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Pakistan vs. Iran

Introduction

PakistanIran
BackgroundThe Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars and a limited conflict - in 1947-48, 1965, and 1999 respectively - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in mid-1998. India-Pakistan relations improved in the mid-2000s but have been rocky since the November 2008 Mumbai attacks and have been further strained by attacks in India by militants suspected of being based in Pakistan. Nawaz SHARIF took office as prime minister in 2013, marking the first time in Pakistani history that a democratically elected government completed a full term and transitioned to a successive democratically elected government. Pakistan has been engaged in a decades-long armed conflict with militant groups that target government institutions and civilians, including the Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) and other militant networks.
Known as Persia until 1935, Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the ruling monarchy was overthrown and Shah Mohammad Reza PAHLAVI was forced into exile. Conservative clerical forces led by Ayatollah Ruhollah KHOMEINI established a theocratic system of government with ultimate political authority vested in a learned religious scholar referred to commonly as the Supreme Leader who, according to the constitution, is accountable only to the Assembly of Experts (AOE) - a popularly elected 86-member body of clerics. US-Iranian relations became strained when a group of Iranian students seized the US Embassy in Tehran in November 1979 and held embassy personnel hostages until mid-January 1981. The US cut off diplomatic relations with Iran in April 1980. During the period 1980-88, Iran fought a bloody, indecisive war with Iraq that eventually expanded into the Persian Gulf and led to clashes between US Navy and Iranian military forces. Iran has been designated a state sponsor of terrorism for its activities in Lebanon and elsewhere in the world and remains subject to US, UN, and EU economic sanctions and export controls because of its continued involvement in terrorism and concerns over possible military dimensions of its nuclear program. Following the election of reformer Hojjat ol-Eslam Mohammad KHATAMI as president in 1997 and a reformist Majles (legislature) in 2000, a campaign to foster political reform in response to popular dissatisfaction was initiated. The movement floundered as conservative politicians, supported by the Supreme Leader, unelected institutions of authority like the Council of Guardians, and the security services reversed and blocked reform measures while increasing security repression.
Starting with nationwide municipal elections in 2003 and continuing through Majles elections in 2004, conservatives reestablished control over Iran's elected government institutions, which culminated with the August 2005 inauguration of hardliner Mahmud AHMADI-NEJAD as president. His controversial reelection in June 2009 sparked nationwide protests over allegations of electoral fraud, but the protests were quickly suppressed. Deteriorating economic conditions due primarily to government mismanagement and international sanctions prompted at least two major economically based protests in July and October 2012, but Iran's internal security situation remained stable. President AHMADI-NEJAD's independent streak angered regime establishment figures, including the Supreme Leader, leading to conservative opposition to his agenda for the last year of his presidency, and an alienation of his political supporters. In June 2013 Iranians elected a moderate conservative cleric Dr. Hasan Fereidun RUHANI to the presidency. He is a longtime senior member in the regime, but has made promises of reforming society and Iran's foreign policy. The UN Security Council has passed a number of resolutions calling for Iran to suspend its uranium enrichment and reprocessing activities and comply with its IAEA obligations and responsibilities, and in July 2015 Iran and the five permanent members, plus Germany (P5+1) signed the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) under which Iran agreed to restrictions on its nuclear program in exchange for sanctions relief. Iran held elections in 2016 for the AOE and Majles, resulting in a conservative-controlled AOE and a Majles that many Iranians perceive as more supportive of the RUHANI administration than the previous, conservative-dominated body. Iran will hold presidential elections in May 2017. RUHANI is currently favored to win a second term.

Geography

PakistanIran
LocationSouthern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north
Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan
Geographic coordinates30 00 N, 70 00 E
32 00 N, 53 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Middle East
Areatotal: 796,095 sq km
land: 770,875 sq km
water: 25,220 sq km
total: 1,648,195 sq km
land: 1,531,595 sq km
water: 116,600 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly more than five times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of California
almost 2.5 times the size of Texas; slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundariestotal: 7,257 km
border countries (4): Afghanistan 2,670 km, China 438 km, India 3,190 km, Iran 959 km
total: 5,894 km
border countries (7): Afghanistan 921 km, Armenia 44 km, Azerbaijan 689 km, Iraq 1,599 km, Pakistan 959 km, Turkey 534 km, Turkmenistan 1,148 km
Coastline1,046 km
2,440 km; note - Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: bilateral agreements or median lines in the Persian Gulf
continental shelf: natural prolongation
Climatemostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast
Terraindivided into three major geographic areas: the northern highlands, the Indus River plain in the center and east, and the Balochistan Plateau in the south and west
rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 900 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m
mean elevation: 1,305 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Kuh-e Damavand 5,671 m
Natural resourcesarable land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur
Land useagricultural land: 35.2%
arable land 27.6%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 6.5%
forest: 2.1%
other: 62.7% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 30.1%
arable land 10.8%; permanent crops 1.2%; permanent pasture 18.1%
forest: 6.8%
other: 63.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land202,000 sq km (2012)
95,530 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsfrequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)
periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms; earthquakes
Environment - current issueswater pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural freshwater resources; most of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
air pollution, especially in urban areas, from vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; wetland losses from drought; soil degradation (salination); inadequate supplies of potable water; water pollution from raw sewage and industrial waste; urbanization
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - notecontrols Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent
strategic location on the Persian Gulf and Strait of Hormuz, which are vital maritime pathways for crude oil transport
Population distributionthe Indus River and its tributaries attract most of the settlement, with Punjab province the most densely populated
population is concentrated in the north, northwest, and west, reflecting the position of the Zagros and Elburz Mountains; the vast dry areas in the center and eastern parts of the country, around the deserts of the Dasht-e Kavir and Dasht-e Lut, have a much smaller population density

Demographics

PakistanIran
Population201,995,540 (July 2016 est.)
82,801,633 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 31.99% (male 33,195,073/female 31,429,440)
15-24 years: 21.31% (male 22,194,064/female 20,845,816)
25-54 years: 36.87% (male 38,680,978/female 35,794,333)
55-64 years: 5.43% (male 5,498,126/female 5,463,453)
65 years and over: 4.4% (male 4,139,899/female 4,754,358) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 23.65% (male 10,037,814/female 9,546,710)
15-24 years: 16.57% (male 7,041,801/female 6,675,656)
25-54 years: 47.59% (male 20,085,331/female 19,319,933)
55-64 years: 6.79% (male 2,770,618/female 2,855,362)
65 years and over: 5.4% (male 2,052,541/female 2,415,867) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 23.4 years
male: 23.3 years
female: 23.4 years (2016 est.)
total: 29.4 years
male: 29.1 years
female: 29.7 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.45% (2016 est.)
1.18% (2016 est.)
Birth rate22.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
17.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
5.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 53.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 57 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 50.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 37.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 37.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 36.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 67.7 years
male: 65.8 years
female: 69.8 years (2016 est.)
total population: 71.4 years
male: 69.8 years
female: 73.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.68 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.83 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.09% (2015 est.)
0.14% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Pakistani(s)
adjective: Pakistani
noun: Iranian(s)
adjective: Iranian
Ethnic groupsPunjabi 44.7%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.4%, Sindhi 14.1%, Sariaki 8.4%, Muhajirs 7.6%, Balochi 3.6%, other 6.3%
Persian, Azeri, Kurd, Lur, Baloch, Arab, Turkmen and Turkic tribes
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS102,000 (2015 est.)
73,200 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim (official) 96.4% (Sunni 85-90%, Shia 10-15%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 3.6% (2010 est.)
Muslim (official) 99.4% (Shia 90-95%, Sunni 5-10%), other (includes Zoroastrian, Jewish, and Christian) 0.3%, unspecified 0.4% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths3,600 (2015 est.)
4,000 (2015 est.)
LanguagesPunjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Saraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashto (alternate name, Pashtu) 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%
Persian (official), Azeri Turkic and Turkic dialects, Kurdish, Gilaki and Mazandarani, Luri, Balochi, Arabic, other
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.9%
male: 69.5%
female: 45.8% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 86.8%
male: 91.2%
female: 82.5% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne diseases: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 8 years
male: 9 years
female: 7 years (2015)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2015)
Education expenditures2.7% of GDP (2015)
2.9% of GDP (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 38.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.81% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 73.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.07% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 93.9% of population
rural: 89.9% of population
total: 91.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.1% of population
rural: 10.1% of population
total: 8.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 97.7% of population
rural: 92.1% of population
total: 96.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.3% of population
rural: 7.9% of population
total: 3.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 83.1% of population
rural: 51.1% of population
total: 63.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 16.9% of population
rural: 48.9% of population
total: 36.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 92.8% of population
rural: 82.3% of population
total: 90% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7.2% of population
rural: 17.7% of population
total: 10% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationKarachi 16.618 million; Lahore 8.741 million; Faisalabad 3.567 million; Rawalpindi 2.506 million; Multan 1.921 million; ISLAMABAD (capital) 1.365 million (2015)
TEHRAN (capital) 8.432 million; Mashhad 3.014 million; Esfahan 1.88 million; Karaj 1.807 million; Shiraz 1.661 million; Tabriz 1.572 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate178 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
25 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures2.6% of GDP (2014)
6.9% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.81 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
1.49 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density0.6 beds/1,000 population (2012)
0.1 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate4.8% (2014)
24.9% (2014)
Contraceptive prevalence rate35.4% (2012/13)
77.4% (2010/11)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 65.3
youth dependency ratio: 57.9
elderly dependency ratio: 7.4
potential support ratio: 13.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 40.2
youth dependency ratio: 33.1
elderly dependency ratio: 7.1
potential support ratio: 14.1 (2015 est.)

Government

PakistanIran
Country name"conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
conventional short form: Pakistan
local long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan
local short form: Pakistan
former: West Pakistan
etymology: the word ""pak"" means ""pure"" in Persian or Pashto, while the Persian suffix ""-stan"" means ""place of"" or ""country,"" so the word Pakistan literally means ""Land of the Pure""
"
"conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Iran
conventional short form: Iran
local long form: Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran
local short form: Iran
former: Persia
etymology: name derives from the Avestan term ""aryanam"" meaning ""Land of the noble [ones]""
"
Government typefederal parliamentary republic
theocratic republic
Capitalname: Islamabad
geographic coordinates: 33 41 N, 73 03 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Tehran
geographic coordinates: 35 42 N, 51 25 E
time difference: UTC+3.5 (8.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins fourth Tuesday in March; ends fourth Thursday in September
Administrative divisions4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly North-West Frontier Province), Punjab, Sindh
note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of 2 administrative entities: Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan
31 provinces (ostanha, singular - ostan); Alborz, Ardabil, Azarbayjan-e Gharbi (West Azerbaijan), Azarbayjan-e Sharqi (East Azerbaijan), Bushehr, Chahar Mahal va Bakhtiari, Esfahan, Fars, Gilan, Golestan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam, Kerman, Kermanshah, Khorasan-e Jonubi (South Khorasan), Khorasan-e Razavi (Razavi Khorasan), Khorasan-e Shomali (North Khorasan), Khuzestan, Kohgiluyeh va Bowyer Ahmad, Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran, Qazvin, Qom, Semnan, Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan
Independence14 August 1947 (from British India)
1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed); notable earlier dates: ca. 550 B.C. (Achaemenid (Persian) Empire established); A.D. 1501 (Iran reunified under the Safavid Dynasty); 1794 (beginning of Qajar Dynasty); 12 December 1925 (modern Iran established under the PAHLAVI Dynasty)
National holidayPakistan Day (also referred to as Pakistan Resolution Day or Republic Day), 23 March (1940); note - commemorates both the adoption of the Lahore Resolution by the All-India Muslim League during its 22-24 March 1940 session, which called for the creation of independent Muslim states, and the adoption of the first constitution of Pakistan on 23 March 1956 during the transition to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Republic Day, 1 April (1979)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest endorsed 12 April 1973, passed 19 April 1973, entered into force 14 August 1973 (suspended and restored several times)
amendments: proposed by the Senate or by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the membership of both houses; amended many times, last in 2015 (2017)
history: previous 1906; latest adopted 24 October 1979, effective 3 December 1979
amendments: proposed by the supreme leader – after consultation with the Exigency Council – and submitted as an edict to the “Council for Revision of the Constitution,” a body consisting of various executive, legislative, judicial, and academic leaders and members; passage requires absolute majority vote in a referendum and approval of the supreme leader; articles including Iran’s political system, its religious basis, and its form of government cannot be amended; amended 1989 (2016)
Legal systemcommon law system with Islamic law influence
religious legal system based on secular and Islamic law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal; note - there are joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Mamnoon HUSSAIN (since 9 September 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister Mohammad Nawaz SHARIF (since 5 June 2013)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the advice of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Electoral College consisting of members of the Senate, National Assembly, and provincial assemblies for a 5-year term (eligible for reelection); election last held on 9 September 2013 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister selected by the National Assembly
election results: Mamnoon HUSSAIN elected president; Mamnoon HUSSAIN (PML-N) 432 votes, Wajihuddin AHMED (PTI) 77 votes
chief of state: Supreme Leader Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 4 June 1989)
head of government: President Hasan Fereidun RUHANI (since 3 August 2013); First Vice President Eshaq JAHANGIRI (since 5 August 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president with legislative approval; the supreme leader has some control over appointments to several ministries
elections/appointments: supreme leader appointed for life by Assembly of Experts; president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term and an additional nonconsecutive term); election last held on 19 May 2017 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: Hasan Fereidun RUHANI reelected president; percent of vote - Hasan Fereidun RUHANI Moderation and Development Party) 58.8%, Mohsen REZAI (Conservative) 39.4%, other 1.8%
note: 3 oversight bodies are also considered part of the executive branch of government
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (104 seats; members indirectly elected by the 4 provincial assemblies and the territories' representatives by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 70 members - 60 women and 10 non-Muslims - directly elected by proportional representation vote; all members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 5 March 2015 (next to be held in March 2018); National Assembly - last held on 11 May 2013 (next to be held by 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPPP 27, PML-N 26, MQM 8, ANP 6, PTI 7, JUI-F 5, PML-Q 4, BNP-A 2, NP 1, PML-F 1, other 7, independent 10; National Assembly - percent of votes by party - NA; seats by party - PML-N 126, PPPP 31, PTI 28, MQM 18, JUI-F 10, PML-F 5, other 22, independent 25, unfilled seats 7; 60 seats reserved for women, 10 seats reserved for non-Muslims; seats by party as of July 2016 (includes women and non-Muslim seats) - PML-N 188, PPPP 46, PTI 33, MQM 24, JUI-F 13, PML-F 5, other 21, independent 12
description: unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly or Majles-e Shura-ye Eslami or Majles (290 seats; 285 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by two-round vote, and 1 seat each for Zoroastrians, Jews, Assyrian and Chaldean Christians, Armenians in the north of the country, and Armenians in the South; members serve 4-year terms); note - all candidates to the Majles must be approved by the Guardians Council, a 12-member group of which 6 are appointed by the supreme leader and 6 are jurists nominated by the judiciary and elected by the Majles
elections: first round held on 26 February 2016 with second round for 68 remaining seats held on 29 April 2016; (next full Majles election to be held in 2020)
election results: percent of vote by coalition - List of Hope 37.2%, Principlists Grand Coalition 25.9%, People's Voice Coalition 4.5%, joint Hope/People’s Voice 4.1%, joint People’s Voice/Principlist 0.3%, religious minorities 1.7%, independent 26.4%; seats by coalition - List of Hope 108, Principlists Grand Coalition 75, People's Voice Coalition 13, joint Hope/People’s Voice 12, joint People’s Voice/Principlist 1, religious minorities 5, independent 76
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Pakistan (consists of the chief justice and 16 judges)
judge selection and term of office: justices nominated by an 8-member parliamentary committee upon the recommendation of the Judicial Commission (a 9-member body of judges and other judicial professionals), and appointed by the president of Pakistan; justices can serve until age 65
subordinate courts: High Courts; Federal Shariat Court; provincial and district civil and criminal courts; specialized courts for issues such as taxation, banking, customs, etc.
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the president and NA judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by the head of the High Judicial Council (HJC), a 5-member body to include the Supreme Court chief justice, the prosecutor general, and 3 clergy, in consultation with judges of the Supreme Court; president appointed for a 5-year term; other judges appointed by the HJC; judge tenure NA
subordinate courts: Penal Courts I and II; Islamic Revolutionary Courts; Courts of Peace; Special Clerical Court (functions outside the judicial system and handles cases involving clerics); military courts
Political parties and leadersAwami National Party or ANP [Mian Iftikhar HUSSAIN]
Balochistan National Party-Awami or BNP-A [Mir Israr Ullah ZEHRI]
Balochistan National Party-Mengal or BNP-M [Sardar Akhtar Jan MENGAL]
Jamaat-i Islami or JI [Sirajul HAQ]
Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam Fazl-ur Rehman or JUI-F [Fazlur REHMAN]
Muttahida Qaumi Movement or MQM [Farooq SATTAR]
Muttahida Qaumi Movement-London or MQM-L [Nadeem NUSRAT]
Pakhtun khwa Milli Awami Party or PkMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]
Pakistan Muslim League-Functional or PML-F [Pir PAGARO or Syed Shah Mardan SHAH-II]
Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz or PML-N [Nawaz SHARIF]
Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Bilawal Bhutto ZARDARI and Asif Ali ZARDARI]
Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]
Pak Sarzameen Party or PSP [Mustafa KAMAL]
Quami Watan Party or QWP [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]

note: political alliances in Pakistan shift frequently
Followers of Walayat [Ali LARIJANI]
Pervasive Coalition of Reformists: The Second Step [Ali SOUFI, chairman] (includes Council for Coordinating the Reforms Front, National Trust Party, Union of Islamic Iran People Party, Moderation and Development Party)
Principalists Grand Coalition [Alireza ZAKANI] (includes Combatant Clergy Association and Islamic Coalition Party, Society of Devotees and Pathseekers of the Islamic Revolution, Front of Islamic Revolution Stability)
Progress and Justice Population of Islamic Iran [Hssein GHORBANZADEH]
Political pressure groups and leadersother: military; ulema (clergy); landowners; industrialists; small merchants
other political groups that support the Islamic Republic: Ansar-e Hizballah
Democracy Party (Hezb-e Mardom Salari)
Executives of Construction Party (Kargozaran)
Followers of the Guardianship of the Jurisprudent (Rahrovan)
Followers of the Line of the Imam and the Leader (Peyrovan)
Islamic Iran Freedom Party (Hezb-e Azadegi)
Islamic Coalition Party (Motalefeh)
Islamic Labor Party (Hezb-e Kar)
Militant Clerics Society or MCS (Ruhaniyun)
Moderation and Development Party (Hezb-e Etedal va Tose-eh)
Nation of Iran Unity Party (Hezb-e Etehad)
National Trust Party (Hezb-e Etemad-e Meli)
Qom Theological Lecturers Association
Reform Front Coordination Council (Shora-ye Hamahangi Eslahat)
Society of Devotees (Isargaran)
Society of Modern Thinking Muslim Women of Iran (Jamiat-e Zanan-e Noandish)
Steadfastness Front (Paydari)
Tehran Militant Clergy Association or MCA (Ruhaniyat)
Voice of Iranians (Neda)
Wayfarers of the Islamic Revolution (Rahpuyan)

armed political groups repressed by the government:
Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan or KDPI
Harekat-e Ansar-e Iran (splinter faction of Jundallah)
Jaysh l-Adl (formerly known as Jundallah)
Komala
Mojahedin-e Khalq Organization or MEK (MKO)
People's Fedayeen
People's Free Life Party of Kurdistan or PJAK
International organization participationADB, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), C, CICA, CP, D-8, ECO, FAO, G-11, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
CICA, CP, D-8, ECO, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, SAARC (observer), SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Aizaz Ahmad CHAUDHRY (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 3517 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 243-6500
FAX: [1] (202) 686-1534
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York
consulate(s): Louisville (KY), San Francisco
none; note - Iran has an Interests Section in the Pakistani Embassy; address: Iranian Interests Section, Pakistani Embassy, 2209 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007; telephone: [1] (202) 965-4990; FAX [1] (202) 965-1073
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador David M. HALE (since 3 December 2015)
embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
mailing address: 8100 Islamabad Place, Washington, DC 20521-8100
telephone: [92] (51) 208-0000/[92] (51) 201-4000
FAX: [92] (51) 233-8071
consulate(s) general: Karachi, Lahore
consulate(s): Peshawar
none; note - the US Interests Section is located in the Embassy of Switzerland No. 39 Shahid Mousavi (Golestan 5th), Pasdaran Ave., Tehran, Iran; telephone [98] 21 2254 2178/2256 5273; FAX [98] 21 2258 0432
Flag descriptiongreen with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah in the shape of a tulip, a symbol of martyrdom) in red is centered in the white band; ALLAH AKBAR (God is Great) in white Arabic script is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band; green is the color of Islam and also represents growth, white symbolizes honesty and peace, red stands for bravery and martyrdom
National anthem"name: ""Qaumi Tarana"" (National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Abu-Al-Asar Hafeez JULLANDHURI/Ahmed Ghulamali CHAGLA
note: adopted 1954; also known as ""Pak sarzamin shad bad"" (Blessed Be the Sacred Land)
"
"name: ""Soroud-e Melli-ye Jomhouri-ye Eslami-ye Iran"" (National Anthem of the Islamic Republic of Iran)
lyrics/music: multiple authors/Hassan RIAHI
note: adopted 1990
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)star and crescent, jasmine; national colors: green, white
lion; national colors: green, white, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: at least one parent must be a citizen of Pakistan
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but limited to select countries
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 7 years and including the 12 months preceding application
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Iran
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

PakistanIran
Economy - overviewDecades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment have led to slow growth and underdevelopment in Pakistan. Pakistan has a large English-speaking population. Nevertheless, a challenging security environment, electricity shortages, and a burdensome investment climate have deterred investors. Agriculture accounts for one-fifth of output and two-fifths of employment. Textiles and apparel account for most of Pakistan's export earnings, and Pakistan's failure to diversify its exports has left the country vulnerable to shifts in world demand. Pakistan’s GDP growth has gradually increased since 2012. Official unemployment was 6.1% in 2016, but this fails to capture the true picture, because much of the economy is informal and underemployment remains high. Human development continues to lag behind most of the region.

In 2013, Pakistan embarked on a $6.3 billion IMF Extended Fund Facility, which focused on reducing energy shortages, stabilizing public finances, increasing revenue collection, and improving its balance of payments position. The program concluded in September 2016. Although Pakistan missed several structural reform criteria, it restored macroeconomic stability, improved its credit rating, and boosted growth. The Pakistani rupee, after heavy depreciation in 2013, remained relatively stable against the US dollar in 2016. Low global oil prices in 2016 contributed to a narrowing current account deficit and lower inflation. Remittances from overseas workers continued to be a key revenue source, also mitigating the impact of the lack of foreign investment and a growing trade deficit on the country’s current account.

Pakistan must continue to address several long-standing issues, including expanding investment in education and healthcare, adapting to the effects of climate change and natural disasters, improving the country’s business environment, reducing dependence on foreign donors, and widening the country’s tax base. Given demographic challenges, Pakistan’s leadership will be pressed to implement economic reforms, promote further development of the energy sector, and attract foreign investment to support sufficient economic growth necessary to employ its growing and rapidly urbanizing population, much of which is under the age of 25.

In an effort to boost development, Pakistan and China are implementing the “China-Pakistan Economic Corridor”, a $46 billion investment program targeted towards the energy sector and other infrastructure projects that Islamabad and Beijing had agreed on in early 2013.
"Iran's economy is marked by statist policies, inefficiencies, and reliance on oil and gas exports, but Iran also possesses significant agricultural, industrial, and service sectors. The Iranian government directly owns and operates hundreds of state-owned enterprises and indirectly controls many companies affiliated with the country's security forces. Distortions - including inflation, price controls, subsidies, and a banking system holding billions of dollars of non-performing loans - weigh down the economy, undermining the potential for private-sector-led growth.

Private sector activity includes small-scale workshops, farming, some manufacturing, and services, in addition to medium-scale construction, cement production, mining, and metalworking. Significant informal market activity flourishes and corruption is widespread.

Fiscal and monetary constraints, following the expansion of international sanctions in 2012 on Iran's Central Bank and oil exports, significantly reduced Iran's oil revenue, forced government spending cuts, and sparked a sharp currency depreciation. Iran’s economy contracted for the first time in two decades during both 2012 and 2013, but growth resumed in 2014. Iran's stock market plunged between 2013 and 2015. Iran continues to suffer from high unemployment and underemployment. Lack of job opportunities has prompted many educated Iranian youth to seek employment overseas, resulting in a significant ""brain drain.""

In June 2013, the election of President Hasan RUHANI generated widespread public expectations of economic improvement and greater international engagement. Almost three years into his term, RUHANI has achieved some success, including reining in inflation and, in July of 2015, securing the promise of sanctions relief for Iran by signing the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) with the P5+1. The JCPOA, which severely limits Iran’s nuclear program in exchange for unfreezing Iranian assets and reopening Iran to international trade, should bolster foreign direct investment, increase trade, and stimulate growth.
"
GDP (purchasing power parity)$988.2 billion (2016 est.)
$943.9 billion (2015 est.)
$905.8 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
data are for fiscal years
$1.459 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.397 trillion (2015 est.)
$1.391 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate4.7% (2016 est.)
4.2% (2015 est.)
4.1% (2014 est.)
note: data are for fiscal years
4.5% (2016 est.)
0.4% (2015 est.)
4.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$5,100 (2016 est.)
$4,900 (2015 est.)
$4,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
data are for fiscal years
$18,100 (2016 est.)
$17,600 (2015 est.)
$17,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 25.2%
industry: 19.2%
services: 55.6% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 9.1%
industry: 39.9%
services: 51% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line29.5% (FY2013 est.)
18.7% (2007 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 26.1% (FY2013)
lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2005)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2.9% (FY2016 est.)
4.5% (FY2015 est.)
8% (2016 est.)
13.7% (2015 est.)
note: official Iranian estimate
Labor force65.1 million
note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2016 est.)
29.75 million
note: shortage of skilled labor (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 42.3%
industry: 22.6%
services: 35.1% (FY2015 est.)
agriculture: 16.3%
industry: 35.1%
services: 48.6% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate6.1% (2016 est.)
6.5% (2015 est.)
note: substantial underemployment exists
10.7% (2016 est.)
10.5% (2015 est.)
note: data are according to the Iranian Government
Distribution of family income - Gini index30.7 (FY2013)
30.9 (FY2011)
44.5 (2006)
Budgetrevenues: $42.3 billion
expenditures: $54.63 billion
note: data are for fiscal years (2016 est.)
revenues: $65.87 billion
expenditures: $72.29 billion (2016 est.)
Industriestextiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp
petroleum, petrochemicals, gas, fertilizers, caustic soda, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), ferrous and nonferrous metal fabrication, armaments
Industrial production growth rate6.8% (2016 est.)
4.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, sugarcane, fruits, nuts, cotton; dairy products, wool; caviar
Exports$20.96 billion (2016 est.)
$28.51 billion (2015 est.)
$87.52 billion (2016 est.)
$64.6 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiestextiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sporting goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs
petroleum 80%, chemical and petrochemical products, fruits and nuts, carpets, cement, ore
Exports - partnersUS 13%, UAE 9%, Afghanistan 9%, China 8.7%, UK 5.3%, Germany 4.9% (2015)
China 22.4%, India 8.7%, Turkey 8.5%, Japan 4.5% (2015)
Imports$38.25 billion (2016 est.)
$47.53 billion (2015 est.)
$62.12 billion (2016 est.)
$52.42 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiespetroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea
industrial supplies, capital goods, foodstuffs and other consumer goods, technical services
Imports - partnersChina 28.3%, Saudi Arabia 11%, UAE 10.9%, Kuwait 5.7% (2015)
UAE 39.5%, China 22.3%, South Korea 4.7%, Turkey 4.6% (2015)
Debt - external$64.04 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$62.18 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$7.116 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.348 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesPakistani rupees (PKR) per US dollar -
103.768 (2016 est.)
101.89 (2015 est.)
102.769 (FY2014 est.)
101.1 (FY2013 est.)
93.4 (2012 est.)
Iranian rials (IRR) per US dollar -
30,462.1 (2016 est.)
29,011.5 (2015 est.)
29,011.5 (2014 est.)
25,912 (2013 est.)
12,176 (2012 est.)
Fiscal year1 July - 30 June
21 March - 20 March
Public debt69.8% of GDP (30 September 2016 est.)
69.9% of GDP (30 September 2015 est.)
11.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
11.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: includes publicly guaranteed debt
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$20.53 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$20.05 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$135.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$110 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$3.262 billion (2016 est.)
-$2.709 billion (2015 est.)
$23.57 billion (2016 est.)
$9.019 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$298.1 billion (2015 est.)
$412.3 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$33.82 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$31.82 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$46.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$43.05 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$2.059 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.009 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.656 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.097 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$43.68 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$32.76 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$38.17 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$89.43 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$116.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$345.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate5.75% (15 November 2016)
6% (15 November 2015)
NA%
Commercial bank prime lending rate6.46% (10 December 2015 est.)
9.74% (10 December 2014 est.)
13% (31 December 2016 est.)
14.2% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$142.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$127.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$54.76 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$47.04 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$100.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$89.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$40.23 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$38.44 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$122.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$109.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$363.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$307.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues14.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
16% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
-1.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 10.4%
male: 9.4%
female: 12.9% (2014 est.)
total: 24.8%
male: 21%
female: 42.8% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 80.1%
government consumption: 11.8%
investment in fixed capital: 13.6%
investment in inventories: 1.6%
exports of goods and services: 8.7%
imports of goods and services: -15.8% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 50.8%
government consumption: 10%
investment in fixed capital: 27.1%
investment in inventories: 6.1%
exports of goods and services: 23.2%
imports of goods and services: -17.2% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving14.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
13.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
note: data are for fiscal years
33% of GDP (2016 est.)
31.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
34.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

PakistanIran
Electricity - production100 billion kWh (2014 est.)
258 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption82 billion kWh (2014 est.)
218 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2016 est.)
9.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports400 million kWh (2014 est.)
3.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production90,210 bbl/day (2015 est.)
3.3 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports150,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
87,440 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
1.042 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves370 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
157.8 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves669.4 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
34.02 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production42.02 billion cu m (2014 est.)
174.5 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption42.02 billion cu m (2014 est.)
170.2 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2016 est.)
9.86 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports4.125 billion cu m (2016 est.)
6.886 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity24.82 million kW (FY2015 est.)
77 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels67.7% of total installed capacity (FY2015 est.)
85.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants28.6% of total installed capacity (FY2015 est.)
12.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels3.2% of total installed capacity (FY2015 est.)
1.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.4% of total installed capacity (FY2015 est.)
0.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production235,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
1.93 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption450,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
1.952 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports17,120 bbl/day (2013 est.)
240,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports228,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
12,630 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy145 million Mt (2013 est.)
650.4 million Mt (2014 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 49,500,000
electrification - total population: 73%
electrification - urban areas: 91%
electrification - rural areas: 62% (2013)
population without electricity: 1,100,000
electrification - total population: 98.6%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 95% (2013)

Telecommunications

PakistanIran
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 2,990,954
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 30,418,973
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 125.9 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 63 (July 2015 est.)
total: 74.219 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 91 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: the telecommunications infrastructure is improving, with investments in mobile-cellular networks increasing, but fixed-line subscriptions declining; system consists of microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks; 3G and 4G mobile services introduced
domestic: mobile-cellular subscribership has skyrocketed; more than 90% of Pakistanis live within areas that have cell phone coverage; fiber-optic networks are being constructed throughout the country to increase broadband access, though broadband penetration in Pakistan is still relatively low
international: country code - 92; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable systems that provide links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (2015)
general assessment: currently being modernized and expanded with the goal of not only improving the efficiency and increasing the volume of the urban service but also bringing telephone service to several thousand villages not presently connected
domestic: heavy investment by Iran's state-owned telecom company has greatly improved and expanded both the fixed-line and mobile cellular networks; a huge percentage of the cell phones in the market have been smuggled into the country
international: country code - 98; submarine fiber-optic cable to UAE with access to Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line runs from Azerbaijan through the northern portion of Iran to Turkmenistan with expansion to Georgia and Azerbaijan; HF radio and microwave radio relay to Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Syria, Kuwait, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; satellite earth stations - 13 (9 Intelsat and 4 Inmarsat) (2015)
Internet country code.pk
.ir
Internet userstotal: 35.835 million
percent of population: 18% (July 2015 est.)
total: 36.07 million
percent of population: 44.1% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediamedia is government regulated; 1 dominant state-owned TV broadcaster, Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV), operates a network consisting of 8 channels; private TV broadcasters are permitted; to date 69 foreign satellite channels are operational; the state-owned radio network operates more than 30 stations; nearly 200 commercially licensed, privately owned radio stations provide programming mostly limited to music and talk shows (2017)
state-run broadcast media with no private, independent broadcasters; Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB), the state-run TV broadcaster, operates 5 nationwide channels, a news channel, about 30 provincial channels, and several international channels; about 20 foreign Persian-language TV stations broadcasting on satellite TV are capable of being seen in Iran; satellite dishes are illegal and, while their use had been tolerated, authorities began confiscating satellite dishes following the unrest stemming from the 2009 presidential election; IRIB operates 8 nationwide radio networks, a number of provincial stations, and an external service; most major international broadcasters transmit to Iran (2009)

Transportation

PakistanIran
Railwaystotal: 11,881 km
broad gauge: 11,492 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 389 km 1.000-m gauge (2015)
total: 8,483.5 km
broad gauge: 94 km 1.676-m gauge
standard gauge: 8,389.5 km 1.435-m gauge (189.5 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 263,942 km
paved: 185,063 km (includes 708 km of expressways)
unpaved: 78,879 km (2014)
total: 198,866 km
paved: 160,366 km (includes 1,948 km of expressways)
unpaved: 38,500 km (2010)
Pipelinesgas 12,646 km; oil 2,576 km; refined products 1,087 km (2013)
condensate 7 km; condensate/gas 973 km; gas 20,794 km; liquid petroleum gas 570 km; oil 8,625 km; refined products 7,937 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Karachi, Port Muhammad Bin Qasim
container port(s) (TEUs): Karachi (1,545,434)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Port Qasim
major seaport(s): Bandar-e Asaluyeh, Bandar Abbas, Bandar Emam
container port(s) (TEUs): Bandar Abbas (2,752,460)
Merchant marinetotal: 11
by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 3, petroleum tanker 3
registered in other countries: 11 (Comoros 5, Marshall Islands 1, Moldova 1, Panama 3, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1) (2010)
total: 76
by type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 51, chemical tanker 3, container 4, liquefied gas 1, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 2
foreign-owned: 2 (UAE 2)
registered in other countries: 71 (Barbados 5, Cyprus 10, Hong Kong 3, Malta 48, Panama 5) (2010)
Airports151 (2013)
319 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 108
over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 43
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 10 (2013)
total: 140
over 3,047 m: 42
2,438 to 3,047 m: 29
1,524 to 2,437 m: 26
914 to 1,523 m: 36
under 914 m: 7 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 43
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 24 (2013)
total: 179
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 135
under 914 m: 32 (2013)
Heliports23 (2013)
26 (2013)

Military

PakistanIran
Military branchesPakistan Army (includes National Guard), Pakistan Navy (includes Maritime Security Agency), Pakistan Air Force (Pakistan Fiza'ya) (2015)
Islamic Republic of Iran Regular Forces (Artesh): Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force (IRIAF), Khatemolanbia Air Defense Headquarters; Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (Sepah-e Pasdaran-e Enqelab-e Eslami, IRGC): Ground Resistance Forces, Navy, Aerospace Force, Qods Force (special operations); Law Enforcement Forces (2015)
Military service age and obligation16-23 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed for combat until age 18; women serve in all three armed forces; reserve obligation to age 45 for enlisted men, age 50 for officers (2017)
18 years of age for compulsory military service; 16 years of age for volunteers; 17 years of age for Law Enforcement Forces; 15 years of age for Basij Forces (Popular Mobilization Army); conscript military service obligation is 18 months; women exempt from military service (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP3.55% of GDP (2015)
3.48% of GDP (2014)
3.47% of GDP (2013)
3.48% of GDP (2012)
3.29% of GDP (2011)
2.33% of GDP (2014)
2.34% of GDP (2013)
2.81% of GDP (2012)
2.41% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

PakistanIran
Disputes - internationalvarious talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; India and Pakistan have maintained their 2004 cease-fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed standoff in the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim in India's Gujarat State; since 2002, with UN assistance, Pakistan has repatriated 3.8 million Afghan refugees, leaving about 2.6 million; Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan, which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities; Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps
Iran protests Afghanistan's limiting flow of dammed Helmand River tributaries during drought; Iraq's lack of a maritime boundary with Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab in the Persian Gulf; Iran and UAE dispute Tunb Islands and Abu Musa Island, which are occupied by Iran; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; Afghan and Iranian commissioners have discussed boundary monument densification and resurvey
Illicit drugssignificant transit area for Afghan drugs, including heroin, opium, morphine, and hashish, bound for Iran, Western markets, the Gulf States, Africa, and Asia; financial crimes related to drug trafficking, terrorism, corruption, and smuggling remain problems; opium poppy cultivation estimated to be 2,300 hectares in 2007 with 600 of those hectares eradicated; federal and provincial authorities continue to conduct anti-poppy campaigns that utilizes forced eradication, fines, and arrests
despite substantial interdiction efforts and considerable control measures along the border with Afghanistan, Iran remains one of the primary transshipment routes for Southwest Asian heroin to Europe; suffers one of the highest opiate addiction rates in the world, and has an increasing problem with synthetic drugs; regularly enforces the death penalty for drug offences; lacks anti-money laundering laws; has reached out to neighboring countries to share counter-drug intelligence
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 2.6 million (1.6 million registered, 1.0 million undocumented) (Afghanistan) (2015)
IDPs: 847,368 (primarily those who remain displaced by counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency operations and violent conflict between armed non-state groups in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Khyber-Paktunkwa Province; more than 1 million displaced in northern Waziristan in 2014; individuals also have been displaced by repeated monsoon floods) (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 2.5 - 3.0 (1 million registered, 1.5 - 2.0 million undocumented) (Afghanistan); 28,268 (Iraq) (2016)
Trafficking in personscurrent situation: Pakistan is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the largest human trafficking problem is bonded labor in agriculture, brickmaking and, to a lesser extent, fishing, mining and carpet-making; children are bought, sold, rented, and placed in forced begging rings, domestic service, small shops, brick kilns, or prostitution; militant groups also force children to spy, fight, or die as suicide bombers, kidnapping the children or getting them from poor parents through sale or coercion; women and girls are forced into prostitution or marriages; Pakistani adults migrate to the Gulf States and African and European states for low-skilled jobs and sometimes become victims of forced labor, debt bondage, or prostitution; foreign adults and children, particularly from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, may be subject to forced labor, and foreign women may be sex trafficked in Pakistan, with refugees and ethnic minorities being most vulnerable
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Pakistan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government lacks political will and capacity to fully address human trafficking, as evidenced by ineffective law enforcement efforts, official complicity, penalization of victims, and the continued conflation of migrant smuggling and human trafficking by many officials; not all forms of trafficking are prohibited; an anti-trafficking bill drafted in 2013 to address gaps in existing legislation remains pending, and a national action plan drafted in 2014 is not finalized; feudal landlords and brick kiln owners use their political influence to protect their involvement in bonded labor, while some police personnel have taken bribes to ignore prostitution that may have included sex trafficking; authorities began to use standard procedures for the identification and referral of trafficking victims, but it is not clear how widely these methods were practiced; in other instances, police were reluctant to assist NGOs with rescues and even punished victims for crimes committed as a direct result of being trafficked (2015)
current situation: Iran is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; organized groups sex traffic Iranian women and children in Iran and to the UAE and Europe; the transport of girls from and through Iran en route to the Gulf for sexual exploitation or forced marriages is on the rise; Iranian children are also forced to work as beggars, street vendors, and in domestic workshops; Afghan boys forced to work in construction or agriculture are vulnerable to sexual abuse by their employers; Pakistani and Afghan migrants being smuggled to Europe often are subjected to forced labor, including debt bondage
tier rating: Tier 3 – Iran does not comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking, and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government does not share information on its anti-trafficking efforts, but publically available information from NGOs, the media, and international organizations indicates that Iran is not taking adequate measures to address its trafficking problems, particularly protecting victims; Iranian law does not prohibit all forms of human trafficking; female victims find it extremely difficult to get justice because Iranian courts accord women’s testimony half the weight of men's, and female victims of sexual abuse, including trafficking, are likely to be prosecuted for adultery; the government did not identify or provide protection services to any victims and continued to punish victims for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of being trafficked; the government made some effort to cooperate with neighboring governments and an international organization to combat human trafficking and other crimes (2015)

Source: CIA Factbook