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Nigeria vs. Niger

Introduction

NigeriaNiger
BackgroundBritish influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy. After independence in 1960, politics were marked by coups and mostly military rule, until the death of a military head of state in 1998 allowed for a political transition. In 1999, a new constitution was adopted and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of institutionalizing democracy and reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history and the elections of 2011 were generally regarded as credible. The 2015 election is considered the most well run in Nigeria since the return to civilian rule, with the umbrella opposition party, the All Progressives Congress, defeating the long-ruling People's Democratic Party that had governed since 1999.
Niger became independent from France in 1960 and experienced single-party and military rule until 1991, when Gen. Ali SAIBOU was forced by public pressure to allow multiparty elections, which resulted in a democratic government in 1993. Political infighting brought the government to a standstill and in 1996 led to a coup by Col. Ibrahim BARE. In 1999, BARE was killed in a counter coup by military officers who restored democratic rule and held elections that brought Mamadou TANDJA to power in December of that year. TANDJA was reelected in 2004 and in 2009 spearheaded a constitutional amendment allowing him to extend his term as president. In February 2010, military officers led a coup that deposed TANDJA and suspended the constitution. ISSOUFOU Mahamadou was elected in April 2011 following the coup and reelected to a second term in early 2016. Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world with minimal government services and insufficient funds to develop its resource base. The largely agrarian and subsistence-based economy is frequently disrupted by extended droughts common to the Sahel region of Africa. A Tuareg rebellion emerged in 2007 and ended in 2009. Niger is facing increased security concerns on its borders from various external threats including insecurity in Libya, spillover from the conflict in Mali, and violent extremism in northeastern Nigeria.

Geography

NigeriaNiger
LocationWestern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
Western Africa, southeast of Algeria
Geographic coordinates10 00 N, 8 00 E
16 00 N, 8 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 923,768 sq km
land: 910,768 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
total: 1.267 million sq km
land: 1,266,700 sq km
water: 300 sq km
Area - comparativeabout six times the size of Georgia; slightly more than twice the size of California
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 4,477 km
border countries (4): Benin 809 km, Cameroon 1,975 km, Chad 85 km, Niger 1,608 km
total: 5,834 km
border countries (7): Algeria 951 km, Benin 277 km, Burkina Faso 622 km, Chad 1,196 km, Libya 342 km, Mali 838 km, Nigeria 1,608 km
Coastline853 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
none (landlocked)
Climatevaries; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south
Terrainsouthern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south; hills in north
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 380 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
mean elevation: 474 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Niger River 200 m
highest point: Idoukal-n-Taghes 2,022 m
Natural resourcesnatural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, molybdenum, gypsum, salt, petroleum
Land useagricultural land: 78%
arable land 37.3%; permanent crops 7.4%; permanent pasture 33.3%
forest: 9.5%
other: 12.5% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 35.1%
arable land 12.3%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 22.7%
forest: 1%
other: 63.9% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land2,930 sq km (2012)
1,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsperiodic droughts; flooding
recurring droughts
Environment - current issuessoil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion) threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - notethe Niger River enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea
landlocked; one of the hottest countries in the world; northern four-fifths is desert, southern one-fifth is savanna, suitable for livestock and limited agriculture

Demographics

NigeriaNiger
Population186,053,386
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
18,638,600 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 42.79% (male 40,744,956/female 38,870,303)
15-24 years: 19.48% (male 18,514,466/female 17,729,351)
25-54 years: 30.65% (male 29,259,621/female 27,768,368)
55-64 years: 3.96% (male 3,595,293/female 3,769,986)
65 years and over: 3.12% (male 2,754,040/female 3,047,002) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 49.31% (male 4,635,901/female 4,554,010)
15-24 years: 18.85% (male 1,734,887/female 1,777,896)
25-54 years: 25.94% (male 2,414,668/female 2,419,725)
55-64 years: 3.27% (male 316,655/female 293,570)
65 years and over: 2.64% (male 250,314/female 240,974) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 18.3 years
male: 18.2 years
female: 18.4 years (2016 est.)
total: 15.3 years
male: 15.2 years
female: 15.4 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.44% (2016 est.)
3.22% (2016 est.)
Birth rate37.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
44.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate12.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
12.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 71.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 76 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 66.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 82.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 87.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 78.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 53.4 years
male: 52.4 years
female: 54.5 years (2016 est.)
total population: 55.5 years
male: 54.3 years
female: 56.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate5.13 children born/woman (2016 est.)
6.62 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate3.17% (2014 est.)
0.46% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian
noun: Nigerien(s)
adjective: Nigerien
Ethnic groupsNigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the most populous and politically influential are: Hausa and the Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
Hausa 53.1%, Zarma/Songhai 21.2%, Tuareg 11%, Fulani (Peul) 6.5%, Kanuri 5.9%, Gurma 0.8%, Arab 0.4%, Tubu 0.4%, other/unavailable 0.9% (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS3,391,600 (2014 est.)
49,000 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
Muslim 80%, other (includes indigenous beliefs and Christian) 20%
HIV/AIDS - deaths174,300 (2014 est.)
3,600 (2015 est.)
LanguagesEnglish (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages
French (official), Hausa, Djerma
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 59.6%
male: 69.2%
female: 49.7% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 19.1%
male: 27.3%
female: 11% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact diseases: leptospirosis and schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: Lassa fever
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 8 years (2011)
total: 5 years
male: 6 years
female: 5 years (2012)
Education expendituresNA
6.7% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 47.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.66% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 18.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.14% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 80.8% of population
rural: 57.3% of population
total: 68.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 19.2% of population
rural: 42.7% of population
total: 31.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 48.6% of population
total: 58.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 51.4% of population
total: 41.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 32.8% of population
rural: 25.4% of population
total: 29% of population
unimproved:
urban: 67.2% of population
rural: 74.6% of population
total: 71% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 37.9% of population
rural: 4.6% of population
total: 10.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 62.1% of population
rural: 95.4% of population
total: 89.1% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationLagos 13.123 million; Kano 3.587 million; Ibadan 3.16 million; ABUJA (capital) 2.44 million; Port Harcourt 2.343 million; Benin City 1.496 million (2015)
NIAMEY (capital) 1.09 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate814 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
553 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight19.8% (2014)
37.9% (2012)
Health expenditures3.7% of GDP (2014)
5.8% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.38 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
0.02 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate9.7% (2014)
3.7% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 11,396,823
percentage: 29% (2007 est.)
total number: 1,557,913
percentage: 43% (2006 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth20.3 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)
18.1 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)
Demographic profileNigeria’s population is projected to grow from more than 186 million people in 2016 to 392 million in 2050, becoming the world’s fourth most populous country. Nigeria’s sustained high population growth rate will continue for the foreseeable future because of population momentum and its high birth rate. Abuja has not successfully implemented family planning programs to reduce and space births because of a lack of political will, government financing, and the availability and affordability of services and products, as well as a cultural preference for large families. Increased educational attainment, especially among women, and improvements in health care are needed to encourage and to better enable parents to opt for smaller families.
Nigeria needs to harness the potential of its burgeoning youth population in order to boost economic development, reduce widespread poverty, and channel large numbers of unemployed youth into productive activities and away from ongoing religious and ethnic violence. While most movement of Nigerians is internal, significant emigration regionally and to the West provides an outlet for Nigerians looking for economic opportunities, seeking asylum, and increasingly pursuing higher education. Immigration largely of West Africans continues to be insufficient to offset emigration and the loss of highly skilled workers. Nigeria also is a major source, transit, and destination country for forced labor and sex trafficking.
Niger has the highest total fertility rate (TFR) of any country in the world, averaging close to 7 children per woman in 2016. A slight decline in fertility over the last few decades has stalled. This leveling off of the high fertility rate is in large part a product of the continued desire for large families. In Niger, the TFR is lower than the desired fertility rate, which makes it unlikely that contraceptive use will increase. The high TFR sustains rapid population growth and a large youth population – almost 70% of the populace is under the age of 25. Gender inequality, including a lack of educational opportunities for women and early marriage and childbirth, also contributes to high population growth.
Because of large family sizes, children are inheriting smaller and smaller parcels of land. The dependence of most Nigeriens on subsistence farming on increasingly small landholdings, coupled with declining rainfall and the resultant shrinkage of arable land, are all preventing food production from keeping up with population growth.
For more than half a century, Niger's lack of economic development has led to steady net outmigration. In the 1960s, Nigeriens mainly migrated to coastal West African countries to work on a seasonal basis. Some headed to Libya and Algeria in the 1970s to work in the booming oil industry until its decline in the 1980s. Since the 1990s, the principal destinations for Nigerien labor migrants have been West African countries, especially Burkina Faso and Cote d’Ivoire, while emigration to Europe and North America has remained modest. During the same period, Niger’s desert trade route town Agadez became a hub for West African and other sub-Saharan migrants crossing the Sahara to North Africa and sometimes onward to Europe.
More than 60,000 Malian refugees have fled to Niger since violence between Malian government troops and armed rebels began in early 2012. Ongoing attacks by the Boko Haram Islamist insurgency, dating to 2013 in northern Nigeria and February 2015 in southeastern Niger, have pushed tens of thousands of Nigerian refugees and Nigerien returnees across the border to Niger and to displace thousands of locals in Niger’s already impoverished Diffa region.
Contraceptive prevalence rate15.1% (2013)
13.9% (2012)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 87.7
youth dependency ratio: 82.6
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1
potential support ratio: 19.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 113
youth dependency ratio: 107.5
elderly dependency ratio: 5.5
potential support ratio: 18.2 (2015 est.)

Government

NigeriaNiger
Country name"conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form: Nigeria
etymology: named for the Niger River that flows through the west of the country to the Atlantic Ocean; from a native term ""Ni Gir"" meaning ""River Gir""
"
"conventional long form: Republic of Niger
conventional short form: Niger
local long form: Republique du Niger
local short form: Niger
etymology: named for the Niger River that passes through the southwest of the country; from a native term ""Ni Gir"" meaning ""River Gir""
"
Government typefederal presidential republic
semi-presidential republic
Capitalname: Abuja
geographic coordinates: 9 05 N, 7 32 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Niamey
geographic coordinates: 13 31 N, 2 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nasarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
7 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 capital district* (communite urbaine); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder
Independence1 October 1960 (from the UK)
3 August 1960 (from France)
National holidayIndependence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)
Republic Day, 18 December (1958); note - commemorates the founding of the Republic of Niger which predated independence from France in 1960
Constitutionseveral previous; latest adopted 5 May 1999, effective 29 May 1999; amended several times, last in 2012 (2016)
several previous; passed by referendum 31 October 2010, entered into force 25 November 2010 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law
mixed legal system of civil law (based on French civil law), Islamic law, and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch"chief of state: President Maj. Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi ""Yemi"" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Maj.Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi ""Yemi"" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015)
cabinet: Federal Executive Council appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by 'qualified' majority popular vote and at least 25% of the votes cast in 24 of Nigeria's 36 states; president elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held in February 2019)
election results: Muhammadu BUHARI elected president; percent of vote - Muhammadu BUHARI (APC) 54%, Goodluck JONATHAN (PDP) 45%, other 1%
"
chief of state: President ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (since 7 April 2011)
head of government: Prime Minister Brigi RAFINI (since 7 April 2011)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 February 2016 and 20 March 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister appointed by the president, authorized by the National Assembly
election results: ISSOUFOU Mahamadou reelected president; percent of vote in first round - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (PNDS-Tarrayya) 48.6%, Hama AMADOU (MODEN/FA Lumana Africa) 17.8%, Seini OUMAROU (MNSD-Nassara) 11.3%, other 22.3%; percent of vote in second round - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou 92%, Hama AMADOU 8%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (109 seats - 3 each for the 36 states and 1 for Abuja; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms) and the House of Representatives (360 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held in February 2019); House of Representatives - last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 60, PDP 49; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 225, PDP 125, other 10l; note - in the Senate seats by party as of 19 April 2017: APC 66, PDB 43; with continuing defections to the ruling APC, this is a moving target in the House of Represenatives
description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (171 seats; 158 members directly elected from 8 multi-member constituencies in 7 regions and Niamey by party-list proportional representation, 8 reserved for minorities elected in special single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 5 seats reserved for Nigeriens living abroad - l seat per continent - elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - the number of National Assembly seats increased from 113 to 171 in the February 2016 legislative election
elections: last held on 21 February 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - PNDS-Tarrayya 44.1%, MODEN/FA-Lumana 14.7%, MNSD-Nassara 11.8%, MPR-Jamhuriya 7.1%, MNRD Hankuri-PSDN Alheri 3.5%, MPN-Kishin Kassa 2.9%, ANDP-Zaman Lahiya 2.4%, RSD-Gaskiya 2.4%, CDS-Rahama 1.8%, CPR-Inganci 1.8%, RDP-Jama'a 1.8%, AMEN AMIN 3.0%, other 1.4%; seats by party - PNDS-Tarrayya 75, MODEN/FA-Lumana 25, MNSD-Nassara 20, MPR-Jamhuriya 12, MNRD Hankuri-PSDN Alheri 6, MPN-Kishin Kassa 5, ANDP-Zaman Lahiya 4, RSD-Gaskiya 4, CDS-Rahama 3, CPR-Inganci 3, RDP-Jama'a 3, RDP-Jama'a 3, AMEN AMIN 3, other 8
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 15 justices)
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a 23-member independent body of federal and state judicial officials; judge appointments confirmed by the Senate; judges serve until age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Federal High Court; High Court of the Federal Capital Territory; Sharia Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; Customary Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; state court system similar in structure to federal system
highest court(s): Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges); High Court of Justice (consists of 7 members)
judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court judges nominated/elected - 1 by the president of the Republic, 1 by the president of the National Assembly, 2 by peer judges, 2 by peer lawyers, 1 law professor by peers, and 1 from within Nigerien society; all appointed by the president; judges serve 6-year nonrenewable terms with one-third of membership renewed every 2 years; High Judicial Court members selected from among the legislature and judiciary; members serve 5-year terms
subordinate courts: Court of Cassation; Council of State; Court of Finances; various specialized tribunals and customary courts
Political parties and leadersAccord Party or ACC [Mohammad Lawal MALADO]
All Progressives Congress or APC [John Odigie OYEGUN]
All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor C. UMEH]
Democratic Peoples Party or DPP [Biodun OGUNBIYI]
Labor Party or LP [Alhai Abdulkadir ABDULSALAM]
Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Ali Modu SHERIFF]
Alliance of Movements for the Emergence of Niger or AMEN AMIN [Omar Hamidou TCHIANA]
Congress for the Republic or CPR-Inganci [Kassoum MOCTAR]
Democratic Alliance for Niger or ADN-Fusaha [Habi Mahamadou SALISSOU]
Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Abdou LABO]
National Movement for the Development of Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Seini OUMAROU]
Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDP-Zaman Lahiya [Moussa Moumouni DJERMAKOYE]
Nigerien Democratic Movement for an African Federation or MODEN/FA Lumana [Hama AMADOU]
Nigerien Movement for Democratic Renewal or MNRD-Hankuri [Mahamane OUSMANE]
Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism or PNDS-Tarrayya [Mahamadou ISSOUFOU]
Nigerien Patriotic Movement or MPN-Kishin Kassa [Ibrahim YACOUBA]
Party for Socialism and Democracy in Niger or PSDN-Alheri
Patriotic Movement for the Republic or MPR-Jamhuriya [Albade ABOUBA]
Rally for Democracy and Progress-Jama'a or RDP-Jama'a [Hamid ALGABID]
Social and Democratic Rally or RSD-Gaskiyya [Amadou CHEIFFOU]
Social Democratic Party or PSD-Bassira [Mohamed BEN OMAR]
Union for Democracy and the Republic-Tabbat or UDR-Tabbat [Amadou Boubacar CISSE]
note: the SPLM and SPLM-DC are banned political parties
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, D-8, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Hakeem Toyin BALOGUN (since 27 August 2015)
chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400
FAX: [1] (202) 362-6541
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Hassana ALIDOU (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4224 through 4227
FAX: [1] (202) 483-3169
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Stuart SYMINGTON (since 1 December 2016)
embassy: Plot 1075 Diplomatic Drive, Central District Area, Abuja
mailing address: P. O. Box 5760, Garki, Abuja
telephone: [234] (9) 461-4000
FAX: [234] (9) 461-4036
consulate(s): Lagos
chief of mission: Ambassador Eunice S. REDDICK (since 12 September 2014)
embassy: BP 11201, Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey
mailing address: 2420 Niamey Place, Washington DC 20521-2420
telephone: [227] 20-73-31-69 or [227] 20-72-39-41
FAX: [227] 20-73-55-60
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green; the color green represents the forests and abundant natural wealth of the country, white stands for peace and unity
three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a small orange disk centered in the white band; the orange band denotes the drier northern regions of the Sahara; white stands for purity and innocence; green symbolizes hope and the fertile and productive southern and western areas, as well as the Niger River; the orange disc represents the sun and the sacrifices made by the people
note: similar to the flag of India, which has a blue spoked wheel centered in the white band
National anthem"name: ""Arise Oh Compatriots, Nigeria's Call Obey""
lyrics/music: John A. ILECHUKWU, Eme Etim AKPAN, B. A. OGUNNAIKE, Sotu OMOIGUI and P. O. ADERIBIGBE/Benedict Elide ODIASE
note: adopted 1978; lyrics are a mixture of the five top entries in a national contest
"
"name: ""La Nigerienne"" (The Nigerien)
lyrics/music: Maurice Albert THIRIET/Robert JACQUET and Nicolas Abel Francois FRIONNET
note: adopted 1961
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)eagle; national colors: green, white
zebu; national colors: orange, white, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Nigeria
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Niger
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: unknown

Economy

NigeriaNiger
Economy - overviewNigeria is one of Sub Saharan Africa’s largest economies and relies heavily on oil as its main source of foreign exchange earnings and government revenues. Following the 2008-9 global financial crises, the banking sector was effectively recapitalized and regulation enhanced. Since then, Nigeria’s economic growth has been driven by growth in agriculture, telecommunications, and services. Economic diversification and strong growth have not translated into a significant decline in poverty levels, however - over 62% of Nigeria's 170 million people still live in extreme poverty.

Despite its strong fundamentals, oil-rich Nigeria has been hobbled by inadequate power supply, lack of infrastructure, delays in the passage of legislative reforms, an inefficient property registration system, restrictive trade policies, an inconsistent regulatory environment, a slow and ineffective judicial system, unreliable dispute resolution mechanisms, insecurity, and pervasive corruption. Regulatory constraints and security risks have limited new investment in oil and natural gas, and Nigeria's oil production has contracted every year since 2012.

President BUHARI, elected in March 2015, has established a cabinet of economic ministers that includes several technocrats, and he has announced plans to increase transparency, diversify the economy away from oil, and improve fiscal management, but his reliance on the Central Bank governor has led to overwhelmingly protectionist policies aimed at defending the naira from further devaluation. President BUHARI ran on an anti-corruption platform, and has made some headway in alleviating corruption, such as an implementation of a Treasury Single Account that allows the government to better manage its resources. The government also is working to develop stronger public-private partnerships for roads, agriculture, and power.

Partly because of lower oil prices, Nigeria entered a recession in 2016. However, the medium-term outlook for Nigeria is positive, assuming oil output stabilizes and oil prices recover.
Niger is a landlocked, sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on subsistence crops, livestock, and some of the world's largest uranium deposits. Agriculture contributes approximately 25% of GDP and provides livelihood for 87% of the population. The UN ranked Niger as the second least developed country in the world in 2016 due to multiple factors such as food insecurity, lack of industry, high population growth, a weak educational sector, and few prospects for work outside of subsistence farming and herding.

Since 2011 public debt has increased due to efforts to scale-up public investment, particularly that related to infrastructure, as well as due to increased security spending. The government relies on foreign donor resources for a large portion of its fiscal budget. The economy in recent years has been hurt by terrorist activity and kidnappings near its uranium mines and by instability in Mali and in the Diffa region of the country; concerns about security have resulted in increased support from regional and international partners on defense. Low uranium prices, demographics, and security expenditures may continue to put pressure on the government’s finances.

Future growth may be sustained by exploitation of oil, gold, coal, and other mineral resources. Although Niger has sizable reserves of oil, the prolonged drop in oil prices has reduced profitability. Food insecurity and drought remain perennial problems for Niger, and the government plans to invest more in irrigation. Niger’s three-year $131 million IMF Extended Credit Facility (ECF) agreement for years 2012-15 was extended until the end of 2016. In February 2017, the IMF approved a new 3-year $134 million ECF. A $437 million Millennium Challenge Account compact for Niger, commencing in FY17, will focus on large-scale irrigation infrastructure development and community-based, climate-resilient agriculture, while promoting sustainable increases in agricultural productivity and sales.

Formal private sector investment needed for economic diversification and growth remains a challenge, given the country’s limited domestic markets, access to credit, and competitiveness. Although President ISSOUFOU is courting foreign investors, including those from the United States, as of April 2017, there were no U.S. firms operating in Niger.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$1.089 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.108 trillion (2015 est.)
$1.08 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$20.15 billion (2016 est.)
$19.26 billion (2015 est.)
$18.6 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate-1.7% (2016 est.)
2.7% (2015 est.)
6.3% (2014 est.)
4.6% (2016 est.)
3.5% (2015 est.)
6.9% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$5,900 (2016 est.)
$6,200 (2015 est.)
$6,200 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1,100 (2016 est.)
$1,100 (2015 est.)
$1,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 21.1%
industry: 19.4%
services: 59.5% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 36.5%
industry: 18.5%
services: 45% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line70% (2010 est.)
45.4% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 38.2% (2010 est.)
lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 28.5% (2007)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)15.3% (2016 est.)
9% (2015 est.)
1.1% (2016 est.)
1% (2015 est.)
Labor force58.8 million (2016 est.)
6.5 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 70%
industry: 10%
services: 20% (1999 est.)
agriculture: 87%
industry: 4%
services: 9% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate13.9% (2016 est.)
23.9% (2016 est.)
5.1% (2015 est.)
5.1% (2014 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index48.8 (2013)
50.6 (1997)
34 (2007)
50.5 (1995)
Budgetrevenues: $11.4 billion
expenditures: $21.21 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $1.715 billion
expenditures: $2.25 billion (2016 est.)
Industriescrude oil, coal, tin, columbite; rubber products, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel
uranium mining, petroleum, cement, brick, soap, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses
Industrial production growth rate-4.7% (2016 est.)
4.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscocoa, peanuts, cotton, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (manioc, tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum, cassava (manioc, tapioca), rice; cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, horses, poultry
Exports$33.27 billion (2016 est.)
$45.89 billion (2015 est.)
$1.1 billion (2016 est.)
$1.099 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiespetroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber (2012 est.)
uranium ore, livestock, cowpeas, onions
Exports - partnersIndia 17%, Netherlands 8.9%, Spain 8.5%, Brazil 8.5%, South Africa 5.6%, France 5.4%, Japan 4.7%, Cote dIvoire 4.3%, Ghana 4.2% (2015)
France 52.7%, Nigeria 20.2%, China 13.7% (2015)
Imports$36.4 billion (2016 est.)
$52.33 billion (2015 est.)
$1.916 billion (2016 est.)
$1.888 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
foodstuffs, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals
Imports - partnersChina 25.9%, US 6.5%, Netherlands 6.1%, India 4.3% (2015)
France 12.1%, China 10.6%, Nigeria 9.6%, French Polynesia 9.1%, Togo 6.2%, Belgium 5.4%, Cote dIvoire 5.3%, US 4.3% (2015)
Debt - external$39.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$32.27 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.729 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.611 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesnairas (NGN) per US dollar -
305 (2016 est.)
192.73 (2015 est.)
192.73 (2014 est.)
158.55 (2013 est.)
156.81 (2012 est.)
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
605.7 (2016 est.)
591.45 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt13.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
11.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
48.9% of GDP (2016)
45.1% of GDP (2015)
Current Account Balance$2.619 billion (2016 est.)
-$15.76 billion (2015 est.)
-$1.154 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.298 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$415.1 billion (2016 est.)
$7.566 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$53.07 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$63.47 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$80.61 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$NA
Central bank discount rate4.25% (31 December 2010)
6% (31 December 2009)
4.25% (31 December 2015)
4.25% (31 December 2014)
Commercial bank prime lending rate18% (31 December 2016 est.)
16.85% (31 December 2015 est.)
3.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
3.5% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$80.77 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$111.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.155 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.145 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$33.51 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$43.62 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.553 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.508 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$71.38 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$101.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.027 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.047 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues2.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
22.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
-7.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 8.1%
male: NA
female: NA (2014 est.)
total: 2.3%
male: 4.4%
female: 0.8% (2007 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 79%
government consumption: 7.2%
investment in fixed capital: 14.2%
investment in inventories: 0.7%
exports of goods and services: 9%
imports of goods and services: -10.1% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 66.6%
government consumption: 15.5%
investment in fixed capital: 39.6%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 16.7%
imports of goods and services: -38.5% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving13.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
16% of GDP (2014 est.)
24.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
24.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
24.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

NigeriaNiger
Electricity - production29 billion kWh (2014 est.)
936.1 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption24 billion kWh (2014 est.)
1.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013 est.)
3 million kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
727 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production2.317 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
20,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports2.231 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves37 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
150 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves5.111 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production43.84 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - consumption18.84 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - exports25 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity12.52 million kW (2015 est.)
102,000 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels83.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
100% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants15% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources1.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production110,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
16,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption277,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
6,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports22,480 bbl/day (2013 est.)
10,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports187,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
2,417 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy97 million Mt (2013 est.)
900,000 Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 95,500,000
electrification - total population: 45%
electrification - urban areas: 55%
electrification - rural areas: 37% (2013)
population without electricity: 15,200,000
electrification - total population: 15%
electrification - urban areas: 62%
electrification - rural areas: 4% (2013)

Telecommunications

NigeriaNiger
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 187,155
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 110,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 150.83 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 83 (July 2015 est.)
total: 8.959 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 50 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: further expansion and modernization of the fixed-line telephone network is needed; network quality remains a problem
domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains only about 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular services growing rapidly, in part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; multiple cellular providers operate nationally with subscribership base over 80 per 100 persons
international: country code - 234; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: inadequate; small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in southwestern Niger
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity remains only about 50 per 100 persons despite a rapidly increasing cellular subscribership base; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned
international: country code - 227; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.ng
.ne
Internet userstotal: 86.138 million
percent of population: 47.4% (July 2015 est.)
total: 401,000
percent of population: 2.2% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast medianearly 70 federal government-controlled national and regional TV stations; all 36 states operate TV stations; several private TV stations operational; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; network of federal government-controlled national, regional, and state radio stations; roughly 40 state government-owned radio stations typically carry their own programs except for news broadcasts; about 20 private radio stations; transmissions of international broadcasters are available (2007)
state-run TV station; 3 private TV stations provide a mix of local and foreign programming; state-run radio has only radio station with national coverage; about 30 private radio stations operate locally; as many as 100 community radio stations broadcast; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)

Transportation

NigeriaNiger
Roadwaystotal: 193,200 km
paved: 28,980 km
unpaved: 164,220 km (2004)
total: 18,949 km
paved: 3,912 km
unpaved: 15,037 km (2010)
Waterways8,600 km (Niger and Benue Rivers and smaller rivers and creeks) (2011)
300 km (the Niger, the only major river, is navigable to Gaya between September and March) (2012)
Airports54 (2013)
30 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 40
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
total: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Heliports5 (2013)
1 (2013)

Military

NigeriaNiger
Military branchesNigerian Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (2013)
Nigerien Armed Forces (Forces Armees Nigeriennes, FAN): Army, Nigerien Air Force (Force Aerienne du Niger) (2012)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory or voluntary military service; enlistees must be Nigerien citizens and unmarried; 2-year service term; women may serve in health care (2017)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.42% of GDP (2015)
0.41% of GDP (2014)
0.47% of GDP (2013)
0.5% of GDP (2012)
0.58% of GDP (2011)
4% of GDP (2016)
5.46% of GDP (2015)
3.45% of GDP (2014)
1.06% of GDP (2012)
1.31% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

NigeriaNiger
Disputes - internationalJoint Border Commission with Cameroon reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a phaseout of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved
Libya claims about 25,000 sq km in a currently dormant dispute in the Tommo region; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty that also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; the dispute with Burkina Faso was referred to the ICJ in 2010
Refugees and internally displaced personsIDPs: 1,884,331 (Boko Haram attacks and counterinsurgency efforts in northern Nigeria; communal violence between Christians and Muslims in the middle belt region, political violence; flooding; forced evictions; cattle rustling; competition for resources) (2017)
refugees (country of origin): 106,146 (Nigeria); 55,545 (Mali) (2017)
IDPs: 136,000 (unknown how many of the 11,000 people displaced by clashes between government forces and the Tuareg militant group, Niger Movement for Justice, in 2007 are still displaced; inter-communal violence; Boko Haram attacks in southern Niger, 2015) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook