautilus, and UNISUR that provide direct connectivity to South and Central America, the Caribbean, the US, Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station (2015)
Internet country code.py
.br
Internet userstotal: 3.011 million
percent of population: 44.4% (July 2015 est.)
total: 120.676 million
percent of population: 59.1% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast media6 privately owned TV stations; about 75 commercial and community radio stations; 1 state-owned radio network (2010)
state-run Radiobras operates a radio and a TV network; more than 1,000 radio stations and more than 100 TV channels operating - mostly privately owned; private media ownership highly concentrated (2007)

Transportation

ParaguayBrazil
Railwaystotal: 30 km
standard gauge: 30 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
total: 28,538 km
broad gauge: 5,822.3 km 1.600-m gauge (498.3 km electrified)
dual gauge: 492 km 1.600-1.000-m gauge
standard gauge: 194 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 23,341.6 km 1.000-m gauge (24 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 32,059 km
paved: 4,860 km
unpaved: 27,199 km (2010)
total: 1,580,964 km
paved: 212,798 km
unpaved: 1,368,166 km
note: does not include urban roads (2010)
Waterways3,100 km (primarily on the Paraguay and Paran? River systems) (2012)
50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2012)
Ports and terminalsriver port(s): Asuncion, Villeta, San Antonio, Encarnacion (Parana)
major seaport(s): Belem, Paranagua, Rio Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Sao Sebastiao, Tubarao
river port(s): Manaus (Amazon)
dry bulk cargo port(s): Sepetiba ore terminal, Tubarao
container port(s) (TEUs): Santos (2,985,922), Itajai (983,985)(2011)
oil terminal(s): DTSE/Gegua oil terminal, Ilha Grande (Gebig), Guaiba Island terminal, Guamare oil terminal
LNG terminal(s) (import): Pecem, Rio de Janiero
Merchant marinetotal: 19
by type: cargo 13, container 3, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 6 (Argentina 5, Netherlands 1) (2010)
total: 109
by type: bulk carrier 18, cargo 16, chemical tanker 7, container 13, liquefied gas 11, petroleum tanker 39, roll on/roll off 5
foreign-owned: 27 (Chile 1, Denmark 3, Germany 6, Greece 1, Norway 3, Spain 12, Turkey 1)
registered in other countries: 36 (Argentina 1, Bahamas 1, Ghana 1, Liberia 20, Marshall Islands 1, Panama 3, Singapore 9) (2010)
Airports799 (2013)
4,093 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 15
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2013)
total: 698
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 179
914 to 1,523 m: 436
under 914 m: 49 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 784
1,524 to 2,437 m: 23
914 to 1,523 m: 290
under 914 m: 471 (2013)
total: 3,395
1,524 to 2,437 m: 92
914 to 1,523 m: 1,619
under 914 m: 1,684 (2013)

Military

ParaguayBrazil
Military branchesArmed Forces Command (Commando de las Fuerzas Militares): Army, National Navy (Armada Nacional, includes Marine Corps, Naval Aviation, and Coast Guard), Paraguayan Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Paraguay, FAP), Logistics Command, War Materiel Directorate (2012)
Brazilian Army (Exercito Brasileiro, EB), Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil, MB, includes Naval Air and Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais)), Brazilian Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB) (2011)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation is 12 months for Army, 24 months for Navy; volunteers for the Air Force must be younger than 22 years of age with a secondary school diploma (2012)
"18-45 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 10-12 months; 17-45 years of age for voluntary service; an increasing percentage of the ranks are ""long-service"" volunteer professionals; women were allowed to serve in the armed forces beginning in early 1980s, when the Brazilian Army became the first army in South America to accept women into career ranks; women serve in Navy and Air Force only in Women's Reserve Corps (2012)
"
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.71% of GDP (2015)
1.4% of GDP (2014)
1.36% of GDP (2013)
1.38% of GDP (2012)
1.2% of GDP (2011)
1.39% of GDP (2015)
1.35% of GDP (2014)
1.33% of GDP (2013)
1.38% of GDP (2012)
1.41% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

ParaguayBrazil
Disputes - internationalunruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics trafficking, and fundraising for violent extremist organizations
uncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Brazil's border region with Venezuela
Illicit drugsmajor illicit producer of cannabis, most or all of which is consumed in Brazil, Argentina, and Chile; transshipment country for Andean cocaine headed for Brazil, other Southern Cone markets, and Europe; weak border controls, extensive corruption and money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area; weak anti-money-laundering laws and enforcement
second-largest consumer of cocaine in the world; illicit producer of cannabis; trace amounts of coca cultivation in the Amazon region, used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian, Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics proceeds are often laundered through the financial system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area (2008)

Source: CIA Factbook