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Pakistan vs. India

Introduction

PakistanIndia
BackgroundThe Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars and a limited conflict - in 1947-48, 1965, and 1999 respectively - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in mid-1998. India-Pakistan relations improved in the mid-2000s but have been rocky since the November 2008 Mumbai attacks and have been further strained by attacks in India by militants suspected of being based in Pakistan. Nawaz SHARIF took office as prime minister in 2013, marking the first time in Pakistani history that a democratically elected government completed a full term and transitioned to a successive democratically elected government. Pakistan has been engaged in a decades-long armed conflict with militant groups that target government institutions and civilians, including the Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) and other militant networks.
The Indus Valley civilization, one of the world's oldest, flourished during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. and extended into northwestern India. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture. Islam spread across the subcontinent over a period of 700 years. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded India and established the Delhi Sultanate. In the early 16th century, the Emperor BABUR established the Mughal Dynasty, which ruled India for more than three centuries. European explorers began establishing footholds in India during the 16th century.
By the 19th century, Great Britain had become the dominant political power on the subcontinent. The British Indian Army played a vital role in both World Wars. Years of nonviolent resistance to British rule, led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU, eventually resulted in Indian independence, which was granted in 1947. Large-scale communal violence took place before and after the subcontinent partition into two separate states - India and Pakistan. The neighboring nations have fought three wars since independence, the last of which was in 1971 and resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. India's nuclear weapons tests in 1998 emboldened Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. In November 2008, terrorists originating from Pakistan conducted a series of coordinated attacks in Mumbai, India's financial capital. Despite pressing problems such as significant overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and widespread corruption, economic growth following the launch of economic reforms in 1991 and a massive youthful population are driving India's emergence as a regional and global power.

Geography

PakistanIndia
LocationSouthern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north
Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan
Geographic coordinates30 00 N, 70 00 E
20 00 N, 77 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Asia
Areatotal: 796,095 sq km
land: 770,875 sq km
water: 25,220 sq km
total: 3,287,263 sq km
land: 2,973,193 sq km
water: 314,070 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly more than five times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of California
slightly more than one-third the size of the US
Land boundariestotal: 7,257 km
border countries (4): Afghanistan 2,670 km, China 438 km, India 3,190 km, Iran 959 km
total: 13,888 km
border countries (6): Bangladesh 4,142 km, Bhutan 659 km, Burma 1,468 km, China 2,659 km, Nepal 1,770 km, Pakistan 3,190 km
Coastline1,046 km
7,000 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climatemostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
Terraindivided into three major geographic areas: the northern highlands, the Indus River plain in the center and east, and the Balochistan Plateau in the south and west
upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 900 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m
mean elevation: 160 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m
Natural resourcesarable land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 35.2%
arable land 27.6%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 6.5%
forest: 2.1%
other: 62.7% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 60.5%
arable land 52.8%; permanent crops 4.2%; permanent pasture 3.5%
forest: 23.1%
other: 16.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land202,000 sq km (2012)
667,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsfrequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)
droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes
volcanism: Barren Island (elev. 354 m) in the Andaman Sea has been active in recent years
Environment - current issueswater pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural freshwater resources; most of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notecontrols Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent
dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal
Population distributionthe Indus River and its tributaries attract most of the settlement, with Punjab province the most densely populated
with the notable exception of the deserts in the northwest, including the Thar Desert, and the mountain fringe in the north, a very high population density exists throughout most of the country; the core of the population is in the north along the banks of the Ganges, with other river valleys and southern coastal areas also having large population concentrations

Demographics

PakistanIndia
Population201,995,540 (July 2016 est.)
1,266,883,598 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 31.99% (male 33,195,073/female 31,429,440)
15-24 years: 21.31% (male 22,194,064/female 20,845,816)
25-54 years: 36.87% (male 38,680,978/female 35,794,333)
55-64 years: 5.43% (male 5,498,126/female 5,463,453)
65 years and over: 4.4% (male 4,139,899/female 4,754,358) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 27.71% (male 186,420,229/female 164,611,755)
15-24 years: 17.99% (male 121,009,850/female 106,916,692)
25-54 years: 40.91% (male 267,203,029/female 251,070,105)
55-64 years: 7.3% (male 46,398,574/female 46,105,489)
65 years and over: 6.09% (male 36,549,003/female 40,598,872) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 23.4 years
male: 23.3 years
female: 23.4 years (2016 est.)
total: 27.6 years
male: 26.9 years
female: 28.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.45% (2016 est.)
1.19% (2016 est.)
Birth rate22.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
19.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 53.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 57 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 50.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 40.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 39.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 41.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 67.7 years
male: 65.8 years
female: 69.8 years (2016 est.)
total population: 68.5 years
male: 67.3 years
female: 69.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.68 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.45 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.09% (2015 est.)
0.26% (2013 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Pakistani(s)
adjective: Pakistani
noun: Indian(s)
adjective: Indian
Ethnic groupsPunjabi 44.7%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.4%, Sindhi 14.1%, Sariaki 8.4%, Muhajirs 7.6%, Balochi 3.6%, other 6.3%
Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS102,000 (2015 est.)
2,118,100 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim (official) 96.4% (Sunni 85-90%, Shia 10-15%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 3.6% (2010 est.)
Hindu 79.8%, Muslim 14.2%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.7%, other and unspecified 2% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths3,600 (2015 est.)
67,600 (2015 est.)
LanguagesPunjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Saraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashto (alternate name, Pashtu) 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%
Hindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%, Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%, Punjabi 2.8%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9%
note: English enjoys the status of subsidiary official language but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the most widely spoken language and primary tongue of 41% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language (2001 census)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.9%
male: 69.5%
female: 45.8% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.2%
male: 81.3%
female: 60.6% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
water contact disease: leptospirosis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 8 years
male: 9 years
female: 7 years (2015)
total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2014)
Education expenditures2.7% of GDP (2015)
3.8% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 38.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.81% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 32.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.38% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 93.9% of population
rural: 89.9% of population
total: 91.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.1% of population
rural: 10.1% of population
total: 8.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 97.1% of population
rural: 92.6% of population
total: 94.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.9% of population
rural: 7.4% of population
total: 5.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 83.1% of population
rural: 51.1% of population
total: 63.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 16.9% of population
rural: 48.9% of population
total: 36.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 62.6% of population
rural: 28.5% of population
total: 39.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 37.4% of population
rural: 71.5% of population
total: 60.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationKarachi 16.618 million; Lahore 8.741 million; Faisalabad 3.567 million; Rawalpindi 2.506 million; Multan 1.921 million; ISLAMABAD (capital) 1.365 million (2015)
NEW DELHI (capital) 25.703 million; Mumbai 21.043 million; Kolkata 11.766 million; Bangalore 10.087 million; Chennai 9.62 million; Hyderabad 8.944 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate178 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
174 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures2.6% of GDP (2014)
4.7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.81 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
0.73 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density0.6 beds/1,000 population (2012)
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate4.8% (2014)
4.7% (2014)
Contraceptive prevalence rate35.4% (2012/13)
54.8% (2007/08)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 65.3
youth dependency ratio: 57.9
elderly dependency ratio: 7.4
potential support ratio: 13.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 52.4
youth dependency ratio: 43.9
elderly dependency ratio: 8.6
potential support ratio: 11.7 (2015 est.)

Government

PakistanIndia
Country name"conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
conventional short form: Pakistan
local long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan
local short form: Pakistan
former: West Pakistan
etymology: the word ""pak"" means ""pure"" in Persian or Pashto, while the Persian suffix ""-stan"" means ""place of"" or ""country,"" so the word Pakistan literally means ""Land of the Pure""
"
"conventional long form: Republic of India
conventional short form: India
local long form: Republic of India/Bharatiya Ganarajya
local short form: India/Bharat
etymology: the English name derives from the Indus River; the Indian name ""Bharat"" may derive from the ""Bharatas"" tribe mentioned in the Vedas of the second millennium B.C.; the name is also associated with Emperor Bharata, the legendary conqueror of all of India
"
Government typefederal parliamentary republic
federal parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Islamabad
geographic coordinates: 33 41 N, 73 03 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: New Delhi
geographic coordinates: 28 36 N, 77 12 E
time difference: UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly North-West Frontier Province), Punjab, Sindh
note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of 2 administrative entities: Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan
29 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Puducherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal
note: although its status is that of a union territory, the official name of Delhi is National Capital Territory of Delhi
Independence14 August 1947 (from British India)
15 August 1947 (from the UK)
National holidayPakistan Day (also referred to as Pakistan Resolution Day or Republic Day), 23 March (1940); note - commemorates both the adoption of the Lahore Resolution by the All-India Muslim League during its 22-24 March 1940 session, which called for the creation of independent Muslim states, and the adoption of the first constitution of Pakistan on 23 March 1956 during the transition to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Republic Day, 26 January (1950)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest endorsed 12 April 1973, passed 19 April 1973, entered into force 14 August 1973 (suspended and restored several times)
amendments: proposed by the Senate or by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the membership of both houses; amended many times, last in 2015 (2017)
history: previous 1935 (preindependence); latest draft completed 4 November 1949, adopted 26 November 1949, effective 26 January 1950
amendments: proposed by either the Council of States or the House of the People; passage requires majority participation of the total membership in each house and at least two-thirds majority of voting members of each house, followed by assent of the president of India; proposed amendments to the constitutional amendment procedures also must be ratified by at least one-half of the India state legislatures before presidential assent; amended many times, last in 2016 (2017)
Legal systemcommon law system with Islamic law influence
common law system based on the English model; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage18 years of age; universal; note - there are joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Mamnoon HUSSAIN (since 9 September 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister Mohammad Nawaz SHARIF (since 5 June 2013)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the advice of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Electoral College consisting of members of the Senate, National Assembly, and provincial assemblies for a 5-year term (eligible for reelection); election last held on 9 September 2013 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister selected by the National Assembly
election results: Mamnoon HUSSAIN elected president; Mamnoon HUSSAIN (PML-N) 432 votes, Wajihuddin AHMED (PTI) 77 votes
chief of state: President Pranab MUKHERJEE (since 22 July 2012); Vice President Mohammad Hamid ANSARI (since 11 August 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Narendra MODI (since 26 May 2014)
cabinet: Union Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and state legislatures for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 19 July 2012 (next to be held on 17 July 2017); vice president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and state legislatures for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 7 August 2012 (next to be held by 10 August 2017); following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by parliamentary members of the majority party
election results: Pranab MUKHERJEE elected president; percent of vote - Pranab MUKHERJEE (INC prior to election) 69.3%, Purno SANGMA (independent) 30.7%; Mohammad Hamid ANSARI reelected vice president; electoral college vote - Mohammad Hamid ANSARI 490, Jaswant SINGH 238
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (104 seats; members indirectly elected by the 4 provincial assemblies and the territories' representatives by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 70 members - 60 women and 10 non-Muslims - directly elected by proportional representation vote; all members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 5 March 2015 (next to be held in March 2018); National Assembly - last held on 11 May 2013 (next to be held by 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPPP 27, PML-N 26, MQM 8, ANP 6, PTI 7, JUI-F 5, PML-Q 4, BNP-A 2, NP 1, PML-F 1, other 7, independent 10; National Assembly - percent of votes by party - NA; seats by party - PML-N 126, PPPP 31, PTI 28, MQM 18, JUI-F 10, PML-F 5, other 22, independent 25, unfilled seats 7; 60 seats reserved for women, 10 seats reserved for non-Muslims; seats by party as of July 2016 (includes women and non-Muslim seats) - PML-N 188, PPPP 46, PTI 33, MQM 24, JUI-F 13, PML-F 5, other 21, independent 12
description: bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (245 seats; 233 members indirectly elected by state and territorial assemblies by proportional representation vote, and 12 members appointed by the president; members serve 6-year terms) and the House of the People or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 2 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: People's Assembly - last held April-May 2014 in 10 phases; (next to be held by May 2019)
election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - BJP 31.0%, INC 19.3%, AITC 3.8%, SP 3.4%, AIADMK 3.3%, CPI(M) 3.3%, TDP 2.6%, YSRC 2.5%, AAP 2.1%, SAD 1.8%, BJD 1.7%, SS 1.7%, NCP 1.6%, RJD 1.3%, TRS 1.3%, LJP 0.4%, other 15.9%, independent 3.0%; seats by party - BJP 282, INC 44, AIADMK 37, AITC 34, BJD 20, SS 18, TDP 16, TRS 11, CPI(M) 9, YSRC 9, LJP 6, NCP 6, SP 5, AAP 4, RJD 4, SAD 4, other 33, independent 3
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Pakistan (consists of the chief justice and 16 judges)
judge selection and term of office: justices nominated by an 8-member parliamentary committee upon the recommendation of the Judicial Commission (a 9-member body of judges and other judicial professionals), and appointed by the president of Pakistan; justices can serve until age 65
subordinate courts: High Courts; Federal Shariat Court; provincial and district civil and criminal courts; specialized courts for issues such as taxation, banking, customs, etc.
"highest court(s): Supreme Court (the chief justice and 25 associate justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president to serve until age 65
subordinate courts: High Courts; District Courts; Labour Court
note: in mid-2011, India’s Cabinet approved the ""National Mission for Justice Delivery and Legal Reform"" to eliminate judicial corruption and reduce the backlog of cases; as of mid-July 2015, the Indian Government was considering the introduction of pre-trial hearing as a method for reducing the backlog
"
Political parties and leadersAwami National Party or ANP [Mian Iftikhar HUSSAIN]
Balochistan National Party-Awami or BNP-A [Mir Israr Ullah ZEHRI]
Balochistan National Party-Mengal or BNP-M [Sardar Akhtar Jan MENGAL]
Jamaat-i Islami or JI [Sirajul HAQ]
Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam Fazl-ur Rehman or JUI-F [Fazlur REHMAN]
Muttahida Qaumi Movement or MQM [Farooq SATTAR]
Muttahida Qaumi Movement-London or MQM-L [Nadeem NUSRAT]
Pakhtun khwa Milli Awami Party or PkMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]
Pakistan Muslim League-Functional or PML-F [Pir PAGARO or Syed Shah Mardan SHAH-II]
Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz or PML-N [Nawaz SHARIF]
Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Bilawal Bhutto ZARDARI and Asif Ali ZARDARI]
Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]
Pak Sarzameen Party or PSP [Mustafa KAMAL]
Quami Watan Party or QWP [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]

note: political alliances in Pakistan shift frequently
Aam Aadmi Party or AAP [Arvind KEJRIWAL]
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [J. JAYALALITHAA]
All India Trinamool Congress or AITC [Mamata BANERJEE]
Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]
Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Amit SHAH]
Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]
Communist Party of India-Marxist or CPI(M) [Prakash KARAT]
Indian National Congress or INC [Sonia GANDHI]
Lok Janshakti Party (LJP) [Ram Vilas PASWAN]
Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]
Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Lalu Prasad YADAV]
Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]
Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Parkash Singh BADAL]
Shiv Sena or SS [Uddhav THACKERAY]
Telegana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) [K. Chandrashekar RAO]
Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]
YSR Congress (YSRC) [Jaganmohan REDDY]
note: India has dozens of national and regional political parties
Political pressure groups and leadersother: military; ulema (clergy); landowners; industrialists; small merchants
All Parties Hurriyat Conference in the Kashmir Valley (separatist group)
Bajrang Dal (militant religious organization)
Jamiat Ulema-e Hind [Mahmood MADANI] (religious organization)
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh [Mohan BHAGWAT] (nationalist organization)
Vishwa Hindu Parishad [Pravin TOGADIA] (militant religious organization)
other: hundreds of social reform, anti-corruption, and environmental groups at state and local level; numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy
International organization participationADB, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), C, CICA, CP, D-8, ECO, FAO, G-11, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIMSTEC, BIS, BRICS, C, CD, CERN (observer), CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Aizaz Ahmad CHAUDHRY (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 3517 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 243-6500
FAX: [1] (202) 686-1534
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York
consulate(s): Louisville (KY), San Francisco
chief of mission: Ambassador Navtej Singh SARNA (since January 2017)
chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note - Consular Wing located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone: [1](202) 939-7000
telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000
FAX: [1] (202) 265-4351
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador David M. HALE (since 3 December 2015)
embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
mailing address: 8100 Islamabad Place, Washington, DC 20521-8100
telephone: [92] (51) 208-0000/[92] (51) 201-4000
FAX: [92] (51) 233-8071
consulate(s) general: Karachi, Lahore
consulate(s): Peshawar
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires MaryKay L. Carlson (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [91] (11) 2419-8000
FAX: [91] (11) 2419-0017
consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras), Hyderabad, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)
Flag descriptiongreen with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam
three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green, with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; saffron represents courage, sacrifice, and the spirit of renunciation; white signifies purity and truth; green stands for faith and fertility; the blue chakra symbolizes the wheel of life in movement and death in stagnation
note: similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white band
National anthem"name: ""Qaumi Tarana"" (National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Abu-Al-Asar Hafeez JULLANDHURI/Ahmed Ghulamali CHAGLA
note: adopted 1954; also known as ""Pak sarzamin shad bad"" (Blessed Be the Sacred Land)
"
"name: ""Jana-Gana-Mana"" (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People)
lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE
note: adopted 1950; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote Bangladesh's national anthem
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)star and crescent, jasmine; national colors: green, white
the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which depicts four Asiatic lions standing back to back mounted on a circular abacus, is the official emblem; Bengal tiger; lotus flower; national colors: saffron, white, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: at least one parent must be a citizen of Pakistan
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but limited to select countries
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 7 years and including the 12 months preceding application
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of India
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

PakistanIndia
Economy - overviewDecades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment have led to slow growth and underdevelopment in Pakistan. Pakistan has a large English-speaking population. Nevertheless, a challenging security environment, electricity shortages, and a burdensome investment climate have deterred investors. Agriculture accounts for one-fifth of output and two-fifths of employment. Textiles and apparel account for most of Pakistan's export earnings, and Pakistan's failure to diversify its exports has left the country vulnerable to shifts in world demand. Pakistan’s GDP growth has gradually increased since 2012. Official unemployment was 6.1% in 2016, but this fails to capture the true picture, because much of the economy is informal and underemployment remains high. Human development continues to lag behind most of the region.

In 2013, Pakistan embarked on a $6.3 billion IMF Extended Fund Facility, which focused on reducing energy shortages, stabilizing public finances, increasing revenue collection, and improving its balance of payments position. The program concluded in September 2016. Although Pakistan missed several structural reform criteria, it restored macroeconomic stability, improved its credit rating, and boosted growth. The Pakistani rupee, after heavy depreciation in 2013, remained relatively stable against the US dollar in 2016. Low global oil prices in 2016 contributed to a narrowing current account deficit and lower inflation. Remittances from overseas workers continued to be a key revenue source, also mitigating the impact of the lack of foreign investment and a growing trade deficit on the country’s current account.

Pakistan must continue to address several long-standing issues, including expanding investment in education and healthcare, adapting to the effects of climate change and natural disasters, improving the country’s business environment, reducing dependence on foreign donors, and widening the country’s tax base. Given demographic challenges, Pakistan’s leadership will be pressed to implement economic reforms, promote further development of the energy sector, and attract foreign investment to support sufficient economic growth necessary to employ its growing and rapidly urbanizing population, much of which is under the age of 25.

In an effort to boost development, Pakistan and China are implementing the “China-Pakistan Economic Corridor”, a $46 billion investment program targeted towards the energy sector and other infrastructure projects that Islamabad and Beijing had agreed on in early 2013.
India's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Slightly less than half of the work force is in agriculture, but services are the major source of economic growth, accounting for nearly two-thirds of India's output but employing less than one-third of its labor force. India has capitalized on its large educated English-speaking population to become a major exporter of information technology services, business outsourcing services, and software workers.

India is developing into an open-market economy, yet traces of its past autarkic policies remain. Economic liberalization measures, including industrial deregulation, privatization of state-owned enterprises, and reduced controls on foreign trade and investment, began in the early 1990s and served to accelerate the country's growth, which averaged nearly 7% per year from 1997 to 2016. India's economic growth slowed in 2011 because of a decline in investment caused by high interest rates, rising inflation, and investor pessimism about the government's commitment to further economic reforms and about slow world growth. Rising macroeconomic imbalances in India and improving economic conditions in Western countries led investors to shift capital away from India, prompting a sharp depreciation of the rupee.

Growth rebounded in 2014 through 2016, exceeding 7% each year. Investors’ perceptions of India improved in early 2014, due to a reduction of the current account deficit and expectations of post-election economic reform, resulting in a surge of inbound capital flows and stabilization of the rupee. Since the election, the government has passed an important goods and services tax bill and raised foreign direct investment caps in some sectors but most economic reforms have focused on administrative and governance changes largely because the ruling party remains a minority in India’s upper house of Parliament, which must approve most bills. Despite a high growth rate compared to the rest of the world, in 2015 and 2016, India’s government-owned banks faced mounting bad debt, resulting in low credit growth and restrained economic growth.

The outlook for India's long-term growth is moderately positive due to a young population and corresponding low dependency ratio, healthy savings and investment rates, and increasing integration into the global economy. However, long-term challenges remain significant, including: India's discrimination against women and girls, an inefficient power generation and distribution system, ineffective enforcement of intellectual property rights, decades-long civil litigation dockets, inadequate transport and agricultural infrastructure, limited non-agricultural employment opportunities, high spending and poorly targeted subsidies, inadequate availability of quality basic and higher education, and accommodating rural-to-urban migration.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$988.2 billion (2016 est.)
$943.9 billion (2015 est.)
$905.8 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
data are for fiscal years
$8.721 trillion (2016 est.)
$8.103 trillion (2015 est.)
$7.534 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate4.7% (2016 est.)
4.2% (2015 est.)
4.1% (2014 est.)
note: data are for fiscal years
7.6% (2016 est.)
7.6% (2015 est.)
7.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$5,100 (2016 est.)
$4,900 (2015 est.)
$4,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
data are for fiscal years
$6,700 (2016 est.)
$6,300 (2015 est.)
$5,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 25.2%
industry: 19.2%
services: 55.6% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 16.5%
industry: 29.8%
services: 45.4% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line29.5% (FY2013 est.)
21.9% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 26.1% (FY2013)
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 29.8% (2011)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2.9% (FY2016 est.)
4.5% (FY2015 est.)
5.2% (2016 est.)
4.9% (2015 est.)
Labor force65.1 million
note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2016 est.)
513.7 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 42.3%
industry: 22.6%
services: 35.1% (FY2015 est.)
agriculture: 47%
industry: 22%
services: 31% (FY 2014 est.)
Unemployment rate6.1% (2016 est.)
6.5% (2015 est.)
note: substantial underemployment exists
5% (FY 2016 est.)
4.9% (FY 2014 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index30.7 (FY2013)
30.9 (FY2011)
35.2 (2011)
37.8 (1997)
Budgetrevenues: $42.3 billion
expenditures: $54.63 billion
note: data are for fiscal years (2016 est.)
revenues: $273.3 billion
expenditures: $273.3 billion (FY 2016 est.)
Industriestextiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp
textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software, pharmaceuticals
Industrial production growth rate6.8% (2016 est.)
7.4% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, lentils, onions, potatoes; dairy products, sheep, goats, poultry; fish
Exports$20.96 billion (2016 est.)
$28.51 billion (2015 est.)
$262.3 billion (FY 2016 est.)
$267.9 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiestextiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sporting goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs
petroleum products, precious stones, vehicles, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, cereals, apparel
Exports - partnersUS 13%, UAE 9%, Afghanistan 9%, China 8.7%, UK 5.3%, Germany 4.9% (2015)
US 15.2%, UAE 11.4%, Hong Kong 4.6% (1 January - 30 September 2016)
Imports$38.25 billion (2016 est.)
$47.53 billion (2015 est.)
$381 billion (FY2016 est.)
$394.1 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiespetroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea
crude oil, precious stones, machinery, chemicals, fertilizer, plastics, iron and steel
Imports - partnersChina 28.3%, Saudi Arabia 11%, UAE 10.9%, Kuwait 5.7% (2015)
China 15.7%, Saudi Arabia 5.4%, Switzerland 5.4%, US 5.3%, UAE 5.2% (1 January - 30 September 2016)
Debt - external$64.04 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$62.18 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$507 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$480.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesPakistani rupees (PKR) per US dollar -
103.768 (2016 est.)
101.89 (2015 est.)
102.769 (FY2014 est.)
101.1 (FY2013 est.)
93.4 (2012 est.)
Indian rupees (INR) per US dollar -
68.3 (2016 est.)
64.152 (2015 est.)
64.152 (2014 est.)
61.03 (2013 est.)
53.44 (2012 est.)
Fiscal year1 July - 30 June
1 April - 31 March
Public debt69.8% of GDP (30 September 2016 est.)
69.9% of GDP (30 September 2015 est.)
52.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
52.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover central government debt, and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$20.53 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$20.05 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$359.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$351.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$3.262 billion (2016 est.)
-$2.709 billion (2015 est.)
-$20.86 billion (2016 est.)
-$22.09 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$298.1 billion (2015 est.)
$2.251 trillion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$33.82 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$31.82 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$453.2 billion (30 September 2016 est.)
$296.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$2.059 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.009 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$149 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$139 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$43.68 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$32.76 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$38.17 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$1.516 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.558 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.139 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate5.75% (15 November 2016)
6% (15 November 2015)
6.25% (31 December 2016)
7.75% (31 December 2014)
note: this is the Indian central bank's policy rate - the repurchase rate
Commercial bank prime lending rate6.46% (10 December 2015 est.)
9.74% (10 December 2014 est.)
9.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
10.01% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$142.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$127.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.579 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.57 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$100.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$89.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$385.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$370.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$122.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$109.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.728 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.704 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues14.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.1% of GDP (FY 2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
0% of GDP (FY 2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 10.4%
male: 9.4%
female: 12.9% (2014 est.)
total: 10.7%
male: 10.4%
female: 11.6% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 80.1%
government consumption: 11.8%
investment in fixed capital: 13.6%
investment in inventories: 1.6%
exports of goods and services: 8.7%
imports of goods and services: -15.8% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 60.8%
government consumption: 11.4%
investment in fixed capital: 27.6%
investment in inventories: 3%
exports of goods and services: 19%
imports of goods and services: -21.8% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving14.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
13.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
note: data are for fiscal years
30.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
31.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
32.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

PakistanIndia
Electricity - production100 billion kWh (2014 est.)
1.218 trillion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption82 billion kWh (2014 est.)
973 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2016 est.)
200 million kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - imports400 million kWh (2014 est.)
5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production90,210 bbl/day (2015 est.)
761,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports150,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
3.785 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves370 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
5.675 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves669.4 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
1.489 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production42.02 billion cu m (2014 est.)
30.4 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption42.02 billion cu m (2014 est.)
52.1 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2016 est.)
0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports4.125 billion cu m (2016 est.)
21.7 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity24.82 million kW (FY2015 est.)
308.8 million kW (30 November 2016 )
Electricity - from fossil fuels67.7% of total installed capacity (FY2015 est.)
69.3% of total installed capacity (30 November 2016 )
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants28.6% of total installed capacity (FY2015 est.)
14% of total installed capacity (30 November 2016 )
Electricity - from nuclear fuels3.2% of total installed capacity (FY2015 est.)
1.9% of total installed capacity (30 November 2016 )
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.4% of total installed capacity (FY2015 est.)
14.9% of total installed capacity (30 November 2016 )
Refined petroleum products - production235,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
4.775 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption450,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
3.735 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports17,120 bbl/day (2013 est.)
1.351 million bbl/day (FY 2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports228,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
653,500 bbl/day (FY 2016 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy145 million Mt (2013 est.)
1.887 billion Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 49,500,000
electrification - total population: 73%
electrification - urban areas: 91%
electrification - rural areas: 62% (2013)
population without electricity: 237,400,000
electrification - total population: 79%
electrification - urban areas: 98%
electrification - rural areas: 70% (2013)

Telecommunications

PakistanIndia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 2,990,954
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 25.518 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 125.9 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 63 (July 2015 est.)
total: 1,011.054 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 81 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: the telecommunications infrastructure is improving, with investments in mobile-cellular networks increasing, but fixed-line subscriptions declining; system consists of microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks; 3G and 4G mobile services introduced
domestic: mobile-cellular subscribership has skyrocketed; more than 90% of Pakistanis live within areas that have cell phone coverage; fiber-optic networks are being constructed throughout the country to increase broadband access, though broadband penetration in Pakistan is still relatively low
international: country code - 92; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable systems that provide links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (2015)
general assessment: supported by recent deregulation and liberalization of telecommunications laws and policies, India has emerged as one of the fastest-growing telecom markets in the world; total telephone subscribership base exceeded 1 billion in 2015, an overall teledensity of roughly 80%, and subscribership is currently growing at roughly 5 million per month; urban teledensity now exceeds 100%, and rural teledensity has reached 50%
domestic: mobile cellular service introduced in 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan areas and 19 telecom circles, each with multiple private service providers and one or more state-owned service providers; in recent years significant trunk capacity added in the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indian National Satellite system (INSAT), with 6 satellites supporting 33,000 very small aperture terminals (VSAT)
international: country code - 91; a number of major international submarine cable systems, including SEA-ME-WE-3 with landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay), SEA-ME-WE-4 with a landing site at Chennai, Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) with a landing site at Mumbai (Bombay), South Africa - Far East (SAFE) with a landing site at Cochin, the i2i cable network linking to Singapore with landing sites at Mumbai (Bombay) and Chennai (Madras), and Tata Indicom linking Singapore and Chennai (Madras), provide a significant increase in the bandwidth available for both voice and data traffic; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region); 9 gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam (2015)
Internet country code.pk
.in
Internet userstotal: 35.835 million
percent of population: 18% (July 2015 est.)
total: 325.441 million
percent of population: 26% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediamedia is government regulated; 1 dominant state-owned TV broadcaster, Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV), operates a network consisting of 8 channels; private TV broadcasters are permitted; to date 69 foreign satellite channels are operational; the state-owned radio network operates more than 30 stations; nearly 200 commercially licensed, privately owned radio stations provide programming mostly limited to music and talk shows (2017)
Doordarshan, India's public TV network, operates about 20 national, regional, and local services; a large and increasing number of privately owned TV stations are distributed by cable and satellite service providers; in 2015, more than 230 million homes had access to cable and satellite TV offering more than 700 TV channels; government controls AM radio with All India Radio operating domestic and external networks; news broadcasts via radio are limited to the All India Radio Network; since 2000, privately owned FM stations have been permitted and their numbers have increased rapidly (2015)

Transportation

PakistanIndia
Railwaystotal: 11,881 km
broad gauge: 11,492 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 389 km 1.000-m gauge (2015)
total: 68,525 km
broad gauge: 58,404 km 1.676-m gauge (23,654 electrified)
narrow gauge: 9,499 km 1.000-m gauge; 622 km 0.762-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 263,942 km
paved: 185,063 km (includes 708 km of expressways)
unpaved: 78,879 km (2014)
total: 4,699,024 km
note: includes 96,214 km of national highways and expressways, 147,800 km of state highways, and 4,455,010 km of other roads (2015)
Pipelinesgas 12,646 km; oil 2,576 km; refined products 1,087 km (2013)
condensate/gas 9 km; gas 13,581 km; liquid petroleum gas 2,054 km; oil 8,943 km; oil/gas/water 20 km; refined products 11,069 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Karachi, Port Muhammad Bin Qasim
container port(s) (TEUs): Karachi (1,545,434)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Port Qasim
major seaport(s): Chennai, Jawaharal Nehru Port, Kandla, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay), Sikka, Vishakhapatnam
container port(s) (TEUs): Chennai (1,558,343), Jawaharal Nehru Port (4,307,622)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Dabhol, Dahej, Hazira
Merchant marinetotal: 11
by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 3, petroleum tanker 3
registered in other countries: 11 (Comoros 5, Marshall Islands 1, Moldova 1, Panama 3, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1) (2010)
total: 340
by type: bulk carrier 104, cargo 78, chemical tanker 22, container 14, liquefied gas 11, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 15, petroleum tanker 92
foreign-owned: 10 (China 1, Hong Kong 2, Jersey 2, Malaysia 1, UAE 4)
registered in other countries: 76 (Cyprus 4, Dominica 2, Liberia 8, Malta 3, Marshall Islands 10, Nigeria 1, Panama 24, Saint Kitts and Nevis 2, Singapore 21, unknown 1) (2010)
Airports151 (2013)
346 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 108
over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 43
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 10 (2013)
total: 253
over 3,047 m: 22
2,438 to 3,047 m: 59
1,524 to 2,437 m: 76
914 to 1,523 m: 82
under 914 m: 14 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 43
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 24 (2013)
total: 93
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 38
under 914 m: 45 (2013)
Heliports23 (2013)
45 (2013)

Military

PakistanIndia
Military branchesPakistan Army (includes National Guard), Pakistan Navy (includes Maritime Security Agency), Pakistan Air Force (Pakistan Fiza'ya) (2015)
Army, Navy (includes naval air arm), Air Force, Coast Guard (2011)
Military service age and obligation16-23 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed for combat until age 18; women serve in all three armed forces; reserve obligation to age 45 for enlisted men, age 50 for officers (2017)
16-18 years of age for voluntary military service (Army 17 1/2, Air Force 17, Navy 16 1/2); no conscription; women may join as officers, currently serve in combat roles as pilots, and will soon be allowed in all combat roles (2016)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP3.55% of GDP (2015)
3.48% of GDP (2014)
3.47% of GDP (2013)
3.48% of GDP (2012)
3.29% of GDP (2011)
2.42% of GDP (2015)
2.49% of GDP (2014)
2.46% of GDP (2013)
2.54% of GDP (2012)
2.65% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

PakistanIndia
Disputes - internationalvarious talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; India and Pakistan have maintained their 2004 cease-fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed standoff in the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim in India's Gujarat State; since 2002, with UN assistance, Pakistan has repatriated 3.8 million Afghan refugees, leaving about 2.6 million; Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan, which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities; Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps
since China and India launched a security and foreign policy dialogue in 2005, consolidated discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indian claims that China transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters continue
Kashmir remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas)
India and Pakistan resumed bilateral dialogue in February 2011 after a two-year hiatus, have maintained the 2003 cease-fire in Kashmir, and continue to have disputes over water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries
UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim in Indian Gujarat State; Prime Minister Singh's September 2011 visit to Bangladesh resulted in the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh, which had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, but which had never been implemented; Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Joint Border Committee with Nepal continues to examine contested boundary sections, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal
Illicit drugssignificant transit area for Afghan drugs, including heroin, opium, morphine, and hashish, bound for Iran, Western markets, the Gulf States, Africa, and Asia; financial crimes related to drug trafficking, terrorism, corruption, and smuggling remain problems; opium poppy cultivation estimated to be 2,300 hectares in 2007 with 600 of those hectares eradicated; federal and provincial authorities continue to conduct anti-poppy campaigns that utilizes forced eradication, fines, and arrests
world's largest producer of licit opium for the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit point for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries and throughout Southwest Asia; illicit producer of methaqualone; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system; licit ketamine and precursor production
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 2.6 million (1.6 million registered, 1.0 million undocumented) (Afghanistan) (2015)
IDPs: 847,368 (primarily those who remain displaced by counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency operations and violent conflict between armed non-state groups in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Khyber-Paktunkwa Province; more than 1 million displaced in northern Waziristan in 2014; individuals also have been displaced by repeated monsoon floods) (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 110,098 (Tibet/China); 63,162 (Sri Lanka); 15,561 (Burma); 7,693 (Afghanistan) (2015)
IDPs: 796,000 (armed conflict and intercommunal violence) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook