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Paraguay vs. Bolivia

Introduction

ParaguayBolivia
BackgroundParaguay achieved its independence from Spain in 1811. In the disastrous War of the Triple Alliance (1865-70) - between Paraguay and Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay - Paraguay lost two-thirds of its adult males and much of its territory. The country stagnated economically for the next half century. Following the Chaco War of 1932-35 with Bolivia, Paraguay gained a large part of the Chaco lowland region. The 35-year military dictatorship of Alfredo STROESSNER ended in 1989, and, despite a marked increase in political infighting in recent years, Paraguay has held relatively free and regular presidential elections since the country's return to democracy.
Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has consisted of a series of coups and countercoups, with the last coup occurring in 1978. Democratic civilian rule was established in 1982, but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and illegal drug production.
In December 2005, Bolivians elected Movement Toward Socialism leader Evo MORALES president - by the widest margin of any leader since the restoration of civilian rule in 1982 - after he ran on a promise to change the country's traditional political class and empower the nation's poor, indigenous majority. In December 2009 and October 2014, President MORALES easily won reelection. His party maintained control of the legislative branch of the government, which has allowed him to continue his process of change. In February 2016, MORALES narrowly lost a referendum to approve a constitutional amendment that would have allowed him to compete in the 2019 presidential election. Despite the loss, MORALES has already been chosen by his party to run again in 2019, via a still-undetermined method for him to appear on the ballot.

Geography

ParaguayBolivia
LocationCentral South America, northeast of Argentina, southwest of Brazil
Central South America, southwest of Brazil
Geographic coordinates23 00 S, 58 00 W
17 00 S, 65 00 W
Map referencesSouth America
South America
Areatotal: 406,752 sq km
land: 397,302 sq km
water: 9,450 sq km
total: 1,098,581 sq km
land: 1,083,301 sq km
water: 15,280 sq km
Area - comparativeabout three times the size of New York state; slightly smaller than California
slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Land boundariestotal: 4,655 km
border countries (3): Argentina 2,531 km, Bolivia 753 km, Brazil 1,371 km
total: 7,252 km
border countries (5): Argentina 942 km, Brazil 3,403 km, Chile 942 km, Paraguay 753 km, Peru 1,212 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climatesubtropical to temperate; substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, becoming semiarid in the far west
varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
Terraingrassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere
rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 178 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of Rio Paraguay and Rio Parana 46 m
highest point: Cerro Pero 842 m
mean elevation: 1,192 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m
highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m
Natural resourceshydropower, timber, iron ore, manganese, limestone
tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 53.8%
arable land 10.8%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 42.8%
forest: 43.8%
other: 2.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 34.3%
arable land 3.6%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 30.5%
forest: 52.5%
other: 13.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,362 sq km (2012)
3,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardslocal flooding in southeast (early September to June); poorly drained plains may become boggy (early October to June)
flooding in the northeast (March to April)
volcanism: volcanic activity in Andes Mountains on the border with Chile; historically active volcanoes in this region are Irruputuncu (elev. 5,163 m), which last erupted in 1995, and Olca-Paruma
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; water pollution; inadequate means for waste disposal pose health risks for many urban residents; loss of wetlands
the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking and irrigation
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - notelandlocked; lies between Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil; population concentrated in southern part of country
landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru
Population distributionmost of the population resides in the eastern half of the country; to the west lies the Gran Chaco, which accounts for 60% of the land territory, but only 2% of the overall population
a high altitude plain in the west between two cordillera of the Andes, known as the Altiplano, is the focal area for most of the population; a dense settlement pattern is also found in and around the city of Santa Cruz, located on the eastern side of the Andes

Demographics

ParaguayBolivia
Population6,862,812 (July 2016 est.)
10,969,649 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 25.04% (male 874,541/female 844,212)
15-24 years: 19.74% (male 680,998/female 673,534)
25-54 years: 40.56% (male 1,392,814/female 1,390,655)
55-64 years: 7.74% (male 270,769/female 260,300)
65 years and over: 6.92% (male 222,435/female 252,554) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 32.36% (male 1,808,567/female 1,740,760)
15-24 years: 19.55% (male 1,086,134/female 1,058,584)
25-54 years: 37.08% (male 1,986,514/female 2,081,415)
55-64 years: 5.83% (male 296,197/female 343,394)
65 years and over: 5.18% (male 250,749/female 317,335) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 27.8 years
male: 27.5 years
female: 28 years (2016 est.)
total: 24 years
male: 23.3 years
female: 24.7 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.17% (2016 est.)
1.54% (2016 est.)
Birth rate16.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
22.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate4.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 19.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 22.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 36.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 39.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 32.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 77.2 years
male: 74.5 years
female: 80 years (2016 est.)
total population: 69.2 years
male: 66.4 years
female: 72.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.91 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.68 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.43% (2015 est.)
0.29% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Paraguayan(s)
adjective: Paraguayan
noun: Bolivian(s)
adjective: Bolivian
Ethnic groupsmestizo (mixed Spanish and Amerindian) 95%, other 5%
"mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 68%, indigenous 20%, white 5%, cholo/chola 2%, black 1%, other 1%, unspecified 3% ; 44% of respondents indicated feeling part of some indigenous group, predominantly Quechua or Aymara
note: results among surveys vary based on the wording of the ethnicity question and the available response choices; the 2001 national census did not provide ""mestizo"" as a response choice, resulting in a much higher proportion of respondents identifying themselves as belonging to one of the available indigenous ethnicity choices; the use of ""mestizo"" and ""cholo"" varies among response choices in surveys, with surveys using the terms interchangeably, providing one or the other as a response choice, or providing the two as separate response choices (2009 est.)
"
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS17,500 (2015 est.)
18,200 (2015 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 89.6%, Protestant 6.2%, other Christian 1.1%, other or unspecified 1.9%, none 1.1% (2002 census)
Roman Catholic 76.8%, Evangelical and Pentecostal 8.1%, Protestant 7.9%, other 1.7%, none 5.5% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths800 (2015 est.)
800 (2015 est.)
LanguagesSpanish (official), Guarani (official)
Spanish (official) 60.7%, Quechua (official) 21.2%, Aymara (official) 14.6%, foreign languages 2.4%, Guarani (official) 0.6%, other native languages 0.4%, none 0.1%
note: Bolivia's 2009 constitution designates Spanish and all indigenous languages as official; 36 indigenous languages are specified, including some that are extinct (2001 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.9%
male: 94.8%
female: 92.9% (2010 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.7%
male: 97.8%
female: 93.6% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 13 years (2010)
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2007)
Education expenditures5% of GDP (2012)
7.3% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 59.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 68.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.26% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 94.9% of population
total: 98% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 5.1% of population
total: 2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 96.7% of population
rural: 75.6% of population
total: 90% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.3% of population
rural: 24.4% of population
total: 10% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 95.5% of population
rural: 78.4% of population
total: 88.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4.5% of population
rural: 21.6% of population
total: 11.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 60.8% of population
rural: 27.5% of population
total: 50.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 39.2% of population
rural: 72.5% of population
total: 49.7% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationASUNCION (capital) 2.356 million (2015)
Santa Cruz 2.107 million; LA PAZ (capital) 1.816 million; Cochabamba 1.24 million; Sucre (constitutional capital) 372,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate132 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
206 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight2.6% (2012)
4.5% (2008)
Health expenditures9.8% of GDP (2014)
6.3% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.29 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
0.47 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
Hospital bed density1.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
1.1 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate15.1% (2014)
15.8% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 205,297
percentage: 15% (2004 est.)
total number: 757,352
percentage: 26.4%
note: data represent children ages 5-17 (2008 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth22.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2008 est.)
21.2 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2008 est.)
Demographic profileParaguay falls below the Latin American average in several socioeconomic categories, including immunization rates, potable water, sanitation, and secondary school enrollment, and has greater rates of income inequality and child and maternal mortality. Paraguay's poverty rate has declined in recent years but remains high, especially in rural areas, with more than a third of the population below the poverty line. However, the well-being of the poor in many regions has improved in terms of housing quality and access to clean water, telephone service, and electricity. The fertility rate continues to drop, declining sharply from an average 4.3 births per woman in the late 1990s to about 2 in 2013, as a result of the greater educational attainment of women, increased use of contraception, and a desire for smaller families among young women.
Paraguay is a country of emigration; it has not attracted large numbers of immigrants because of political instability, civil wars, years of dictatorship, and the greater appeal of neighboring countries. Paraguay first tried to encourage immigration in 1870 in order to rebound from the heavy death toll it suffered during the War of the Triple Alliance, but it received few European and Middle Eastern immigrants. In the 20th century, limited numbers of immigrants arrived from Lebanon, Japan, South Korea, and China, as well as Mennonites from Canada, Russia, and Mexico. Large flows of Brazilian immigrants have been arriving since the 1960s, mainly to work in agriculture. Paraguayans continue to emigrate to Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, the United States, Italy, Spain, and France.
Bolivia ranks at or near the bottom among Latin American countries in several areas of health and development, including poverty, education, fertility, malnutrition, mortality, and life expectancy. On the positive side, more children are being vaccinated and more pregnant women are getting prenatal care and having skilled health practitioners attend their births. Bolivia's income inequality is the highest in Latin America and one of the highest in the world. Public education is of poor quality, and educational opportunities are among the most unevenly distributed in Latin America, with girls and indigenous and rural children less likely to be literate or to complete primary school. The lack of access to education and family planning services helps to sustain Bolivia's high fertility rate - approximately three children per woman. Bolivia's lack of clean water and basic sanitation, especially in rural areas, contributes to health problems.
Almost 7% of Bolivia's population lives abroad, primarily to work in Argentina, Brazil, Spain, and the United States. In recent years, more restrictive immigration policies in Europe and the United States have increased the flow of Bolivian emigrants to neighboring Argentina and Brazil.
Contraceptive prevalence rate79.4%
note: percent of women aged 15-44 (2008)
60.5% (2008)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 56.6
youth dependency ratio: 47.2
elderly dependency ratio: 9.4
potential support ratio: 10.6 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 63.7
youth dependency ratio: 53.1
elderly dependency ratio: 10.6
potential support ratio: 9.4 (2015 est.)

Government

ParaguayBolivia
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Paraguay
conventional short form: Paraguay
local long form: Republica del Paraguay
local short form: Paraguay
etymology: the precise meaning of the name Paraguay is unclear, but it seems to derive from the river of the same name; one explanation has the name meaning ""water of the Payagua"" (an indigenous tribe that lived along the river)
"
conventional long form: Plurinational State of Bolivia
conventional short form: Bolivia
local long form: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia
local short form: Bolivia
etymology: the country is named after Simon BOLIVAR, a 19th-century leader in the South American wars for independence
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Asuncion
geographic coordinates: 25 16 S, 57 40 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in October; ends fourth Sunday in March
name: La Paz (administrative capital); Sucre (constitutional [legislative and judicial] capital)
geographic coordinates: 16 30 S, 68 09 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions17 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital city*; Alto Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amambay, Asuncion*, Boqueron, Caaguazu, Caazapa, Canindeyu, Central, Concepcion, Cordillera, Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, Neembucu, Paraguari, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro
9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija
Independence14 May 1811 (from Spain)
6 August 1825 (from Spain)
National holidayIndependence Day, 14-15 May (1811) (observed 15 May)
Independence Day, 6 August (1825)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest approved and promulgated 20 June 1992; amended 2011, 2014 (2016)
many previous; latest drafted 6 August 2006 - 9 December 2008, approved by referendum 25 January 2009, effective 7 February 2009; amended 2013 (2015)
Legal systemcivil law system with influences from Argentine, Spanish, Roman, and French civil law models; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice
civil law system with influences from Roman, Spanish, canon (religious), French, and indigenous law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 75
18 years of age, universal and compulsory
Executive branchchief of state: President Horacio CARTES Jara (since 15 August 2013); Vice President Juan AFARA Maciel (since 15 August 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Horacio CARTES Jara (since 15 August 2013); Vice President Juan AFARA Maciel (since 15 August 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a single 5-year term; election last held on 21 April 2013 (next to be held in April 2018)
election results: Horacio CARTES elected president; percent of vote - Horacio CARTES (ANR) 45.8%, Efrain ALEGRE (PLRA) 36.9%, Mario FERREIRO (AP) 5.9%, Anibal CARRILLO (FG) 3.3%, other 8%
chief of state: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in 2019); note - a presidential candidate wins an election one of 3 ways
election results: Juan Evo MORALES Ayma reelected president; percent of vote - Juan Evo MORALES Ayma 61%; Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana 24.5%; Jorge QUIROGA 9.1%; other 5.4%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (45 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (80 seats; members directly elected in 18 multi-seat constituencies - corresponding to the country's 17 departments and capital city - by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators - last held on 21 April 2013 (next to be held in April 2018); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 21 April 2013 (next to be held in April 2018)
election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ANR 19, PLRA 12, FG 5, PDP 3, Avanza Pais 2, UNACE 2, PEN 1, PPQ 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ANR 44, PLRA 27, Avanza Pais 2, PEN 2, UNACE 2, FG 1, PPQ 1, other 1
description: bicameral Plurinational Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa Plurinacional consists of the Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (36 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; 70 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 53 indirectly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote, and 7 - apportioned to non-contiguous, rural areas in 7 of the 9 states - directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MAS 25, UD 9, PDC 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MAS 88, UD 32, PDC 10
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of 9 justices divided 3 each into the Constitutional Court, Civil and Commercial Chamber, and Criminal Division
judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the Council of Magistrates or Consejo de la Magistratura, a 6-member independent body, and appointed by the Chamber of Senators with presidential concurrence; judges appointed until mandatory retirement at age 75
subordinate courts: appellate courts; first instance courts; minor courts, including justices of the peace
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (consists of 12 judges or ministros organized into civil, penal, social, and administrative chambers); Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal (consists of 7 primary and 7 alternate magistrates); Plurinational Electoral Organ (consists of 7 members and 6 alternates); National Agro-Environment Court (consists of 5 primary and 5 alternate judges; Council of the Judiciary (consists of 3 primary and 3 alternate judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court, Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal, National Agro-Environmental Court, and Council of the Judiciary candidates pre-selected by the Plurinational Legislative Assembly and elected by direct popular vote; judges elected for 6-year terms; Plurinational Electoral Organ judges appointed - 6 by the Legislative Assembly and 1 by the president of the republic; members serve single 6-year terms
subordinate courts: District Courts (in each of the 9 administrative departments); Agro-Environmental lower courts
Political parties and leadersAsociacion Nacional Republicana - Colorado Party or ANR [Pedro ALLIANA]
Avanza Pais coalition [Adolfo FERREIRO]
Broad Front coalition (Frente Guasu) or FG [Esperanza MARTINEZ]
Movimiento Union Nacional de Ciudadanos Eticos or UNACE [Jorge OVIEDO MATTO]
Partido del Movimiento al Socialismo or P-MAS [Camilo Ernesto SOARES Machado]
Partido Democratica Progresista or PDP [Desiree MASI]
Partido Encuentro Nacional or PEN [Fernando CAMACHO Paredes]
Partido Liberal Radical Autentico or PLRA [Miguel ABDON SAGUIER]
Partido Pais Solidario or PPS [Carlos Alberto FILIZZOLA Pallares]
Partido Popular Tekojoja [Sixto PEREIRA]
Patria Querida (Beloved Fatherland Party) or PPQ [Sebastian ACHA]
Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez]
Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Juan Evo MORALES Ayma]
National Unity or UN [Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana]
Political pressure groups and leadersAhorristas Estafados or AE
National Coordinating Board of Campesino Organizations or MCNOC [Luis AGUAYO]
National Federation of Campesinos or FNC [Odilon ESPINOLA]
National Workers Central or CNT [Secretary General Juan TORRALES]
Paraguayan Workers Confederation or CPT
Roman Catholic Church
Unitary Workers Central or CUT [Jorge Guzman ALVARENGA Malgarejo]
Bolivian Workers Central or COB
Federation of Neighborhood Councils of El Alto or FEJUVE-El Alto
Landless Movement or MST
National Confederation of Native Rural Indigenous Women of Bolivia or Bartolina Sisa
National Coordinator for Change or CONALCAM
Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB
other: Cocalero unions; indigenous organizations (including Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of Eastern Bolivia or CIDOB and National Council of Ayullus and Markas of Quollasuyu or CONAMAQ); Interculturales union or CSCIB; labor unions (including the Central Bolivian Workers' Union or COB and Cooperative Miners Federation or FENCOMIN); various federations of neighborhood councils or FEJUVEs (including the national organization)
International organization participationCAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
CAN, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador German Hugo ROJAS Irigoyen (since 28 December 2016)
chancery: 2400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-6960 through 6962
FAX: [1] (202) 234-4508
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Miami, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Freddy BERSATTI Tudela
chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 328-4155
FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712
consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Washington,DC
note: in September 2008, the US expelled the Bolivian ambassador to the US in reciprocity for Bolivia expelling the US ambassador to Bolivia
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Hugo F. RODRIGUES, Jr. (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: 1776 Avenida Mariscal Lopez, Casilla Postal 402, Asuncion
mailing address: Unit 4711, DPO AA 34036-0001
telephone: [595] (21) 213-715
FAX: [595] (21) 213-728
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Peter Brennan (since June 2014)
embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, Casilla 425, La Paz
mailing address: 3220 La Paz Place, Dulles, VA, 20189-3220
telephone: [591] (2) 216-8000
FAX: [591] (2) 216-8111
note: in September 2008, the Bolivian Government expelled the US Ambassador to Bolivia, and the countries have yet to reinstate ambassadors
Flag descriptionthree equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue with an emblem centered in the white band; unusual flag in that the emblem is different on each side; the obverse (hoist side at the left) bears the national coat of arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a green wreath capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles); the reverse (hoist side at the right) bears a circular seal of the treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of Liberty and the words PAZ Y JUSTICIA (Peace and Justice)); red symbolizes bravery and patriotism, white represents integrity and peace, and blue denotes liberty and generosity
note: the three color bands resemble those on the flag of the Netherlands; one of only three national flags that differ on their obverse and reverse sides - the others are Moldova and Saudi Arabia
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; red stands for bravery and the blood of national heroes, yellow for the nation's mineral resources, and green for the fertility of the land
note: similar to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; in 2009, a presidential decree made it mandatory for a so-called wiphala - a square, multi-colored flag representing the country's indigenous peoples - to be used alongside the traditional flag
National anthem"name: ""Paraguayos, Republica o muerte!"" (Paraguayans, The Republic or Death!)
lyrics/music: Francisco Esteban ACUNA de Figueroa/disputed
note: adopted 1934, in use since 1846; officially adopted following its re-arrangement in 1934
"
"name: ""Cancion Patriotica"" (Patriotic Song)
lyrics/music: Jose Ignacio de SANJINES/Leopoldo Benedetto VINCENTI
note: adopted 1852
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)lion; national colors: red, white, blue
llama, Andean condor; national colors: red, yellow, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: at least one parent must be a native-born citizen of Paraguay
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

Economy

ParaguayBolivia
Economy - overviewLandlocked Paraguay has a market economy distinguished by a large informal sector, featuring re-export of imported consumer goods to neighboring countries, as well as the activities of thousands of microenterprises and urban street vendors. A large percentage of the population, especially in rural areas, derives its living from agricultural activity, often on a subsistence basis. Because of the importance of the informal sector, accurate economic measures are difficult to obtain.

On a per capita basis, real income has grown steadily over the past decade. The economy grew rapidly between 2003 and 2008 as strong world demand for commodities, combined with high prices and favorable weather, supported Paraguay's commodity-based export expansion. Paraguay is the sixth largest soy producer in the world. Drought hit in 2008, reducing agricultural exports and slowing the economy even before the onset of the global recession. The economy fell 3.8% in 2009, as lower world demand and commodity prices caused exports to contract. Severe drought and outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in 2012 led to a brief drop in beef and other agricultural exports. Since 2014, however, Paraguay’s economy has grown at a 4% average annual rate due to strong production and high global prices, at a time when other countries in the region have contracted.

The Paraguayan Government recognizes the need to diversify its economy and has taken steps in recent years to do so. In addition to looking for new commodity markets in the Middle East and Europe, Paraguayan officials have promoted the country’s low labor costs, cheap energy from its massive Itaipu hydroelectric dam, and single-digit tax rate on foreign firms. As a result, the number of factories operating in the country – mostly transplants from Brazil - has tripled since 2014.

Political uncertainty, corruption, limited progress on structural reform, and deficient infrastructure are the main obstacles to long-term growth. Paraguay has been adverse to public debt throughout its history, but has recently changed its anti-debt policies to finance infrastructure improvements to attract foreign investment. Judicial corruption is endemic and is seen as the greatest barrier to attracting more foreign investment.
Bolivia is a resource rich country with strong growth attributed to captive markets for natural gas exports – to Brazil and Argentina. However, the country remains one of the least developed countries in Latin America because of state-oriented policies that deter investment and growth.

Following a disastrous economic crisis during the early 1980s, reforms spurred private investment, stimulated economic growth, and cut poverty rates in the 1990s. The period 2003-05 was characterized by political instability, racial tensions, and violent protests against plans - subsequently abandoned - to export Bolivia's newly discovered natural gas reserves to large Northern Hemisphere markets. In 2005, the government passed a controversial hydrocarbons law that imposed significantly higher royalties and required foreign firms then operating under risk-sharing contracts to surrender all production to the state energy company in exchange for a predetermined service fee. High commodity prices between 2010 and 2014 sustained rapid growth and large trade surpluses with GDP growing 6.8% in 2013 and 5.4% in 2014. The global decline in oil prices that began in late 2014 exerted downward pressure on the price Bolivia receives for exported gas and resulted in lower GDP growth rates - 4.9% in 2015 and 4.3% in 2016 - and losses in government revenue as well as fiscal and trade deficits.

A lack of foreign investment in the key sectors of mining and hydrocarbons, along with conflict among social groups, pose challenges for the Bolivian economy. In 2015, President Evo MORALES expanded efforts to court international investment and boost Bolivia’s energy production capacity. MORALES passed an investment law and promised not to nationalize additional industries in an effort to improve the investment climate. In early 2016, the Government of Bolivia approved the 2016-2020 National Economic and Social Development Plan aimed at maintaining growth of 5% and reducing poverty.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$64.67 billion (2016 est.)
$62.48 billion (2015 est.)
$60.61 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$78.66 billion (2016 est.)
$75.41 billion (2015 est.)
$71.89 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.5% (2016 est.)
3.1% (2015 est.)
4.7% (2014 est.)
4.3% (2016 est.)
4.9% (2015 est.)
5.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$9,500 (2016 est.)
$9,200 (2015 est.)
$9,200 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$7,200 (2016 est.)
$7,000 (2015 est.)
$6,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 17.1%
industry: 27.3%
services: 55.6% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 12.9%
industry: 29.3%
services: 57.7% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line22.2% (2015 est.)
38.6%
note: based on percent of population living on less than the international standard of $2/day (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.5%
highest 10%: 37.6% (2013 est.)
lowest 10%: 0.9%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)3.8% (2016 est.)
3.1% (2015 est.)
4% (2016 est.)
3% (2015 est.)
Labor force3.291 million (2016 est.)
4.993 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 26.5%
industry: 18.5%
services: 55% (2008)
agriculture: 29.4%
industry: 22%
services: 48.6% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate5.9% (2016 est.)
6.1% (2015 est.)
4.1% (2016 est.)
4.4% (2015 est.)
note: data are for urban areas; widespread underemployment
Distribution of family income - Gini index51.7 (2014)
53.2 (2009)
47 (2016 est.)
57.9 (1999)
Budgetrevenues: $5.231 billion
expenditures: $5.231 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $14.69 billion
expenditures: $16.93 billion (2016 est.)
Industriessugar, cement, textiles, beverages, wood products, steel, base metals, electric power
mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing, jewelry
Industrial production growth rate6.5% (2016 est.)
6.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, sugarcane, soybeans, corn, wheat, tobacco, cassava (manioc, tapioca), fruits, vegetables; beef, pork, eggs, milk; timber
soybeans, quinoa, Brazil nuts, sugarcane, coffee, corn, rice, potatoes, chia, coca
Exports$8.594 billion (2016 est.)
$8.357 billion (2015 est.)
$7.214 billion (2016 est.)
$8.909 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiessoybeans, livestock feed, cotton, meat, edible oils, wood, leather, gold
natural gas, silver, zinc, lead, tin, gold, quinoa, soybeans and soy products
Exports - partnersBrazil 31.7%, Russia 9.1%, Chile 7.1%, Argentina 7% (2015)
Brazil 28.1%, Argentina 16.9%, US 12.1%, Colombia 6.3%, China 5.3%, Japan 4.7%, South Korea 4.3% (2015)
Imports$8.572 billion (2016 est.)
$9.529 billion (2015 est.)
$8.427 billion (2016 est.)
$9.682 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesroad vehicles, consumer goods, tobacco, petroleum products, electrical machinery, tractors, chemicals, vehicle parts
machinery, petroleum products, vehicles, iron and steel, plastics
Imports - partnersBrazil 25.4%, China 23.7%, Argentina 14.8%, US 7.9% (2015)
China 17.9%, Brazil 16.5%, Argentina 11.8%, US 10.6%, Peru 6.2%, Japan 5.2%, Chile 4.6% (2015)
Debt - external$15.42 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$7.268 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.341 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesguarani (PYG) per US dollar -
5,689.1 (2016 est.)
5,160.4 (2015 est.)
5,160.4 (2014 est.)
4,462.2 (2013 est.)
4,424.9 (2012 est.)
bolivianos (BOB) per US dollar -
6.91 (2016 est.)
6.91 (2015 est.)
6.91 (2014 est.)
6.91 (2013 est.)
6.94 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt25.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
24.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
34% of GDP (2016 est.)
33.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$6.059 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.939 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$10.08 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$13.06 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$158 million (2016 est.)
-$287 million (2015 est.)
-$1.876 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.854 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$32.19 billion (2016 est.)
$34.04 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$7.114 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.059 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.084 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$309 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$259 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$0 (31 December 2016 est.)
$0 (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$962.3 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$958.1 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$42 million (31 December 2010 est.)
$12.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$11.11 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$9.833 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate5.5% (31 December 2012)
6% (31 December 2011)
1.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.5% (31 December 2015 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate21% (31 December 2016 est.)
19.74% (31 December 2015 est.)
7.6% (31 December 2016 est.)
8.07% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$13.94 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.06 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$19.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$16.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$4.39 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.974 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$10.22 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$10.26 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$9.483 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$8.546 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$17.77 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.45 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues16.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
43.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)0% of GDP (2016 est.)
-6.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 13%
male: 10%
female: 17.8% (2014 est.)
total: 6.2%
male: 5.1%
female: 7.8% (2011 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 67.4%
government consumption: 12.9%
investment in fixed capital: 15.3%
investment in inventories: 0.3%
exports of goods and services: 43.3%
imports of goods and services: -39.2% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 69.1%
government consumption: 17.5%
investment in fixed capital: 20.8%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 24.6%
imports of goods and services: -32% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving15% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
15.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
12.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
13.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
20.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

ParaguayBolivia
Electricity - production55 billion kWh (2014 est.)
8.759 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption9.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
8.378 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports41 billion kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
60,920 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
209.8 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
295.9 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
21.1 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
5.366 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
15.73 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2015 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity8.8 million kW (2014 est.)
1.855 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels0.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
72% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants99.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
26% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
1% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
11,630 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption36,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
78,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
7,292 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports33,270 bbl/day (2013 est.)
19,940 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy3.9 million Mt (2013 est.)
16 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 100,000
electrification - total population: 98%
electrification - urban areas: 99%
electrification - rural areas: 96% (2013)
population without electricity: 1,200,000
electrification - total population: 90%
electrification - urban areas: 99%
electrification - rural areas: 72% (2013)

Telecommunications

ParaguayBolivia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 384,135
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 881,084
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 7.412 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109 (July 2015 est.)
total: 10.163 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 94 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: the fixed-line market is a state monopoly and fixed-line telephone service is meager; principal switching center is in Asuncion
domestic: deficiencies in provision of fixed-line service have resulted in a rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services fostered by competition among multiple providers
international: country code - 595; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: Bolivian National Telecommunications Company was privatized in 1995 but re-nationalized in 2007; the primary trunk system is being expanded and employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; system operations, reliability, and coverage have steadily improved
domestic: most telephones are concentrated in La Paz, Santa Cruz, and other capital cities; mobile-cellular telephone use expanding rapidly and, in 2015, teledensity reached about 95 per 100 persons
international: country code - 591; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.py
.bo
Internet userstotal: 3.011 million
percent of population: 44.4% (July 2015 est.)
total: 4.871 million
percent of population: 45.1% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast media6 privately owned TV stations; about 75 commercial and community radio stations; 1 state-owned radio network (2010)
large number of radio and TV stations broadcasting with private media outlets dominating; state-owned and private radio and TV stations generally operating freely, although both pro-government and anti-government groups have attacked media outlets in response to their reporting (2010)

Transportation

ParaguayBolivia
Railwaystotal: 30 km
standard gauge: 30 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
total: 3,504 km
narrow gauge: 3,504 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 32,059 km
paved: 4,860 km
unpaved: 27,199 km (2010)
total: 90,568 km
paved: 9,792 km
unpaved: 80,776 km (2017)
Waterways3,100 km (primarily on the Paraguay and Paran? River systems) (2012)
10,000 km (commercially navigable almost exclusively in the northern and eastern parts of the country) (2012)
Ports and terminalsriver port(s): Asuncion, Villeta, San Antonio, Encarnacion (Parana)
river port(s): Puerto Aguirre (Paraguay/Parana)
note: Bolivia has free port privileges in maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay
Merchant marinetotal: 19
by type: cargo 13, container 3, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 6 (Argentina 5, Netherlands 1) (2010)
total: 18
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 14, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 2
foreign-owned: 5 (Syria 4, UK 1, (2010)
Airports799 (2013)
855 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 15
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2013)
total: 21
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 784
1,524 to 2,437 m: 23
914 to 1,523 m: 290
under 914 m: 471 (2013)
total: 834
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 47
914 to 1,523 m: 151
under 914 m: 631 (2013)

Military

ParaguayBolivia
Military branchesArmed Forces Command (Commando de las Fuerzas Militares): Army, National Navy (Armada Nacional, includes Marine Corps, Naval Aviation, and Coast Guard), Paraguayan Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Paraguay, FAP), Logistics Command, War Materiel Directorate (2012)
Bolivian Armed Forces: Bolivian Army (Ejercito Boliviano, EB), Bolivian Naval Force (Fuerza Naval Boliviana, FNB, includes Marines), Bolivian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana, FAB) (2017)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation is 12 months for Army, 24 months for Navy; volunteers for the Air Force must be younger than 22 years of age with a secondary school diploma (2012)
16-49 years of age for 12-month voluntary male and female military service; Bolivian citizenship required; minimum age of combat is 18; when annual number of volunteers falls short of goal, compulsory recruitment is effected, including conscription of boys as young as 14; 15-19 years of age for voluntary premilitary service, provides exemption from further military service (2017)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.71% of GDP (2015)
1.4% of GDP (2014)
1.36% of GDP (2013)
1.38% of GDP (2012)
1.2% of GDP (2011)
1.18% of GDP (2016)
1.24% of GDP (2015)
1.39% of GDP (2014)
1.45% of GDP (2013)
1.47% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

ParaguayBolivia
Disputes - internationalunruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics trafficking, and fundraising for violent extremist organizations
Chile and Peru rebuff Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, but Chile offers instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile for Bolivian products; contraband smuggling, human trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of its border regions with all of its neighbors (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Peru)
Illicit drugsmajor illicit producer of cannabis, most or all of which is consumed in Brazil, Argentina, and Chile; transshipment country for Andean cocaine headed for Brazil, other Southern Cone markets, and Europe; weak border controls, extensive corruption and money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area; weak anti-money-laundering laws and enforcement
world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru) with an estimated 30,000 hectares under cultivation in 2011, a decrease of 13 percent over 2010; third largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 265 metric tons potential pure cocaine in 2011, a 29 percent increase over 2010; transit country for Peruvian and Colombian cocaine destined for Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Europe; weak border controls; some money-laundering activity related to narcotics trade; major cocaine consumption (2013)

Source: CIA Factbook