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Nepal vs. China

Introduction

NepalChina
BackgroundDuring the late 18th-early 19th centuries, the principality of Gorkha united many of the other principalities and states of the sub-Himalayan region into a Nepalese Kingdom. Nepal retained its independence following the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814-16 and the subsequent peace treaty laid the foundations for two centuries of amicable relations between Britain and Nepal. (The Brigade of Gurkhas continues to serve in the British Army to the present day.) In 1951, the Nepali monarch ended the century-old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system that brought political parties into the government. That arrangement lasted until 1960, when political parties were again banned, but was reinstated in 1990 with the establishment of a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy.
An insurgency led by Maoists broke out in 1996. The ensuing 10-year civil war between Maoist and government forces witnessed the dissolution of the cabinet and parliament and the re-assumption of absolute power by the king in 2002. A peace accord in 2006 led to the promulgation of an interim constitution in 2007. Following a nationwide Constituent Assembly (CA) election in 2008, the newly formed CA declared Nepal a federal democratic republic, abolished the monarchy, and elected the country's first president. After the CA failed to draft a constitution by a May 2012 deadline set by the Supreme Court, then-Prime Minister Baburam BHATTARAI dissolved the CA. Months of negotiations ensued until March 2013 when the major political parties agreed to create an interim government headed by then-Chief Justice Khil Raj REGMI with a mandate to hold elections for a new CA. Elections were held in November 2013, in which the Nepali Congress won the largest share of seats in the CA and in February 2014 formed a coalition government with the second place Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist and with Nepali Congress President Sushil KOIRALA as prime minister. Nepal's new constitution came into effect in September 2015, at which point the CA became the Legislature Parliament. Khagda Prasad Sharma OLI served as the first post-constitution prime minister from October 2015-August 2016, when a new coalition led by Maoist leader Pushpa Kamal DAHAL (aka “Prachanda”) took over the premiership. The constitution provides for a transitional period during which three sets of elections – local, provincial, and national – must take place before 21 January 2018. The government scheduled local elections, the first in 20 years, for May 2017.
For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, MAO's successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight. Since the early 1990s, China has increased its global outreach and participation in international organizations.

Geography

NepalChina
LocationSouthern Asia, between China and India
Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam
Geographic coordinates28 00 N, 84 00 E
35 00 N, 105 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Asia
Areatotal: 147,181 sq km
land: 143,351 sq km
water: 3,830 sq km
total: 9,596,960 sq km
land: 9,326,410 sq km
water: 270,550 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly larger than New York state
slightly smaller than the US
Land boundariestotal: 3,159 km
border countries (2): China 1,389 km, India 1,770 km
total: 22,457 km
border countries (14): Afghanistan 91 km, Bhutan 477 km, Burma 2,129 km, India 2,659 km, Kazakhstan 1,765 km, North Korea 1,352 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,063 km, Laos 475 km, Mongolia 4,630 km, Nepal 1,389 km, Pakistan 438 km, Russia (northeast) 4,133 km, Russia (northwest) 46 km, Tajikistan 477 km, Vietnam 1,297 km
regional border(s) (2): Hong Kong 33 km, Macau 3 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
14,500 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climatevaries from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south
extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
TerrainTarai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south; central hill region with rugged Himalayas in north
mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 2,565 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Kanchan Kalan 70 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (highest peak in Asia and highest point on earth above sea level)
mean elevation: 1,840 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (highest peak in Asia and highest point on earth above sea level)
Natural resourcesquartz, water, timber, hydropower, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore
coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, rare earth elements, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest), arable land
Land useagricultural land: 28.8%
arable land 15.1%; permanent crops 1.2%; permanent pasture 12.5%
forest: 25.4%
other: 45.8% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 54.7%
arable land 11.3%; permanent crops 1.6%; permanent pasture 41.8%
forest: 22.3%
other: 23% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land13,320 sq km (2012)
690,070 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardssevere thunderstorms; flooding; landslides; drought and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons
frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence
volcanism: China contains some historically active volcanoes including Changbaishan (also known as Baitoushan, Baegdu, or P'aektu-san), Hainan Dao, and Kunlun although most have been relatively inactive in recent centuries
Environment - current issuesdeforestation (overuse of wood for fuel and lack of alternatives); contaminated water (with human and animal wastes, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluents); wildlife conservation; vehicular emissions
air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; China is the world's largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; strategic location between China and India; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks, including Mount Everest and Kanchenjunga - the world's tallest and third tallest mountains - on the borders with China and India respectively
world's fourth largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US) and largest country situated entirely in Asia; Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peak above sea level
Population distributionmost of the population is divided nearly equally between a concentration in the southern-most plains of the Tarai region and the central hilly region; overall density is quite low
overwhelming majority of the population is found in the eastern half of the country; the west, with its vast mountainous and desert areas, remains sparsely populated; though ranked first in the world in total population, overall density is less than that of many other countries in Asia and Europe; high population density is found along the Yangtze and Yellow River valleys, the Xi Jiang River delta, the Sichuan Basin (around Chengdu), in and around Beijing, and the industrial area around Shenyang

Demographics

NepalChina
Population29,033,914 (July 2016 est.)
1,373,541,278 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 30.93% (male 4,646,048/female 4,333,105)
15-24 years: 21.86% (male 3,176,158/female 3,169,721)
25-54 years: 35.99% (male 4,707,264/female 5,740,985)
55-64 years: 6.22% (male 877,288/female 927,202)
65 years and over: 5.02% (male 723,523/female 732,620) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 17.1% (male 126,732,020/female 108,172,771)
15-24 years: 13.27% (male 97,126,460/female 85,135,228)
25-54 years: 48.42% (male 339,183,101/female 325,836,319)
55-64 years: 10.87% (male 75,376,730/female 73,859,424)
65 years and over: 10.35% (male 67,914,015/female 74,205,210) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 23.6 years
male: 22.4 years
female: 24.8 years (2016 est.)
total: 37.1 years
male: 36.2 years
female: 38.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.24% (2016 est.)
0.43% (2016 est.)
Birth rate19.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
12.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate5.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.15 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.17 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 28.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 30.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 27.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 12.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 12.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 70.7 years
male: 70.1 years
female: 71.3 years (2016 est.)
total population: 75.5 years
male: 73.5 years
female: 77.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.18 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.6 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.21% (2015 est.)
0.1% (2012 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Nepali (singular and plural)
adjective: Nepali
noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese
Ethnic groupsChhettri 16.6%, Brahman-Hill 12.2%, Magar 7.1%, Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.8%, Newar 5%, Kami 4.8%, Muslim 4.4%, Yadav 4%, Rai 2.3%, Gurung 2%, Damai/Dholii 1.8%, Thakuri 1.6%, Limbu 1.5%, Sarki 1.4%, Teli 1.4%, Chamar/Harijan/Ram 1.3%, Koiri/Kushwaha 1.2%, other 19%
note: 125 caste/ethnic groups were reported in the 2011 national census (2011 est.)
Han Chinese 91.6%, Zhuang 1.3%, other (includes Hui, Manchu, Uighur, Miao, Yi, Tujia, Tibetan, Mongol, Dong, Buyei, Yao, Bai, Korean, Hani, Li, Kazakh, Dai and other nationalities) 7.1%
note: the Chinese Government officially recognizes 56 ethnic groups (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS39,400 (2015 est.)
780,000 (2012 est.)
ReligionsHindu 81.3%, Buddhist 9%, Muslim 4.4%, Kirant 3.1%, Christian 1.4%, other 0.5%, unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)
Buddhist 18.2%, Christian 5.1%, Muslim 1.8%, folk religion 21.9%, Hindu < 0.1%, Jewish < 0.1%, other 0.7% (includes Daoist (Taoist)), unaffiliated 52.2%
note: officially atheist (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths2,300 (2015 est.)
NA
LanguagesNepali (official) 44.6%, Maithali 11.7%, Bhojpuri 6%, Tharu 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.2%, Magar 3%, Bajjika 3%, Urdu 2.6%, Avadhi 1.9%, Limbu 1.3%, Gurung 1.2%, other 10.4%, unspecified 0.2%
note: 123 languages reported as mother tongue in 2011 national census; many in government and business also speak English (2011 est.)
Standard Chinese or Mandarin (official; Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)
note: Zhuang is official in Guangxi Zhuang, Yue is official in Guangdong, Mongolian is official in Nei Mongol, Uighur is official in Xinjiang Uygur, Kyrgyz is official in Xinjiang Uygur, and Tibetan is official in Xizang (Tibet)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 63.9%
male: 76.4%
female: 53.1% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.4%
male: 98.2%
female: 94.5% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: Japanese encephalitis, malaria, and dengue fever (2016)
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: Japanese encephalitis
soil contact disease: hantaviral hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 13 years (2015)
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2015)
Education expenditures3.7% of GDP (2015)
NA
Urbanizationurban population: 18.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.18% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 55.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.05% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 90.9% of population
rural: 91.8% of population
total: 91.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 9.1% of population
rural: 8.2% of population
total: 8.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 93% of population
total: 95.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 7% of population
total: 4.5% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 56% of population
rural: 43.5% of population
total: 45.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 44% of population
rural: 56.5% of population
total: 54.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 86.6% of population
rural: 63.7% of population
total: 76.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 13.4% of population
rural: 36.3% of population
total: 23.5% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationKATHMANDU (capital) 1.183 million (2015)
Shanghai 23.741 million; BEIJING (capital) 20.384 million; Chongqing 13.332 million; Guangdong 12.458 million; Tianjin 11.21 million; Shenzhen 10.749 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate258 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
27 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight30.1% (2014)
3.4% (2010)
Health expenditures5.8% of GDP (2014)
5.5% of GDP (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate2.9% (2014)
7.3% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 61.8
youth dependency ratio: 52.9
elderly dependency ratio: 9
potential support ratio: 11.1 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 36.6
youth dependency ratio: 23.5
elderly dependency ratio: 13
potential support ratio: 7.7 (2015 est.)

Government

NepalChina
Country name"conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
conventional short form: Nepal
local long form: Sanghiya Loktantrik Ganatantra Nepal
local short form: Nepal
etymology: the Newar people of the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding areas apparently gave their name to the country; the terms ""Nepal,"" ""Newar,"" ""Nepar,"" and ""Newal"" are phonetically different forms of the same word
"
"conventional long form: People's Republic of China
conventional short form: China
local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
local short form: Zhongguo
abbreviation: PRC
etymology: English name derives from the Qin (Chin) rulers of the 3rd century B.C., who comprised the first imperial dynasty of ancient China; the Chinese name Zhongguo translates as ""Central Nation""
"
Government typefederal parliamentary republic
communist state
Capitalname: Kathmandu
geographic coordinates: 27 43 N, 85 19 E
time difference: UTC+5.75 (10.75 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
"name: Beijing
geographic coordinates: 39 55 N, 116 23 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
note: despite its size, all of China falls within one time zone; many people in Xinjiang Province observe an unofficial ""Xinjiang time zone"" of UTC+6, two hours behind Beijing
"
Administrative divisions14 zones (anchal, singular and plural); Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti
23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular and plural)
provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang; (see note on Taiwan)
autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia), Ningxia, Xinjiang Uygur, Xizang (Tibet)
municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin
note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau
Independence1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan SHAH)
1 October 1949 (People's Republic of China established); notable earlier dates: 221 B.C. (unification under the Qin Dynasty); 1 January 1912 (Qing Dynasty replaced by the Republic of China)
National holidayRepublic Day, 28 May (2008); note - marks the abdication of Gyanendra SHAH, the last Nepalese monarch, and the establishment of a federal republic
National Day (anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 20 September 2015
amendments: proposed as a “bill” by either house of the Federal Parliament; bills affecting a state border or powers delegated to a state must be submitted to the affected state assembly; passage of such bills requires a majority vote of that state assembly membership; bills not requiring state assembly consent require at least two-thirds majority vote by the membership of both houses of the Federal Parliament; parts of the constitution on the sovereignty, territorial integrity, independence, and sovereignty vested in the people cannot be amended; amended January 2016 (2017)
several previous; latest promulgated 4 December 1982; amended several times, last in 2004 (2016)
Legal systemEnglish common law and Hindu legal concepts
civil law influenced by Soviet and continental European civil law systems; legislature retains power to interpret statutes; note - criminal procedure law revised in early 2012
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchhead of state: President Bidhya Devi BHANDARI (since 29 October 2015); Vice President Nanda Bahadar PUN (since 31 October 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Sher Bahadur DEUBA (since 7 June 2017); note - Prime Minister Pushpa Kamal DAHAL resigned on 25 May 2017 as part of a rotational power-sharing arrangement between the CPN-MC and NC
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister; cabinet dominated by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Center) and the Nepali Congress
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college of the Federal Parliament and of the state assemblies for a 5-year term (elgible for a second term); prime minister indirectly elected by the Federal Parliament
election results: Bidhya Devi BHANDARI elected president; Constituent Assembly vote count - Bidhya Devi BHANDARI (CPN-UML) 327, Kul Bahadur GURUNG (NC) 214; BHANDARI is Nepal's first woman president
chief of state: President XI Jinping (since 14 March 2013); Vice President LI Yuanchao (since 14 March 2013)
head of government: Premier LI Keqiang (since 16 March 2013); Executive Vice Premiers ZHANG Gaoli (since 16 March 2013), LIU Yandong (since 16 March 2013), MA Kai (since 16 March 2013), WANG Yang (since 16 March 2013)
cabinet: State Council appointed by National People's Congress
elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by National People's Congress for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5-17 March 2013 (next to be held in March 2018); premier nominated by president, confirmed by National People's Congress
election results: XI Jinping elected president; National People's Congress vote - 2,952 ; LI Yuanchao elected vice president with 2,940 votes
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Federal Parliament (per the new constitution but not implemented as of March 2017) consists of the National Assembly (59 seats; 56 members, including at least 3 women, 1 Dalit, 1 member with disabilities, or 1 minority indirectly elected by an electoral college of state and municipal government leaders, and 3 members, including 1 woman nominated by the president of Nepal on the recommendation of the Government; members serve 6-year terms with renewal of one-third of the membership every 2 years) and the House of Representatives (275 seats; 165 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 110 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held for the second Constituent Assembly on 19 November 2013 (first election for the Federal Parliament NA)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NC 196, CPN-UML 175, CPN-MC 80, Rastriya Prajatantra Party Nepal 24, Madhesi parties 35, NDP 13, Sadhavanna Party 6, CPN-ML 5, Federal Socialist Party 5, Nepal Workers and Peasanrs Party 4, other 32
description: unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,987 seats; members indirectly elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses, and the People's Liberation Army; members serve 5-year terms); note - in practice, only members of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its 8 allied parties, and CCP-approved independent candidates are elected
elections: last held in December 2012-February 2013 (next to be held in late 2017 to early 2018)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - 2,987
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and up to 20 judges)
judge selection and term of office: the Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the presdient on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council, a 5-member,high-level advisory body headed by the prime minister; other judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial Council, a 5-member advisory body headed by the chief justice; the chief justice term of office is 6 years; judges serve until age 65
subordinate courts: High Court; Court of Appeal; district courts
note: Nepal's judiciary was restructured under its 2007 Interim Constitution
highest court(s): Supreme People's Court (consists of over 340 judges including the chief justice, 13 grand justices organized into a civil committee and tribunals for civil, economic, administrative, complaint and appeal, and communication and transportation cases)
judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the People's National Congress (NPC); term limited to 2 consecutive 5-year terms; other justices and judges nominated by the chief justice and appointed by the Standing Committee of the NPC; term of other justices and judges determined by the NPC
subordinate courts: Higher People's Courts; Intermediate People's Courts; District and County People's Courts; Autonomous Region People's Courts; Special People's Courts for military, maritime, transportation, and forestry issues
note: in late 2014, China unveiled planned judicial reforms
Political parties and leaders"note: 164 political parties are registered with the Election Commission of Nepal as of early 2017; 122 political parties participated in the 19 November 2013 election and the 30 parties listed below were elected to serve in the Constituent Assembly; however only 26 of the 30 are considered ""national"" parties
Akhanda Nepal Party [Kumar KHADKA]
Bahujan Shakti Party [Bishwendra PASHWAN]
Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre) or CPN-MC [Pushpa Kamal DAHAL, also known as Comrade PRACHANDA]
Communist Party of Nepal-Marxist Leninist or CPN-ML [C.P. MAINALI]
Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist or CPN-UML [Khadga Prasad Sharma OLI]
Communist Party of Nepal (United) or CPN (United) [Jaydev JOSHI]
Dalit Janajati Party Nepal [Yashoda Kumari LAMA]
Federal Socialist Forum-Nepal [Upendra YADAV]
Federal Socialist Party [Ashok RAI]
Jana Jagaran Party Nepal (Awareness Party Nepal) [Lok Mani DHAKAL]
Khambuwan Rastriya Morcha-Nepal [Ram Kumar RAI]
Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Democratic [Bijay Kumar GACHCHADAR]
Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Republican [Raj Kishore YADAV]
Madhesh Samata Party Nepal [Meghraj SAHANI]
National Madhes Socialist Party [Sharat Singh BHANDARI]
Nepal Rastriya Party [Prem Bahadur SINGH]
Nepal Pariwar Dal [Ek Nath DHAKAL]
Nepal Workers and Peasants Party [Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE]
Nepali Congress or NC [Bahadur DEUBA]
Nepali Janata Dal [Hari Charan SHAH]
Rastriya Janamorcha Nepal [Chitra Bahadur K.C.]
Rastriya Janamukti Party [Malwar Singh THAPA]
Rastriya Prajatantra Party [Kamal THAPA]
Sadbhavana Party [Rajendra MAHATO]
Samajbadi Janata Party [Prem Bahadur SINGH]
Sanghiya Sadbhavana Party [Anil Kumar JHA]
Sanghiya Loktantrik Rastriya Manch [Rukmini CHAUDHARY]
Terai Madhesh Democratic Party [Mahantha THAKUR]
Terai-Madhesh Sadbhavana Party-Nepal [Mahendra YADAV]
Tharuhat Terai Party Nepal [Bhanuram CHAUDARY]

"
Chinese Communist Party or CCP [XI Jinping]
note: China has eight nominally independent small parties ultimately controlled by the CCP
Political pressure groups and leadersother: various groups advocate regional autonomy such as the Federal State Limbuwan Council in far eastern Nepal; others have called for an independent Madhesh; the National Federation of Indigenous Nationalities advocates for the rights of indigenous nationalities in Nepal; Tharu Kalyankari Sabha advocates for the rights of Tharus
no substantial political opposition groups exist
International organization participationADB, BIMSTEC, CD, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, CDB, CICA, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-24 (observer), G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SCO, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Arjun Kumar KARKI (since 18 May 2015)
chancery: 2131 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-4550
FAX: [1] (202) 667-5534
consulate(s) general: Cleveland (OH), New York
chief of mission: Ambassador CUI Tiankai (since 3 April 2013)
chancery: 3505 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 495-2266
FAX: [1] (202) 495-2138
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Alaina B. TEPLITZ (since 7 October 2015)
embassy: Maharajgunj, Kathmandu
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [977] (1) 423-4000
FAX: [977] (1) 400-7272
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires David A. RANK (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: 55 An Jia Lou Lu, 100600 Beijing
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [86] (10) 8531-3000
FAX: [86] (10) 8531-3300
consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang, Wuhan
Flag descriptioncrimson red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle displays a white 12-pointed sun; the color red represents the rhododendron (Nepal's national flower) and is a sign of victory and bravery, the blue border signifies peace and harmony; the two right triangles are a combination of two single pennons (pennants) that originally symbolized the Himalaya Mountains while their charges represented the families of the king (upper) and the prime minister, but today they are understood to denote Hinduism and Buddhism, the country's two main religions; the moon represents the serenity of the Nepalese people and the shade and cool weather in the Himalayas, while the sun depicts the heat and higher temperatures of the lower parts of Nepal; the moon and the sun are also said to express the hope that the nation will endure as long as these heavenly bodies
note: Nepal is the only country in the world whose flag is not rectangular or square
red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner; the color red represents revolution, while the stars symbolize the four social classes - the working class, the peasantry, the urban petty bourgeoisie, and the national bourgeoisie (capitalists) - united under the Communist Party of China
National anthem"name: ""Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka"" (Hundreds of Flowers)
lyrics/music: Pradeep Kumar RAI/Ambar GURUNG
note: adopted 2007; after the abolition of the monarchy in 2006, a new anthem was required because of the previous anthem's praise for the king
"
"name: ""Yiyongjun Jinxingqu"" (The March of the Volunteers)
lyrics/music: TIAN Han/NIE Er
note: adopted 1949; the anthem, though banned during the Cultural Revolution, is more commonly known as ""Zhongguo Guoge"" (Chinese National Song); it was originally the theme song to the 1935 Chinese movie, ""Sons and Daughters in a Time of Storm""
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)rhododendron blossom; national color: red
dragon; national colors: red, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: least one parent must be a citizen of China
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: while naturalization is theoretically possible, in practical terms it is extremely difficult; residency is required but not specified

Economy

NepalChina
Economy - overviewNepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world, with about one-quarter of its population living below the poverty line. Nepal is heavily dependent on remittances, which amount to as much as 30% of GDP. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for almost two-thirds of the population but accounting for only one-third of GDP. Industrial activity mainly involves the processing of agricultural products, including pulses, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain.

Nepal has considerable scope for exploiting its potential in hydropower, with an estimated 42,000 MW of commercially feasible capacity. Nepal and India signed trade and investment agreements in 2014 that increase Nepal’s hydropower potential, but political uncertainty and a difficult business climate have hampered foreign investment.

Nepal was hit by massive earthquakes in early 2015, which damaged or destroyed infrastructure and homes and set back economic development. Political gridlock in the past several years and recent public protests, predominantly in the southern Tarai region, have hindered post-earthquake recovery and prevented much-needed economic reform. Additional challenges to Nepal's growth include its landlocked geographic location, persistent power shortages, and underdeveloped transportation infrastructure.
"Since the late 1970s, China has moved from a closed, centrally planned system to a more market-oriented one that plays a major global role. China has implemented reforms in a gradualist fashion, resulting in efficiency gains that have contributed to a more than tenfold increase in GDP since 1978. Reforms began with the phase-out of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state enterprises, growth of the private sector, development of stock markets and a modern banking system, and opening to foreign trade and investment. China continues to pursue an industrial policy, state-support of key sectors, and a restrictive investment regime. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis that adjusts for price differences, China in 2016 stood as the largest economy in the world, surpassing the US in 2014 for the first time in modern history. China became the world's largest exporter in 2010, and the largest trading nation in 2013. Still, China's per capita income is below the world average.

After keeping its currency tightly linked to the US dollar for years, China in July 2005 moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. From mid-2005 to late 2008, the renminbi appreciated more than 20% against the US dollar, but the exchange rate remained virtually pegged to the dollar from the onset of the global financial crisis until June 2010, when Beijing allowed resumption of a gradual liberalization. In 2015, the People’s Bank of China announced it would continue to carefully push for full convertibility of the renminbi after the currency was accepted as part of the IMF’s special drawing rights basket. After engaging in one-way, large-scale intervention to resist appreciation of the RMB for a decade, China’s 2016 intervention in foreign exchange markets has sought to prevent a rapid RMB depreciation that would have negative consequences for the United States, China, and the global economy.

China’s economic growth has slowed since 2011. The Chinese Government faces numerous economic challenges including: (a) reducing its high domestic savings rate and correspondingly low domestic household consumption; (b) servicing its high corporate debt burdens to maintain financial stability (c) facilitating higher-wage job opportunities for the aspiring middle class, including rural migrants and college graduates, while maintaining competitiveness; (d) dampening speculative investment in the real estate sector; (e) reducing industrial overcapacity; and (f) raising productivity growth rates through the more efficient allocation of capital. Economic development has progressed further in coastal provinces than in the interior, and by 2016 more than 169.3 million migrant workers and their dependents had relocated to urban areas to find work. One consequence of China’s population control policy known as the “one-child policy”—which was relaxed in 2016 to permit all families to have two children-- is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. Deterioration in the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially in the North - is another long-term problem. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and urbanization. The Chinese government is seeking to add energy production capacity from sources other than coal and oil, focusing on natural gas, nuclear, and clean energy development. In 2016, China ratified the Paris Agreement, a multilateral agreement to combat climate change, and committed to peak its carbon dioxide emissions between 2025 and 2030.

The government's 13th Five-Year Plan, unveiled in March 2016, emphasizes the need to increase innovation and boost domestic consumption to make the economy less dependent on government investment, exports, and heavy industry. However, China has made only marginal progress toward these rebalancing goals. Under President XI Jinping, Beijing has signaled its understanding that China's long-term economic health depends on giving the market a more decisive role in allocating resources, but has moved slowly on market-oriented reforms because of potential negative consequences for stability and short-term economic growth. He has also increased state-control over key sectors and Party control over State Owned Enterprises. Chinese leaders in 2010 pledged to double China’s GDP by 2020, and the 13th Five Year Plan includes annual economic growth targets of at least 6.5% through 2020 to achieve that goal. In recent years, China has renewed its support for state-owned enterprises in sectors considered important to ""economic security,"" explicitly looking to foster globally competitive industries. Chinese leaders also have undermined some market-oriented reforms by reaffirming the “dominant” role of the state in the economy, a stance that threatens to discourage private initiative and make the economy less efficient over time.
"
GDP (purchasing power parity)$71.52 billion (2016 est.)
$71.12 billion (2015 est.)
$69.24 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$21.14 trillion (2016 est.)
$19.82 trillion (2015 est.)
$18.34 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate0.6% (2016 est.)
2.7% (2015 est.)
6% (2014 est.)
6.7% (2016 est.)
6.9% (2015 est.)
7.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$2,500 (2016 est.)
$2,500 (2015 est.)
$2,500 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$14,600 (2016 est.)
$14,500 (2015 est.)
$13,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 32%
industry: 14%
services: 54% (FY 2016 est.)
agriculture: 8.6%
industry: 39.8%
services: 51.6%
(2016 est.)
Population below poverty line25.2% (2011 est.)
3.3%
note: in 2011, China set a new poverty line at RMB 2300 (approximately US $400)
(2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 29.5% (2011)
lowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 31.4%
note: data are for urban households only (2012)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)9.9% (FY 2016 est.)
7.2% (FY 2015 est.)
2% (2016 est.)
1.4% (2015 est.)
Labor force15.6 million
note: severe lack of skilled labor (2014 est.)
907.5 million
note: by the end of 2012, China's population at working age (15-64 years) was 1.004 billion (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 69%
industry: 12%
services: 19% (2014 est.)
agriculture: 28.3%
industry: 29.3%
services: 42.4%
(2015 est.)
Unemployment rate3.3% (2013 est.)
2.7% (2008 est.)
4% (2016 est.)
4.1% (2015 est.)
note: data are for registered urban unemployment, which excludes private enterprises and migrants
Distribution of family income - Gini index32.8 (2010)
47.2 (2008 est.)
46.5 (2016 est.)
46.2 (2015 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $4.976 billion
expenditures: $5.596 billion (FY2016 est.)
revenues: $2.3 trillion
expenditures: $2.708 trillion (2016 est.)
Industriestourism, carpets, textiles; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarettes, cement and brick production
world leader in gross value of industrial output; mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products (including footwear, toys, and electronics); food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites
Industrial production growth rate-6.3% (2016 est.)
6% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productspulses, rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, jute, root crops; milk, water buffalo meat
world leader in gross value of agricultural output; rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, apples, cotton, pork, mutton, eggs; fish, shrimp
Exports$604.7 million (FY2016 est.)
$866.5 million (FY2015 est.)
$2.098 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.143 trillion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesclothing, pulses, carpets, textiles, juice, jute goods
electrical and other machinery, including data processing equipment, apparel, furniture, textiles, integrated circuits
Exports - partnersIndia 58.6%, US 10%, Germany 4% (1 January - 30 October 2016)
US 18%, Hong Kong 14.6%, Japan 6%, South Korea 4.5% (2015)
Imports$6.667 billion (FY2016 est.)
$7.886 billion (FY2015 est.)
$1.587 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.576 trillion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiespetroleum products, machinery and equipment, gold, electrical goods, medicine
electrical and other machinery, oil and mineral fuels; nuclear reactor, boiler, and machinery components; optical and medical equipment, metal ores, motor vehicles; soybeans
Imports - partnersIndia 61.5%, China 15.4% (1 January - 30 October 2016)
South Korea 10.9%, US 9%, Japan 8.9%, Germany 5.5%, Australia 4.1% (2015)
Debt - external$3.578 billion (FY 2016 est.)
$3.273 billion (FY 2015 est.)
$1.421 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.418 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesNepalese rupees (NPR) per US dollar -
108.8 (2016 est.)
102.41 (2015 est.)
102.41 (2014 est.)
99.53 (2013 est.)
85.2 (2012 est.)
Renminbi yuan (RMB) per US dollar -
6.626 (2016 est.)
6.2275 (2015 est.)
6.2275 (2014 est.)
6.1958 (2013 est.)
6.3123 (2012 est.)
Fiscal year16 July - 15 July
calendar year
Public debt27.6% of GDP (FY 2016 est.)
25.7% of GDP (FY 2015 est.)
16.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: official data; data cover both central government debt and local government debt, which China's National Audit Office estimated at RMB 10.72 trillion (approximately US$1.66 trillion) in 2011; data exclude policy bank bonds, Ministry of Railway debt, China Asset Management Company debt, and non-performing loans
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$10.17 billion (30 October 2016 est.)
$8.88 billion (30 October 2015 est.)
$3.01 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.405 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$1.339 billion (2016 est.)
$1.067 billion (2015 est.)
$196.4 billion (2016 est.)
$304.2 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$21.15 billion (2016 est.)
$10.73 trillion (2016 est.)
note: because China's exchange rate is determined by fiat rather than by market forces, the official exchange rate measure of GDP is not an accurate measure of China's output; GDP at the official exchange rate substantially understates the actual level of China's output vis-a-vis the rest of the world; in China's situation, GDP at purchasing power parity provides the best measure for comparing output across countries
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$103 million (31 July 2013 est.)
$1.458 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.221 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$NA
$1.317 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.096 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$14.03 billion (30 April 2016 est.)
$11.81 billion (31 October 2015 est.)
$9.574 billion (31 October 2014 est.)
$7.321 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.188 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.005 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate7% (30 October 2016)
7% (30 October 2015)
2.25% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.25% (31 December 2015 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate8.6% (30 October 2016 est.)
9.5% (30 October 2015 est.)
4.35% (31 December 2016 est.)
4.35% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$16.87 billion (30 October 2016 est.)
$14.36 billion (30 October 2015 est.)
$15.37 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14.47 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$5.051 billion (30 October 2016 est.)
$4.348 billion (30 October 2015 est.)
$7.015 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.175 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$22.16 billion (30 October 2016 est.)
$18.72 billion (30 October 2015 est.)
$22.35 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$21.44 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues23.5% of GDP (FY2016 est.)
21.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.9% of GDP (FY2016 est.)
-3% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 82%
government consumption: 10.9%
investment in fixed capital: 25%
investment in inventories: 8.9%
exports of goods and services: 10.7%
imports of goods and services: -37.5% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 37.1%
government consumption: 14%
investment in fixed capital: 43.7%
investment in inventories: 1.6%
exports of goods and services: 22%
imports of goods and services: 18.5% (2015 est.)
Gross national saving42.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
43.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
45.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
46% of GDP (2016 est.)
47.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
49.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

NepalChina
Electricity - production3.342 billion kWh (FY 2016 est.)
6.142 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption3.746 billion kWh (FY 2016 est.)
5.92 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports3.25 million kWh (FY 2016 est.)
18.91 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports1.758 billion kWh (FY 2016 est.)
6.185 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
3.983 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
7.599 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
58,650 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
25 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
6 billion cu m (31 December 2016 )
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
150 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
224 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
3.918 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
75.1 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity855,900 kW (FY 2016 est.)
1.646 billion kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels6.2% of total installed capacity (FY 2016 est.)
64% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants93.8% of total installed capacity (FY 2016 est.)
20.2% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (FY 2016 est.)
2% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (FY 2016 est.)
13.7% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
10.35 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption27,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
11.12 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
593,400 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports25,870 bbl/day (2013 est.)
600,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy4.2 million Mt (2013 est.)
9.135 billion Mt (2014 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 6,600,000
electrification - total population: 76%
electrification - urban areas: 97%
electrification - rural areas: 72% (2013)
population without electricity: 1,200,000
electrification - total population: 99.9%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 99.8% (2016)

Telecommunications

NepalChina
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 846,940
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 230.996 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 27.516 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 87 (July 2015 est.)
total: 1,305.738 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 95 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: fair radiotelephone communication service and mobile-cellular telephone network
domestic: mobile service has been extended to all 75 districts covering 90% of Nepal’s land area
international: country code - 977; radiotelephone communications; microwave and fiber landlines to India; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2016)
general assessment: domestic and international services are available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns; China continues to develop its telecommunications infrastructure; China in the summer of 2008 began a major restructuring of its telecommunications industry, resulting in the consolidation of its 6 telecom service operators to 3, China Telecom, China Mobile, and China Unicom, each providing both fixed-line and mobile services
domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; the number of Internet users now over 50% of the population; a domestic satellite system with several earth stations is in place
international: country code - 86; a number of submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean; 1 Intersputnik - Indian Ocean region; and 1 Inmarsat - Pacific and Indian Ocean regions) (2012)
Internet country code.np
.cn
Internet userstotal: 12.293 million
percent of population: 42.3% (2016)
total: 687.845 million
percent of population: 50.3% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate operates 3 TV stations, as well as national and regional radio stations; 88 independent TV channels are registered with only 25 in regular operation; 672 FM radio stations are licensed with 588 operational (2016)
all broadcast media are owned by, or affiliated with, the Communist Party of China or a government agency; no privately owned TV or radio stations; state-run Chinese Central TV, provincial, and municipal stations offer more than 2,000 channels; the Central Propaganda Department lists subjects that are off limits to domestic broadcast media with the government maintaining authority to approve all programming; foreign-made TV programs must be approved prior to broadcast; increasingly, Chinese turn to online television to access Chinese and international films and television shows (2017)

Transportation

NepalChina
Railwaystotal: 53 km
narrow gauge: 53 km 0.762-m gauge (2014)
total: 124,000 km
standard gauge: 124,000 km 1.435-m gauge (80,000 km electrified); 102,000 traditional, 22,000 high-speed (2017)
Roadwaystotal: 27,990 km
paved: 11,890 km
unpaved: 16,100 km (2016)
total: 4,577,300 km
paved: 4,046,300 km (includes 123,500 km of expressways)
unpaved: 531,000 km (2015)
Airports47 (2013)
507 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 11
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 463
over 3,047 m: 71
2,438 to 3,047 m: 158
1,524 to 2,437 m: 123
914 to 1,523 m: 25
under 914 m: 86 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 29 (2013)
total: 44
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 18 (2013)

Military

NepalChina
Military branchesNepal Army (2012)
People's Liberation Army (PLA): Army, Navy (PLAN, includes marines and naval aviation), Air Force (Zhongguo Renmin Jiefangjun Kongjun, PLAAF, includes airborne forces), Rocket Force (strategic missile force), and Strategic Support Force (space and cyber forces); People's Armed Police (Renmin Wuzhuang Jingcha Budui, PAP); PLA Reserve Force (2016)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2014)
18-24 years of age for selective compulsory military service, with a 2-year service obligation; no minimum age for voluntary service (all officers are volunteers); 18-19 years of age for women high school graduates who meet requirements for specific military jobs; a recent military decision allows women in combat roles; the first class of women warship commanders was in 2011 (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.59% of GDP (2016)
1.51% of GDP (2015)
1.59% of GDP (2014)
1.54% of GDP (2013)
1.43% of GDP (2012)
1.3% of GDP (2017 est)
1.28% of GDP (2016)
1.95% of GDP (2015)
1.9% of GDP (2014)
1.85% of GDP (2013)

Transnational Issues

NepalChina
Disputes - internationaljoint border commission continues to work on contested sections of boundary with India, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India has instituted a stricter border regime to restrict transit of illegal cross-border activities
continuing talks and confidence-building measures work toward reducing tensions over Kashmir that nonetheless remains militarized with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; China and India continue their security and foreign policy dialogue started in 2005 related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, and other matters; China claims most of India's Arunachal Pradesh to the base of the Himalayas; lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and China continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes arising from substantial cartographic discrepancies, the largest of which lie in Bhutan's northwest and along the Chumbi salient; Burmese forces attempting to dig in to the largely autonomous Shan State to rout local militias tied to the drug trade, prompts local residents to periodically flee into neighboring Yunnan Province in China; Chinese maps show an international boundary symbol off the coasts of the littoral states of the South China Seas, where China has interrupted Vietnamese hydrocarbon exploration; China asserts sovereignty over Scarborough Reef along with the Philippines and Taiwan, and over the Spratly Islands together with Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Brunei; the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea eased tensions in the Spratlys but is not the legally binding code of conduct sought by some parties; Vietnam and China continue to expand construction of facilities in the Spratlys and in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord on marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands;
China occupies some of the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; the Japanese-administered Senkaku Islands are also claimed by China and Taiwan; certain islands in the Yalu and Tumen Rivers are in dispute with North Korea; North Korea and China seek to stem illegal migration to China by North Koreans, fleeing privations and oppression, by building a fence along portions of the border and imprisoning North Koreans deported by China; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with their 2004 Agreement; China and Tajikistan have begun demarcating the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; citing environmental, cultural, and social concerns, China has reconsidered construction of 13 dams on the Salween River, but energy-starved Burma, with backing from Thailand, remains intent on building five hydro-electric dams downstream despite regional and international protests
Chinese and Hong Kong authorities met in March 2008 to resolve ownership and use of lands recovered in Shenzhen River channelization, including 96-hectare Lok Ma Chau Loop
Illicit drugsillicit producer of cannabis and hashish for the domestic and international drug markets; transit point for opiates from Southeast Asia to the West
major transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle region of Southeast Asia; growing domestic consumption of synthetic drugs, and heroin from Southeast and Southwest Asia; source country for methamphetamine and heroin chemical precursors, despite new regulations on its large chemical industry; more people believed to be convicted and executed for drug offences than anywhere else in the world, according to NGOs (2008)
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 13,509 (Tibet/China) (2016); 9,804 (Bhutan) (2017)
IDPs: 50,000 (remaining from ten-year Maoist insurgency that officially ended in 2006; figure does not include people displaced since 2007 by inter-communal violence and insecurity in the Terai region; 2015 earthquakes) (2016)
stateless persons: undetermined (2016); note - the UNHCR is working with the Nepali Government to address the large number of individuals lacking citizenship certificates in Nepal; smaller numbers of Bhutanese Hindu refugees of Nepali origin (the Lhotshampa) who were stripped of Bhutanese nationality and forced to flee their country in the late 1980s and early 1990s - and undocumented Tibetan refugees who arrived in Nepal prior to the 1990s - are considered stateless
refugees (country of origin): 317,098 (Vietnam); undetermined (North Korea) (2016)
IDPs: undetermined (2014)

Source: CIA Factbook