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Mozambique vs. South Africa

Introduction

MozambiqueSouth Africa
BackgroundAlmost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid-1990s. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between FRELIMO and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando GUEBUZA, served two terms and then passed executive power to Filipe NYUSI in 2014. RENAMO’s residual armed forces have continued to engage in a low-level insurgency since 2012.
"Dutch traders landed at the southern tip of modern day South Africa in 1652 and established a stopover point on the spice route between the Netherlands and the Far East, founding the city of Cape Town. After the British seized the Cape of Good Hope area in 1806, many of the Dutch settlers (Afrikaners, called ""Boers"" (farmers) by the British) trekked north to found their own republics, Transvaal and Orange Free State. The discovery of diamonds (1867) and gold (1886) spurred wealth and immigration and intensified the subjugation of the native inhabitants. The Afrikaners resisted British encroachments but were defeated in the Second South African War (1899-1902); however, the British and the Afrikaners, ruled together beginning in 1910 under the Union of South Africa, which became a republic in 1961 after a whites-only referendum. In 1948, the Afrikaner-dominated National Party was voted into power and instituted a policy of apartheid - the separate development of the races - which favored the white minority at the expense of the black majority. The African National Congress (ANC) led the opposition to apartheid and many top ANC leaders, such as Nelson MANDELA, spent decades in South Africa's prisons. Internal protests and insurgency, as well as boycotts by some Western nations and institutions, led to the regime's eventual willingness to negotiate a peaceful transition to majority rule. The first multi-racial elections in 1994 following the end of apartheid ushered in majority rule under an ANC-led government. South Africa has since struggled to address apartheid-era imbalances in decent housing, education, and health care. ANC infighting came to a head in 2008 when President Thabo MBEKI was recalled by Parliament, and Deputy President Kgalema MOTLANTHE, succeeded him as interim president. Jacob ZUMA became president after the ANC won general elections in 2009; he was reelected in 2014.
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Geography

MozambiqueSouth Africa
LocationSoutheastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
Southern Africa, at the southern tip of the continent of Africa
Geographic coordinates18 15 S, 35 00 E
29 00 S, 24 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 799,380 sq km
land: 786,380 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
total: 1,219,090 sq km
land: 1,214,470 sq km
water: 4,620 sq km
note: includes Prince Edward Islands (Marion Island and Prince Edward Island)
Area - comparativeslightly more than five times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of California
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 4,783 km
border countries (6): Malawi 1,498 km, South Africa 496 km, Swaziland 108 km, Tanzania 840 km, Zambia 439 km, Zimbabwe 1,402 km
total: 5,244 km
border countries (6): Botswana 1,969 km, Lesotho 1,106 km, Mozambique 496 km, Namibia 1,005 km, Swaziland 438 km, Zimbabwe 230 km
Coastline2,470 km
2,798 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
Climatetropical to subtropical
mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights
Terrainmostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal plain
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 345 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m
mean elevation: 1,034 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Njesuthi 3,408 m
Natural resourcescoal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum, copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas
Land useagricultural land: 56.3%
arable land 6.4%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 49.6%
forest: 43.7%
other: 0% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 79.4%
arable land 9.9%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 69.2%
forest: 7.6%
other: 13% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,180 sq km (2012)
16,700 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardssevere droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces
prolonged droughts
volcanism: the volcano forming Marion Island in the Prince Edward Islands, which last erupted in 2004, is South Africa's only active volcano
Environment - current issuesincreased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem
lack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires extensive water conservation and control measures; growth in water usage outpacing supply; pollution of rivers from agricultural runoff and urban discharge; air pollution resulting in acid rain; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notethe Zambezi River flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country
South Africa completely surrounds Lesotho and almost completely surrounds Swaziland

Demographics

MozambiqueSouth Africa
Population25,930,150
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
54,300,704
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 44.92% (male 5,856,623/female 5,791,519)
15-24 years: 21.51% (male 2,741,474/female 2,835,474)
25-54 years: 27.24% (male 3,301,883/female 3,762,626)
55-64 years: 3.42% (male 425,312/female 462,125)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 345,408/female 407,706) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 28.34% (male 7,718,511/female 7,667,830)
15-24 years: 18.07% (male 4,865,807/female 4,943,707)
25-54 years: 41.44% (male 11,372,944/female 11,130,874)
55-64 years: 6.59% (male 1,662,874/female 1,915,908)
65 years and over: 5.57% (male 1,269,551/female 1,752,698) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 17.1 years
male: 16.5 years
female: 17.7 years (2016 est.)
total: 26.8 years
male: 26.5 years
female: 27 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.45% (2016 est.)
0.99% (2016 est.)
Birth rate38.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
20.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate11.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 67.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 70 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 65.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 32 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 35.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 28.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 53.3 years
male: 52.6 years
female: 54.1 years (2016 est.)
total population: 63.1 years
male: 61.6 years
female: 64.6 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate5.15 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.31 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate10.55% (2015 est.)
19.2% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican
noun: South African(s)
adjective: South African
Ethnic groupsAfrican 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
black African 80.2%, white 8.4%, colored 8.8%, Indian/Asian 2.5%
note: colored is a term used in South Africa, including on the national census, for persons of mixed race ancestry (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS1,505,900 (2015 est.)
6,984,600 (2015 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 28.4%, Muslim 17.9%, Zionist Christian 15.5%, Protestant 12.2% (includes Pentecostal 10.9% and Anglican 1.3%), other 6.7%, none 18.7%, unspecified 0.7% (2007 est.)
Protestant 36.6% (Zionist Christian 11.1%, Pentecostal/Charismatic 8.2%, Methodist 6.8%, Dutch Reformed 6.7%, Anglican 3.8%), Catholic 7.1%, Muslim 1.5%, other Christian 36%, other 2.3%, unspecified 1.4%, none 15.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths39,000 (2015 est.)
182,400 (2015 est.)
LanguagesEmakhuwa 25.3%, Portuguese (official) 10.7%, Xichangana 10.3%, Cisena 7.5%, Elomwe 7%, Echuwabo 5.1%, other Mozambican languages 30.1%, other 0.3%, unspecified 3.7% (2007 est.)
IsiZulu (official) 22.7%, IsiXhosa (official) 16%, Afrikaans (official) 13.5%, English (official) 9.6%, Sepedi (official) 9.1%, Setswana (official) 8%, Sesotho (official) 7.6%, Xitsonga (official) 4.5%, siSwati (official) 2.5%, Tshivenda (official) 2.4%, isiNdebele (official) 2.1%, sign language 0.5%, other 1.6% (2011 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 58.8%
male: 73.3%
female: 45.4% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.3%
male: 95.5%
female: 93.1% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 9 years (2014)
total: 13 years
male: 12 years
female: 13 years (2012)
Education expenditures6.5% of GDP (2013)
6.1% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 32.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.27% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 64.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.59% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 80.6% of population
rural: 37% of population
total: 51.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 19.4% of population
rural: 63% of population
total: 48.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.6% of population
rural: 81.4% of population
total: 93.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.4% of population
rural: 18.6% of population
total: 6.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 42.4% of population
rural: 10.1% of population
total: 20.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 57.6% of population
rural: 89.9% of population
total: 79.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 69.6% of population
rural: 60.5% of population
total: 66.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 30.4% of population
rural: 39.5% of population
total: 33.6% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationMAPUTO (capital) 1.187 million; Matola 937,000 (2015)
Johannesburg (includes Ekurhuleni) 9.399 million; Cape Town (legislative capital) 3.66 million; Durban 2.901 million; PRETORIA (capital) 2.059 million; Port Elizabeth 1.179 million; Vereeniging 1.155 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate489 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
138 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight15.6% (2011)
8.7% (2008)
Health expenditures7% of GDP (2014)
8.8% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
0.77 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate4.5% (2014)
25.6% (2014)
Demographic profileMozambique is a poor, sparsely populated country with high fertility and mortality rates and a rapidly growing youthful population – 45% of the population is younger than 15. Mozambique’s high poverty rate is sustained by natural disasters, disease, high population growth, low agricultural productivity, and the unequal distribution of wealth. The country’s birth rate is among the world’s highest, averaging around more than 5 children per woman (and higher in rural areas) for at least the last three decades. The sustained high level of fertility reflects gender inequality, low contraceptive use, early marriages and childbearing, and a lack of education, particularly among women. The high population growth rate is somewhat restrained by the country’s high HIV/AIDS and overall mortality rates. Mozambique ranks among the worst in the world for HIV/AIDS prevalence, HIV/AIDS deaths, and life expectancy at birth.
Mozambique is predominantly a country of emigration, but internal, rural-urban migration has begun to grow. Mozambicans, primarily from the country’s southern region, have been migrating to South Africa for work for more than a century. Additionally, approximately 1.7 million Mozambicans fled to Malawi, South Africa, and other neighboring countries between 1979 and 1992 to escape from civil war. Labor migrants have usually been men from rural areas whose crops have failed or who are unemployed and have headed to South Africa to work as miners; multiple generations of the same family often become miners. Since the abolition of apartheid in South Africa in 1991, other job opportunities have opened to Mozambicans, including in the informal and manufacturing sectors, but mining remains their main source of employment.
South Africa’s youthful population is gradually aging, as the country’s total fertility rate (TFR) has declined dramatically from about 6 children per woman in the 1960s to roughly 2.2 in 2014. This pattern is similar to fertility trends in South Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa, and sets South Africa apart from the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, where the average TFR remains higher than other regions of the world. Today, South Africa’s decreasing number of reproductive age women is having fewer children, as women increase their educational attainment, workforce participation, and use of family planning methods; delay marriage; and opt for smaller families.
As the proportion of working-age South Africans has grown relative to children and the elderly, South Africa has been unable to achieve a demographic dividend because persistent high unemployment and the prevalence of HIV/AIDs have created a larger-than-normal dependent population. HIV/AIDS was also responsible for South Africa’s average life expectancy plunging to less than 43 years in 2008; it had only rebounded to approximately 50 years as of 2014. HIV/AIDS continues to be a serious public health threat, although awareness-raising campaigns and the wider availability of anti-retroviral drugs is stabilizing the number of new cases, enabling infected individuals to live longer, healthier lives, and reducing mother-child transmissions.
Migration to South Africa began in the second half of the 17th century when traders from the Dutch East India Company settled in the Cape and started using slaves from South and southeast Asia (mainly from India but also from present-day Indonesia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia) and southeast Africa (Madagascar and Mozambique) as farm laborers and, to a lesser extent, as domestic servants. The Indian subcontinent remained the Cape Colony’s main source of slaves in the early 18th century, while slaves were increasingly obtained from southeast Africa in the latter part of the 18th century and into the 19th century under British rule.
After slavery was completely abolished in the British Empire in 1838, South Africa’s colonists turned to temporary African migrants and indentured labor through agreements with India and later China, countries that were anxious to export workers to alleviate domestic poverty and overpopulation. Of the more than 150,000 indentured Indian laborers hired to work in Natal’s sugar plantations between 1860 and 1911, most exercised the right as British subjects to remain permanently (a small number of Indian immigrants came freely as merchants). Because of growing resentment toward Indian workers, the 63,000 indentured Chinese workers who mined gold in Transvaal between 1904 and 1911 were under more restrictive contracts and generally were forced to return to their homeland.
In the late 19th century and nearly the entire 20th century, South Africa’s then British colonies’ and Dutch states’ enforced selective immigration policies that welcomed “assimilable” white Europeans as permanent residents but excluded or restricted other immigrants. Following the Union of South Africa’s passage of a law in 1913 prohibiting Asian and other non-white immigrants and its elimination of the indenture system in 1917, temporary African contract laborers from neighboring countries became the dominant source of labor in the burgeoning mining industries. Others worked in agriculture and smaller numbers in manufacturing, domestic service, transportation, and construction. Throughout the 20th century, at least 40% of South Africa’s miners were foreigners; the numbers peaked at over 80% in the late 1960s. Mozambique, Lesotho, Botswana, and Swaziland were the primary sources of miners, and Malawi and Zimbabwe were periodic suppliers.
Under apartheid, a “two gates” migration policy focused on policing and deporting illegal migrants rather than on managing migration to meet South Africa’s development needs. The exclusionary 1991 Aliens Control Act limited labor recruitment to the highly skilled as defined by the ruling white minority, while bilateral labor agreements provided exemptions that enabled the influential mining industry and, to a lesser extent, commercial farms, to hire temporary, low-paid workers from neighboring states. Illegal African migrants were often tacitly allowed to work for low pay in other sectors but were always under threat of deportation.
The abolishment of apartheid in 1994 led to the development of a new inclusive national identity and the strengthening of the country’s restrictive immigration policy. Despite South Africa’s protectionist approach to immigration, the downsizing and closing of mines, and rising unemployment, migrants from across the continent believed that the country held work opportunities. Fewer African labor migrants were issued temporary work permits and, instead, increasingly entered South Africa with visitors’ permits or came illegally, which drove growth in cross-border trade and the informal job market. A new wave of Asian immigrants has also arrived over the last two decades, many operating small retail businesses.
In the post-apartheid period, increasing numbers of highly skilled white workers emigrated, citing dissatisfaction with the political situation, crime, poor services, and a reduced quality of life. The 2002 Immigration Act and later amendments were intended to facilitate the temporary migration of skilled foreign labor to fill labor shortages, but instead the legislation continues to create regulatory obstacles. Although the education system has improved and brain drain has slowed in the wake of the 2008 global financial crisis, South Africa continues to face skills shortages in several key sectors, such as health care and technology.
South Africa’s stability and economic growth has acted as a magnet for refugees and asylum seekers from nearby countries, despite the prevalence of discrimination and xenophobic violence. Refugees have included an estimated 350,000 Mozambicans during its 1980s civil war and, more recently, several thousand Somalis, Congolese, and Ethiopians. Nearly all of the tens of thousands of Zimbabweans who have applied for asylum in South Africa have been categorized as economic migrants and denied refuge.
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 94.8
youth dependency ratio: 88.2
elderly dependency ratio: 6.5
potential support ratio: 15.3 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 52.1
youth dependency ratio: 44.5
elderly dependency ratio: 7.7
potential support ratio: 13.1 (2015 est.)

Government

MozambiqueSouth Africa
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form: Mozambique
local long form: Republica de Mocambique
local short form: Mocambique
former: Portuguese East Africa
etymology: named for the offshore island of Mozambique; the island was apparently named after Mussa al-BIK, an influential Arab slave trader who set himself up as sultan on the island in the 15th century
"conventional long form: Republic of South Africa
conventional short form: South Africa
former: Union of South Africa
abbreviation: RSA
etymology: self-descriptive name from the country's location on the continent; ""Africa"" is derived from the Roman designation of the area corresponding to present-day Tunisia ""Africa terra,"" which meant ""Land of the Afri"" (the tribe resident in that area), but which eventually came to mean the entire continent
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Government typepresidential republic
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Maputo
geographic coordinates: 25 57 S, 32 35 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Pretoria (administrative capital); Cape Town (legislative capital); Bloemfontein (judicial capital)
geographic coordinates: 25 42 S, 28 13 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
9 provinces; Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Northern Cape, North West, Western Cape
Independence25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
31 May 1910 (Union of South Africa formed from four British colonies: Cape Colony, Natal, Transvaal, and Orange Free State); 31 May 1961 (republic declared); 27 April 1994 (majority rule)
National holidayIndependence Day, 25 June (1975)
Freedom Day, 27 April (1994)
Constitutionprevious 1975, 1990; latest adopted 16 November 2004, effective 21 December 2004; amended 2007; note - amendments drafted in late 2013 were rejected by parliament in late 2015 (2016)
several previous; latest drafted 8 May 1996, approved 4 December 1996, effective 4 February 1997; amended many times, last in 2013 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of Portuguese civil law, and customary law; note - in rural, predominately Muslim villages with no formal legal system, Islamic law may be applied
mixed legal system of Roman-Dutch civil law, English common law, and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015)
head of government: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015); Prime Minister Carlos Agostinho DO ROSARIO (since 17 January 2015); Alberto Clementino Antonio VAQUINA removed from office 9 January 2015
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president elected directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for 2 consecutive terms); election last held on 15 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Filipe NYUSI elected president; percent of vote - Filipe NYUSI (FRELIMO) 57.0%, Afonso DHLAKAMA (RENAMO) 36.6%, Daviz SIMANGO (MDM) 6.4%
chief of state: President Jacob ZUMA (since 9 May 2009); Deputy President Matamela Cyril RAMAPHOSA (since 26 May 2014) note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jacob ZUMA (since 9 May 2009); Deputy President Matamela Cyril RAMAPHOSA (since 26 May 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2019)
election results: Jacob ZUMA (ANC) reelected president by the National Assembly unopposed
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 members representing Mozambicans abroad who are appointed by the elected party; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 15 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 55.9%, RENAMO 32.5%, MDM 8.4%, other 3.3%; seats by party - FRELIMO 144, RENAMO 89, MDM 17
description: bicameral Parliament consists of the National Council of Provinces (90 seats; 10-member delegations appointed by each of the 9 provincial legislatures to serve 5-year terms; note - this council has special powers to protect regional interests, including safeguarding cultural and linguistic traditions among ethnic minorities) and the National Assembly (400 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: National Assembly and National Council of Provinces - last held on 7 May 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: National Council of Provinces - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ANC 60, DA 20, EFF 7, IFP 1, NFP 1, UDM 1; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - ANC 62.2%, DA 22.2%, EFF 6.4%, IFP 2.4%, NFP 1.6%, UDM 1.0%, other 4.2%; seats by party - ANC 249, DA 89, EFF 25, IFP 10, NFP 6, UDM 4, other 17
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 5 judges); Constitutional Council (consists of 7 judges); note - the Higher Council of the Judiciary is responsible for judiciary management and discipline
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and vice president appointed by Mozambique president in consultation with the Higher Council of the Judiciary (CSMJ) and with ratification by the legislature; other judges elected by the legislature; judges serve 5-year renewable terms; Constitutional Council judges appointed - 1 by the president, 5 by the legislature, and 1 by the CSMJ; judges serve 5-year nonrenewable terms
subordinate courts: Administrative Court (capital city only); provincial courts or Tribunais Judicias de Provincia; District Courts or Tribunais Judicias de Districto; customs courts; maritime courts; courts marshal; labor courts; community courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Appeals (consists of the court president, deputy president, and 21 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the chief and deputy chief justices and 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Appeals president and vice-president appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Services Commission (JSC), a 23-member body chaired by the chief justice and includes other judges and judicial executives, members of parliament, practicing lawyers and advocates, a teacher of law, and several members designated by the national president; other Supreme Court judges appointed by the national president on the advice of the JSC and hold office until discharged from active service by terms of an Act of Parliament; Constitutional Court chief and deputy chief justices appointed by the national president after consultation with the JSC and with heads of the National Assembly; other Constitutional Court judges appointed by the national president after consultation with the chief justice and leaders of the National Assembly; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 12-year non-renewable terms or until age 70
subordinate courts: High Courts; Magistrates' Courts; labor courts; land claims courts
Political parties and leadersDemocratic Movement of Mozambique (Movimento Democratico de Mocambique) or MDM [Daviz SIMANGO]
Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Filipe NYUS]
Mozambique National Resistance (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana) or RENAMO [Afonso DHLAKAMA]
African Christian Democratic Party or ACDP [Kenneth MESHOE]
African Independent Congress or AIC [Mandla GALD]
African National Congress or ANC [Jacob ZUMA]
African People's Convention or APC [Themba GODI]
Agang SA [Mike Tshishonga]
Congress of the People or COPE [Mosiuoa LEKOTA]
Democratic Alliance or DA [Mmusi MAIMANE]
Economic Freedom Fighters or EFF [Julius MALEMA]
Freedom Front Plus or FF+ [Pieter GROENEWALD]
Inkatha Freedom Party or IFP [Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI]
National Freedom Party or NFP [Zanele kaMAGWAZA-MSIBI]
Pan-Africanist Congress of Azania or PAC [Luthanado MBINDA]
United Christian Democratic Party or UCDP [Isaac Sipho MFUNDISI]
United Democratic Movement or UDM [Bantu HOLOMISA]
Political pressure groups and leadersMozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTA, president]
Youth Parliament (parlamento Juvenil) [Salomao MUCHANGA]
Congress of South African Trade Unions or COSATU [Sdumo DLAMINI, president]
South African Communist Party or SACP [Blade NZIMANDE, general secretary]
South African National Civic Organization or SANCO [Richard MDAKANE, national president]
note: COSATU and SACP are in a formal alliance with the African National Congress
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, CPLP, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, BIS, BRICS, C, CD, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, NSG, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Carlos dos SANTOS (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
chief of mission: Ambassador Mninwa Johannes MAHLANGU (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 232-4400 [1] (202) 232-4400
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1607
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador H. Dean PITTMAN (since 18 February 2016)
embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
mailing address: P.O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone: [258] (21) 49 2797
FAX: [258] (21) 49 0114
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jessica LAPENN (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: 877 Pretorius Street, Arcadia, Pretoria
mailing address: P.O. Box 9536, Pretoria 0001
telephone: [27] (12) 431-4000
FAX: [27] (12) 342-2299
consulate(s) general: Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book; green represents the riches of the land, white peace, black the African continent, yellow the country's minerals, and red the struggle for independence; the rifle symbolizes defense and vigilance, the hoe refers to the country's agriculture, the open book stresses the importance of education, and the star represents Marxism and internationalism
note: one of only two national flags featuring a firearm, the other is Guatemala
"two equal width horizontal bands of red (top) and blue separated by a central green band that splits into a horizontal Y, the arms of which end at the corners of the hoist side; the Y embraces a black isosceles triangle from which the arms are separated by narrow yellow bands; the red and blue bands are separated from the green band and its arms by narrow white stripes; the flag colors do not have any official symbolism, but the Y stands for the ""convergence of diverse elements within South African society, taking the road ahead in unity""; black, yellow, and green are found on the flag of the African National Congress, while red, white, and blue are the colors in the flags of the Netherlands and the UK, whose settlers ruled South Africa during the colonial era
note: the South African flag is one of only two national flags to display six colors as part of its primary design, the other is South Sudan's
"
National anthem"name: ""Patria Amada"" (Lovely Fatherland)
lyrics/music: Salomao J. MANHICA/unknown
note: adopted 2002
"
"name: ""National Anthem of South Africa""
lyrics/music: Enoch SONTONGA and Cornelius Jacob LANGENHOVEN/Enoch SONTONGA and Marthinus LOURENS de Villiers
note: adopted 1994; a combination of ""N'kosi Sikelel' iAfrica"" (God Bless Africa) and ""Die Stem van Suid Afrika"" (The Call of South Africa), which were respectively the anthems of the non-white and white communities under apartheid; official lyrics contain a mixture of Xhosa, Zulu, Sesotho, Afrikaans, and English (i.e., the five most widely spoken of South Africa's 11 official languages); music incorporates the melody used in the Tanzanian and Zambian anthems
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)national colors: green, black, yellow, white, red
springbok (antelope), king protea flower; national colors: red, green, blue, yellow, black, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Mozambique
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of South Africa
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission of the government
residency requirement for naturalization: 1 year

Economy

MozambiqueSouth Africa
Economy - overviewAt independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist policies, economic mismanagement, and a brutal civil war from 1977 to 1992 further impoverished the country. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, propelled the country’s GDP from $4 billion in 1993, following the war, to about $35 billion in 2016. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities.

In spite of these gains, more than half the population remains below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's work force. Citizens rioted in September 2010 after fuel, water, electricity, and bread price increases were announced. In an attempt to lessen the negative impact on the population, the government implemented subsidies, decreased taxes and tariffs, and instituted other fiscal measures.

A substantial trade imbalance persists, although aluminum production from the Mozal Aluminum Smelter has significantly boosted export earnings in recent years. In 2012, the Mozambican Government took over Portugal's last remaining share in the Cahora Bassa Hydroelectricity Company, a significant contributor to the Southern African Power Pool. The government has plans to expand the Cahora Bassa Dam and build additional dams to increase its electricity exports and fulfill the needs of its burgeoning domestic industries.

Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt was reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives. However, in 2016, information surfaced revealing that the Mozambican Government was responsible for over $2 billion in government-backed loans originally secured between 2012-2014 by state-owned defense and security companies without parliamentary approval or national budget inclusion, which prompted the IMF and international donors to halt direct budget support to the Government of Mozambique. This sizable external debt burden, donor withdrawal, elevated inflation, and currency depreciation contributed to weak growth in 2016 and forebode weaker economic growth in the next few years.

Mozambique grew at an average annual rate of 6%-8% in the decade leading up to 2015, one of Africa's strongest performances, but growth slowed in 2016 to about 3.5% as low commodity prices reduced export earnings. However, many forecasts predict an increase in growth in 2017 as coal exports grow. Two major international consortiums are seeking approval to develop massive natural gas deposits off the coast of Cabo Delgado province, in what has the potential to become the largest infrastructure project in Africa. The government predicts sales of liquefied natural gas from these projects could generate several billion dollars in revenues annually sometime after 2022.
South Africa is a middle-income emerging market with an abundant supply of natural resources; well-developed financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors; and a stock exchange that is Africa’s largest and among the top 20 in the world.

Economic growth has decelerated in recent years, slowing to an estimated 0.3% in 2016. Unemployment, poverty, and inequality - among the highest in the world - remain a challenge. Official unemployment is roughly 26% of the workforce, and runs significantly higher among black youth. Even though the country's modern infrastructure supports a relatively efficient distribution of goods to major urban centers throughout the region, unstable electricity supplies retard growth. Eskom, the state-run power company, is building three new power stations and is installing new power demand management programs to improve power grid reliability; in late 2016 they issued a request for bids to revamp South Africa’s nuclear power generating capabilities. Load shedding and resulting rolling blackouts gripped many parts of South Africa in late 2014 and early 2015 because of electricity supply constraints due to technical problems at some generation units, unavoidable planned maintenance, and an accident at a power station.

South Africa's economic policy has focused on controlling inflation; however, the country faces structural constraints that also limit economic growth, such as skills shortages, declining global competitiveness, and frequent work stoppages due to strike action. The government faces growing pressure from urban constituencies to improve the delivery of basic services to low-income areas, to increase job growth, and to provide university level-education at affordable prices. Political infighting among South Africa’s ruling party and the volatility of the Rand risks economic growth. International investors are concerned about the country’s long-term economic stability; as of December 2016, most major international credit ratings agencies placed South Africa only one level above junk bond status.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$35.01 billion (2016 est.)
$33.79 billion (2015 est.)
$31.7 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$739.1 billion (2016 est.)
$735.4 billion (2015 est.)
$726.3 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.6% (2016 est.)
6.6% (2015 est.)
7.4% (2014 est.)
0.5% (2016 est.)
1.3% (2015 est.)
1.6% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$1,200 (2016 est.)
$1,200 (2015 est.)
$1,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$13,500 (2016 est.)
$13,400 (2015 est.)
$13,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 25.3%
industry: 19.8%
services: 54.9% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 2.2%
industry: 29.2%
services: 68.7% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line46.1% (2015 est.)
16.6% (2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 36.7% (2008)
lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 51.3% (2011 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)17.1% (2016 est.)
3.6% (2015 est.)
6.5% (2016 est.)
4.5% (2015 est.)
Labor force13.31 million (2016 est.)
21.7 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 81%
industry: 6%
services: 13% (1997 est.)
agriculture: 4.6%
industry: 23.5%
services: 71.9% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate22.4% (2014 est.)
17% (2007 est.)
26.8% (2016 est.)
25.4% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index45.6 (2008)
47.3 (2002)
62.5 (2013 est.)
63.4 (2011 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $2.554 billion
expenditures: $3.609 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $76.62 billion
expenditures: $86.45 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesaluminum, petroleum products, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco, food, beverages
mining (world's largest producer of platinum, gold, chromium), automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textiles, iron and steel, chemicals, fertilizer, foodstuffs, commercial ship repair
Industrial production growth rate2.1% (2016 est.)
-1% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (manioc, tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; beef, poultry, mutton, wool, dairy products
Exports$3.132 billion (2016 est.)
$3.413 billion (2015 est.)
$83.16 billion (2016 est.)
$81.63 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesaluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity
gold, diamonds, platinum, other metals and minerals, machinery and equipment
Exports - partnersSouth Africa 21.2%, China 10.6%, Italy 9.4%, India 8.8%, Belgium 8.2%, Spain 4.6% (2015)
China 9.2%, US 7.6%, Germany 6.6%, Namibia 5.1%, Botswana 5.1%, Japan 4.9%, UK 4.1% (2015)
Imports$5.151 billion (2016 est.)
$7.577 billion (2015 est.)
$85.03 billion (2016 est.)
$84.33 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum products, scientific instruments, foodstuffs
Imports - partnersSouth Africa 23.6%, China 19.7%, India 14.2%, Portugal 4% (2015)
China 18.4%, Germany 11.4%, US 7.1%, India 5% (2015)
Debt - external$9.554 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.743 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$129.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$131.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesmeticais (MZM) per US dollar -
62.07 (2016 est.)
39.983 (2015 est.)
39.983 (2014 est.)
31.367 (2013 est.)
28.38 (2012 est.)
rand (ZAR) per US dollar -
15.7 (2016 est.)
12.7581 (2015 est.)
12.7581 (2014 est.)
10.8469 (2013 est.)
8.2 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
1 April - 31 March
Public debt100.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
75.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
43.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
44.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$1.541 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.582 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$44.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$45.91 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$4.386 billion (2016 est.)
-$5.833 billion (2015 est.)
-$9.624 billion (2016 est.)
-$13.95 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$12.05 billion (2016 est.)
$280.4 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$735.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$933.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$942.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate9.5% (17 January 2013)
3.25% (31 December 2010)
5.75% (31 December 2014)
7% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate24.9% (31 December 2016 est.)
14.87% (31 December 2015 est.)
10.6% (31 December 2016 est.)
9.42% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$4.702 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.565 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$209 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$196.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$3.961 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.758 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$99.49 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$91.72 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$7.48 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$7.871 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$172.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$192.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues21.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
27.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-8.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
-3.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 39.4%
male: 40.2%
female: 38.7% (2012 est.)
total: 51.3%
male: 48%
female: 55.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 67.1%
government consumption: 23.2%
investment in fixed capital: 37.4%
investment in inventories: 4.3%
exports of goods and services: 31.3%
imports of goods and services: -63.3% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 58%
government consumption: 19.9%
investment in fixed capital: 20.1%
investment in inventories: 0.5%
exports of goods and services: 34.9%
imports of goods and services: -33.4% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving5% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
29.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
16.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
16.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
15.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

MozambiqueSouth Africa
Electricity - production17 billion kWh (2014 est.)
235 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption12 billion kWh (2014 est.)
212 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports10 billion kWh (2014 est.)
14 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports7.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
11 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
3,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
466,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
15 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves2.832 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
15.01 billion cu m (1 January 2012 es)
Natural gas - production5.6 billion cu m (2014 est.)
950 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption1.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
4.75 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports3.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
3.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity2.6 million kW (2014 est.)
46 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels10.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
90.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants89.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
4.5% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
4.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0.7% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
488,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption19,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
663,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
131,500 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports19,920 bbl/day (2013 est.)
169,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy3.9 million Mt (2013 est.)
482 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 15,700,000
electrification - total population: 39%
electrification - urban areas: 66%
electrification - rural areas: 27% (2013)
population without electricity: 7,700,000
electrification - total population: 85%
electrification - urban areas: 90%
electrification - rural areas: 77% (2013)

Telecommunications

MozambiqueSouth Africa
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 89,292
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 4,131,055
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 20.135 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 80 (July 2015 est.)
total: 85.197 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 159 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: a fair telecommunications system that is shackled with a heavy state presence, lack of competition, and high operating costs and charges
domestic: extremely low fixed-line teledensity contrasts with rapid growth in the mobile-cellular network; 3 mobile-cellular operators provide coverage that now includes all the main cities and key roads; mobile-cellular teledensity now about 80 per 100 persons
international: country code - 258; landing point for the EASSy and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: the system is the best-developed and most modern in Africa
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 165 telephones per 100 persons; consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay links, fiber-optic cable, radiotelephone communication stations, and wireless local loops; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria
international: country code - 27; the SAT-3/WASC and SAFE fiber-optic submarine cable systems connect South Africa to Europe and Asia; the EASSy fiber-optic cable system connects with Europe and North America; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.mz
.za
Internet userstotal: 2.277 million
percent of population: 9% (July 2015 est.)
total: 27.868 million
percent of population: 51.9% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast media1 state-run TV station supplemented by private TV station; Portuguese state TV's African service, RTP Africa, and Brazilian-owned TV Miramar are available; state-run radio provides nearly 100% territorial coverage and broadcasts in multiple languages; a number of privately owned and community-operated stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) operates 4 TV stations, 3 are free-to-air and 1 is pay TV; e.tv, a private station, is accessible to more than half the population; multiple subscription TV services provide a mix of local and international channels; well-developed mix of public and private radio stations at the national, regional, and local levels; the SABC radio network, state-owned and controlled but nominally independent, operates 18 stations, one for each of the 11 official languages, 4 community stations, and 3 commercial stations; more than 100 community-based stations extend coverage to rural areas (2007)

Transportation

MozambiqueSouth Africa
Railwaystotal: 4,787 km
narrow gauge: 4,787 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
total: 20,986 km
standard gauge: 80 km 1.435-m gauge (80 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 19,756 km 1.065-m gauge (8,271 km electrified)
other: 1,150 km (passenger rail, gauge unspecified, 1,115.5 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 31,083 km
paved: 7,365 km
unpaved: 23,718 km (2015)
total: 747,014 km
paved: 158,952 km
unpaved: 588,062 km (2014)
Pipelinesgas 972 km; refined products 278 km (2013)
condensate 94 km; gas 1,293 km; oil 992 km; refined products 1,460 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Beira, Maputo, Nacala
major seaport(s): Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth, Richards Bay, Saldanha Bay
container port(s) (TEUs): Durban (2,712,975)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Mossel Bay
Merchant marinetotal: 2
by type: cargo 2
foreign-owned: 2 (Belgium 2) (2010)
total: 3
by type: petroleum tanker 3
registered in other countries: 19 (Australia 1, Isle of Man 2, Mexico 1, NZ 1, Seychelles 1, Singapore 13) (2010)
Airports98 (2013)
566 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 21
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 4 (2013)
total: 144
over 3,047 m: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 52
914 to 1,523 m: 65
under 914 m: 9 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 77
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 29
under 914 m: 38 (2013)
total: 422
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 31
914 to 1,523 m: 258
under 914 m: 132 (2013)

Military

MozambiqueSouth Africa
Military branchesMozambique Armed Defense Forces (Forcas Armadas de Defesa de Mocambique, FADM): Mozambique Army, Mozambique Navy (Marinha de Guerra de Mocambique, MGM), Mozambique Air Force (Forca Aerea de Mocambique, FAM) (2012)
South African National Defense Force (SANDF): South African Army, South African Navy (SAN), South African Air Force (SAAF), South African Military Health Services (2013)
Military service age and obligationregistration for military service is mandatory for all males and females at 18 years of age; 18-35 years of age for selective compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary service; 2-year service obligation; women may serve as officers or enlisted (2012)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; women are eligible to serve in noncombat roles; 2-year service obligation (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.99% of GDP (2015)
1.02% of GDP (2014)
0.99% of GDP (2013)
0.91% of GDP (2012)
0.91% of GDP (2011)
1.1% of GDP (2015)
1.11% of GDP (2014)
1.12% of GDP (2013)
1.13% of GDP (2012)
1.14% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

MozambiqueSouth Africa
Disputes - internationalSouth Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration
South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration; the governments of South Africa and Namibia have not signed or ratified the text of the 1994 Surveyor's General agreement placing the boundary in the middle of the Orange River
Illicit drugssouthern African transit point for South Asian hashish and heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa); corruption and poor regulatory capability make the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center
transshipment center for heroin, hashish, and cocaine, as well as a major cultivator of marijuana in its own right; cocaine and heroin consumption on the rise; world's largest market for illicit methaqualone, usually imported illegally from India through various east African countries, but increasingly producing its own synthetic drugs for domestic consumption; attractive venue for money launderers given the increasing level of organized criminal and narcotics activity in the region and the size of the South African economy
Refugees and internally displaced personsIDPs: 15,000 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 28,695 (Somalia); 26,156 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 17,776 (Ethiopia); 5,394 (Republic of the Congo) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook