Home

Norway vs. Finland

Introduction

NorwayFinland
BackgroundTwo centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994; conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949, Norway abandoned neutrality and became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU. Key domestic issues include immigration and integration of ethnic minorities, maintaining the country's extensive social safety net with an aging population, and preserving economic competitiveness.
Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It gained complete independence in 1917. During World War II, Finland successfully defended its independence through cooperation with Germany and resisted subsequent invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, Finland transformed from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the EU since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro single currency at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland's modern welfare state are high quality education, promotion of equality, and a national social welfare system - currently challenged by an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy.

Geography

NorwayFinland
LocationNorthern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia
Geographic coordinates62 00 N, 10 00 E
64 00 N, 26 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 323,802 sq km
land: 304,282 sq km
water: 19,520 sq km
total: 338,145 sq km
land: 303,815 sq km
water: 34,330 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly larger than twice the size of Georgia; slightly larger than New Mexico
slightly more than two times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundariestotal: 2,566 km
border countries (3): Finland 709 km, Sweden 1,666 km, Russia 191 km
total: 2,563 km
border countries (3): Norway 709 km, Sweden 545 km, Russia 1,309 km
Coastline25,148 km (includes mainland 2,650 km, as well as long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 22,498 km; length of island coastlines 58,133 km)
1,250 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 10 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden, Estonia, and Russia
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatetemperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast
cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes
Terrainglaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north
mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 460 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m
highest point: Galdhopiggen 2,469 m
mean elevation: 164 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Halti (alternatively Haltia, Haltitunturi, Haltiatunturi) 1,328 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower
timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone
Land useagricultural land: 2.7%
arable land 2.2%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0.5%
forest: 27.8%
other: 69.5% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 7.5%
arable land 7.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0.1%
forest: 72.9%
other: 19.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land900 sq km (2012)
690 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsrockslides, avalanches
volcanism: Beerenberg (elev. 2,227 m) on Jan Mayen Island in the Norwegian Sea is the country's only active volcano
severe winters in the north
Environment - current issueswater pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions
air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - noteabout two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much-indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of the most rugged and longest coastlines in the world
long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain
Population distributionmost Norweigans live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the North Sea coast in the southwest, and Skaggerak in the southeast; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated
the vast majority of people are found in the south; the northern interior areas remain sparsely poplulated

Demographics

NorwayFinland
Population5,265,158 (July 2016 est.)
5,498,211 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 18.02% (male 486,408/female 462,178)
15-24 years: 12.8% (male 345,785/female 327,969)
25-54 years: 40.98% (male 1,112,006/female 1,045,791)
55-64 years: 11.7% (male 311,528/female 304,267)
65 years and over: 16.51% (male 398,203/female 471,023) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 16.42% (male 461,432/female 441,244)
15-24 years: 11.6% (male 325,919/female 312,045)
25-54 years: 37.9% (male 1,063,494/female 1,020,194)
55-64 years: 13.42% (male 362,788/female 374,985)
65 years and over: 20.66% (male 492,143/female 643,967) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 39.1 years
male: 38.4 years
female: 40 years (2016 est.)
total: 42.4 years
male: 40.8 years
female: 44.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.07% (2016 est.)
0.38% (2016 est.)
Birth rate12.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
10.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate6.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 81.8 years
male: 79.8 years
female: 83.9 years (2016 est.)
total population: 80.9 years
male: 77.9 years
female: 84 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.86 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.75 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.15% (2014 est.)
NA
Nationalitynoun: Norwegian(s)
adjective: Norwegian
noun: Finn(s)
adjective: Finnish
Ethnic groupsNorwegian 94.4% (includes Sami, about 60,000), other European 3.6%, other 2% (2007 est.)
Finn 93.4%, Swede 5.6%, Russian 0.5%, Estonian 0.3%, Romani 0.1%, Sami 0.1% (2006)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS5,800 (2014 est.)
NA
ReligionsChurch of Norway (Evangelical Lutheran - official) 82.1%, other Christian 3.9%, Muslim 2.3%, Roman Catholic 1.8%, other 2.4%, unspecified 7.5% (2011 est.)
Lutheran 72%, Orthodox 1.1%, other 1.6%, unspecified 25.3% (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsless than 100 (2014 est.)
NA
LanguagesBokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
note: Sami is an official language in nine municipalities
Finnish (official) 88.3%, Swedish (official) 5.3%, Russian 1.4%, other 5% (2016 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 18 years
male: 17 years
female: 18 years (2015)
total: 19 years
male: 19 years
female: 20 years (2015)
Education expenditures7.4% of GDP (2013)
7.2% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 80.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.35% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 84.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 98.3% of population
total: 98.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 1.7% of population
total: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 88% of population
total: 97.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 12% of population
total: 2.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationOSLO (capital) 986,000 (2015)
HELSINKI (capital) 1.18 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate5 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
3 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures9.7% of GDP (2014)
9.7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density4.42 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
3.01 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density3.85 beds/1,000 population (2014)
4.53 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate24.8% (2014)
22.8% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth28.5 years
note: data is calculated based on actual age at first births (2012 est.)
28.5 years (2012 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 52.2
youth dependency ratio: 27.3
elderly dependency ratio: 24.9
potential support ratio: 4 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 58.3
youth dependency ratio: 25.9
elderly dependency ratio: 32.4
potential support ratio: 3.1 (2015 est.)

Government

NorwayFinland
Country name"conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway
conventional short form: Norway
local long form: Kongeriket Norge
local short form: Norge
etymology: derives from the Old Norse words ""nordr"" and ""vegr"" meaning ""northern way"" and refers to the long coastline of western Norway
"
conventional long form: Republic of Finland
conventional short form: Finland
local long form: Suomen tasavalta/Republiken Finland
local short form: Suomi/Finland
etymology: name may derive from the ancient Fenni peoples who are first described as living in northeastern Europe in the first centuries A.D.
Government typeparliamentary constitutional monarchy
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Oslo
geographic coordinates: 59 55 N, 10 45 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Helsinki
geographic coordinates: 60 10 N, 24 56 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions19 counties (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold
19 regions (maakunnat, singular - maakunta (Finnish); landskapen, singular - landskapet (Swedish)); Aland (Swedish), Ahvenanmaa (Finnish); Etela-Karjala (Finnish), Sodra Karelen (Swedish) [South Karelia]; Etela-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Sodra Osterbotten (Swedish) [South Ostrobothnia]; Etela-Savo (Finnish), Sodra Savolax (Swedish) [South Savo]; Kanta-Hame (Finnish), Egentliga Tavastland (Swedish); Kainuu (Finnish), Kajanaland (Swedish); Keski-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Mellersta Osterbotten (Swedish) [Central Ostrobothnia]; Keski-Suomi (Finnish), Mellersta Finland (Swedish) [Central Finland]; Kymenlaakso (Finnish), Kymmenedalen (Swedish); Lappi (Finnish), Lappland (Swedish); Paijat-Hame (Finnish), Paijanne-Tavastland (Swedish); Pirkanmaa (Finnish), Birkaland (Swedish) [Tampere]; Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Osterbotten (Swedish) [Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Karjala (Finnish), Norra Karelen (Swedish) [North Karelia]; Pohjois-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Norra Osterbotten (Swedish) [North Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Savo (Finnish), Norra Savolax (Swedish) [North Savo]; Satakunta (Finnish and Swedish); Uusimaa (Finnish), Nyland (Swedish) [Newland]; Varsinais-Suomi (Finnish), Egentliga Finland (Swedish) [Southwest Finland]
Independence7 June 1905 (declared the union with Sweden dissolved); 26 October 1905 (Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union)
6 December 1917 (from Russia)
National holidayConstitution Day, 17 May (1814)
Independence Day, 6 December (1917)
Constitutionhistory: drafted spring 1814, adopted 16 May 1814, signed by Constituent Assembly 17 May 1814
amendments: proposals submitted by members of Parliament or by the government within the first three years of Parliament's four-year term; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of a two-thirds quorum in the next elected Parliament; amended over 400 times, last in 2015
history: previous 1906, 1919; latest drafted 17 June 1997, approved by Parliament 11 June 1999, entered into force 1 March 2000
amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage normally requires simple majority vote in two readings in the first parliamentary session and at least two-thirds majority vote in a single reading by the newly elected Parliament; proposals declared “urgent” by five-sixths of Parliament members can be passed by at least two-thirds majority vote in the first parliamentary session only; amended several times, last in 2012 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of civil, common, and customary law; Supreme Court can advise on legislative acts
civil law system based on the Swedish model
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch (born 20 July 1973)
head of government: Prime Minister Erna SOLBERG (since 16 October 2013)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the monarch, approved by Parliament
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the parliament
chief of state: President Sauli NIINISTO (since 1 March 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Juha SIPILA (since 28 May 2015)
cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5 February 2012 (next to be held in February 2018); prime minister appointed by Parliament in 2015
election results: percent of vote in first round - Sauli NIINISTO (Kok) 37%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 18.8%, Paavo VAYRYNEN (Kesk) 17.5%, Timo SOINI (TF) 9.4%, Paavo LIPPONEN (SDP) 6.7%, Paavo ARHINMAKI (Vas) 5.5%, Eva BIAUDET (SFP) 2.7%, Sari ESSAYAH (KD) 2.5%; Sauli NIINISTO elected president in second round held on 5 February 2012 - NIINISTO 62.6%, HAAVISTO 37.4%; Juha SIPILA appointed prime minister
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Parliament or Storting (169 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 9 September 2013 (next to be held in September 2017)
election results: percent of vote by party - informal center-right bloc 54.0% (H 26.3%, FrP 16.3%, KrF 5.6%, V 5.2%), informal Red-Green blod 40.6% (Ap 30.8%, SP 5.5%, SV 4.1%), MDG 2.8, other 2.7%; seats by party - informal center-right bloc 96 (H 48, FrP 29, KrF 10, V 9), informal Red-Green bloc 72 (Ap 55, Sp 10, SV 7), MDG 1
description: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; 199 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member in the province of Aland directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 19 April 2015 (next to be held by April 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - Kesk 21.1%, PS 17.6%, Kok 18.2%, SDP 16.5%, Vihr 8.5%, Vas 7.1%, SFP 4.9%, KD 3.5%, other 2.6%; seats by party - Kesk 49, PS 38, Kok 37, SDP 34, Vihr 15, Vas 12, SFP 9, KD 5, other 1 (Aland Coalition)
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (consists of the chief justice and 18 associate justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the monarch (King in Council) upon the recommendation of the Judicial Appointments Board; justice retirement mandatory at age 70
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal or Lagmensrett; regional and district courts; Conciliation Boards; ordinary and special courts; note - in addition to professionally trained judges, elected lay judges sit on the bench with professional judges in the Courts of Appeal and district courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (consists of the court president and 18 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 21 judges including the court president and organized into 3 chambers); note - Finland has a dual judicial system - courts with civil and criminal jurisdiction, and administrative courts with jurisdiction for litigation between individuals and administrative organs of the state and communities
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court judges appointed by the president of the republic; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65
subordinate courts: 6 Courts of Appeal; 8 regional administrative courts; 27 district courts; special courts for issues relating to markets, labor, insurance, impeachment, land, tenancy, and water rights
Political parties and leadersCenter Party or Sp [Trygve Slagsvold VEDUM]
Christian Democratic Party or KrF [Knut Arild HAREIDE]
Conservative Party or H [Erna SOLBERG]
Green Party or MDG [Rasmus HANSSON and Hilde OPOKU]
Labor Party or Ap [Jonas Gahr STORE]
Liberal Party or V [Trine SKEI GRANDE]
Progress Party or FrP [Siv JENSEN]
Socialist Left Party or SV [Audun LYSBAKKEN]
Center Party or Kesk [Juha SIPILA]
Christian Democrats or KD [Sari ESSAYAH]
Finns Party or PS [Jussi HALLA-AHO]
Green League or Vihr [Ville NIINISTO]
Left Alliance or Vas [Li ANDERSSON]]
National Coalition Party or Kok [Petteri ORPO]
Social Democratic Party or SDP [Antti RINNE]
Swedish People's Party or SFP [Anna-Maja HENRIKSSON]
International organization participationADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EFTA, EITI (implementing country), ESA, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Kare Reidar AAS (since 22 August 2013)
chancery: 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-6000
FAX: [1] (202) 459-3990
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York, San Francisco
chief of mission: Ambassador Kirsti KAUPPI (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800
FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires James P. DEHART (since 21 January 2017)
embassy: Henrik Ibsens gate 48, 0244 Oslo; note - the embassy will move to Huseby in the near future
mailing address: PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 09707
telephone: [47] 21-30-85-40
FAX: [47] 22-44-33-63, 22-56-27-51
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Donna Ann WELTON (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14B, 00140 Helsinki
mailing address: APO AE 09723
telephone: [358] (9) 616250
FAX: [358] (9) 6162 5800
Flag descriptionred with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors recall Norway's past political unions with Denmark (red and white) and Sweden (blue)
white with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the blue represents the thousands of lakes scattered across the country, while the white is for the snow that covers the land in winter
National anthem"name: ""Ja, vi elsker dette landet"" (Yes, We Love This Country)
lyrics/music: lyrics/music: Bjornstjerne BJORNSON/Rikard NORDRAAK
note: adopted 1864; in addition to the national anthem, ""Kongesangen"" (Song of the King), which uses the tune of ""God Save the Queen,"" serves as the royal anthem
"
"name: ""Maamme"" (Our Land)
lyrics/music: Johan Ludvig RUNEBERG/Fredrik PACIUS
note: in use since 1848; although never officially adopted by law, the anthem has been popular since it was first sung by a student group in 1848; Estonia's anthem uses the same melody as that of Finland
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)lion; national colors: red, white, blue
lion; national colors: blue, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Norway
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Finland
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 6 years

Economy

NorwayFinland
Economy - overviewNorway has a stable economy with a vibrant private sector, a large state sector, and an extensive social safety net. Norway opted out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994; nonetheless, as a member of the European Economic Area, it contributes sizably to the EU budget.

The country is richly endowed with natural resources in addition to oil and gas, including hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals. Norway is a leading producer of seafood and the world’s second largest exporter, after China. The government manages the country’s petroleum resources through extensive regulation. The petroleum sector provides about 9% of jobs, 12% of GDP, 13% of the state’s revenue, and 37% of exports, according to official national estimates. Norway is one of the world's leading petroleum exporters, though oil production in 2016 was close to 50% below its peak in 2000; annual gas production, conversely, more than doubled over the same time period. After a continual decline from 2001 to 2013, oil production rose in 2016 for the third year running, due to the higher production of existing oil fields and to new fields coming on stream.

In anticipation of eventual declines in oil and gas production, Norway saves state revenue from petroleum sector activities in the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, valued at almost $900 billion as of early 2017. To help balance the federal budget each year, the government follows a “fiscal rule,” which states that spending of revenues from petroleum and Fund investments shall correspond to the expected real rate of return on the fund, an amount it estimates is sustainable over time. In February 2017 the Government revised the expected rate of return for the Fund downward from 4% to 3%.

After solid GDP growth in 2004-07, the economy slowed in 2008, and contracted in 2009, before returning to modest, positive growth from 2010 to 2016. Lower oil prices in 2015 and 2016 caused growth to slow, increased unemployment, and weakened the Norwegian krone. The latter trend has mitigated the negative impact of lower oil and gas prices by making Norwegian exports cheaper for foreign buyers. The government has expressed willingness to increase public spending from the sovereign wealth fund to help prevent a recession.
Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy with per capita GDP almost as high as that of Austria and the Netherlands and slightly above that of Germany and Belgium. Trade is important, with exports accounting for over one-third of GDP in recent years. The government is open to, and actively takes steps to attract, foreign direct investment.

Finland is historically competitive in manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Finland excels in export of technology as well as promotion of startups in the information and communications technology, gaming, cleantech, and biotechnology sectors. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the cold climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export industry, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population.

Finland had been one of the best performing economies within the EU before 2009 and its banks and financial markets avoided the worst of global financial crisis. However, the world slowdown hit exports and domestic demand hard in that year, causing Finland’s economy to contract from 2012-14. The recession affected general government finances and the debt ratio. The economy returned to growth in 2015, posting a 0.3% GDP increase before growing 1.4% in 2016.

Finland's main challenges will be reducing high labor costs and boosting demand for its exports. In June 2016, the Government enacted a Competitiveness Pact aimed at reducing labor costs, increasing hours worked, and introducing more flexibility into the wage bargaining system. The Government was also seeking to reform the health care system and social services. In the long term, Finland must address a rapidly aging population and decreasing productivity in traditional industries that threaten competitiveness, fiscal sustainability, and economic growth.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$364.7 billion (2016 est.)
$361.7 billion (2015 est.)
$356 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$225.7 billion (2016 est.)
$222.6 billion (2015 est.)
$221.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate0.8% (2016 est.)
1.6% (2015 est.)
2.2% (2014 est.)
1.4% (2016 est.)
0.3% (2015 est.)
-0.5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$69,300 (2016 est.)
$69,500 (2015 est.)
$69,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$40,600 (2015 est.)
$40,700 (2014 est.)
$41,000 (2013 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 1.8%
industry: 34.7%
services: 63.5% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 2.5%
industry: 26.9%
services: 70.6% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty lineNA%
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.8%
highest 10%: 21.2% (2014)
lowest 10%: 4.2%
highest 10%: 21.5% (2015)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)3.5% (2016 est.)
2.2% (2015 est.)
0.4% (2016 est.)
-0.2% (2015 est.)
Labor force2.794 million (2016 est.)
2.675 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 2.1%
industry: 19.3%
services: 78.6% (2016 est.)
agriculture and forestry: 4.5%
industry: 24%
construction: 71.5%
commerce: 21.3%
finance, insurance, and business services: 13.3%
transport and communications: 9.9%
public services: 28.5% (2011)
Unemployment rate4.4% (2016 est.)
4.6% (2015 est.)
8.8% (2016 est.)
9.4% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index26.8 (2010)
25.8 (1995)
21.5 (2015)
26.8 (2008)
Budgetrevenues: $199.8 billion
expenditures: $188.8 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $128.5 billion
expenditures: $132.7 billion
note: Central Government Budget (2016 est.)
Industriespetroleum and gas, shipping, fishing, aquaculture, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles
metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
Industrial production growth rate-0.5% (2016 est.)
0.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsbarley, wheat, potatoes; pork, beef, veal, milk; fish
barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish
Exports$92.4 billion (2016 est.)
$102.9 billion (2015 est.)
$59.6 billion (2016 est.)
$57.45 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiespetroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish
electrical and optical equipment, machinery, transport equipment, paper and pulp, chemicals, basic metals; timber
Exports - partnersUK 22.2%, Germany 17.9%, Netherlands 10.2%, France 6.6%, Sweden 6.1%, Belgium 5%, US 4.5% (2015)
Germany 13.9%, Sweden 10.1%, US 7%, Netherlands 6.6%, Russia 5.9%, UK 5.2%, China 4.7% (2015)
Imports$73.02 billion (2016 est.)
$75.79 billion (2015 est.)
$60.51 billion (2016 est.)
$60.46 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs
foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, computers, electronic industry products, textile yarn and fabrics, grains
Imports - partnersSweden 12%, Germany 11.8%, China 10.9%, UK 6.7%, US 6.6%, Denmark 6% (2015)
Germany 17%, Sweden 16.1%, Russia 10.9%, Netherlands 9%, Denmark 4.1% (2015)
Debt - external$642.3 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$640.1 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
note: Norway is a net external creditor
$544.7 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$524.7 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesNorwegian kroner (NOK) per US dollar -
8.615 (2016 est.)
8.0646 (2015 est.)
8.0646 (2014 est.)
6.3021 (2013 est.)
5.82 (2012 est.)
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt32.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
31.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
63.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
63.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$57.46 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$64.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$10.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$10 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$17.04 billion (2016 est.)
$33.48 billion (2015 est.)
-$2.511 billion (2016 est.)
-$968 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$376.3 billion (2016 est.)
$239.2 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$206.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$201.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$153.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$135.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$195.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$192.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$140.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$141.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$193.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$219.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$265.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$133.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$NA (31 December 2015 est.)
$154.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate6.25% (31 December 2010)
1.75% (31 December 2009)
0.25% (31 December 2016)
0.3% (31 December 2010)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
Commercial bank prime lending rate1.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
1.75% (31 December 2015 est.)
1.46% (31 December 2016 est.)
2% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$549.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$527.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$355.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$357.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$206.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$200.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$130.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$123.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
Stock of broad money$323.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$310 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$177.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$174.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues53.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
53.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)2.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
-1.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 7.9%
male: 9.1%
female: 6.6% (2014 est.)
total: 20.5%
male: 22.8%
female: 18.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 44%
government consumption: 24.3%
investment in fixed capital: 23.3%
investment in inventories: 5.4%
exports of goods and services: 36.1%
imports of goods and services: -33.1% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 55.1%
government consumption: 24.2%
investment in fixed capital: 20.2%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 35.4%
imports of goods and services: -34.8% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving35.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
37.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
40.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
20% of GDP (2016 est.)
19.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
19.9% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

NorwayFinland
Electricity - production149.5 billion kWh (2016 est.)
66.16 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption133.1 billion kWh (2016 est.)
82.49 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports15.53 billion kWh (2016 est.)
5.122 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports5.7 billion kWh (2016 est.)
21.46 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production1.61 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports22,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
226,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports1.255 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - proved reserves5.1 billion bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves1.922 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
NA cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production108.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
4 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption5.87 billion cu m (2014 est.)
3.063 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports114.4 billion cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2014 est.)
3.063 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity33.8 million kW (2015 est.)
16 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels4.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
51.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants92.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
18.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
16.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources2.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
13.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production352,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
265,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption218,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
192,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports403,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)
134,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports98,760 bbl/day (2015 est.)
109,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy53.9 million Mt (2015 est.)
43 million Mt (2016 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

NorwayFinland
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 1,029,545
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 537,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 5.841 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 112 (July 2015 est.)
total: 7.399 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 135 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: modern in all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe
domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of mobile-cellular systems
international: country code - 47; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (2015)
general assessment: modern system with excellent service
domestic: digital fiber-optic, fixed-line network and an extensive mobile-cellular network provide domestic needs
international: country code - 358; submarine cables provide links to Estonia and Sweden; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) (2015)
Internet country code.no
.fi; note - Aland Islands assigned .ax
Internet userstotal: 5.042 million
percent of population: 96.8% (July 2015 est.)
total: 5.074 million
percent of population: 92.6% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-owned public radio-TV broadcaster operates 3 nationwide TV stations, 3 nationwide radio stations, and 16 regional radio stations; roughly a dozen privately owned TV stations broadcast nationally and roughly another 25 local TV stations broadcasting; nearly 75% of households have access to multi-channel cable or satellite TV; 2 privately owned radio stations broadcast nationwide and another 240 stations operate locally; Norway is the first country in the world to phase out FM radio in favor of Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), a process scheduled for completion in late 2017 (2017)
a mix of 3 publicly operated TV stations and numerous privately owned TV stations; several free and special-interest pay-TV channels; cable and satellite multi-channel subscription services are available; all TV signals are broadcast digitally; Internet television, such as Netflix and others, is available; public broadcasting maintains a network of 13 national and 25 regional radio stations; a large number of private radio broadcasters and access to Internet radio (2017)

Transportation

NorwayFinland
Railwaystotal: 4,250 km
standard gauge: 4,250 km 1.435-m gauge (2,518 km electrified) (2014)
total: 5,923 km
broad gauge: 5,923 km 1.524-m gauge (3,262 km electrified) (2015)
Roadwaystotal: 93,870 km (includes 393 km of expressways)
paved: 75,754 km
unpaved: 18,116 km (2013)
total: 454,000 km
highways: 78,000 km (50,000 paved, including 700 km of expressways; 28,000 unpaved)
urban roads: 26,000 km
private and forest roads: 350,000 km (2012)
Waterways1,577 km (2010)
8,000 km (includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia; water transport used frequently in the summer and widely replaced with sledges on the ice in winter; there are 187,888 lakes in Finland that cover 31,500 km); Finland also maintains 8,200 km of coastal fairways (2013)
Pipelinesgas 8,520 km; oil/condensate 1,304 km (2017)
gas transmission pipes 1,286 km; distribution pipes 1,932 km (2016)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Bergen, Haugesund, Maaloy, Mongstad, Narvik, Sture
LNG terminal(s) (export): Kamoy, Kollsnes, Melkoya Island
LNG terminal(s) (import): Fredrikstad, Mosjoen
major seaport(s): Helsinki, Kotka, Naantali, Porvoo, Raahe, Rauma
Merchant marinetotal: 585
by type: bulk carrier 55, cargo 105, carrier 5, chemical tanker 121, combination ore/oil 12, liquefied gas 47, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 121, petroleum tanker 54, refrigerated cargo 9, roll on/roll off 4, vehicle carrier 49
foreign-owned: 81 (Bermuda 24, Canada 1, Cyprus 1, Denmark 7, France 5, Iceland 2, Lithuania 1, Saudi Arabia 3, Sweden 27, US 10)
registered in other countries: 974 (Antigua and Barbuda 9, Bahamas 186, Barbados 38, Belize 2, Bermuda 5, Brazil 3, Canada 4, Chile 1, Comoros 1, Cook Islands 8, Croatia 2, Curacao 2, Cyprus 14, Denmark 2, Dominica 1, Equatorial Guinea 1, Estonia 2, Faroe Islands 13, Gibraltar 46, Hong Kong 48, Indonesia 3, Isle of Man 30, Italy 6, Liberia 38, Libya 1, Malta 96, Marshall Islands 75, Netherlands 19, Panama 81, Portugal 2, Saint Kitts and Nevis 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 13, Singapore 153, Spain 10, Sweden 3, UK 32, US 17, Vanuatu 1, unknown 3) (2010)
total: 105
by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 28, carrier 1, chemical tanker 6, passenger/cargo 14, roll on/roll off 34, other 18 (2015)
foreign-owned: 5 (Cyprus 1, Estonia 2, Iceland 1, Sweden 1) (2010)
registered in other countries: 47 (Bahamas 8, Germany 3, Gibraltar 2, Malta 3, Netherlands 13, Panama 2, Sweden 16) (2010)
Airports95 (2013)
148 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 67
2,438 to 3,047 m: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 21 (2013)
total: 74
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 21
under 914 m: 14 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 28
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 22 (2013)
total: 74
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 71 (2013)

Military

NorwayFinland
Military branchesNorwegian Army (Haeren), Royal Norwegian Navy (Kongelige Norske Sjoeforsvaret; includes Coastal Rangers and Coast Guard (Kystvakt)), Royal Norwegian Air Force (Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret), Home Guard (Heimevernet, HV) (2017)
Finnish Defense Forces (FDF): Army (Puolustusvoimat), Navy (Merivoimat, includes Coastal Defense Forces), Air Force (Ilmavoimat) (2016)
Military service age and obligation19-35 years of age for male and female compulsory military service; 16 years of age in wartime; 17 years of age for male volunteers; 18 years of age for women; 19-month service obligation (2017)
all Finnish men are called-up for military service the year they turn 18; at 18, women may volunteer for military service; service obligation 6-12 months; individuals enter the reserve upon completing their initial obligation; military obligation to age 60 (2016)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.54% of GDP (2016 est.)
1.47% of GDP (2015)
1.51% of GDP (2014)
1.48% of GDP (2013)
1.47% of GDP (2012)
1.33% of GDP (2017 est.)
1.37% of GDP (2016)
1.29% of GDP (2015)
1.3% of GDP (2014)
1.41% of GDP (2013)

Transnational Issues

NorwayFinland
Disputes - internationalNorway asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf); Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010
various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the former Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 15,062 (Eritrea); 11,537 (Syria); 8,379 (Somalia); 6,568 (Afghanistan) (2016)
stateless persons: 3,251 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 6,781 (Iraq) (2016)
stateless persons: 2,671 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook