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Panama vs. Colombia

Introduction

PanamaColombia
BackgroundExplored and settled by the Spanish in the 16th century, Panama broke with Spain in 1821 and joined a union of Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela - named the Republic of Gran Colombia. When the latter dissolved in 1830, Panama remained part of Colombia. With US backing, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903 and promptly signed a treaty with the US allowing for the construction of a canal and US sovereignty over a strip of land on either side of the structure (the Panama Canal Zone). The Panama Canal was built by the US Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. In 1977, an agreement was signed for the complete transfer of the Canal from the US to Panama by the end of the century. Certain portions of the Zone and increasing responsibility over the Canal were turned over in the subsequent decades. With US help, dictator Manuel NORIEGA was deposed in 1989. The entire Panama Canal, the area supporting the Canal, and remaining US military bases were transferred to Panama by the end of 1999. An ambitious expansion project to more than double the Canal's capacity - by allowing for more Canal transits and larger ships - was carried out between 2007 and 2016.
Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged after the dissolution of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others are Ecuador and Venezuela). A decades-long conflict between government forces and antigovernment insurgent groups, principally the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) heavily funded by the drug trade, escalated during the 1990s. More than 31,000 former paramilitaries demobilized by the end of 2006 and the United Self Defense Forces of Colombia as a formal organization ceased to operate. In the wake of the paramilitary demobilization, organized criminal groups arose, whose members include some former paramilitaries. After four years of formal peace negotiations, the Colombian Government signed a revised final peace accord with the FARC in November 2016, which was subsequently ratified by the Colombian Congress. The accord calls for members of the FARC to demobilize, disarm, and reincorporate into society and politics, and it creates an alternative system for transitional justice that includes a “Special Jurisdiction for Peace” to address accountability for conflict-related crimes and established truth-telling mechanisms. The Colombian Government has stepped up efforts to reassert government control throughout the country, and now has a presence in every one of its administrative departments. Despite decades of internal conflict and drug related security challenges, Colombia maintains relatively strong democratic institutions characterized by peaceful, transparent elections and the protection of civil liberties.

Geography

PanamaColombia
LocationCentral America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Colombia and Costa Rica
Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama
Geographic coordinates9 00 N, 80 00 W
4 00 N, 72 00 W
Map referencesCentral America and the Caribbean
South America
Areatotal: 75,420 sq km
land: 74,340 sq km
water: 1,080 sq km
total: 1,138,910 sq km
land: 1,038,700 sq km
water: 100,210 sq km
note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, and Serrana Bank
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than South Carolina
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 687 km
border countries (2): Colombia 339 km, Costa Rica 348 km
total: 6,672 km
border countries (5): Brazil 1,790 km, Ecuador 708 km, Panama 339 km, Peru 1,494 km, Venezuela 2,341 km
Coastline2,490 km
3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or edge of continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatetropical maritime; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January), short dry season (January to May)
tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
Terraininterior mostly steep, rugged mountains with dissected, upland plains; coastal plains with rolling hills
flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains (Llanos)
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 360 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Volcan Baru 3,475 m
mean elevation: 593 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m
note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also has the same elevation
Natural resourcescopper, mahogany forests, shrimp, hydropower
petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 30.5%
arable land 7.3%; permanent crops 2.5%; permanent pasture 20.7%
forest: 43.6%
other: 25.9% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 37.5%
arable land 1.4%; permanent crops 1.6%; permanent pasture 34.5%
forest: 54.4%
other: 8.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land321 sq km (2012)
10,900 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsoccasional severe storms and forest fires in the Darien area
highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts
volcanism: Galeras (elev. 4,276 m) is one of Colombia's most active volcanoes, having erupted in 2009 and 2010 causing major evacuations; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Nevado del Ruiz (elev. 5,321 m), 129 km (80 mi) west of Bogota, erupted in 1985 producing lahars (mudflows) that killed 23,000 people; the volcano last erupted in 1991; additionally, after 500 years of dormancy, Nevado del Huila reawakened in 2007 and has experienced frequent eruptions since then; other historically active volcanoes include Cumbal, Dona Juana, Nevado del Tolima, and Purace
Environment - current issueswater pollution from agricultural runoff threatens fishery resources; deforestation of tropical rain forest; land degradation and soil erosion threatens siltation of Panama Canal; air pollution in urban areas; mining threatens natural resources
deforestation; soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - notestrategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific Ocean
only South American country with coastlines on both the North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea
Population distributionpopulation is concentrated towards the center of the country, particularly around the Canal, but a sizeable segment of the populace also lives in the far west around David; the eastern third of the country is sparsely inhabited
the majority of people live in the north and west where agricultural opportunities and natural resources are found; the vast grasslands of the llanos to the south and east, which make up approximately 60% of the country, are sparsely populated

Demographics

PanamaColombia
Population3,705,246 (July 2016 est.)
47,220,856 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 26.7% (male 504,990/female 484,338)
15-24 years: 17.11% (male 323,034/female 311,099)
25-54 years: 40.31% (male 756,400/female 737,205)
55-64 years: 7.72% (male 141,582/female 144,414)
65 years and over: 8.16% (male 138,922/female 163,262) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 24.57% (male 5,940,903/female 5,659,594)
15-24 years: 17.54% (male 4,216,437/female 4,066,079)
25-54 years: 41.82% (male 9,788,057/female 9,958,982)
55-64 years: 8.9% (male 1,973,215/female 2,230,609)
65 years and over: 7.17% (male 1,412,209/female 1,974,771) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 28.9 years
male: 28.5 years
female: 29.3 years (2016 est.)
total: 29.6 years
male: 28.7 years
female: 30.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.3% (2016 est.)
1.02% (2016 est.)
Birth rate18.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
16.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate4.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
5.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 10.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 10.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 14.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 17.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 78.6 years
male: 75.8 years
female: 81.6 years (2016 est.)
total population: 75.7 years
male: 72.6 years
female: 79 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.33 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.02 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.69% (2015 est.)
0.48% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Panamanian(s)
adjective: Panamanian
noun: Colombian(s)
adjective: Colombian
Ethnic groupsmestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 65%, Native American 12.3% (Ngabe 7.6%, Kuna 2.4%, Embera 0.9%, Bugle 0.8%, other 0.4%, unspecified 0.2%), black or African descent 9.2%, mulatto 6.8%, white 6.7% (2010 est.)
mestizo and white 84.2%, Afro-Colombian (includes mulatto, Raizal, and Palenquero) 10.4%, Amerindian 3.4%, Romani <.01, unspecified 2.1% (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS17,100 (2015 est.)
146,000 (2015 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 85%, Protestant 15%
Catholic 79%, Protestant 14% (includes Pentecostal 6%, mainline Protestant 2%, other 6%), other 2%, unspecified 5% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths500 (2015 est.)
2,300 (2015 est.)
LanguagesSpanish (official), indigenous languages (including Ngabere (or Guaymi), Buglere, Kuna, Embera, Wounaan, Naso (or Teribe), and Bri Bri), Panamanian English Creole (similar to Jamaican English Creole; a mixture of English and Spanish with elements of Ngabere; also known as Guari Guari and Colon Creole), English, Chinese (Yue and Hakka), Arabic, French Creole, other (Yiddish, Hebrew, Korean, Japanese)
note: many Panamanians are bilingual
Spanish (official)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95%
male: 95.7%
female: 94.4% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.7%
male: 94.6%
female: 94.8% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne disease: dengue fever
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 13 years
male: 12 years
female: 13 years (2013)
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2015)
Education expenditures3.3% of GDP (2011)
4.5% of GDP (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 66.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.07% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 76.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.66% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 97.7% of population
rural: 86.6% of population
total: 94.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.3% of population
rural: 11.4% of population
total: 5.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 96.8% of population
rural: 73.8% of population
total: 91.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.2% of population
rural: 26.2% of population
total: 8.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 83.5% of population
rural: 58% of population
total: 75% of population
unimproved:
urban: 16.5% of population
rural: 42% of population
total: 25% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 85.2% of population
rural: 67.9% of population
total: 81.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 14.8% of population
rural: 32.1% of population
total: 18.9% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationPANAMA CITY (capital) 1.673 million (2015)
BOGOTA (capital) 9.765 million; Medellin 3.911 million; Cali 2.646 million; Barranquilla 1.991 million; Bucaramanga 1.215 million; Cartagena 1.092 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate94 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
64 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight3.9% (2008)
3.4% (2010)
Health expenditures8% of GDP (2014)
7.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.59 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
1.57 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density2.2 beds/1,000 population (2011)
1.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate26.5% (2014)
20.7% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 59,294
percentage: 7%
note: data represent children ages 5-17 (2010 est.)
total number: 988,362
percentage: 9%
note: data represent children ages 5-17 (2009 est.)
Demographic profilePanama is a country of demographic and economic contrasts. It is in the midst of a demographic transition, characterized by steadily declining rates of fertility, mortality, and population growth, but disparities persist based on wealth, geography, and ethnicity. Panama has one of the fastest growing economies in Latin America and dedicates substantial funding to social programs, yet poverty and inequality remain prevalent. The indigenous population accounts for a growing share of Panama's poor and extreme poor, while the non-indigenous rural poor have been more successful at rising out of poverty through rural-to-urban labor migration. The government's large expenditures on untargeted, indirect subsidies for water, electricity, and fuel have been ineffective, but its conditional cash transfer program has shown some promise in helping to decrease extreme poverty among the indigenous population.
Panama has expanded access to education and clean water, but the availability of sanitation and, to a lesser extent, electricity remains poor. The increase in secondary schooling - led by female enrollment - is spreading to rural and indigenous areas, which probably will help to alleviate poverty if educational quality and the availability of skilled jobs improve. Inadequate access to sanitation contributes to a high incidence of diarrhea in Panama's children, which is one of the main causes of Panama's elevated chronic malnutrition rate, especially among indigenous communities.
Colombia is in the midst of a demographic transition resulting from steady declines in its fertility, mortality, and population growth rates. The birth rate has fallen from more than 6 children per woman in the 1960s to just above replacement level today as a result of increased literacy, family planning services, and urbanization. However, income inequality is among the worst in the world, and more than a third of the population lives below the poverty line.
Colombia experiences significant legal and illegal economic emigration and refugee flows. Large-scale labor emigration dates to the 1960s; Venezuela and the United States continue to be the main host countries. Colombia is the largest source of Latin American refugees in Latin America, nearly 400,000 of whom live primarily in Venezuela and Ecuador. Forced displacement remains prevalent because of violence among guerrillas, paramilitary groups, and Colombian security forces. Afro-Colombian and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. As of February 2017, an estimated 7.4 million persons have been internally displaced since 1985, the highest amount in the world. These estimates may undercount actual numbers because not all internally displaced persons are registered. Historically, Colombia also has one of the world's highest levels of forced disappearances. About 30,000 cases have been recorded over the last four decades - although the number is likely to be much higher - including human rights activists, trade unionists, Afro-Colombians, indigenous people, and farmers in rural conflict zones.
Forced displacement continues to be prevalent because of violence among guerrillas, paramilitary groups, and Colombian security forces. Afro-Colombian and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Even with the Colombian Government’s December 2016 peace agreement with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the risk of displacement remains as other rebel groups fill the void left by the FARC. As of February 2017, an estimated 7.4 million persons have been internally displaced since 1985, the highest total in the world. These estimates may undercount actual numbers because many internally displaced persons are not registered. Historically, Colombia also has one of the world’s highest levels of forced disappearances. About 30,000 cases have been recorded over the last four decades—although the number is likely to be much higher—including human rights activists, trade unionists, Afro-Colombians, indigenous people, and farmers in rural conflict zones.
Because of political violence and economic problems, Colombia received limited numbers of immigrants during the 19th and 20th centuries, mostly from the Middle East, Europe, and Japan. More recently, growth in the oil, mining, and manufacturing sectors has attracted increased labor migration; the primary source countries are Venezuela, the US, Mexico, and Argentina. Colombia has also become a transit area for illegal migrants from Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean who are en route to the US or Canada.
Contraceptive prevalence rate62.8% (2013)
79.1% (2009/10)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 53.4
youth dependency ratio: 41.7
elderly dependency ratio: 11.7
potential support ratio: 8.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 45.6
youth dependency ratio: 35.4
elderly dependency ratio: 10.2
potential support ratio: 9.8 (2015 est.)

Government

PanamaColombia
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Panama
conventional short form: Panama
local long form: Republica de Panama
local short form: Panama
etymology: according to tradition, the name derives from a former indigenous fishing village and its nearby beach that were called ""Panama"" meaning ""an abundance of fish""
"
conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
conventional short form: Colombia
local long form: Republica de Colombia
local short form: Colombia
etymology: the country is named after explorer Christopher COLUMBUS
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Panama City
geographic coordinates: 8 58 N, 79 32 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Bogota
geographic coordinates: 4 36 N, 74 05 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 3 indigenous territories* (comarcas); Bocas del Toro, Chiriqui, Cocle, Colon, Darien, Embera-Wounaan*, Herrera, Kuna Yala*, Los Santos, Ngobe-Bugle*, Panama, Panama Oeste, Veraguas
32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, Archipielago de San Andres, Providencia y Santa Catalina (colloquially San Andres y Providencia), Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada
Independence3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent from Spain on 28 November 1821)
20 July 1810 (from Spain)
National holidayIndependence Day (Separation Day), 3 November (1903)
Independence Day, 20 July (1810)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest effective 11 October 1972; amended several times, last in 2004 (2016)
several previous; latest promulgated 5 July 1991; amended many times, last in 2015 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Justice
civil law system influenced by the Spanish and French civil codes
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Juan Carlos VARELA (since 1 July 2014); Vice President Isabel de SAINT MALO de Alvarado (since 1 July 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Juan Carlos VARELA (since 1 July 2014); Vice President Isabel de SAINT MALO de Alvarado (since 1 July 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (president eligible for a single non-consecutive term); election last held on 4 May 2014; next to be held in 2019)
election results: Juan Carlos VARELA elected president; percent of vote - Juan Carlos VARELA (PP) 39.1%, Jose Domingo ARIAS (CD) 31.4%, Juan Carlos NAVARRO (PRD) 28.2%, other 1.3%
note: an alliance between the Panamenista Party and Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD) fractured after the 2014 election, but a loose coalition composed of Panamenista and moderate PRD and CD legislators generally work together to support the president’s agenda
chief of state: President Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon (since 7 August 2010); Vice President Ret. Gen. Oscar Adolfo NARANJO Trujillo (since 30 March 2017); note - Vice President German VARGAS Lleras' resignation on 15 March 2017 became effective on 21 March 2017, the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon (since 7 August 2010); Vice President Ret. Gen. Oscar Adolfo NARANJO Trujillo (since 30 March 2017)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term; election last held on 25 May 2014 with a runoff held on 15 June 2014 (next to be held on 27 May 2018); note - recent political reform eliminated presidential reelection; beginning in 2018, presidents can only serve one 4-year term
election results: Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon reelected president in runoff; percent of vote - Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon (U Party) 51.0%, Oscar Ivan ZULUAGA (CD) 45.0%, other 4.0%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (71 seats; 45 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies - populous towns and cities - by proportional representation vote and 26 directly elected in single-seat constituencies - outlying rural districts - by plurality vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 4 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRD 26, CD 25, Panamenista 16, MOLIRENA 2, PP 1, independent 1
description: bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Senate or Senado (102 seats; 100 members elected nationally - not by district or state - and two elected on a special ballot for indigenous communities to serve 4-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (166 seats; members elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 9 March 2014 (next to be held in March 2018); Chamber of Representatives - last held on 9 March 2014 (next to be held in March 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - U Party 21, CD 20, PC 18, PL 17, CR 9, PDA 5, Green Party 5, other 7; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PL 39, U Party 37, PC 27, CD 19, CR 16, Green Party 6, PDA 3, other 19
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of 9 magistrates and 9 alternates and divided into civil, criminal, administrative, and general business chambers)
judge selection and term of office: magistrates appointed by the president for staggered 10-year terms
subordinate courts: appellate courts or Tribunal Superior; Labor Supreme Courts; Court of Audit; circuit courts or Tribunal Circuital (2 each in 9 of the 10 provinces); municipal courts; electoral, family, maritime, and adolescent courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of the Civil-Agrarian and Labor Chambers each with 7 judges, and the Penal Chamber with 9 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 magistrates); Council of State (consists of 31 members); Superior Judiciary Council (consists of 13 magistrates)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the Supreme Court members from candidates submitted by the Superior Judiciary Council; judges elected for individual 8-year terms; Constitutional Court magistrates - nominated by the president, by the Supreme Court, and elected by the Senate; judges elected for individual 8-year terms; Council of State members appointed by the State Council plenary from lists nominated by the Superior Judiciary Council
subordinate courts: Superior Tribunals (appellate courts for each of the judicial districts); regional courts; civil municipal courts; Superior Military Tribunal; first instance administrative courts
Political parties and leaders"Democratic Change or CD [Ricardo MARTINELLI Berrocal]
Democratic Revolutionary Party or PRD [Benicio ROBINSON]
Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement or MOLIRENA [Francisco ""Pancho"" ALEMAN]
Panamenista Party [Jose Luis “Popi” VARELA Rodriguez] (formerly the Arnulfista Party)
Popular Party or PP [Milton C. HENRIQUEZ] (formerly Christian Democratic Party or PDC)
"
Alternative Democratic Pole or PDA [Clara LOPEZ]
Conservative Party or PC [David BARGUIL]
Democratic Center Party or CD [Alvaro URIBE Velez, Oscar Ivan ZULUAGA, Carlos HOLMES TRUJILLO, Ivan DUQUE]
Green Alliance [Jorge LONDONO, Antonio SANGUINO, Luis AVELLANEDA, Camilo ROMERO]
Liberal Party or PL [Horacio SERPA]
Citizens Option (Opcion Ciudadana) or OC (formerly known as the National Integration Party or PIN) [Angel ALIRIO Moreno]
Radical Change or CR [Carlos Fernando GALAN]
Social National Unity Party or U Party [Roy BARRERAS, Jose David NAME]
note: Colombia has eight major political parties, and numerous smaller movements
Political pressure groups and leadersChamber of Commerce
Concertacion Nacional (mechanism for Government of Panama to formally dialogue with representatives of civil society)
National Council of Organized Workers or CONATO
National Council of Private Enterprise or CONEP
National Union of Construction and Similar Workers (SUNTRACS)
Panamanian Association of Business Executives or APEDE
Panamanian Industrialists Society or SIP
Workers Confederation of the Republic of Panama or CTRP
Central Union of Workers or CUT
Colombian Confederation of Workers or CTC
General Confederation of Workers or CGT
National Liberation Army or ELN
International organization participationBCIE, CAN (observer), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, SICA, UN, UNASUR (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
BCIE, BIS, CAN, Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CELAC, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-3, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Emanuel Arturo GONZALEZ-REVILLA Lince (since 18 September 2014)
chancery: 2862 McGill Terrace NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 483-1407
FAX: [1] (202) 483-8413
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, Tampa, Washington DC
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338
FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Newark (NJ), Orlando, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Boston, Chicago, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador John D. FEELEY (since 15 February 2015)
embassy: Edificio 783, Avenida Demetrio Basilio Lakas Panama, Apartado Postal 0816-02561, Zona 5, Panama City
mailing address: American Embassy Panama, Unit 0945, APO AA 34002; American Embassy Panama, 9100 Panama City PL, Washington, DC 20521-9100
telephone: [507] 317-5000
FAX: [507] 317-5568
chief of mission: Ambassador Kevin WHITAKER (since 11 June 2014)
embassy: Calle 24 Bis No. 48-50, Bogota, D.C.
mailing address: Carrera 45 No. 24B-27, Bogota, D.C.
telephone: [57] (1) 275-2000
FAX: [57] (1) 275-4600
Flag descriptiondivided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white (hoist side) with a blue five-pointed star in the center and plain red; the bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star in the center; the blue and red colors are those of the main political parties (Conservatives and Liberals respectively) and the white denotes peace between them; the blue star stands for the civic virtues of purity and honesty, the red star signifies authority and law
three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; the flag retains the three main colors of the banner of Gran Colombia, the short-lived South American republic that broke up in 1830; various interpretations of the colors exist and include: yellow for the gold in Colombia's land, blue for the seas on its shores, and red for the blood spilled in attaining freedom; alternatively, the colors have been described as representing more elemental concepts such as sovereignty and justice (yellow), loyalty and vigilance (blue), and valor and generosity (red); or simply the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity
note: similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center
National anthem"name: ""Himno Istmeno"" (Isthmus Hymn)
lyrics/music: Jeronimo DE LA OSSA/Santos A. JORGE
note: adopted 1925
"
"name: ""Himno Nacional de la Republica de Colombia"" (National Anthem of the Republic of Colombia)
lyrics/music: Rafael NUNEZ/Oreste SINDICI
note: adopted 1920; the anthem was created from an inspirational poem written by President Rafael NUNEZ
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)harpy eagle; national colors: blue, white, red
Andean condor; national colors: yellow, blue, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: least one parent must be a citizen or permanent resident of Colombia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

PanamaColombia
Economy - overviewPanama's dollar-based economy rests primarily on a well-developed services sector that accounts for more than three-quarters of GDP. Services include operating the Panama Canal, logistics, banking, the Colon Free Trade Zone, insurance, container ports, flagship registry, and tourism and Panama is a center for offshore banking. Panama's transportation and logistics services sectors, along with infrastructure development projects, have boosted economic growth; however, public debt surpassed $37 billion in 2016 because of excessive government spending and public works projects. The US-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement was approved by Congress and signed into law in October 2011, and entered into force in October 2012.

Future growth will be bolstered by the Panama Canal expansion project that began in 2007 and was completed in 2016 at a cost of $5.3 billion - about 10-15% of current GDP. The expansion project will more than double the Canal's capacity, enabling it to accommodate high-capacity vessels such as tankers and neopanamax vessels that are too large to traverse the existing canal. The US and China are the top users of the Canal.

Strong economic performance has not translated into broadly shared prosperity, as Panama has the second worst income distribution in Latin America. About one-fourth of the population lives in poverty; however, from 2006 to 2012 poverty was reduced by 10 percentage points.
Colombia’s economy benefits from free trade and sound fiscal policies but it has slowed in 2016 because of falling global oil prices, a strong dollar, and moderate inflation. Colombia heavily depends on energy and mining exports, making it vulnerable to a drop in commodity prices. Colombia is the world's fourth largest coal exporter, the world’s second largest coffee and cut flowers exporter, and Latin America’s fourth largest oil producer. Economic development is hampered by inadequate infrastructure, poverty, narcotrafficking, and an uncertain security situation.

Although real GDP growth averaged 4.7% for the past decade, growth fell to 2.0% in 2016. The El Ni?o weather pattern in early 2016 and a 40 day truckers strike caused food and energy prices to rise, with inflation spiking to a high of nearly 9% in July 2016. Declining oil prices have reduced government revenues. Colombia received about $1 billion in oil revenue in 2016, compared with $6 billion in 2014; oil accounts for 20% of government revenues. President Juan Manuel SANTOS signed into law a tax reform bill in December 2016 aimed at offsetting lost revenue from the drop in oil prices by decreasing corporate taxes to incentivize investment and by increasing the value added tax. The enactment of the tax reform bill was key to maintaining Colombia’s BBB investment-grade credit rating. Foreign investment has been hampered by Colombia’s struggle to address its fiscal problems. As of September 2016, FDI in Colombia had risen to $10.2 billion, up from $9.3 billion over the same period in 2015.

Colombia has signed or is negotiating Free Trade Agreements (FTA) with more than a dozen countries; the US-Colombia FTA went into force in May 2012. The US and Colombia have benefitted from the FTA, but Colombia’s ability to take full advantage of its enhanced access to American markets continues to be constrained by lack of export diversification. Nontariff measures remain a point of contention for bilateral trade relations. The Colombian government acted in 2016 to address several bilateral trade irritants with the US, including truck scrappage, distilled spirits, pharmaceuticals, ethanol imports, and labor rights. US and industry stakeholders are still evaluating the implementation of recent reforms. Colombia is a founding member of the Pacific Alliance - a regional trade block formed in 2012 by Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru to promote regional trade and economic integration. In 2013, Colombia began its accession process to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$93.12 billion (2016 est.)
$88.52 billion (2015 est.)
$83.69 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$688 billion (2016 est.)
$674.5 billion (2015 est.)
$654.2 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate5.2% (2016 est.)
5.8% (2015 est.)
6.1% (2014 est.)
2% (2016 est.)
3.1% (2015 est.)
4.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$22,800 (2016 est.)
$22,100 (2015 est.)
$21,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$14,100 (2016 est.)
$13,800 (2015 est.)
$13,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 2.7%
industry: 14.3%
services: 83% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 6.8%
industry: 34%
services: 59.2% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line23% (2015 est.)
27.8% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.1%
highest 10%: 38.9% (2014 est.)
lowest 10%: 1.1%
highest 10%: 42.2% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1% (2016 est.)
0.1% (2015 est.)
5.8% (2016 est.)
6.8% (2015 est.)
Labor force1.611 million
note: shortage of skilled labor, but an oversupply of unskilled labor (2016 est.)
24.43 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 17%
industry: 18.6%
services: 64.4% (2009 est.)
agriculture: 17%
industry: 21%
services: 62% (2011 est.)
Unemployment rate4.5% (2016 est.)
4.5% (2015 est.)
9.2% (2016 est.)
8.9% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index50.7 (2014 est.)
56.1 (2003)
53.5 (2014)
56.9 (1996)
Budgetrevenues: $11.7 billion
expenditures: $12.41 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $78.1 billion
expenditures: $88 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesconstruction, brewing, cement and other construction materials, sugar milling
textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds
Industrial production growth rate4.8% (2016 est.)
1.9% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsbananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane, vegetables; livestock; shrimp
coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; shrimp; forest products
Exports$15.19 billion (2016 est.)
$15.92 billion (2015 est.)
note: includes the Colon Free Zone
$32.7 billion (2016 est.)
$35.7 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesfruit and nuts, fish, iron and steel waste, wood
petroleum, coal, emeralds, coffee, nickel, cut flowers, bananas, apparel
Exports - partnersUS 19.7%, Germany 13.2%, Costa Rica 7.7%, China 5.9%, Netherlands 4.1% (2015)
US 27.5%, Panama 7.2%, China 5.2%, Spain 4.4%, Ecuador 4% (2015)
Imports$22.08 billion (2016 est.)
$22.48 billion (2015 est.)
note: includes the Colon Free Zone
$44.89 billion (2016 est.)
$54.06 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfuels, machinery, vehicles, iron and steel rods, pharmaceuticals
industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity
Imports - partnersUS 25.9%, China 9.6%, Mexico 5.1% (2015)
US 28.8%, China 18.6%, Mexico 7.1%, Germany 4.2% (2015)
Debt - external$22.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$21.03 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$109.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$110.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesbalboas (PAB) per US dollar -
1 (2016 est.)
1 (2015 est.)
1 (2014 est.)
1 (2013 est.)
1 (2012 est.)
Colombian pesos (COP) per US dollar -
3,051.1 (2016 est.)
2,741.8 (2015 est.)
2,001 (2014 est.)
2,001.1 (2013 est.)
1,798 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt39.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
38.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
44.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
41.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$3.878 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.378 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$46.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$46.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$2.94 billion (2016 est.)
-$3.798 billion (2015 est.)
-$12.54 billion (2016 est.)
-$18.78 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$55.23 billion (2016 est.)
$274.1 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$49.79 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$45.28 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$161.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$163.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$10.26 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.755 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$50.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$47.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$12.54 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$10.68 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$8.348 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$85.96 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$146.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$202.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate7.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
7.46% (31 December 2015 est.)
14.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
11.45% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$46.85 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$42.98 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$140.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$140.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$8.845 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.215 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$38.29 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$34.43 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$38.97 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$36.19 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$138.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$123.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues21.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-1.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
-3.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 12.6%
male: 11.2%
female: 14.9% (2014 est.)
total: 18.7%
male: 14.6%
female: 24.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 49.7%
government consumption: 9.4%
investment in fixed capital: 43.9%
investment in inventories: 3.3%
exports of goods and services: 52%
imports of goods and services: -58.3% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 63.3%
government consumption: 18.8%
investment in fixed capital: 26.3%
investment in inventories: 0.9%
exports of goods and services: 13.5%
imports of goods and services: -22.8% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving41.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
41% of GDP (2015 est.)
37.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
21.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
21.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

PanamaColombia
Electricity - production9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
68 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption7.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
60 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports99 million kWh (2014 est.)
800 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports200 million kWh (2014 est.)
47 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
1.019 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
859,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
2.3 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
134.7 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
11.86 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
10.9 billion cu m (1 June 2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
1.102 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity2.7 million kW (2014 est.)
16 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels38.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
28.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants61.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
68.5% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
3.1% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
323,700 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption136,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
299,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports66 bbl/day (2013 est.)
97,820 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports127,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
76,180 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy17 million Mt (2013 est.)
74 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 300,000
electrification - total population: 91%
electrification - urban areas: 94%
electrification - rural areas: 80% (2013)
population without electricity: 1,200,000
electrification - total population: 97%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 88% (2013)

Telecommunications

PanamaColombia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 620,436
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 7,109,254
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 6.947 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 190 (July 2015 est.)
total: 57.327 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 123 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: domestic and international facilities well-developed
domestic: mobile-cellular telephone subscribership has increased rapidly
international: country code - 507; landing point for the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1), the MAYA-1, and PAN-AM submarine cable systems that together provide links to the US and parts of the Caribbean, Central America, and South America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to the Central American Microwave System (2015)
general assessment: modern system in many respects with a nationwide microwave radio relay system, a domestic satellite system with 41 earth stations, and a fiber-optic network linking 50 cities; telecommunications sector liberalized during the 1990s; multiple providers of both fixed-line and mobile-cellular services
domestic: fixed-line connections stand at about 15 per 100 persons; mobile cellular telephone subscribership is about 120 per 100 persons; competition among cellular service providers is resulting in falling local and international calling rates and contributing to the steep decline in the market share of fixed-line services
international: country code - 57; multiple submarine cable systems provide links to the US, parts of the Caribbean, and Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 10 (6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 3 fully digitalized international switching centers) (2011)
Internet country code.pa
.co
Internet userstotal: 1.873 million
percent of population: 51.2% (July 2015 est.)
total: 26.128 million
percent of population: 55.9% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediamultiple privately owned TV networks and a government-owned educational TV station; multi-channel cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; more than 100 commercial radio stations (2007)
combination of state-owned and privately owned broadcast media provide service; more than 500 radio stations and many national, regional, and local TV stations (2007)

Transportation

PanamaColombia
Railwaystotal: 77 km
standard gauge: 77 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
total: 2,141 km
standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 1,991 km 0.914-m gauge (2015)
Roadwaystotal: 15,137 km
paved: 6,351 km
unpaved: 8,786 km (2010)
total: 204,855 km (2015)
Waterways800 km (includes the 82-km Panama Canal that is being widened) (2011)
24,725 km (18,300 km navigable; the most important waterway, the River Magdalena, of which 1,488 km is navigable, is dredged regularly to ensure safe passage of cargo vessels and container barges) (2012)
Pipelinesoil 128 km (2013)
gas 4,991 km; oil 6,796 km; refined products 3,429 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Balboa, Colon, Cristobal
container port(s) (TEUs): Balboa (3,232,265), Colon (2,390,976), Manzanillo (2,391,066)
major seaport(s): Atlantic Ocean (Caribbean) - Cartagena, Santa Marta, Turbo; Pacific Ocean - Buenaventura
river port(s): Barranquilla (Rio Magdalena)
oil terminal(s): Covenas offshore terminal
dry bulk cargo port(s): Puerto Bolivar (coal)
container port(s) (TEUs): Cartagena (1,853,342)
Merchant marinetotal: 6,413
by type: barge carrier 1, bulk carrier 2,525, cargo 1,115, carrier 27, chemical tanker 588, combination ore/oil 1, container 742, liquefied gas 205, passenger 42, passenger/cargo 51, petroleum tanker 545, refrigerated cargo 191, roll on/roll off 87, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 290
foreign-owned: 5,157 (Albania 4, Argentina 5, Australia 4, Bahamas 6, Bangladesh 5, Belgium 1, Bermuda 27, Brazil 3, Bulgaria 6, Burma 3, Canada 6, Chile 14, China 534, Colombia 2, Croatia 2, Cuba 2, Cyprus 5, Denmark 41, Ecuador 3, Egypt 11, Finland 2, France 7, Gabon 1, Germany 24, Gibraltar 1, Greece 379, Hong Kong 144, India 24, Indonesia 10, Iran 5, Ireland 1, Israel 1, Italy 25, Japan 2372, Jordan 11, Kuwait 12, Lebanon 2, Lithuania 3, Luxembourg 1, Malaysia 12, Maldives 2, Malta 2, Mexico 5, Monaco 11, Netherlands 6, Nigeria 6, Norway 81, Oman 10, Pakistan 3, Peru 9, Philippines 5, Portugal 10, Qatar 1, Romania 3, Russia 49, Saudi Arabia 11, Singapore 92, South Korea 373, Spain 30, Sweden 2, Switzerland 15, Syria 34, Taiwan 328, Tanzania 2, Thailand 6, Turkey 62, UAE 83, UK 37, Ukraine 8, US 90, Venezuela 13, Vietnam 43, Yemen 4)
registered in other countries: 1 (Honduras 1) (2010)
total: 12
by type: cargo 9, chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker 2
registered in other countries: 4 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Panama 2, Portugal 1) (2010)
Airports117 (2013)
836 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 57
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 30 (2013)
total: 121
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 39
914 to 1,523 m: 53
under 914 m: 18 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 60
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 51 (2013)
total: 715
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 25
914 to 1,523 m: 201
under 914 m: 488 (2013)
Heliports3 (2013)
3 (2013)

Military

PanamaColombia
Military branchesno regular military forces; Panamanian Public Security Forces (subordinate to the Ministry of Public Security), comprising the National Police (PNP), National Air-Naval Service (SENAN), National Border Service (SENAFRONT) (2013)
National Army (Ejercito Nacional), Republic of Colombia Navy (Armada Republica de Colombia, ARC, includes Naval Aviation, Naval Infantry (Infanteria de Marina, IM), and Coast Guard), Colombian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Colombia, FAC) (2012)

Transnational Issues

PanamaColombia
Disputes - internationalorganized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia operate within the remote border region with Panama
in December 2007, ICJ allocated San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina islands to Colombia under 1928 Treaty but did not rule on 82 degrees W meridian as maritime boundary with Nicaragua; managed dispute with Venezuela over maritime boundary and Venezuelan-administered Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics, guerrilla, and paramilitary activities penetrate all neighboring borders and have caused Colombian citizens to flee mostly into neighboring countries; Colombia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Jamaica, and the US assert various claims to Bajo Nuevo and Serranilla Bank
Illicit drugsmajor cocaine transshipment point and primary money-laundering center for narcotics revenue; money-laundering activity is especially heavy in the Colon Free Zone; offshore financial center; negligible signs of coca cultivation; monitoring of financial transactions is improving; official corruption remains a major problem
illicit producer of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis; world's leading coca cultivator with 83,000 hectares in coca cultivation in 2011, a 17% decrease over 2010, producing a potential of 195 mt of pure cocaine; the world's largest producer of coca derivatives; supplies cocaine to nearly all of the US market and the great majority of other international drug markets; in 2012, aerial eradication dispensed herbicide to treat over 100,549 hectares combined with manual eradication of 30,486 hectares; a significant portion of narcotics proceeds are either laundered or invested in Colombia through the black market peso exchange; important supplier of heroin to the US market; opium poppy cultivation is estimated to have fallen to 1,100 hectares in 2009 while pure heroin production declined to 2.1 mt; most Colombian heroin is destined for the US market (2013)
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 15,614 (Colombia) (2016)
IDPs: 7,401,031 (conflict between government and illegal armed groups and drug traffickers since 1985; about 300,000 new IDPs each year since 2000) (2017)
stateless persons: 11 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook