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Paraguay vs. Argentina

Introduction

ParaguayArgentina
BackgroundParaguay achieved its independence from Spain in 1811. In the disastrous War of the Triple Alliance (1865-70) - between Paraguay and Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay - Paraguay lost two-thirds of its adult males and much of its territory. The country stagnated economically for the next half century. Following the Chaco War of 1932-35 with Bolivia, Paraguay gained a large part of the Chaco lowland region. The 35-year military dictatorship of Alfredo STROESSNER ended in 1989, and, despite a marked increase in political infighting in recent years, Paraguay has held relatively free and regular presidential elections since the country's return to democracy.
In 1816, the United Provinces of the Rio Plata declared their independence from Spain. After Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay went their separate ways, the area that remained became Argentina. The country's population and culture were heavily shaped by immigrants from throughout Europe, with Italy and Spain providing the largest percentage of newcomers from 1860 to 1930. Up until about the mid-20th century, much of Argentina's history was dominated by periods of internal political conflict between Federalists and Unitarians and between civilian and military factions.
After World War II, an era of Peronist populism and direct and indirect military interference in subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983 after a failed bid to seize the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) by force, and has persisted despite numerous challenges, the most formidable of which was a severe economic crisis in 2001-02 that led to violent public protests and the successive resignations of several presidents. The years 2003-15 saw Peronist rule by Nestor and Cristina FERNANDEZ de KIRCHNER, whose policies isolated Argentina and caused economic stagnation. With the election of Mauricio MACRI in November 2015, Argentina began a period of reform and international reintegration.

Geography

ParaguayArgentina
LocationCentral South America, northeast of Argentina, southwest of Brazil
Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay
Geographic coordinates23 00 S, 58 00 W
34 00 S, 64 00 W
Map referencesSouth America
South America
Areatotal: 406,752 sq km
land: 397,302 sq km
water: 9,450 sq km
total: 2,780,400 sq km
land: 2,736,690 sq km
water: 43,710 sq km
Area - comparativeabout three times the size of New York state; slightly smaller than California
slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US
Land boundariestotal: 4,655 km
border countries (3): Argentina 2,531 km, Bolivia 753 km, Brazil 1,371 km
total: 11,968 km
border countries (5): Bolivia 942 km, Brazil 1,263 km, Chile 6,691 km, Paraguay 2,531 km, Uruguay 541 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
4,989 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climatesubtropical to temperate; substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, becoming semiarid in the far west
mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest
Terraingrassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere
rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 178 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of Rio Paraguay and Rio Parana 46 m
highest point: Cerro Pero 842 m
mean elevation: 595 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Laguna del Carbon -105 m (located between Puerto San Julian and Comandante Luis Piedra Buena in the province of Santa Cruz)
highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,960 m (located in the northwestern corner of the province of Mendoza; highest point in South America)
Natural resourceshydropower, timber, iron ore, manganese, limestone
fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 53.8%
arable land 10.8%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 42.8%
forest: 43.8%
other: 2.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 53.9%
arable land 13.9%; permanent crops 0.4%; permanent pasture 39.6%
forest: 10.7%
other: 35.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,362 sq km (2012)
23,600 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardslocal flooding in southeast (early September to June); poorly drained plains may become boggy (early October to June)
San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the pampas and northeast; heavy flooding in some areas
volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains along the Chilean border; Copahue (elev. 2,997 m) last erupted in 2000; other historically active volcanoes include Llullaillaco, Maipo, Planchon-Peteroa, San Jose, Tromen, Tupungatito, and Viedma
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; water pollution; inadequate means for waste disposal pose health risks for many urban residents; loss of wetlands
environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation, desertification, air pollution, and water pollution
note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas targets
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - notelandlocked; lies between Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil; population concentrated in southern part of country
second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); diverse geophysical landscapes range from tropical climates in the north to tundra in the far south; Cerro Aconcagua is the Western Hemisphere's tallest mountain, while Laguna del Carbon is the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere
Population distributionmost of the population resides in the eastern half of the country; to the west lies the Gran Chaco, which accounts for 60% of the land territory, but only 2% of the overall population
one-third of the population lives in Buenos Aires; pockets of agglomeration occur throughout the northern and central parts of the country; Patagonia to the south remains sparsely populated

Demographics

ParaguayArgentina
Population6,862,812 (July 2016 est.)
43,886,748 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 25.04% (male 874,541/female 844,212)
15-24 years: 19.74% (male 680,998/female 673,534)
25-54 years: 40.56% (male 1,392,814/female 1,390,655)
55-64 years: 7.74% (male 270,769/female 260,300)
65 years and over: 6.92% (male 222,435/female 252,554) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 24.72% (male 5,590,165/female 5,259,163)
15-24 years: 15.43% (male 3,461,288/female 3,312,056)
25-54 years: 39.24% (male 8,593,500/female 8,627,846)
55-64 years: 9.14% (male 1,948,179/female 2,064,463)
65 years and over: 11.46% (male 2,104,830/female 2,925,258) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 27.8 years
male: 27.5 years
female: 28 years (2016 est.)
total: 31.5 years
male: 30.3 years
female: 32.7 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.17% (2016 est.)
0.93% (2016 est.)
Birth rate16.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
17 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate4.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 19.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 22.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 10.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 11 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 77.2 years
male: 74.5 years
female: 80 years (2016 est.)
total population: 77.1 years
male: 74 years
female: 80.4 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.91 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.28 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.43% (2015 est.)
0.39% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Paraguayan(s)
adjective: Paraguayan
noun: Argentine(s)
adjective: Argentine
Ethnic groupsmestizo (mixed Spanish and Amerindian) 95%, other 5%
European (mostly Spanish and Italian descent) and mestizo (mixed European and Amerindian ancestry) 97.2%, Amerindian 2.4%, African 0.4% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS17,500 (2015 est.)
109,700 (2015 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 89.6%, Protestant 6.2%, other Christian 1.1%, other or unspecified 1.9%, none 1.1% (2002 census)
nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%
HIV/AIDS - deaths800 (2015 est.)
2,300 (2015 est.)
LanguagesSpanish (official), Guarani (official)
Spanish (official), Italian, English, German, French, indigenous (Mapudungun, Quechua)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.9%
male: 94.8%
female: 92.9% (2010 est.)
definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 98.1%
male: 98%
female: 98.1% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 13 years (2010)
total: 17 years
male: 16 years
female: 18 years (2014)
Education expenditures5% of GDP (2012)
5.5% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 59.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 91.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.04% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 94.9% of population
total: 98% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 5.1% of population
total: 2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 99.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 95.5% of population
rural: 78.4% of population
total: 88.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4.5% of population
rural: 21.6% of population
total: 11.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 96.2% of population
rural: 98.3% of population
total: 96.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.8% of population
rural: 1.7% of population
total: 3.6% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationASUNCION (capital) 2.356 million (2015)
BUENOS AIRES (capital) 15.18 million; Cordoba 1.511 million; Rosario 1.381 million; Mendoza 1.009 million; San Miguel de Tucuman 910,000; La Plata 846,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate132 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
52 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight2.6% (2012)
2.3% (2005)
Health expenditures9.8% of GDP (2014)
4.8% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.29 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
3.76 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density1.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
4.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate15.1% (2014)
26.5% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 205,297
percentage: 15% (2004 est.)
total number: 435,252
percentage: 7%
note: data represent children ages 5-13 (2003 est.)
Demographic profileParaguay falls below the Latin American average in several socioeconomic categories, including immunization rates, potable water, sanitation, and secondary school enrollment, and has greater rates of income inequality and child and maternal mortality. Paraguay's poverty rate has declined in recent years but remains high, especially in rural areas, with more than a third of the population below the poverty line. However, the well-being of the poor in many regions has improved in terms of housing quality and access to clean water, telephone service, and electricity. The fertility rate continues to drop, declining sharply from an average 4.3 births per woman in the late 1990s to about 2 in 2013, as a result of the greater educational attainment of women, increased use of contraception, and a desire for smaller families among young women.
Paraguay is a country of emigration; it has not attracted large numbers of immigrants because of political instability, civil wars, years of dictatorship, and the greater appeal of neighboring countries. Paraguay first tried to encourage immigration in 1870 in order to rebound from the heavy death toll it suffered during the War of the Triple Alliance, but it received few European and Middle Eastern immigrants. In the 20th century, limited numbers of immigrants arrived from Lebanon, Japan, South Korea, and China, as well as Mennonites from Canada, Russia, and Mexico. Large flows of Brazilian immigrants have been arriving since the 1960s, mainly to work in agriculture. Paraguayans continue to emigrate to Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, the United States, Italy, Spain, and France.
Argentina's population continues to grow but at a slower rate because of its steadily declining birth rate. Argentina's fertility decline began earlier than in the rest of Latin America, occurring most rapidly between the early 20th century and the 1950s and then becoming more gradual. Life expectancy has been improving, most notably among the young and the poor. While the population under age 15 is shrinking, the youth cohort - ages 15-24 - is the largest in Argentina's history and will continue to bolster the working-age population. If this large working-age population is well-educated and gainfully employed, Argentina is likely to experience an economic boost and possibly higher per capita savings and investment. Although literacy and primary school enrollment are nearly universal, grade repetition is problematic and secondary school completion is low. Both of these issues vary widely by region and socioeconomic group.
Argentina has been primarily a country of immigration for most of its history, welcoming European immigrants after its independence in the 19th century and attracting especially large numbers from Spain and Italy. European immigration diminished in the 1950s, when Argentina's military dictatorships tightened immigration rules and European economies rebounded. Regional migration, however, continued to supply low-skilled workers and today it accounts for three-quarters of Argentina's immigrant population. The first waves of highly skilled Argentine emigrant workers headed mainly to the United States and Spain in the 1960s and 1970s. The 2008 European economic crisis drove the return migration of some Argentinean and other Latin American nationals, as well as the immigration of Europeans to South America, where Argentina was a key recipient.
Contraceptive prevalence rate79.4%
note: percent of women aged 15-44 (2008)
61.3% (2013)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 56.6
youth dependency ratio: 47.2
elderly dependency ratio: 9.4
potential support ratio: 10.6 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 56.5
youth dependency ratio: 39.4
elderly dependency ratio: 17.1
potential support ratio: 5.8 (2015 est.)

Government

ParaguayArgentina
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Paraguay
conventional short form: Paraguay
local long form: Republica del Paraguay
local short form: Paraguay
etymology: the precise meaning of the name Paraguay is unclear, but it seems to derive from the river of the same name; one explanation has the name meaning ""water of the Payagua"" (an indigenous tribe that lived along the river)
"
"conventional long form: Argentine Republic
conventional short form: Argentina
local long form: Republica Argentina
local short form: Argentina
etymology: originally the area was referred to as Tierra Argentina, i.e., ""Land beside the Silvery River"" or ""silvery land,"" which referred to the massive estuary in the east of the country, the Rio de la Plata (River of Silver); over time the name shortened to simply Argentina or ""silvery""
"
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Asuncion
geographic coordinates: 25 16 S, 57 40 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in October; ends fourth Sunday in March
name: Buenos Aires
geographic coordinates: 34 36 S, 58 22 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions17 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital city*; Alto Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amambay, Asuncion*, Boqueron, Caaguazu, Caazapa, Canindeyu, Central, Concepcion, Cordillera, Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, Neembucu, Paraguari, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro
23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 autonomous city*; Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires*, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur (Tierra del Fuego), Tucuman
note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica
Independence14 May 1811 (from Spain)
9 July 1816 (from Spain)
National holidayIndependence Day, 14-15 May (1811) (observed 15 May)
Revolution Day (May Revolution Day), 25 May (1810)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest approved and promulgated 20 June 1992; amended 2011, 2014 (2016)
several previous; latest effective 11 May 1853; amended many times, last in 1994 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system with influences from Argentine, Spanish, Roman, and French civil law models; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice
civil law system based on West European legal systems; note - in mid-2015, Argentina adopted a new civil code, replacing the old one in force since 1871
Suffrage18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 75
18-70 years of age; universal and compulsory; 16-17 years of age - optional for national elections
Executive branchchief of state: President Horacio CARTES Jara (since 15 August 2013); Vice President Juan AFARA Maciel (since 15 August 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Horacio CARTES Jara (since 15 August 2013); Vice President Juan AFARA Maciel (since 15 August 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a single 5-year term; election last held on 21 April 2013 (next to be held in April 2018)
election results: Horacio CARTES elected president; percent of vote - Horacio CARTES (ANR) 45.8%, Efrain ALEGRE (PLRA) 36.9%, Mario FERREIRO (AP) 5.9%, Anibal CARRILLO (FG) 3.3%, other 8%
chief of state: President Mauricio MACRI (since 10 December 2015); Vice President Gabriela MICHETTI (since 10 December 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Mauricio MACRI (since 10 December 2015); Vice President Gabriela MICHETTI (since 10 December 2015)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by qualified majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held in 2 rounds on 25 October and 22 November 2015 (next to be held in October 2019)
election results: Mauricio MACRI elected president; percent of vote: first-round results - Daniel SCIOLI (PJ) 37.1%, Mauricio MACRI (PRO) 34.2%, Sergio MASSA (FR/PJ) 21.4%, other 7.3%; second-round results - Mauricio MACRI (PRO) 51.4%, Daniel SCIOLI (PJ) 48.6%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (45 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (80 seats; members directly elected in 18 multi-seat constituencies - corresponding to the country's 17 departments and capital city - by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators - last held on 21 April 2013 (next to be held in April 2018); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 21 April 2013 (next to be held in April 2018)
election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ANR 19, PLRA 12, FG 5, PDP 3, Avanza Pais 2, UNACE 2, PEN 1, PPQ 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ANR 44, PLRA 27, Avanza Pais 2, PEN 2, UNACE 2, FG 1, PPQ 1, other 1
description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate (72 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership elected every 2 years) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 2 years)
elections: Senate - last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held October 2017); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held October 2017)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - Cambiemos 12, FpV 8, PF 2, Progresistas 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - FpV 84, Cambiemos 21, Progresistas 9, FR and allies 8, Federal Peronism 3, PP 3, other 2
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of 9 justices divided 3 each into the Constitutional Court, Civil and Commercial Chamber, and Criminal Division
judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the Council of Magistrates or Consejo de la Magistratura, a 6-member independent body, and appointed by the Chamber of Senators with presidential concurrence; judges appointed until mandatory retirement at age 75
subordinate courts: appellate courts; first instance courts; minor courts, including justices of the peace
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (consists of the court president, vice-president, and 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the president and approved by the Senate; judges can serve until mandatory retirement at age 75
subordinate courts: federal level appellate, district, and territorial courts; provincial level supreme, appellate, and first instance courts
Political parties and leadersAsociacion Nacional Republicana - Colorado Party or ANR [Pedro ALLIANA]
Avanza Pais coalition [Adolfo FERREIRO]
Broad Front coalition (Frente Guasu) or FG [Esperanza MARTINEZ]
Movimiento Union Nacional de Ciudadanos Eticos or UNACE [Jorge OVIEDO MATTO]
Partido del Movimiento al Socialismo or P-MAS [Camilo Ernesto SOARES Machado]
Partido Democratica Progresista or PDP [Desiree MASI]
Partido Encuentro Nacional or PEN [Fernando CAMACHO Paredes]
Partido Liberal Radical Autentico or PLRA [Miguel ABDON SAGUIER]
Partido Pais Solidario or PPS [Carlos Alberto FILIZZOLA Pallares]
Partido Popular Tekojoja [Sixto PEREIRA]
Patria Querida (Beloved Fatherland Party) or PPQ [Sebastian ACHA]
Cambiemos (a coalition composed of CC, PRO, and UCR) [Mauricio MACRI]
Civic Coalition-ARI or CC-ARI (a coalition loosely affiliated with Elisa CARRIO)
Dissident Peronists (PJ Disidente) or Federal Peronism (a right-wing faction of the Justicialist Party opposed to the Kirchners) [Eduardo DUHALDE]
Front for Victory or FpV (left-wing faction of PJ) [Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER]
Justicialist Party or PJ [Jose Luis GIOJA]
Progresistas [Margarita STOLBIZER]
Radical Civic Union or UCR [Lilia PUIG DE STUBRIN]
Republican Proposal or PRO [Mauricio MACRI]
Socialist Party or PS [Antonio BONFATTI]
Renewal Front (Frente Renovador) or FR [Sergio MASSA]
numerous provincial parties
Political pressure groups and leadersAhorristas Estafados or AE
National Coordinating Board of Campesino Organizations or MCNOC [Luis AGUAYO]
National Federation of Campesinos or FNC [Odilon ESPINOLA]
National Workers Central or CNT [Secretary General Juan TORRALES]
Paraguayan Workers Confederation or CPT
Roman Catholic Church
Unitary Workers Central or CUT [Jorge Guzman ALVARENGA Malgarejo]
Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs or CILFA
Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association)
Argentine Rural Confederation or CRA (small to medium landowners' association)
Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association)
Blue and White CGT (dissident CGT labor confederation)
Central of Argentine Workers or CTA (a union for employed and unemployed workers)
General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization)
Roman Catholic Church
other: business organizations; Peronist-dominated labor movement; Piquetero groups (popular protest organizations that can be either pro or anti-government); students
International organization participationCAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador German Hugo ROJAS Irigoyen (since 28 December 2016)
chancery: 2400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-6960 through 6962
FAX: [1] (202) 234-4508
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Miami, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Hugo F. RODRIGUES, Jr. (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: 1776 Avenida Mariscal Lopez, Casilla Postal 402, Asuncion
mailing address: Unit 4711, DPO AA 34036-0001
telephone: [595] (21) 213-715
FAX: [595] (21) 213-728
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Tom COONEY (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Avenida Colombia 4300, C1425GMN Buenos Aires
mailing address: international mail: use embassy street address; APO address: US Embassy Buenos Aires, Unit 4334, APO AA 34034
telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533
FAX: [54] (11) 5777-4240
Flag descriptionthree equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue with an emblem centered in the white band; unusual flag in that the emblem is different on each side; the obverse (hoist side at the left) bears the national coat of arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a green wreath capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles); the reverse (hoist side at the right) bears a circular seal of the treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of Liberty and the words PAZ Y JUSTICIA (Peace and Justice)); red symbolizes bravery and patriotism, white represents integrity and peace, and blue denotes liberty and generosity
note: the three color bands resemble those on the flag of the Netherlands; one of only three national flags that differ on their obverse and reverse sides - the others are Moldova and Saudi Arabia
three equal horizontal bands of sky blue (top), white, and sky blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face (delineated in brown) known as the Sun of May; the colors represent the clear skies and snow of the Andes; the sun symbol commemorates the appearance of the sun through cloudy skies on 25 May 1810 during the first mass demonstration in favor of independence; the sun features are those of Inti, the Inca god of the sun
National anthem"name: ""Paraguayos, Republica o muerte!"" (Paraguayans, The Republic or Death!)
lyrics/music: Francisco Esteban ACUNA de Figueroa/disputed
note: adopted 1934, in use since 1846; officially adopted following its re-arrangement in 1934
"
"name: ""Himno Nacional Argentino"" (Argentine National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Vicente LOPEZ y PLANES/Jose Blas PARERA
note: adopted 1813; Vicente LOPEZ was inspired to write the anthem after watching a play about the 1810 May Revolution against Spain
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)lion; national colors: red, white, blue
Sun of May (a sun-with-face symbol); national colors: sky blue, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: at least one parent must be a native-born citizen of Paraguay
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years

Economy

ParaguayArgentina
Economy - overviewLandlocked Paraguay has a market economy distinguished by a large informal sector, featuring re-export of imported consumer goods to neighboring countries, as well as the activities of thousands of microenterprises and urban street vendors. A large percentage of the population, especially in rural areas, derives its living from agricultural activity, often on a subsistence basis. Because of the importance of the informal sector, accurate economic measures are difficult to obtain.

On a per capita basis, real income has grown steadily over the past decade. The economy grew rapidly between 2003 and 2008 as strong world demand for commodities, combined with high prices and favorable weather, supported Paraguay's commodity-based export expansion. Paraguay is the sixth largest soy producer in the world. Drought hit in 2008, reducing agricultural exports and slowing the economy even before the onset of the global recession. The economy fell 3.8% in 2009, as lower world demand and commodity prices caused exports to contract. Severe drought and outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in 2012 led to a brief drop in beef and other agricultural exports. Since 2014, however, Paraguay’s economy has grown at a 4% average annual rate due to strong production and high global prices, at a time when other countries in the region have contracted.

The Paraguayan Government recognizes the need to diversify its economy and has taken steps in recent years to do so. In addition to looking for new commodity markets in the Middle East and Europe, Paraguayan officials have promoted the country’s low labor costs, cheap energy from its massive Itaipu hydroelectric dam, and single-digit tax rate on foreign firms. As a result, the number of factories operating in the country – mostly transplants from Brazil - has tripled since 2014.

Political uncertainty, corruption, limited progress on structural reform, and deficient infrastructure are the main obstacles to long-term growth. Paraguay has been adverse to public debt throughout its history, but has recently changed its anti-debt policies to finance infrastructure improvements to attract foreign investment. Judicial corruption is endemic and is seen as the greatest barrier to attracting more foreign investment.
Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Although one of the world's wealthiest countries 100 years ago, Argentina suffered during most of the 20th century from recurring economic crises, persistent fiscal and current account deficits, high inflation, mounting external debt, and capital flight. In 2016, the World Bank downgraded Argentina from a high-income to upper-middle-income economy, on par with Columbia.

A severe depression, growing public and external indebtedness, and an unprecedented bank run culminated in 2001 in the most serious economic, social, and political crisis in the country's turbulent history. Interim President Adolfo RODRIGUEZ SAA declared a default - at the time the largest ever - on the government's foreign debt in December of that year, and abruptly resigned only a few days after taking office. His successor, Eduardo DUHALDE, announced an end to the peso's decade-long 1-to-1 peg to the US dollar in early 2002. The economy bottomed out that year, with real GDP 18% smaller than in 1998 and almost 60% of Argentines below the poverty line. Real GDP rebounded to grow by an average 8.5% annually over the subsequent six years, taking advantage of previously idled industrial capacity and labor, and expansionary monetary and fiscal policies. Inflation also increased, however, during the administration of President Nestor KIRCHNER, which responded with price restraints on businesses, as well as export taxes and restraints, and beginning in 2007, with understating inflation data.

Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER succeeded her husband as president in late 2007, and the rapid economic growth of previous years began to slow sharply the following year as government policies held back exports and the world economy fell into recession. The economy in 2010 rebounded strongly from the 2009 recession, but slowed in late 2011 even as the government continued to rely on expansionary fiscal and monetary policies, which kept inflation in the double digits.

In order to deal with these problems, the government expanded state intervention in the economy: it nationalized the oil company YPF from Spain's Repsol, expanded measures to restrict imports, and further tightened currency controls in an effort to bolster foreign reserves and stem capital flight. Between 2011 and 2013, Central Bank foreign reserves dropped $21.3 billion from a high of $52.7 billion. In July 2014, Argentina and China agreed on an $11 billion currency swap; the Argentine Central Bank has received the equivalent of $3.2 billion in Chinese yuan, which it counts as international reserves.

With the election of President Mauricio MACRI in November 2015, Argentina began a historic political and economic transformation, as his Administration took steps to liberalize the Argentine economy. His administration lifted capital controls, floated the peso, removed export controls on some commodities, cut some energy subsidies, and reformed the country’s official statistics. Argentina negotiated debt payments with holdout bond creditors and returned to international capital markets in April 2016. In September 2016, Argentina completed its first IMF Article IV Consultation since 2006.

After years of international isolation, Argentina has taken on several international leadership roles in 2017, including hosting the World Economic Forum on Latin America and the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference, and is set to assume the presidency of the G-20 in 2018.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$64.67 billion (2016 est.)
$62.48 billion (2015 est.)
$60.61 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$879.4 billion (2016 est.)
$895.2 billion (2015 est.)
$873.7 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.5% (2016 est.)
3.1% (2015 est.)
4.7% (2014 est.)
-1.8% (2016 est.)
2.5% (2015 est.)
-2.5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$9,500 (2016 est.)
$9,200 (2015 est.)
$9,200 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$20,200 (2016 est.)
$20,800 (2015 est.)
$20,500 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 17.1%
industry: 27.3%
services: 55.6% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 11.4%
industry: 30.2%
services: 58.4% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line22.2% (2015 est.)
32.2%
note: data are based on private estimates (2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.5%
highest 10%: 37.6% (2013 est.)
lowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 30.8% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)3.8% (2016 est.)
3.1% (2015 est.)
42.8% (2016 est.)
26.5% (2015 est.)
note: data are derived from private estimates
Labor force3.291 million (2016 est.)
17.71 million
note: urban areas only (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 26.5%
industry: 18.5%
services: 55% (2008)
agriculture: 0.5%
industry: 24.8%
services: 74.7% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate5.9% (2016 est.)
6.1% (2015 est.)
8% (2016 est.)
7.6% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index51.7 (2014)
53.2 (2009)
42.7 (2014)
45.8 (2009)
Budgetrevenues: $5.231 billion
expenditures: $5.231 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $115.9 billion
expenditures: $141.7 billion (2016 est.)
Industriessugar, cement, textiles, beverages, wood products, steel, base metals, electric power
food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel
Industrial production growth rate6.5% (2016 est.)
1.7%
note: based on private sector estimates (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, sugarcane, soybeans, corn, wheat, tobacco, cassava (manioc, tapioca), fruits, vegetables; beef, pork, eggs, milk; timber
sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock
Exports$8.594 billion (2016 est.)
$8.357 billion (2015 est.)
$58.4 billion (2016 est.)
$56.76 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiessoybeans, livestock feed, cotton, meat, edible oils, wood, leather, gold
soybeans and derivatives, petroleum and gas, vehicles, corn, wheat
Exports - partnersBrazil 31.7%, Russia 9.1%, Chile 7.1%, Argentina 7% (2015)
Brazil 17.8%, China 9.1%, US 6%, Chile 4.2% (2015)
Imports$8.572 billion (2016 est.)
$9.529 billion (2015 est.)
$57.23 billion (2016 est.)
$57.18 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesroad vehicles, consumer goods, tobacco, petroleum products, electrical machinery, tractors, chemicals, vehicle parts
machinery, motor vehicles, petroleum and natural gas, organic chemicals, plastics
Imports - partnersBrazil 25.4%, China 23.7%, Argentina 14.8%, US 7.9% (2015)
Brazil 21.9%, China 19.7%, US 12.9%, Germany 5.2% (2015)
Debt - external$15.42 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$155.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$136.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesguarani (PYG) per US dollar -
5,689.1 (2016 est.)
5,160.4 (2015 est.)
5,160.4 (2014 est.)
4,462.2 (2013 est.)
4,424.9 (2012 est.)
Argentine pesos (ARS) per US dollar -
14.92 (2016 est.)
9.2332 (2015 est.)
9.2332 (2014 est.)
8.0753 (2013 est.)
4.54 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt25.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
24.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
53.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
50.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$6.059 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.939 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$32.11 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$25.52 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$158 million (2016 est.)
-$287 million (2015 est.)
-$14.17 billion (2016 est.)
-$16.8 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$32.19 billion (2016 est.)
$541.7 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$7.114 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$103.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$94.19 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$309 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$259 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$37.97 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$37.03 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$962.3 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$958.1 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$42 million (31 December 2010 est.)
$56.13 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$60.14 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$53.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate5.5% (31 December 2012)
6% (31 December 2011)
NA%
Commercial bank prime lending rate21% (31 December 2016 est.)
19.74% (31 December 2015 est.)
32.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
24.92% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$13.94 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.06 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$200.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$182.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$4.39 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.974 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$54.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$52.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$9.483 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$8.546 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$150.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$138.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues16.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)0% of GDP (2016 est.)
-4.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 13%
male: 10%
female: 17.8% (2014 est.)
total: 18.8%
male: 16.7%
female: 22.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 67.4%
government consumption: 12.9%
investment in fixed capital: 15.3%
investment in inventories: 0.3%
exports of goods and services: 43.3%
imports of goods and services: -39.2% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 63.7%
government consumption: 19.3%
investment in fixed capital: 16%
investment in inventories: 1.7%
exports of goods and services: 13.2%
imports of goods and services: -13.9% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving15% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
15.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
14.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
15.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

ParaguayArgentina
Electricity - production55 billion kWh (2014 est.)
126 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption9.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
116 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports41 billion kWh (2014 est.)
200 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
10 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
532,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
7,460 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
37,690 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
2.4 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
332.1 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
35.4 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
47.23 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
70 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
11.9 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity8.8 million kW (2014 est.)
36 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels0.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
68.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants99.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
26% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
2.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
670,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption36,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
751,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
63,060 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports33,270 bbl/day (2013 est.)
109,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy3.9 million Mt (2013 est.)
202 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 100,000
electrification - total population: 98%
electrification - urban areas: 99%
electrification - rural areas: 96% (2013)
population without electricity: 1,500,000
electrification - total population: 96.4%
electrification - urban areas: 99.2%
electrification - rural areas: 96% (2013)

Telecommunications

ParaguayArgentina
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 384,135
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 10,119,920
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 23 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 7.412 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109 (July 2015 est.)
total: 60.664 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 140 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: the fixed-line market is a state monopoly and fixed-line telephone service is meager; principal switching center is in Asuncion
domestic: deficiencies in provision of fixed-line service have resulted in a rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services fostered by competition among multiple providers
international: country code - 595; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: in 1998 Argentina opened its telecommunications market to competition and foreign investment encouraging the growth of modern telecommunications technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines are being installed between all major cities; major networks are entirely digital and the availability of telephone service is improving
domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network; fixed-line teledensity is increasing gradually and mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; broadband Internet services are gaining ground
international: country code - 54; landing point for the Atlantis-2, UNISUR, South America-1, and South American Crossing/Latin American Nautilus submarine cable systems that provide links to Europe, Africa, South and Central America, and US; satellite earth stations - 112; 2 international gateways near Buenos Aires (2011)
Internet country code.py
.ar
Internet userstotal: 3.011 million
percent of population: 44.4% (July 2015 est.)
total: 30.142 million
percent of population: 69.4% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast media6 privately owned TV stations; about 75 commercial and community radio stations; 1 state-owned radio network (2010)
government owns a TV station and radio network; more than 2 dozen TV stations and hundreds of privately owned radio stations; high rate of cable TV subscription usage (2009)

Transportation

ParaguayArgentina
Railwaystotal: 30 km
standard gauge: 30 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
total: 36,917.4 km
broad gauge: 26,391 km 1.676-m gauge (149 km electrified)
standard gauge: 2,745.1 km 1.435-m gauge (41.1 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 7,523.3 km 1.000-m gauge; 258 km 0.750-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 32,059 km
paved: 4,860 km
unpaved: 27,199 km (2010)
total: 231,374 km
paved: 69,412 km (includes 734 km of expressways)
unpaved: 161,962 km (2004)
Waterways3,100 km (primarily on the Paraguay and Paran? River systems) (2012)
11,000 km (2012)
Ports and terminalsriver port(s): Asuncion, Villeta, San Antonio, Encarnacion (Parana)
major seaport(s): Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, La Plata, Punta Colorada, Ushuaia
river port(s): Arroyo Seco, Rosario, San Lorenzo-San Martin (Parana)
container port(s) (TEUs): Buenos Aires (1,851,701)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Bahia Blanca
Merchant marinetotal: 19
by type: cargo 13, container 3, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 6 (Argentina 5, Netherlands 1) (2010)
total: 36
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 5, chemical tanker 6, container 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 4
foreign-owned: 14 (Brazil 1, Chile 6, Spain 3, Taiwan 2, UK 2)
registered in other countries: 15 (Liberia 1, Panama 5, Paraguay 5, Uruguay 1, unknown 3) (2010)
Airports799 (2013)
1,138 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 15
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2013)
total: 161
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 29
1,524 to 2,437 m: 65
914 to 1,523 m: 53
under 914 m: 10 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 784
1,524 to 2,437 m: 23
914 to 1,523 m: 290
under 914 m: 471 (2013)
total: 977
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 43
914 to 1,523 m: 484
under 914 m: 448 (2013)

Military

ParaguayArgentina
Military branchesArmed Forces Command (Commando de las Fuerzas Militares): Army, National Navy (Armada Nacional, includes Marine Corps, Naval Aviation, and Coast Guard), Paraguayan Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Paraguay, FAP), Logistics Command, War Materiel Directorate (2012)
Argentine Army (Ejercito Argentino), Navy of the Argentine Republic (Armada Republica; includes naval aviation and naval infantry), Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Argentina, FAA) (2013)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation is 12 months for Army, 24 months for Navy; volunteers for the Air Force must be younger than 22 years of age with a secondary school diploma (2012)
18-24 years of age for voluntary military service (18-21 requires parental consent); no conscription; if the number of volunteers fails to meet the quota of recruits for a particular year, Congress can authorize the conscription of citizens turning 18 that year for a period not exceeding one year (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.71% of GDP (2015)
1.4% of GDP (2014)
1.36% of GDP (2013)
1.38% of GDP (2012)
1.2% of GDP (2011)
0.86% of GDP (2015)
0.87% of GDP (2014)
0.83% of GDP (2013)
0.78% of GDP (2012)
0.76% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

ParaguayArgentina
Disputes - internationalunruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics trafficking, and fundraising for violent extremist organizations
Argentina continues to assert its claims to the UK-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), South Georgia, and the South Sandwich Islands in its constitution, forcibly occupying the Falklands in 1982, but in 1995 agreed to no longer seek settlement by force; UK continues to reject Argentine requests for sovereignty talks; territorial claim in Antarctica partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims; uncontested dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; in 2010, the ICJ ruled in favor of Uruguay's operation of two paper mills on the Uruguay River, which forms the border with Argentina; the two countries formed a joint pollution monitoring regime; the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in 2001 has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur); contraband smuggling, human trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of the border with Bolivia
Illicit drugsmajor illicit producer of cannabis, most or all of which is consumed in Brazil, Argentina, and Chile; transshipment country for Andean cocaine headed for Brazil, other Southern Cone markets, and Europe; weak border controls, extensive corruption and money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area; weak anti-money-laundering laws and enforcement
a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe, heroin headed for the US, and ephedrine and pseudoephedrine headed for Mexico; some money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area; law enforcement corruption; a source for precursor chemicals; increasing domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers, especially cocaine base and synthetic drugs (2008)

Source: CIA Factbook