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Oman vs. Yemen

Introduction

OmanYemen
BackgroundThe inhabitants of the area of Oman have long prospered from Indian Ocean trade. In the late 18th century, the nascent sultanate in Muscat signed the first in a series of friendship treaties with Britain. Over time, Oman's dependence on British political and military advisors increased, although the Sultanate never became a British colony. In 1970, QABOOS bin Said Al-Said overthrew his father, and has since ruled as sultan, but he has not designated a successor. His extensive modernization program has opened the country to the outside world, while preserving the longstanding close ties with the UK and US. Oman's moderate, independent foreign policy has sought to maintain good relations with its neighbors and to avoid external entanglements. Inspired by the popular uprisings that swept the Middle East and North Africa beginning in January 2011, some Omanis staged demonstrations, calling for more jobs and economic benefits and an end to corruption. In response to those protester demands, QABOOS in 2011 pledged to implement economic and political reforms, such as granting legislative and regulatory powers to the Majlis al-Shura and increasing unemployment benefits. Additionally, in August 2012, the Sultan announced a royal directive mandating the speedy implementation of a national job creation plan for thousands of public and private sector Omani jobs. As part of the government's efforts to decentralize authority and allow greater citizen participation in local governance, Oman successfully conducted its first municipal council elections in December 2012. Announced by the Sultan in 2011, the municipal councils have the power to advise the Royal Court on the needs of local districts across Oman's 11 governorates. The Sultan returned to Oman in March 2015 after eight months in Germany, where he received medical treatment. He has since appeared publicly on a few occasions.
North Yemen became independent from the Ottoman Empire in 1918. The British, who had set up a protectorate area around the southern port of Aden in the 19th century, withdrew in 1967 from what became South Yemen. Three years later, the southern government adopted a Marxist orientation. The massive exodus of hundreds of thousands of Yemenis from the south to the north contributed to two decades of hostility between the states. The two countries were formally unified as the Republic of Yemen in 1990. A southern secessionist movement and brief civil war in 1994 was quickly subdued. In 2000, Saudi Arabia and Yemen agreed to delineate their border. Fighting in the northwest between the government and the Huthis, a Zaydi Shia Muslim minority, continued intermittently from 2004 to 2010. The southern secessionist movement was revitalized in 2007.
Public rallies in Sana'a against then President SALIH - inspired by similar demonstrations in Tunisia and Egypt - slowly built momentum starting in late January 2011 fueled by complaints over high unemployment, poor economic conditions, and corruption. By the following month, some protests had resulted in violence, and the demonstrations had spread to other major cities. By March the opposition had hardened its demands and was unifying behind calls for SALIH's immediate ouster. In April 2011, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), in an attempt to mediate the crisis in Yemen, proposed the GGC Initiative, an agreement in which the president would step down in exchange for immunity from prosecution. SALIH's refusal to sign an agreement led to further violence. The UN Security Council passed Resolution 2014 in October 2011 calling for an end to the violence and completing a power transfer deal. In November 2011, SALIH signed the GCC Initiative to step down and to transfer some of his powers to Vice President Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI. Following HADI's uncontested election victory in February 2012, SALIH formally transferred his powers. In accordance with the GCC initiative, Yemen launched a National Dialogue Conference (NDC) in March 2013 to discuss key constitutional, political, and social issues. HADI concluded the NDC in January 2014 and planned to begin implementing subsequent steps in the transition process, including constitutional drafting, a constitutional referendum, and national elections.
The Huthis, perceiving their grievances were not addressed in the NDC, joined forces with SALIH and expanded their influence in northwestern Yemen, culminating in a major offensive against military units and rival tribes and enabling their forces to overrun the capital, Sanaa, in September 2014. In January 2015, the Huthis surrounded the presidential palace, HADI's residence, and key government facilities, prompting HADI and the cabinet to submit their resignations. HADI fled to Aden in February 2015 and rescinded his resignation. He subsequently escaped to Oman and then moved to Saudi Arabia and asked the GCC to intervene militarily in Yemen to protect the legitimate government from the Huthis. In March, Saudi Arabia assembled a coalition of Arab militaries and began airstrikes against the Huthis and Huthi-affiliated forces. Ground fighting between Huthi-aligned forces and resistance groups backed by the Saudi-led coalition continued through 2016. The UN brokered a cessation of hostilities (COH) that reduced airstrikes and fighting across the country for several months in mid-2016. Meanwhile, UN-backed peace talks in Kuwait broke down in August 2016 without agreement. The conflict escalated, and subsequent attempts to declare a COH or resume peace talks have failed. The Huthis and SALIH’s political party announced a Supreme Political Council in August 2016 and a National Salvation Government, including a prime minister and several dozen cabinet members, in November 2016, to govern in Sanaa and further challenge the legitimacy of HADI’s government.

Geography

OmanYemen
LocationMiddle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and Persian Gulf, between Yemen and the UAE
Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia
Geographic coordinates21 00 N, 57 00 E
15 00 N, 48 00 E
Map referencesMiddle East
Middle East
Areatotal: 309,500 sq km
land: 309,500 sq km
water: 0 sq km
total: 527,968 sq km
land: 527,968 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Perim, Socotra, the former Yemen Arab Republic (YAR or North Yemen), and the former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY or South Yemen)
Area - comparativetwice the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Kansas
almost four times the size of Alabama; slightly larger than twice the size of Wyoming
Land boundariestotal: 1,561 km
border countries (3): Saudi Arabia 658 km, UAE 609 km, Yemen 294 km
total: 1,601 km
border countries (2): Oman 294 km, Saudi Arabia 1,307 km
Coastline2,092 km
1,906 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climatedry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south
mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east
Terraincentral desert plain, rugged mountains in north and south
narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains; dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the desert interior of the Arabian Peninsula
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 310 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal Shams 2,980 m
mean elevation: 999 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal an Nabi Shu'ayb 3,760 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas
petroleum, fish, rock salt, marble; small deposits of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper; fertile soil in west
Land useagricultural land: 4.7%
arable land 0.1%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 4.5%
forest: 0%
other: 95.3% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 44.5%
arable land 2.2%; permanent crops 0.6%; permanent pasture 41.7%
forest: 1%
other: 54.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land590 sq km (2012)
6,800 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardssummer winds often raise large sandstorms and dust storms in interior; periodic droughts
sandstorms and dust storms in summer
volcanism: limited volcanic activity; Jebel at Tair (Jabal al-Tair, Jebel Teir, Jabal al-Tayr, Jazirat at-Tair) (elev. 244 m), which forms an island in the Red Sea, erupted in 2007 after awakening from dormancy; other historically active volcanoes include Harra of Arhab, Harras of Dhamar, Harra es-Sawad, and Jebel Zubair, although many of these have not erupted in over a century
Environment - current issuesrising soil salinity; beach pollution from oil spills; limited natural freshwater resources
limited natural freshwater resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - noteconsists of Oman proper and two northern exclaves, Musandam and Al Madhah; the former is a peninsula that occupies a strategic location adjacent to the Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil
strategic location on Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes
Population distributionthe vast majority of the population is located in and around the Al Hagar Mountains in the north of the country; another smaller cluster is found around the city of Salalah in the far south; most of the country remains sparsely poplulated
the vast majority of the population is found in the southern Sarawat Mountains, located in the far western region of the country

Demographics

OmanYemen
Population3,355,262 (July 2016 est.)
note: immigrants make up over 40% of the total population, according to UN data (2015)
27,392,779 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 30.14% (male 518,600/female 492,782)
15-24 years: 19.11% (male 336,310/female 304,871)
25-54 years: 43.41% (male 843,531/female 613,004)
55-64 years: 3.91% (male 69,904/female 61,248)
65 years and over: 3.43% (male 56,816/female 58,196) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 40.48% (male 5,639,657/female 5,447,662)
15-24 years: 21.16% (male 2,940,484/female 2,855,538)
25-54 years: 31.79% (male 4,451,305/female 4,257,877)
55-64 years: 3.87% (male 487,986/female 571,676)
65 years and over: 2.7% (male 342,053/female 398,541) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 25.4 years
male: 26.5 years
female: 24 years (2016 est.)
total: 19.2 years
male: 19.1 years
female: 19.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.05% (2016 est.)
2.37% (2016 est.)
Birth rate24.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
29.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate3.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.38 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.99 male(s)/female
total population: 1.19 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 13.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 13.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 47.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 51.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 43.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 75.5 years
male: 73.5 years
female: 77.5 years (2016 est.)
total population: 65.5 years
male: 63.4 years
female: 67.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.84 children born/woman (2016 est.)
3.77 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.16% (2014 est.)
0.06% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Omani(s)
adjective: Omani
noun: Yemeni(s)
adjective: Yemeni
Ethnic groupsArab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi), African
predominantly Arab; but also Afro-Arab, South Asians, Europeans
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS2,400 (2014 est.)
9,200 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 85.9%, Christian 6.5%, Hindu 5.5%, Buddhist 0.8%, Jewish <0.1%, other 1%, unaffiliated 0.2% (2010 est.)
note: Omani citizens represent approximately 60% of the population and are overwhelming Muslim (Ibadhi and Sunni sects each constitute about 45% and Shia about 5%); Christians, Hindus, and Buddhists accounting for roughly 5% of Omani citizens
Muslim 99.1% (official; virtually all are citizens, an estimated 65% are Sunni and 35% are Shia), other 0.9% (includes Jewish, Baha'i, Hindu, and Christian; many are refugees or temporary foreign residents) (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsless than 100 (2014 est.)
300 (2015 est.)
LanguagesArabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects
Arabic (official)
note: a distinct Socotri language is widely used on Socotra Island and Archipelago; Mahri is still fairly widely spoken in eastern Yemen
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.1%
male: 93.6%
female: 85.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 70.1%
male: 85.1%
female: 55% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 14 years
male: 13 years
female: 15 years (2015)
total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 8 years (2011)
Education expenditures5% of GDP (2013)
4.6% of GDP (2008)
Urbanizationurban population: 77.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 8.54% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 34.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.03% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 95.5% of population
rural: 86.1% of population
total: 93.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4.5% of population
rural: 13.9% of population
total: 6.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 72% of population
rural: 46.5% of population
total: 54.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 28% of population
rural: 53.5% of population
total: 45.1% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 97.3% of population
rural: 94.7% of population
total: 96.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.7% of population
rural: 5.3% of population
total: 3.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 92.5% of population
rural: 34.1% of population
total: 53.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7.5% of population
rural: 65.9% of population
total: 46.7% of population (2012 est.)
Major cities - populationMUSCAT (capital) 838,000 (2015)
SANAA (capital) 2.962 million; Aden 882,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate17 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
385 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight9.7% (2014)
39.9% (2013)
Health expenditures3.6% of GDP (2014)
5.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.54 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
0.31 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density1.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate26.5% (2014)
14.2% (2014)
Contraceptive prevalence rate29.7% (2014)
33.5% (2013)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 30
youth dependency ratio: 26.7
elderly dependency ratio: 3.4
potential support ratio: 29.8 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 75.6
youth dependency ratio: 70.7
elderly dependency ratio: 4.9
potential support ratio: 20.4 (2015 est.)

Government

OmanYemen
Country name"conventional long form: Sultanate of Oman
conventional short form: Oman
local long form: Saltanat Uman
local short form: Uman
former: Sultanate of Muscat and Oman
etymology: the origin of the name is uncertain, but it apparently dates back at least 2,000 years since an ""Omana"" is mentioned by Pliny the Elder (1st century A.D.) and an ""Omanon"" by Ptolemy (2nd century A.D.)
"
"conventional long form: Republic of Yemen
conventional short form: Yemen
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Yamaniyah
local short form: Al Yaman
former: Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]
etymology: name derivation remains unclear but may come from the Arab term ""yumn"" (happiness) and be related to the region's classical name ""Arabia Felix"" (Fertile or Happy Arabia); the Romans referred to the rest of the peninsula as ""Arabia Deserta"" (Deserted Arabia)
"
Government typeabsolute monarchy
in transition
Capitalname: Muscat
geographic coordinates: 23 37 N, 58 35 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Sanaa
geographic coordinates: 15 21 N, 44 12 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions11 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafaza); Ad Dakhiliyah, Al Buraymi, Al Wusta, Az Zahirah, Janub al Batinah (Al Batinah South), Janub ash Sharqiyah (Ash Sharqiyah South), Masqat (Muscat), Musandam, Shamal al Batinah (Al Batinah North), Shamal ash Sharqiyah (Ash Sharqiyah North), Zufar (Dhofar)
22 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Abyan, 'Adan (Aden), Ad Dali', Al Bayda', Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah, Al Mahwit, Amanat al 'Asimah (Sanaa City), 'Amran, Arkhabil Suqutra (Socotra Archipelago), Dhamar, Hadramawt, Hajjah, Ibb, Lahij, Ma'rib, Raymah, Sa'dah, San'a' (Sanaa), Shabwah, Ta'izz
Independence1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese)
22 May 1990 (Republic of Yemen was established with the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and the Marxist-dominated People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]); note - previously North Yemen became independent in November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and became a republic with the overthrow of the theocratic Imamate in 1962; South Yemen became independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK)
National holidayNational Day, 18 November; note - coincides with the birthday of Sultan QABOOS, 18 November (1940)
Unification Day, 22 May (1990)
Constitutionhistory: promulgated by royal decree 6 November 1996 (the Basic Law of the Sultanate of Oman serves as the constitution); amended by royal decree in 2011
amendments: promulgated by the sultan or proposed by the Council of Oman and drafted by a technical committee as stipulated by royal decree and then promulgated through royal decree; amended in 2011 (2016)
history: adopted by referendum 16 May 1991 (following unification); amended several times, last in 2009; note - after the National Dialogue ended in January 2015, a presidentially-appointed Constitutional Drafting Committee worked to prepare a new draft constitution that was expected to be put to a national referendum before being adopted; however, the president’s resignation in January 2015 and subsequent conflict have interrupted the process (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of Anglo-Saxon law and Islamic law
mixed legal system of Islamic law, Napoleonic law, English common law, and customary law
Suffrage21 years of age; universal; note - members of the military and security forces by law cannot vote
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al-Said (sultan since 23 July 1970 and prime minister since 23 July 1972); note - the monarch is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al-Said (sultan since 23 July 1970 and prime minister since 23 July 1972)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
elections/appointments: members of the Ruling Family Council determine a successor from the sultan's extended family; if the Council cannot form a consensus within 3 days of the sultan's death or incapacitation, the Defense Council will relay a predetermined heir as chosen by the sultan
chief of state: President Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI (since 21 February 2012); Vice President Ali Mohsin al-AHMAR, Gen. (since 3 April 2016)
head of government: Prime Minister Ahmad Obaid bin DAGHIR (since 3 April 2016)
cabinet: appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term); last election held on 21 February 2012 (next election NA); note - a special election held on 21 February 2012 to remove Ali Abdallah SALIH under the terms of a Gulf Cooperation Council-mediated deal during the political crisis of 2011; vice president appointed by the president; prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI (GPC) elected as a consensus president with about 50% popular participation; no other candidates
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Council of Oman or Majlis Oman consists of the Council of State or Majlis al-Dawla (85 seats including the chairman; members appointed by the sultan from among former government officials and prominent educators, businessmen, and citizens) and the Consultative Council or Majlis al-Shura (85 seats; members directly elected in single- and two-seat constituencies by simple majority popular vote to serve renewable 4-year terms); note - since political reforms in 2011, legislation from the Consultative Council is submitted to the Council of State for review by the Royal Court
elections: Consultative Assembly - last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in October 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; note - organized political parties in Oman are legally banned
description: bicameral Parliament or Majlis consists of the Shura Council or Majlis Alshoora (111 seats; members appointed by the president; member tenure NA) and the House of Representatives or Majlis al Nuwaab (301 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 6-year terms)
elections: last held on 27 April 2003 (next scheduled for April 2009 but postponed indefinitely)
election results: House of Representatives percent of vote by party - GPC 58.0%, Islah 22.6%, YSP 3.8%, Unionist Party 1.9%, other 13.7%; seats by party - GPC 238, Islah 46, YSP 8, Nasserist Unionist Party 3, National Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party 2, independent 4
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the 9-member Supreme Judicial Council (chaired by the monarch) and appointed by the monarch; judges appointed for life
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Administrative Court; Courts of First Instance; sharia courts; magistrates' courts; military courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the president of the Court, 2 deputies, and nearly 50 judges; court organized into constitutional, civil, commercial, family, administrative, criminal, military, and appeals scrutiny divisions)
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the Supreme Judicial Council, chaired by the president of the republic and consisting of 10 high-ranking judicial officers; judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65
subordinate courts: appeal courts; district or first instance courts; commercial courts
Political parties and leadersnone; note - organized political parties are legally banned in Oman, and loyalties tend to form around tribal affiliations
General People's Congress or GPC [Ali Abdallah SALIH]
National Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party [Qassem Salam SAID]
Nasserist Unionist People's Organization [Abdallah NU'MAN]
Yemeni Reform Grouping or Islah [Muhammed Abdallah al-YADUMI, Abdul Wahab al-ANSI]
Yemeni Socialist Party or YSP [Dr. Abd al-Rahman Umar al-SAQQAF]
Political pressure groups and leadersnone
Huthis
Muslim Brotherhood
Women National Committee
other: conservative tribal groups; southern secessionist groups; al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)
International organization participationABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CD, EITI (temporarily suspended), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Hunaina bint Sultan bin Ahmad al-MUGHAIRI (since 9 November 2005)
chancery: 2535 Belmont Road, NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-1980
FAX: [1] (202) 745-4933
chief of mission: Ambassador Ahmad Awadh BIN MUBARAK (since 3 August 2015)
chancery: 2319 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 965-4760
FAX: [1] (202) 337-2017
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Marc J. SIEVERS (since 7 January 2016)
embassy: Jamait Ad Duwal Al Arabiyya Street, Al Khuwair area, Muscat
mailing address: P.O. Box 202, P.C. 115, Madinat Al Sultan Qaboos, Muscat
telephone: [968] 24-643-400
FAX: [968] 24-643-740
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); DCM Richard H. Riley (since 8 August 2015)
embassy: Sa'awan Street, Sanaa
mailing address: P. O. Box 22347, Sanaa
telephone: [967] (1) 755-2000 ext. 2153 or 2266
FAX: [967] (1) 303-182
Flag descriptionthree horizontal bands of white, red, and green of equal width with a broad, vertical, red band on the hoist side; the national emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath superimposed on two crossed swords in scabbards) in white is centered near the top of the vertical band; white represents peace and prosperity, red recalls battles against foreign invaders, and green symbolizes the Jebel al Akhdar (Green Mountains) and fertility
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white)
note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars in the white band, and of Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt, which has a heraldic eagle centered in the white band
National anthem"name: ""Nashid as-Salaam as-Sultani"" (The Sultan's Anthem)
lyrics/music: Rashid bin Uzayyiz al KHUSAIDI/James Frederick MILLS, arranged by Bernard EBBINGHAUS
note: adopted 1932; new lyrics written after QABOOS bin Said al Said gained power in 1970; first performed by the band of a British ship as a salute to the Sultan during a 1932 visit to Muscat; the bandmaster of the HMS Hawkins was asked to write a salutation to the Sultan on the occasion of his ship visit
"
"name: ""al-qumhuriyatu l-muttahida"" (United Republic)
lyrics/music: Abdullah Abdulwahab NOA'MAN/Ayyoab Tarish ABSI
note: adopted 1990; the music first served as the anthem for South Yemen before unification with North Yemen in 1990
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)khanjar dagger superimposed on two crossed swords; national colors: red, white, green
golden eagle; national colors: red, white, black
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Oman
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: unknown
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Yemen; if the father is unknown, the mother must be a citizen
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

OmanYemen
Economy - overviewOman is heavily dependent on its dwindling oil resources, which generate 84% of government revenue. In 2016, low global oil prices drove Oman’s budget deficit to $11.5 billion, or approximately 19% of GDP. Oman has limited foreign assets and is issuing debt to cover its deficit.

Oman is using enhanced oil recovery techniques to boost production, but has simultaneously pursued a development plan that focuses on diversification, industrialization, and privatization, with the objective of reducing the oil sector's contribution to GDP from 46% at present to 9% by 2020 in accordance with Oman’s ninth five-year development plan. Tourism and gas-based industries are key components of the government's diversification strategy.

Muscat also has notably focused on creating more Omani jobs to employ the rising number of nationals entering the workforce. However, high social welfare benefits — that had increased in the wake of the 2011 Arab Spring — have challenged the government's ability to effectively balance its budget in light of low export oil prices. In response, Omani officials imposed austerity measures to its gasoline and diesel subsidies in 2016, with further subsidy cuts planned for electricity and liquid petroleum gas. The spending cuts have faced some public opposition, which could hinder their implementation.
Yemen is a low-income country that faces difficult long-term challenges to stabilizing and growing its economy, and the current conflict has only exacerbated those issues. The ongoing war has halted Yemen’s exports, pressured the currency’s exchange rate, accelerated inflation, severely limited food and fuel imports, and caused widespread damage to infrastructure. More than 80% of the population is in need of humanitarian assistance and over half are food insecure.

Prior to the start of the conflict in 2014, Yemen was highly dependent on declining oil and gas resources for revenue. Oil and gas earnings accounted for roughly 25% of GDP and 65% of government revenue. The Yemeni Government regularly faced annual budget shortfalls and tried to diversify the Yemeni economy through a reform program designed to bolster non-oil sectors of the economy and foreign investment. In July 2014, the government continued reform efforts by eliminating some fuel subsidies and in August 2014, the IMF approved a three-year, $570 million Extended Credit Facility for Yemen.

However, the conflict that began in 2014 stalled these reform efforts and ongoing fighting continues to accelerate the country’s economic decline. In September 2016, President HADI announced the move of the main branch of Central Bank of Yemen from Sanaa to Aden where his government could exert greater control over the central bank’s dwindling resources. Regardless of which group controls the main branch, the central bank system is struggling to function. Yemen’s Central Bank’s foreign reserves, which stood at roughly $5.2 billion prior to the conflict, have declined to negligible amounts. The Central Bank can no longer fully support imports of critical goods or the country’s exchange rate. The country also is facing a growing liquidity crisis and rising inflation. The private sector is hemorrhaging, with almost all businesses making substantial layoffs. Access to food and other critical commodities such as medical equipment is limited across the country due to security issues on the ground. The Social Welfare Fund, a cash transfer program for Yemen’s neediest, is no longer operational and has not made any disbursements since late 2014.

Yemen will require significant international assistance during and after the protracted conflict to stabilize its economy. Long-term challenges include a high population growth rate, high unemployment, declining water resources, and severe food scarcity.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$173.1 billion (2016 est.)
$170 billion (2015 est.)
$164.6 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$73.45 billion (2016 est.)
$76.68 billion (2015 est.)
$106.6 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate1.8% (2016 est.)
3.3% (2015 est.)
2.9% (2014 est.)
-4.2% (2016 est.)
-28.1% (2015 est.)
-0.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$43,700 (2016 est.)
$44,300 (2015 est.)
$44,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$2,500 (2016 est.)
$2,700 (2015 est.)
$3,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 1.7%
industry: 45.4%
services: 52.9% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 23.6%
industry: 8.9%
services: 67.5% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty lineNA%
54% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 30.3% (2008 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2% (2016 est.)
0.1% (2015 est.)
31.5% (2016 est.)
28.8% (2015 est.)
Labor force968,800
note: about 60% of the labor force is non-national (2007 est.)
7.47 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
note: most people are employed in agriculture and herding; services, construction, industry, and commerce account for less than one-fourth of the labor force
Unemployment rate15% (2004 est.)
27% (2014 est.)
35% (2003 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $20.26 billion
expenditures: $31.55 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $1.766 billion
expenditures: $5.628 billion (2016 est.)
Industriescrude oil production and refining, natural and liquefied natural gas (LNG) production; construction, cement, copper, steel, chemicals, optic fiber
crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale production of cotton textiles, leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; aluminum products; cement; commercial ship repair; natural gas production
Industrial production growth rate1.5% (2016 est.)
-27% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsdates, limes, bananas, alfalfa, vegetables; camels, cattle; fish
grain, fruits, vegetables, pulses, qat, coffee, cotton; dairy products, livestock (sheep, goats, cattle, camels), poultry; fish
Exports$30.39 billion (2016 est.)
$34.43 billion (2015 est.)
$124.3 million (2016 est.)
$1.364 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiespetroleum, reexports, fish, metals, textiles
crude oil, coffee, dried and salted fish, liquefied natural gas
Exports - partnersChina 42.4%, UAE 12%, South Korea 7.4%, Saudi Arabia 5.2% (2015)
China 25.5%, UAE 17.1%, South Korea 10.4%, Saudi Arabia 10.3%, Kuwait 9.4%, India 5.3% (2015)
Imports$25.78 billion (2016 est.)
$28.27 billion (2015 est.)
$3.624 billion (2016 est.)
$4.793 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, livestock, lubricants
food and live animals, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Imports - partnersUAE 38.3%, Japan 6%, India 5.6%, China 5.2%, US 5%, Saudi Arabia 4.1% (2015)
UAE 18.5%, Oman 13.9%, China 12.6%, Saudi Arabia 8.7%, Kuwait 6.5%, India 4.1% (2015)
Debt - external$20.85 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.94 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$7.661 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.697 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesOmani rials (OMR) per US dollar -
0.3845 (2016 est.)
0.3845 (2015 est.)
0.3845 (2014 est.)
0.3845 (2013 est.)
0.3845 (2012 est.)
Yemeni rials (YER) per US dollar -
284.9 (2016 est.)
228 (2015 est.)
228 (2014 est.)
214.89 (2013 est.)
214.35 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt18.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
8.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
92.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
86.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$14.54 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.54 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$639.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.978 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$9.783 billion (2016 est.)
-$10.81 billion (2015 est.)
-$1.532 billion (2016 est.)
-$2.073 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$59.68 billion (2016 est.)
$31.33 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$NA
$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares$41.12 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$37.83 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$36.77 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$NA
Central bank discount rate2% (31 December 2010)
0.05% (31 December 2009)
NA%
Commercial bank prime lending rate5% (31 December 2016 est.)
4.76% (31 December 2015 est.)
27% (31 December 2016 est.)
25% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$48.49 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$45.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.82 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$10.23 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$14.24 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$13.96 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.31 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.993 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$40.94 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$39.39 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$16.02 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$14.04 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues34% of GDP (2016 est.)
5.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-18.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
-12.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 41%
government consumption: 28.4%
investment in fixed capital: 37%
investment in inventories: -4.7%
exports of goods and services: 49.4%
imports of goods and services: -51.1% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 101.7%
government consumption: 10.9%
investment in fixed capital: 7.5%
investment in inventories: -5.9%
exports of goods and services: 0.9%
imports of goods and services: -15.1% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving9.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
11.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
27.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
-2.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
-3.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
6.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

OmanYemen
Electricity - production28 billion kWh (2014 est.)
7.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption25 billion kWh (2014 est.)
5.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production982,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
47,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports7,060 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports806,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
68,160 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves5.3 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
3 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves688.1 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
478.5 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production30.9 billion cu m (2014 est.)
9.3 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption22.6 billion cu m (2014 est.)
500 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports10.27 billion cu m (2014 est.)
8.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports1.97 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity8.2 million kW (2014 est.)
1.5 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
99.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production158,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)
64,340 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption160,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
144,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports33,450 bbl/day (2013 est.)
29,770 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports14,810 bbl/day (2013 est.)
94,920 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy69 million Mt (2013 est.)
22 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 100,000
electrification - total population: 98%
electrification - urban areas: 99%
electrification - rural areas: 93% (2013)
population without electricity: 13,300,000
electrification - total population: 48%
electrification - urban areas: 79%
electrification - rural areas: 33% (2013)

Telecommunications

OmanYemen
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 434,932
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 13 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 1.195 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 6.647 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 202 (July 2015 est.)
total: 17.359 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 65 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: modern system consisting of open-wire, microwave, and radiotelephone communication stations; limited coaxial cable; domestic satellite system with 8 earth stations
domestic: fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership both increasing with fixed-line phone service gradually being introduced to remote villages using wireless local loop systems
international: country code - 968; the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) and the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat (2015)
general assessment: cell phone penetration growing rapidly
domestic: the national network consists of microwave radio relay, cable, tropospheric scatter, GSM and CDMA mobile-cellular telephone systems; fixed-line teledensity remains low by regional standards but mobile cellular use expanding apace
international: country code - 967; landing point for the international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 2 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and Djibouti (2016)
Internet country code.om
.ye
Internet userstotal: 2.438 million
percent of population: 74.2% (July 2015 est.)
total: 6.711 million
percent of population: 25.1% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast media1 state-run TV broadcaster; TV stations transmitting from Saudi Arabia, the UAE, and Yemen available via satellite TV; state-run radio operates multiple stations; first private radio station began operating in 2007 and 2 additional stations now operating (2007)
state-run TV with 2 stations; state-run radio with 2 national radio stations and 5 local stations; stations from Oman and Saudi Arabia can be accessed (2007)

Transportation

OmanYemen
Roadwaystotal: 60,230 km
paved: 29,685 km (includes 1,943 km of expressways)
unpaved: 30,545 km (2012)
total: 71,300 km
paved: 6,200 km
unpaved: 65,100 km (2005)
Pipelinescondensate 106 km; gas 4,224 km; oil 3,558 km; oil/gas/water 33 km; refined products 264 km (2013)
gas 641 km; liquid petroleum gas 22 km; oil 1,370 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Mina' Qabus, Salalah, Suhar
container port(s) (TEUs): Salalah (3,200,000)
LNG terminal(s) (export): Qalhat
major seaport(s): Aden, Al Hudaydah, Al Mukalla
Merchant marinetotal: 5
by type: chemical tanker 1, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 3
registered in other countries: 15 (Malta 5, Panama 10) (2010)
total: 5
by type: chemical tanker 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1
registered in other countries: 14 (Moldova 4, Panama 4, Sierra Leone 2, Togo 1, unknown 3) (2010)
Airports132 (2013)
57 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 13
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
total: 17
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 119
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 51
914 to 1,523 m: 33
under 914 m: 26 (2013)
total: 40
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 16
under 914 m: 9 (2013)

Military

OmanYemen
Military branchesSultan's Armed Forces (SAF): Royal Army of Oman, Royal Navy of Oman, Royal Air Force of Oman (al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Sultanat Oman) (2013)
Land Forces, Naval and Coastal Defense Forces (includes Marines), Air and Air Defense Force (al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Yemeniya), Border Guards, Strategic Reserve Forces (2013)
Military service age and obligation18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription; 2-year service obligation (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP12.75% of GDP (2016)
14.58% of GDP (2015)
11.8% of GDP (2014)
15% of GDP (2013)
8.61% of GDP (2012)
3.97% of GDP (2013)
4.08% of GDP (2012)
4.57% of GDP (2011)
4.93% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

OmanYemen
Disputes - internationalboundary agreement reportedly signed and ratified with UAE in 2003 for entire border, including Oman's Musandam Peninsula and Al Madhah exclave, but details of the alignment have not been made public
Saudi Arabia has reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the fully demarcated border with Yemen to stem illegal cross-border activities
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 5,000 (Yemen) (2017)
refugees (country of origin): 5,877 (Ethiopia) (2016); 255,991 (Somalia) (2017)
IDPs: 1,988,946 (conflict in Sa'ada Governorate; clashes between al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula and government forces) (2017)

Source: CIA Factbook