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Nepal vs. India

Introduction

NepalIndia
BackgroundDuring the late 18th-early 19th centuries, the principality of Gorkha united many of the other principalities and states of the sub-Himalayan region into a Nepalese Kingdom. Nepal retained its independence following the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814-16 and the subsequent peace treaty laid the foundations for two centuries of amicable relations between Britain and Nepal. (The Brigade of Gurkhas continues to serve in the British Army to the present day.) In 1951, the Nepali monarch ended the century-old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system that brought political parties into the government. That arrangement lasted until 1960, when political parties were again banned, but was reinstated in 1990 with the establishment of a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy.
An insurgency led by Maoists broke out in 1996. The ensuing 10-year civil war between Maoist and government forces witnessed the dissolution of the cabinet and parliament and the re-assumption of absolute power by the king in 2002. A peace accord in 2006 led to the promulgation of an interim constitution in 2007. Following a nationwide Constituent Assembly (CA) election in 2008, the newly formed CA declared Nepal a federal democratic republic, abolished the monarchy, and elected the country's first president. After the CA failed to draft a constitution by a May 2012 deadline set by the Supreme Court, then-Prime Minister Baburam BHATTARAI dissolved the CA. Months of negotiations ensued until March 2013 when the major political parties agreed to create an interim government headed by then-Chief Justice Khil Raj REGMI with a mandate to hold elections for a new CA. Elections were held in November 2013, in which the Nepali Congress won the largest share of seats in the CA and in February 2014 formed a coalition government with the second place Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist and with Nepali Congress President Sushil KOIRALA as prime minister. Nepal's new constitution came into effect in September 2015, at which point the CA became the Legislature Parliament. Khagda Prasad Sharma OLI served as the first post-constitution prime minister from October 2015-August 2016, when a new coalition led by Maoist leader Pushpa Kamal DAHAL (aka “Prachanda”) took over the premiership. The constitution provides for a transitional period during which three sets of elections – local, provincial, and national – must take place before 21 January 2018. The government scheduled local elections, the first in 20 years, for May 2017.
The Indus Valley civilization, one of the world's oldest, flourished during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. and extended into northwestern India. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture. Islam spread across the subcontinent over a period of 700 years. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded India and established the Delhi Sultanate. In the early 16th century, the Emperor BABUR established the Mughal Dynasty, which ruled India for more than three centuries. European explorers began establishing footholds in India during the 16th century.
By the 19th century, Great Britain had become the dominant political power on the subcontinent. The British Indian Army played a vital role in both World Wars. Years of nonviolent resistance to British rule, led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU, eventually resulted in Indian independence, which was granted in 1947. Large-scale communal violence took place before and after the subcontinent partition into two separate states - India and Pakistan. The neighboring nations have fought three wars since independence, the last of which was in 1971 and resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. India's nuclear weapons tests in 1998 emboldened Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. In November 2008, terrorists originating from Pakistan conducted a series of coordinated attacks in Mumbai, India's financial capital. Despite pressing problems such as significant overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and widespread corruption, economic growth following the launch of economic reforms in 1991 and a massive youthful population are driving India's emergence as a regional and global power.

Geography

NepalIndia
LocationSouthern Asia, between China and India
Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan
Geographic coordinates28 00 N, 84 00 E
20 00 N, 77 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Asia
Areatotal: 147,181 sq km
land: 143,351 sq km
water: 3,830 sq km
total: 3,287,263 sq km
land: 2,973,193 sq km
water: 314,070 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly larger than New York state
slightly more than one-third the size of the US
Land boundariestotal: 3,159 km
border countries (2): China 1,389 km, India 1,770 km
total: 13,888 km
border countries (6): Bangladesh 4,142 km, Bhutan 659 km, Burma 1,468 km, China 2,659 km, Nepal 1,770 km, Pakistan 3,190 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
7,000 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climatevaries from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south
varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
TerrainTarai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south; central hill region with rugged Himalayas in north
upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 2,565 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Kanchan Kalan 70 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (highest peak in Asia and highest point on earth above sea level)
mean elevation: 160 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m
Natural resourcesquartz, water, timber, hydropower, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore
coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 28.8%
arable land 15.1%; permanent crops 1.2%; permanent pasture 12.5%
forest: 25.4%
other: 45.8% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 60.5%
arable land 52.8%; permanent crops 4.2%; permanent pasture 3.5%
forest: 23.1%
other: 16.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land13,320 sq km (2012)
667,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardssevere thunderstorms; flooding; landslides; drought and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons
droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes
volcanism: Barren Island (elev. 354 m) in the Andaman Sea has been active in recent years
Environment - current issuesdeforestation (overuse of wood for fuel and lack of alternatives); contaminated water (with human and animal wastes, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluents); wildlife conservation; vehicular emissions
deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; strategic location between China and India; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks, including Mount Everest and Kanchenjunga - the world's tallest and third tallest mountains - on the borders with China and India respectively
dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal
Population distributionmost of the population is divided nearly equally between a concentration in the southern-most plains of the Tarai region and the central hilly region; overall density is quite low
with the notable exception of the deserts in the northwest, including the Thar Desert, and the mountain fringe in the north, a very high population density exists throughout most of the country; the core of the population is in the north along the banks of the Ganges, with other river valleys and southern coastal areas also having large population concentrations

Demographics

NepalIndia
Population29,033,914 (July 2016 est.)
1,266,883,598 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 30.93% (male 4,646,048/female 4,333,105)
15-24 years: 21.86% (male 3,176,158/female 3,169,721)
25-54 years: 35.99% (male 4,707,264/female 5,740,985)
55-64 years: 6.22% (male 877,288/female 927,202)
65 years and over: 5.02% (male 723,523/female 732,620) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 27.71% (male 186,420,229/female 164,611,755)
15-24 years: 17.99% (male 121,009,850/female 106,916,692)
25-54 years: 40.91% (male 267,203,029/female 251,070,105)
55-64 years: 7.3% (male 46,398,574/female 46,105,489)
65 years and over: 6.09% (male 36,549,003/female 40,598,872) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 23.6 years
male: 22.4 years
female: 24.8 years (2016 est.)
total: 27.6 years
male: 26.9 years
female: 28.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.24% (2016 est.)
1.19% (2016 est.)
Birth rate19.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
19.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate5.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 28.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 30.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 27.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 40.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 39.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 41.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 70.7 years
male: 70.1 years
female: 71.3 years (2016 est.)
total population: 68.5 years
male: 67.3 years
female: 69.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.18 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.45 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.21% (2015 est.)
0.26% (2013 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Nepali (singular and plural)
adjective: Nepali
noun: Indian(s)
adjective: Indian
Ethnic groupsChhettri 16.6%, Brahman-Hill 12.2%, Magar 7.1%, Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.8%, Newar 5%, Kami 4.8%, Muslim 4.4%, Yadav 4%, Rai 2.3%, Gurung 2%, Damai/Dholii 1.8%, Thakuri 1.6%, Limbu 1.5%, Sarki 1.4%, Teli 1.4%, Chamar/Harijan/Ram 1.3%, Koiri/Kushwaha 1.2%, other 19%
note: 125 caste/ethnic groups were reported in the 2011 national census (2011 est.)
Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS39,400 (2015 est.)
2,118,100 (2015 est.)
ReligionsHindu 81.3%, Buddhist 9%, Muslim 4.4%, Kirant 3.1%, Christian 1.4%, other 0.5%, unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)
Hindu 79.8%, Muslim 14.2%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.7%, other and unspecified 2% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths2,300 (2015 est.)
67,600 (2015 est.)
LanguagesNepali (official) 44.6%, Maithali 11.7%, Bhojpuri 6%, Tharu 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.2%, Magar 3%, Bajjika 3%, Urdu 2.6%, Avadhi 1.9%, Limbu 1.3%, Gurung 1.2%, other 10.4%, unspecified 0.2%
note: 123 languages reported as mother tongue in 2011 national census; many in government and business also speak English (2011 est.)
Hindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%, Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%, Punjabi 2.8%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9%
note: English enjoys the status of subsidiary official language but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the most widely spoken language and primary tongue of 41% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language (2001 census)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 63.9%
male: 76.4%
female: 53.1% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.2%
male: 81.3%
female: 60.6% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: Japanese encephalitis, malaria, and dengue fever (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
water contact disease: leptospirosis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 13 years (2015)
total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2014)
Education expenditures3.7% of GDP (2015)
3.8% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 18.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.18% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 32.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.38% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 90.9% of population
rural: 91.8% of population
total: 91.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 9.1% of population
rural: 8.2% of population
total: 8.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 97.1% of population
rural: 92.6% of population
total: 94.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.9% of population
rural: 7.4% of population
total: 5.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 56% of population
rural: 43.5% of population
total: 45.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 44% of population
rural: 56.5% of population
total: 54.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 62.6% of population
rural: 28.5% of population
total: 39.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 37.4% of population
rural: 71.5% of population
total: 60.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationKATHMANDU (capital) 1.183 million (2015)
NEW DELHI (capital) 25.703 million; Mumbai 21.043 million; Kolkata 11.766 million; Bangalore 10.087 million; Chennai 9.62 million; Hyderabad 8.944 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate258 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
174 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures5.8% of GDP (2014)
4.7% of GDP (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate2.9% (2014)
4.7% (2014)
Contraceptive prevalence rate49.6% (2014)
54.8% (2007/08)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 61.8
youth dependency ratio: 52.9
elderly dependency ratio: 9
potential support ratio: 11.1 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 52.4
youth dependency ratio: 43.9
elderly dependency ratio: 8.6
potential support ratio: 11.7 (2015 est.)

Government

NepalIndia
Country name"conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
conventional short form: Nepal
local long form: Sanghiya Loktantrik Ganatantra Nepal
local short form: Nepal
etymology: the Newar people of the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding areas apparently gave their name to the country; the terms ""Nepal,"" ""Newar,"" ""Nepar,"" and ""Newal"" are phonetically different forms of the same word
"
"conventional long form: Republic of India
conventional short form: India
local long form: Republic of India/Bharatiya Ganarajya
local short form: India/Bharat
etymology: the English name derives from the Indus River; the Indian name ""Bharat"" may derive from the ""Bharatas"" tribe mentioned in the Vedas of the second millennium B.C.; the name is also associated with Emperor Bharata, the legendary conqueror of all of India
"
Government typefederal parliamentary republic
federal parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Kathmandu
geographic coordinates: 27 43 N, 85 19 E
time difference: UTC+5.75 (10.75 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: New Delhi
geographic coordinates: 28 36 N, 77 12 E
time difference: UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions14 zones (anchal, singular and plural); Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti
29 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Puducherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal
note: although its status is that of a union territory, the official name of Delhi is National Capital Territory of Delhi
Independence1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan SHAH)
15 August 1947 (from the UK)
National holidayRepublic Day, 28 May (2008); note - marks the abdication of Gyanendra SHAH, the last Nepalese monarch, and the establishment of a federal republic
Republic Day, 26 January (1950)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 20 September 2015
amendments: proposed as a “bill” by either house of the Federal Parliament; bills affecting a state border or powers delegated to a state must be submitted to the affected state assembly; passage of such bills requires a majority vote of that state assembly membership; bills not requiring state assembly consent require at least two-thirds majority vote by the membership of both houses of the Federal Parliament; parts of the constitution on the sovereignty, territorial integrity, independence, and sovereignty vested in the people cannot be amended; amended January 2016 (2017)
history: previous 1935 (preindependence); latest draft completed 4 November 1949, adopted 26 November 1949, effective 26 January 1950
amendments: proposed by either the Council of States or the House of the People; passage requires majority participation of the total membership in each house and at least two-thirds majority of voting members of each house, followed by assent of the president of India; proposed amendments to the constitutional amendment procedures also must be ratified by at least one-half of the India state legislatures before presidential assent; amended many times, last in 2016 (2017)
Legal systemEnglish common law and Hindu legal concepts
common law system based on the English model; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchhead of state: President Bidhya Devi BHANDARI (since 29 October 2015); Vice President Nanda Bahadar PUN (since 31 October 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Sher Bahadur DEUBA (since 7 June 2017); note - Prime Minister Pushpa Kamal DAHAL resigned on 25 May 2017 as part of a rotational power-sharing arrangement between the CPN-MC and NC
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister; cabinet dominated by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Center) and the Nepali Congress
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college of the Federal Parliament and of the state assemblies for a 5-year term (elgible for a second term); prime minister indirectly elected by the Federal Parliament
election results: Bidhya Devi BHANDARI elected president; Constituent Assembly vote count - Bidhya Devi BHANDARI (CPN-UML) 327, Kul Bahadur GURUNG (NC) 214; BHANDARI is Nepal's first woman president
chief of state: President Pranab MUKHERJEE (since 22 July 2012); Vice President Mohammad Hamid ANSARI (since 11 August 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Narendra MODI (since 26 May 2014)
cabinet: Union Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and state legislatures for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 19 July 2012 (next to be held on 17 July 2017); vice president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and state legislatures for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 7 August 2012 (next to be held by 10 August 2017); following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by parliamentary members of the majority party
election results: Pranab MUKHERJEE elected president; percent of vote - Pranab MUKHERJEE (INC prior to election) 69.3%, Purno SANGMA (independent) 30.7%; Mohammad Hamid ANSARI reelected vice president; electoral college vote - Mohammad Hamid ANSARI 490, Jaswant SINGH 238
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Federal Parliament (per the new constitution but not implemented as of March 2017) consists of the National Assembly (59 seats; 56 members, including at least 3 women, 1 Dalit, 1 member with disabilities, or 1 minority indirectly elected by an electoral college of state and municipal government leaders, and 3 members, including 1 woman nominated by the president of Nepal on the recommendation of the Government; members serve 6-year terms with renewal of one-third of the membership every 2 years) and the House of Representatives (275 seats; 165 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 110 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held for the second Constituent Assembly on 19 November 2013 (first election for the Federal Parliament NA)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NC 196, CPN-UML 175, CPN-MC 80, Rastriya Prajatantra Party Nepal 24, Madhesi parties 35, NDP 13, Sadhavanna Party 6, CPN-ML 5, Federal Socialist Party 5, Nepal Workers and Peasanrs Party 4, other 32
description: bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (245 seats; 233 members indirectly elected by state and territorial assemblies by proportional representation vote, and 12 members appointed by the president; members serve 6-year terms) and the House of the People or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 2 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: People's Assembly - last held April-May 2014 in 10 phases; (next to be held by May 2019)
election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - BJP 31.0%, INC 19.3%, AITC 3.8%, SP 3.4%, AIADMK 3.3%, CPI(M) 3.3%, TDP 2.6%, YSRC 2.5%, AAP 2.1%, SAD 1.8%, BJD 1.7%, SS 1.7%, NCP 1.6%, RJD 1.3%, TRS 1.3%, LJP 0.4%, other 15.9%, independent 3.0%; seats by party - BJP 282, INC 44, AIADMK 37, AITC 34, BJD 20, SS 18, TDP 16, TRS 11, CPI(M) 9, YSRC 9, LJP 6, NCP 6, SP 5, AAP 4, RJD 4, SAD 4, other 33, independent 3
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and up to 20 judges)
judge selection and term of office: the Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the presdient on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council, a 5-member,high-level advisory body headed by the prime minister; other judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial Council, a 5-member advisory body headed by the chief justice; the chief justice term of office is 6 years; judges serve until age 65
subordinate courts: High Court; Court of Appeal; district courts
note: Nepal's judiciary was restructured under its 2007 Interim Constitution
"highest court(s): Supreme Court (the chief justice and 25 associate justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president to serve until age 65
subordinate courts: High Courts; District Courts; Labour Court
note: in mid-2011, India’s Cabinet approved the ""National Mission for Justice Delivery and Legal Reform"" to eliminate judicial corruption and reduce the backlog of cases; as of mid-July 2015, the Indian Government was considering the introduction of pre-trial hearing as a method for reducing the backlog
"
Political parties and leaders"note: 164 political parties are registered with the Election Commission of Nepal as of early 2017; 122 political parties participated in the 19 November 2013 election and the 30 parties listed below were elected to serve in the Constituent Assembly; however only 26 of the 30 are considered ""national"" parties
Akhanda Nepal Party [Kumar KHADKA]
Bahujan Shakti Party [Bishwendra PASHWAN]
Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre) or CPN-MC [Pushpa Kamal DAHAL, also known as Comrade PRACHANDA]
Communist Party of Nepal-Marxist Leninist or CPN-ML [C.P. MAINALI]
Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist or CPN-UML [Khadga Prasad Sharma OLI]
Communist Party of Nepal (United) or CPN (United) [Jaydev JOSHI]
Dalit Janajati Party Nepal [Yashoda Kumari LAMA]
Federal Socialist Forum-Nepal [Upendra YADAV]
Federal Socialist Party [Ashok RAI]
Jana Jagaran Party Nepal (Awareness Party Nepal) [Lok Mani DHAKAL]
Khambuwan Rastriya Morcha-Nepal [Ram Kumar RAI]
Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Democratic [Bijay Kumar GACHCHADAR]
Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Republican [Raj Kishore YADAV]
Madhesh Samata Party Nepal [Meghraj SAHANI]
National Madhes Socialist Party [Sharat Singh BHANDARI]
Nepal Rastriya Party [Prem Bahadur SINGH]
Nepal Pariwar Dal [Ek Nath DHAKAL]
Nepal Workers and Peasants Party [Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE]
Nepali Congress or NC [Bahadur DEUBA]
Nepali Janata Dal [Hari Charan SHAH]
Rastriya Janamorcha Nepal [Chitra Bahadur K.C.]
Rastriya Janamukti Party [Malwar Singh THAPA]
Rastriya Prajatantra Party [Kamal THAPA]
Sadbhavana Party [Rajendra MAHATO]
Samajbadi Janata Party [Prem Bahadur SINGH]
Sanghiya Sadbhavana Party [Anil Kumar JHA]
Sanghiya Loktantrik Rastriya Manch [Rukmini CHAUDHARY]
Terai Madhesh Democratic Party [Mahantha THAKUR]
Terai-Madhesh Sadbhavana Party-Nepal [Mahendra YADAV]
Tharuhat Terai Party Nepal [Bhanuram CHAUDARY]

"
Aam Aadmi Party or AAP [Arvind KEJRIWAL]
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [J. JAYALALITHAA]
All India Trinamool Congress or AITC [Mamata BANERJEE]
Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]
Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Amit SHAH]
Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]
Communist Party of India-Marxist or CPI(M) [Prakash KARAT]
Indian National Congress or INC [Sonia GANDHI]
Lok Janshakti Party (LJP) [Ram Vilas PASWAN]
Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]
Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Lalu Prasad YADAV]
Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]
Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Parkash Singh BADAL]
Shiv Sena or SS [Uddhav THACKERAY]
Telegana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) [K. Chandrashekar RAO]
Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]
YSR Congress (YSRC) [Jaganmohan REDDY]
note: India has dozens of national and regional political parties
Political pressure groups and leadersother: various groups advocate regional autonomy such as the Federal State Limbuwan Council in far eastern Nepal; others have called for an independent Madhesh; the National Federation of Indigenous Nationalities advocates for the rights of indigenous nationalities in Nepal; Tharu Kalyankari Sabha advocates for the rights of Tharus
All Parties Hurriyat Conference in the Kashmir Valley (separatist group)
Bajrang Dal (militant religious organization)
Jamiat Ulema-e Hind [Mahmood MADANI] (religious organization)
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh [Mohan BHAGWAT] (nationalist organization)
Vishwa Hindu Parishad [Pravin TOGADIA] (militant religious organization)
other: hundreds of social reform, anti-corruption, and environmental groups at state and local level; numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy
International organization participationADB, BIMSTEC, CD, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIMSTEC, BIS, BRICS, C, CD, CERN (observer), CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Arjun Kumar KARKI (since 18 May 2015)
chancery: 2131 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-4550
FAX: [1] (202) 667-5534
consulate(s) general: Cleveland (OH), New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Navtej Singh SARNA (since January 2017)
chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note - Consular Wing located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone: [1](202) 939-7000
telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000
FAX: [1] (202) 265-4351
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Alaina B. TEPLITZ (since 7 October 2015)
embassy: Maharajgunj, Kathmandu
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [977] (1) 423-4000
FAX: [977] (1) 400-7272
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires MaryKay L. Carlson (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [91] (11) 2419-8000
FAX: [91] (11) 2419-0017
consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras), Hyderabad, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)
Flag descriptioncrimson red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle displays a white 12-pointed sun; the color red represents the rhododendron (Nepal's national flower) and is a sign of victory and bravery, the blue border signifies peace and harmony; the two right triangles are a combination of two single pennons (pennants) that originally symbolized the Himalaya Mountains while their charges represented the families of the king (upper) and the prime minister, but today they are understood to denote Hinduism and Buddhism, the country's two main religions; the moon represents the serenity of the Nepalese people and the shade and cool weather in the Himalayas, while the sun depicts the heat and higher temperatures of the lower parts of Nepal; the moon and the sun are also said to express the hope that the nation will endure as long as these heavenly bodies
note: Nepal is the only country in the world whose flag is not rectangular or square
three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green, with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; saffron represents courage, sacrifice, and the spirit of renunciation; white signifies purity and truth; green stands for faith and fertility; the blue chakra symbolizes the wheel of life in movement and death in stagnation
note: similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white band
National anthem"name: ""Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka"" (Hundreds of Flowers)
lyrics/music: Pradeep Kumar RAI/Ambar GURUNG
note: adopted 2007; after the abolition of the monarchy in 2006, a new anthem was required because of the previous anthem's praise for the king
"
"name: ""Jana-Gana-Mana"" (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People)
lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE
note: adopted 1950; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote Bangladesh's national anthem
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)rhododendron blossom; national color: red
the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which depicts four Asiatic lions standing back to back mounted on a circular abacus, is the official emblem; Bengal tiger; lotus flower; national colors: saffron, white, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of India
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

NepalIndia
Economy - overviewNepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world, with about one-quarter of its population living below the poverty line. Nepal is heavily dependent on remittances, which amount to as much as 30% of GDP. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for almost two-thirds of the population but accounting for only one-third of GDP. Industrial activity mainly involves the processing of agricultural products, including pulses, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain.

Nepal has considerable scope for exploiting its potential in hydropower, with an estimated 42,000 MW of commercially feasible capacity. Nepal and India signed trade and investment agreements in 2014 that increase Nepal’s hydropower potential, but political uncertainty and a difficult business climate have hampered foreign investment.

Nepal was hit by massive earthquakes in early 2015, which damaged or destroyed infrastructure and homes and set back economic development. Political gridlock in the past several years and recent public protests, predominantly in the southern Tarai region, have hindered post-earthquake recovery and prevented much-needed economic reform. Additional challenges to Nepal's growth include its landlocked geographic location, persistent power shortages, and underdeveloped transportation infrastructure.
India's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Slightly less than half of the work force is in agriculture, but services are the major source of economic growth, accounting for nearly two-thirds of India's output but employing less than one-third of its labor force. India has capitalized on its large educated English-speaking population to become a major exporter of information technology services, business outsourcing services, and software workers.

India is developing into an open-market economy, yet traces of its past autarkic policies remain. Economic liberalization measures, including industrial deregulation, privatization of state-owned enterprises, and reduced controls on foreign trade and investment, began in the early 1990s and served to accelerate the country's growth, which averaged nearly 7% per year from 1997 to 2016. India's economic growth slowed in 2011 because of a decline in investment caused by high interest rates, rising inflation, and investor pessimism about the government's commitment to further economic reforms and about slow world growth. Rising macroeconomic imbalances in India and improving economic conditions in Western countries led investors to shift capital away from India, prompting a sharp depreciation of the rupee.

Growth rebounded in 2014 through 2016, exceeding 7% each year. Investors’ perceptions of India improved in early 2014, due to a reduction of the current account deficit and expectations of post-election economic reform, resulting in a surge of inbound capital flows and stabilization of the rupee. Since the election, the government has passed an important goods and services tax bill and raised foreign direct investment caps in some sectors but most economic reforms have focused on administrative and governance changes largely because the ruling party remains a minority in India’s upper house of Parliament, which must approve most bills. Despite a high growth rate compared to the rest of the world, in 2015 and 2016, India’s government-owned banks faced mounting bad debt, resulting in low credit growth and restrained economic growth.

The outlook for India's long-term growth is moderately positive due to a young population and corresponding low dependency ratio, healthy savings and investment rates, and increasing integration into the global economy. However, long-term challenges remain significant, including: India's discrimination against women and girls, an inefficient power generation and distribution system, ineffective enforcement of intellectual property rights, decades-long civil litigation dockets, inadequate transport and agricultural infrastructure, limited non-agricultural employment opportunities, high spending and poorly targeted subsidies, inadequate availability of quality basic and higher education, and accommodating rural-to-urban migration.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$71.52 billion (2016 est.)
$71.12 billion (2015 est.)
$69.24 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$8.721 trillion (2016 est.)
$8.103 trillion (2015 est.)
$7.534 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate0.6% (2016 est.)
2.7% (2015 est.)
6% (2014 est.)
7.6% (2016 est.)
7.6% (2015 est.)
7.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$2,500 (2016 est.)
$2,500 (2015 est.)
$2,500 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$6,700 (2016 est.)
$6,300 (2015 est.)
$5,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 32%
industry: 14%
services: 54% (FY 2016 est.)
agriculture: 16.5%
industry: 29.8%
services: 45.4% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line25.2% (2011 est.)
21.9% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 29.5% (2011)
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 29.8% (2011)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)9.9% (FY 2016 est.)
7.2% (FY 2015 est.)
5.2% (2016 est.)
4.9% (2015 est.)
Labor force15.6 million
note: severe lack of skilled labor (2014 est.)
513.7 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 69%
industry: 12%
services: 19% (2014 est.)
agriculture: 47%
industry: 22%
services: 31% (FY 2014 est.)
Unemployment rate3.3% (2013 est.)
2.7% (2008 est.)
5% (FY 2016 est.)
4.9% (FY 2014 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index32.8 (2010)
47.2 (2008 est.)
35.2 (2011)
37.8 (1997)
Budgetrevenues: $4.976 billion
expenditures: $5.596 billion (FY2016 est.)
revenues: $273.3 billion
expenditures: $273.3 billion (FY 2016 est.)
Industriestourism, carpets, textiles; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarettes, cement and brick production
textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software, pharmaceuticals
Industrial production growth rate-6.3% (2016 est.)
7.4% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productspulses, rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, jute, root crops; milk, water buffalo meat
rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, lentils, onions, potatoes; dairy products, sheep, goats, poultry; fish
Exports$604.7 million (FY2016 est.)
$866.5 million (FY2015 est.)
$262.3 billion (FY 2016 est.)
$267.9 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesclothing, pulses, carpets, textiles, juice, jute goods
petroleum products, precious stones, vehicles, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, cereals, apparel
Exports - partnersIndia 58.6%, US 10%, Germany 4% (1 January - 30 October 2016)
US 15.2%, UAE 11.4%, Hong Kong 4.6% (1 January - 30 September 2016)
Imports$6.667 billion (FY2016 est.)
$7.886 billion (FY2015 est.)
$381 billion (FY2016 est.)
$394.1 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiespetroleum products, machinery and equipment, gold, electrical goods, medicine
crude oil, precious stones, machinery, chemicals, fertilizer, plastics, iron and steel
Imports - partnersIndia 61.5%, China 15.4% (1 January - 30 October 2016)
China 15.7%, Saudi Arabia 5.4%, Switzerland 5.4%, US 5.3%, UAE 5.2% (1 January - 30 September 2016)
Debt - external$3.578 billion (FY 2016 est.)
$3.273 billion (FY 2015 est.)
$507 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$480.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesNepalese rupees (NPR) per US dollar -
108.8 (2016 est.)
102.41 (2015 est.)
102.41 (2014 est.)
99.53 (2013 est.)
85.2 (2012 est.)
Indian rupees (INR) per US dollar -
68.3 (2016 est.)
64.152 (2015 est.)
64.152 (2014 est.)
61.03 (2013 est.)
53.44 (2012 est.)
Fiscal year16 July - 15 July
1 April - 31 March
Public debt27.6% of GDP (FY 2016 est.)
25.7% of GDP (FY 2015 est.)
52.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
52.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover central government debt, and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$10.17 billion (30 October 2016 est.)
$8.88 billion (30 October 2015 est.)
$359.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$351.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$1.339 billion (2016 est.)
$1.067 billion (2015 est.)
-$20.86 billion (2016 est.)
-$22.09 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$21.15 billion (2016 est.)
$2.251 trillion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$103 million (31 July 2013 est.)
$453.2 billion (30 September 2016 est.)
$296.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$NA
$149 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$139 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$14.03 billion (30 April 2016 est.)
$11.81 billion (31 October 2015 est.)
$9.574 billion (31 October 2014 est.)
$1.516 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.558 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.139 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate7% (30 October 2016)
7% (30 October 2015)
6.25% (31 December 2016)
7.75% (31 December 2014)
note: this is the Indian central bank's policy rate - the repurchase rate
Commercial bank prime lending rate8.6% (30 October 2016 est.)
9.5% (30 October 2015 est.)
9.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
10.01% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$16.87 billion (30 October 2016 est.)
$14.36 billion (30 October 2015 est.)
$1.579 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.57 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$5.051 billion (30 October 2016 est.)
$4.348 billion (30 October 2015 est.)
$385.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$370.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$22.16 billion (30 October 2016 est.)
$18.72 billion (30 October 2015 est.)
$1.728 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.704 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues23.5% of GDP (FY2016 est.)
12.1% of GDP (FY 2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.9% of GDP (FY2016 est.)
0% of GDP (FY 2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 3.5%
male: 4.2%
female: 2.9% (2008 est.)
total: 10.7%
male: 10.4%
female: 11.6% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 82%
government consumption: 10.9%
investment in fixed capital: 25%
investment in inventories: 8.9%
exports of goods and services: 10.7%
imports of goods and services: -37.5% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 60.8%
government consumption: 11.4%
investment in fixed capital: 27.6%
investment in inventories: 3%
exports of goods and services: 19%
imports of goods and services: -21.8% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving42.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
43.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
45.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
30.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
31.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
32.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

NepalIndia
Electricity - production3.342 billion kWh (FY 2016 est.)
1.218 trillion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption3.746 billion kWh (FY 2016 est.)
973 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports3.25 million kWh (FY 2016 est.)
200 million kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - imports1.758 billion kWh (FY 2016 est.)
5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
761,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
3.785 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
5.675 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
1.489 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
30.4 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
52.1 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
21.7 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity855,900 kW (FY 2016 est.)
308.8 million kW (30 November 2016 )
Electricity - from fossil fuels6.2% of total installed capacity (FY 2016 est.)
69.3% of total installed capacity (30 November 2016 )
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants93.8% of total installed capacity (FY 2016 est.)
14% of total installed capacity (30 November 2016 )
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (FY 2016 est.)
1.9% of total installed capacity (30 November 2016 )
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (FY 2016 est.)
14.9% of total installed capacity (30 November 2016 )
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
4.775 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption27,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
3.735 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
1.351 million bbl/day (FY 2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports25,870 bbl/day (2013 est.)
653,500 bbl/day (FY 2016 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy4.2 million Mt (2013 est.)
1.887 billion Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 6,600,000
electrification - total population: 76%
electrification - urban areas: 97%
electrification - rural areas: 72% (2013)
population without electricity: 237,400,000
electrification - total population: 79%
electrification - urban areas: 98%
electrification - rural areas: 70% (2013)

Telecommunications

NepalIndia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 846,940
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 25.518 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 27.516 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 87 (July 2015 est.)
total: 1,011.054 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 81 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: fair radiotelephone communication service and mobile-cellular telephone network
domestic: mobile service has been extended to all 75 districts covering 90% of Nepal’s land area
international: country code - 977; radiotelephone communications; microwave and fiber landlines to India; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2016)
general assessment: supported by recent deregulation and liberalization of telecommunications laws and policies, India has emerged as one of the fastest-growing telecom markets in the world; total telephone subscribership base exceeded 1 billion in 2015, an overall teledensity of roughly 80%, and subscribership is currently growing at roughly 5 million per month; urban teledensity now exceeds 100%, and rural teledensity has reached 50%
domestic: mobile cellular service introduced in 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan areas and 19 telecom circles, each with multiple private service providers and one or more state-owned service providers; in recent years significant trunk capacity added in the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indian National Satellite system (INSAT), with 6 satellites supporting 33,000 very small aperture terminals (VSAT)
international: country code - 91; a number of major international submarine cable systems, including SEA-ME-WE-3 with landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay), SEA-ME-WE-4 with a landing site at Chennai, Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) with a landing site at Mumbai (Bombay), South Africa - Far East (SAFE) with a landing site at Cochin, the i2i cable network linking to Singapore with landing sites at Mumbai (Bombay) and Chennai (Madras), and Tata Indicom linking Singapore and Chennai (Madras), provide a significant increase in the bandwidth available for both voice and data traffic; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region); 9 gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam (2015)
Internet country code.np
.in
Internet userstotal: 12.293 million
percent of population: 42.3% (2016)
total: 325.441 million
percent of population: 26% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate operates 3 TV stations, as well as national and regional radio stations; 88 independent TV channels are registered with only 25 in regular operation; 672 FM radio stations are licensed with 588 operational (2016)
Doordarshan, India's public TV network, operates about 20 national, regional, and local services; a large and increasing number of privately owned TV stations are distributed by cable and satellite service providers; in 2015, more than 230 million homes had access to cable and satellite TV offering more than 700 TV channels; government controls AM radio with All India Radio operating domestic and external networks; news broadcasts via radio are limited to the All India Radio Network; since 2000, privately owned FM stations have been permitted and their numbers have increased rapidly (2015)

Transportation

NepalIndia
Railwaystotal: 53 km
narrow gauge: 53 km 0.762-m gauge (2014)
total: 68,525 km
broad gauge: 58,404 km 1.676-m gauge (23,654 electrified)
narrow gauge: 9,499 km 1.000-m gauge; 622 km 0.762-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 27,990 km
paved: 11,890 km
unpaved: 16,100 km (2016)
total: 4,699,024 km
note: includes 96,214 km of national highways and expressways, 147,800 km of state highways, and 4,455,010 km of other roads (2015)
Airports47 (2013)
346 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 11
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 253
over 3,047 m: 22
2,438 to 3,047 m: 59
1,524 to 2,437 m: 76
914 to 1,523 m: 82
under 914 m: 14 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 29 (2013)
total: 93
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 38
under 914 m: 45 (2013)

Military

NepalIndia
Military branchesNepal Army (2012)
Army, Navy (includes naval air arm), Air Force, Coast Guard (2011)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2014)
16-18 years of age for voluntary military service (Army 17 1/2, Air Force 17, Navy 16 1/2); no conscription; women may join as officers, currently serve in combat roles as pilots, and will soon be allowed in all combat roles (2016)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.59% of GDP (2016)
1.51% of GDP (2015)
1.59% of GDP (2014)
1.54% of GDP (2013)
1.43% of GDP (2012)
2.42% of GDP (2015)
2.49% of GDP (2014)
2.46% of GDP (2013)
2.54% of GDP (2012)
2.65% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

NepalIndia
Disputes - internationaljoint border commission continues to work on contested sections of boundary with India, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India has instituted a stricter border regime to restrict transit of illegal cross-border activities
since China and India launched a security and foreign policy dialogue in 2005, consolidated discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indian claims that China transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters continue
Kashmir remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas)
India and Pakistan resumed bilateral dialogue in February 2011 after a two-year hiatus, have maintained the 2003 cease-fire in Kashmir, and continue to have disputes over water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries
UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim in Indian Gujarat State; Prime Minister Singh's September 2011 visit to Bangladesh resulted in the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh, which had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, but which had never been implemented; Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Joint Border Committee with Nepal continues to examine contested boundary sections, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal
Illicit drugsillicit producer of cannabis and hashish for the domestic and international drug markets; transit point for opiates from Southeast Asia to the West
world's largest producer of licit opium for the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit point for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries and throughout Southwest Asia; illicit producer of methaqualone; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system; licit ketamine and precursor production
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 13,509 (Tibet/China) (2016); 9,804 (Bhutan) (2017)
IDPs: 50,000 (remaining from ten-year Maoist insurgency that officially ended in 2006; figure does not include people displaced since 2007 by inter-communal violence and insecurity in the Terai region; 2015 earthquakes) (2016)
stateless persons: undetermined (2016); note - the UNHCR is working with the Nepali Government to address the large number of individuals lacking citizenship certificates in Nepal; smaller numbers of Bhutanese Hindu refugees of Nepali origin (the Lhotshampa) who were stripped of Bhutanese nationality and forced to flee their country in the late 1980s and early 1990s - and undocumented Tibetan refugees who arrived in Nepal prior to the 1990s - are considered stateless
refugees (country of origin): 110,098 (Tibet/China); 63,162 (Sri Lanka); 15,561 (Burma); 7,693 (Afghanistan) (2015)
IDPs: 796,000 (armed conflict and intercommunal violence) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook