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Mozambique vs. Malawi

Introduction

MozambiqueMalawi
BackgroundAlmost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid-1990s. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between FRELIMO and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando GUEBUZA, served two terms and then passed executive power to Filipe NYUSI in 2014. RENAMO’s residual armed forces have continued to engage in a low-level insurgency since 2012.
Established in 1891, the British protectorate of Nyasaland became the independent nation of Malawi in 1964. After three decades of one-party rule under President Hastings Kamuzu BANDA, the country held multiparty presidential and parliamentary elections in 1994, under a provisional constitution that came into full effect the following year. President Bingu wa MUTHARIKA, elected in 2004 after a failed attempt by the previous president to amend the constitution to permit another term, struggled to assert his authority against his predecessor and subsequently started his own party, the Democratic Progressive Party in 2005. MUTHARIKA was reelected to a second term in 2009. He oversaw some economic improvement in his first term, but was accused of economic mismanagement and poor governance in his second term. He died abruptly in 2012 and was succeeded by vice president, Joyce BANDA, who had earlier started her own party, the People's Party. MUTHARIKA's brother, Peter MUTHARIKA, defeated BANDA in the 2014 election. Population growth, increasing pressure on agricultural lands, corruption, and the scourge of HIV/AIDS pose major problems for Malawi.

Geography

MozambiqueMalawi
LocationSoutheastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
Southern Africa, east of Zambia, west and north of Mozambique
Geographic coordinates18 15 S, 35 00 E
13 30 S, 34 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 799,380 sq km
land: 786,380 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
total: 118,484 sq km
land: 94,080 sq km
water: 24,404 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly more than five times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of California
slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Land boundariestotal: 4,783 km
border countries (6): Malawi 1,498 km, South Africa 496 km, Swaziland 108 km, Tanzania 840 km, Zambia 439 km, Zimbabwe 1,402 km
total: 2,857 km
border countries (3): Mozambique 1,498 km, Tanzania 512 km, Zambia 847 km
Coastline2,470 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
none (landlocked)
Climatetropical to subtropical
sub-tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)
Terrainmostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills, some mountains
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 345 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m
mean elevation: 779 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of the Shire River and international boundary with Mozambique 37 m
highest point: Sapitwa (Mount Mlanje) 3,002 m
Natural resourcescoal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
limestone, arable land, hydropower, unexploited deposits of uranium, coal, and bauxite
Land useagricultural land: 56.3%
arable land 6.4%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 49.6%
forest: 43.7%
other: 0% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 59.2%
arable land 38.2%; permanent crops 1.4%; permanent pasture 19.6%
forest: 34%
other: 6.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,180 sq km (2012)
740 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardssevere droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces
NA
Environment - current issuesincreased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem
deforestation; land degradation; water pollution from agricultural runoff, sewage, industrial wastes; siltation of spawning grounds endangers fish populations
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - notethe Zambezi River flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country
landlocked; Lake Nyasa, some 580 km long, is the country's most prominent physical feature; it contains more fish species than any other lake on earth

Demographics

MozambiqueMalawi
Population25,930,150
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
18,570,321
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 44.92% (male 5,856,623/female 5,791,519)
15-24 years: 21.51% (male 2,741,474/female 2,835,474)
25-54 years: 27.24% (male 3,301,883/female 3,762,626)
55-64 years: 3.42% (male 425,312/female 462,125)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 345,408/female 407,706) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 46.53% (male 4,299,076/female 4,341,129)
15-24 years: 20.49% (male 1,889,240/female 1,915,843)
25-54 years: 27.26% (male 2,512,247/female 2,549,766)
55-64 years: 3.03% (male 268,691/female 294,713)
65 years and over: 2.69% (male 220,608/female 279,008) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 17.1 years
male: 16.5 years
female: 17.7 years (2016 est.)
total: 16.5 years
male: 16.3 years
female: 16.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.45% (2016 est.)
3.32% (2016 est.)
Birth rate38.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
41.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate11.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 67.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 70 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 65.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 44.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 51.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 38 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 53.3 years
male: 52.6 years
female: 54.1 years (2016 est.)
total population: 61.2 years
male: 59.2 years
female: 63.2 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate5.15 children born/woman (2016 est.)
5.54 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate10.55% (2015 est.)
9.11% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican
noun: Malawian(s)
adjective: Malawian
Ethnic groupsAfrican 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
Chewa 34.7%, Lomwe 19.1%, Yao 13.4%, Ngoni 11.8%, Tumbuka 9.4%, Sena 3.6%, Tonga 1.8%, Nyanja 1.1%, Nkhonde 0.8%, other 1.8% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS1,505,900 (2015 est.)
976,300 (2015 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 28.4%, Muslim 17.9%, Zionist Christian 15.5%, Protestant 12.2% (includes Pentecostal 10.9% and Anglican 1.3%), other 6.7%, none 18.7%, unspecified 0.7% (2007 est.)
Protestant 26.9%, Catholic 18.1%, other Christian 41.9%, Muslim 12.5%, other 0.1%, none 0.5% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths39,000 (2015 est.)
26,700 (2015 est.)
LanguagesEmakhuwa 25.3%, Portuguese (official) 10.7%, Xichangana 10.3%, Cisena 7.5%, Elomwe 7%, Echuwabo 5.1%, other Mozambican languages 30.1%, other 0.3%, unspecified 3.7% (2007 est.)
English (official), Chichewa (common), Chinyanja, Chiyao, Chitumbuka, Chilomwe, Chinkhonde, Chingoni, Chisena, Chitonga, Chinyakyusa, Chilambya
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 58.8%
male: 73.3%
female: 45.4% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 65.8%
male: 73%
female: 58.6% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 9 years (2014)
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2011)
Education expenditures6.5% of GDP (2013)
5.6% of GDP (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 32.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.27% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 16.3% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.77% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 80.6% of population
rural: 37% of population
total: 51.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 19.4% of population
rural: 63% of population
total: 48.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 95.7% of population
rural: 89.1% of population
total: 90.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4.3% of population
rural: 10.9% of population
total: 9.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 42.4% of population
rural: 10.1% of population
total: 20.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 57.6% of population
rural: 89.9% of population
total: 79.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 47.3% of population
rural: 39.8% of population
total: 41% of population
unimproved:
urban: 52.7% of population
rural: 60.2% of population
total: 59% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationMAPUTO (capital) 1.187 million; Matola 937,000 (2015)
LILONGWE (capital) 905,000; Blantyre-Limbe 808,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate489 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
634 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight15.6% (2011)
16.7% (2014)
Health expenditures7% of GDP (2014)
11.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
0.02 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
1.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate4.5% (2014)
4.3% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 1,369,080
percentage: 22% (2008 est.)
total number: 993,318
percentage: 26% (2006 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth18.9 years
median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
18.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
Demographic profileMozambique is a poor, sparsely populated country with high fertility and mortality rates and a rapidly growing youthful population – 45% of the population is younger than 15. Mozambique’s high poverty rate is sustained by natural disasters, disease, high population growth, low agricultural productivity, and the unequal distribution of wealth. The country’s birth rate is among the world’s highest, averaging around more than 5 children per woman (and higher in rural areas) for at least the last three decades. The sustained high level of fertility reflects gender inequality, low contraceptive use, early marriages and childbearing, and a lack of education, particularly among women. The high population growth rate is somewhat restrained by the country’s high HIV/AIDS and overall mortality rates. Mozambique ranks among the worst in the world for HIV/AIDS prevalence, HIV/AIDS deaths, and life expectancy at birth.
Mozambique is predominantly a country of emigration, but internal, rural-urban migration has begun to grow. Mozambicans, primarily from the country’s southern region, have been migrating to South Africa for work for more than a century. Additionally, approximately 1.7 million Mozambicans fled to Malawi, South Africa, and other neighboring countries between 1979 and 1992 to escape from civil war. Labor migrants have usually been men from rural areas whose crops have failed or who are unemployed and have headed to South Africa to work as miners; multiple generations of the same family often become miners. Since the abolition of apartheid in South Africa in 1991, other job opportunities have opened to Mozambicans, including in the informal and manufacturing sectors, but mining remains their main source of employment.
Malawi has made great improvements in maternal and child health, but has made less progress in reducing its high fertility rate. In both rural and urban areas, very high proportions of mothers are receiving prenatal care and skilled birth assistance, and most children are being vaccinated. Malawi’s fertility rate, however, has only declined slowly, decreasing from more than 7 children per woman in the 1980s to about 5.5 today. Nonetheless, Malawians prefer smaller families than in the past, and women are increasingly using contraceptives to prevent or space pregnancies. Rapid population growth and high population density is putting pressure on Malawi’s land, water, and forest resources. Reduced plot sizes and increasing vulnerability to climate change, further threaten the sustainability of Malawi’s agriculturally based economy and will worsen food shortages. About 80% of the population is employed in agriculture.
Historically, Malawians migrated abroad in search of work, primarily to South Africa and present-day Zimbabwe, but international migration became uncommon after the 1970s, and most migration in recent years has been internal. During the colonial period, Malawians regularly migrated to southern Africa as contract farm laborers, miners, and domestic servants. In the decade and a half after independence in 1964, the Malawian Government sought to transform its economy from one dependent on small-scale farms to one based on estate agriculture. The resulting demand for wage labor induced more than 300,000 Malawians to return home between the mid-1960s and the mid-1970s. In recent times, internal migration has generally been local, motivated more by marriage than economic reasons.
Contraceptive prevalence rate11.6% (2011)
58.6% (2013)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 94.8
youth dependency ratio: 88.2
elderly dependency ratio: 6.5
potential support ratio: 15.3 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 94.5
youth dependency ratio: 87.9
elderly dependency ratio: 6.7
potential support ratio: 14.9 (2015 est.)

Government

MozambiqueMalawi
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form: Mozambique
local long form: Republica de Mocambique
local short form: Mocambique
former: Portuguese East Africa
etymology: named for the offshore island of Mozambique; the island was apparently named after Mussa al-BIK, an influential Arab slave trader who set himself up as sultan on the island in the 15th century
"conventional long form: Republic of Malawi
conventional short form: Malawi
local long form: Dziko la Malawi
local short form: Malawi
former: British Central African Protectorate, Nyasaland Protectorate, Nyasaland
etymology: named for the East African Maravi Kingdom of the 16th century; the word ""maravi"" means ""fire flames""
"
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Maputo
geographic coordinates: 25 57 S, 32 35 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Lilongwe
geographic coordinates: 13 58 S, 33 47 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
28 districts; Balaka, Blantyre, Chikwawa, Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga, Kasungu, Likoma, Lilongwe, Machinga, Mangochi, Mchinji, Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Neno, Ntcheu, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Nsanje, Ntchisi, Phalombe, Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba
Independence25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
6 July 1964 (from the UK)
National holidayIndependence Day, 25 June (1975)
Independence Day (Republic Day), 6 July (1964)
Constitutionprevious 1975, 1990; latest adopted 16 November 2004, effective 21 December 2004; amended 2007; note - amendments drafted in late 2013 were rejected by parliament in late 2015 (2016)
previous 1953 (preindependence), 1966; latest drafted January to May 1994, approved 16 May 1994, entered into force 18 May 1995; amended several times, last in 2013 (2017)
Legal systemmixed legal system of Portuguese civil law, and customary law; note - in rural, predominately Muslim villages with no formal legal system, Islamic law may be applied
mixed legal system of English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015)
head of government: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015); Prime Minister Carlos Agostinho DO ROSARIO (since 17 January 2015); Alberto Clementino Antonio VAQUINA removed from office 9 January 2015
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president elected directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for 2 consecutive terms); election last held on 15 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Filipe NYUSI elected president; percent of vote - Filipe NYUSI (FRELIMO) 57.0%, Afonso DHLAKAMA (RENAMO) 36.6%, Daviz SIMANGO (MDM) 6.4%
chief of state: President Arthur Peter MUTHARIKA (since 31 May 2014); Vice President Saulos CHILIMA (since 31 May 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Arthur Peter MUTHARIKA (since 31 May 2014); Vice President Saulos CHILIMA (since 31 May 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet named by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2019)
election results: Peter MUTHARIKA elected president; percent of vote - Peter MUTHARIKA (DPP) 36.4%, Lazarus CHAKWERA (MCP) 27.8%, Joyce BANDA (PP) 20.2%, Atupele MULUZI (UDF) 13.7%, other 1.9%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 members representing Mozambicans abroad who are appointed by the elected party; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 15 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 55.9%, RENAMO 32.5%, MDM 8.4%, other 3.3%; seats by party - FRELIMO 144, RENAMO 89, MDM 17
description: unicameral National Assembly (193 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 20-22 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - DPP 22.0%, MCP 17.4%, PP 18.5%, UDF 9.6%, other 2.8%, independent 29.7%; seats by party - DPP 51, MCP 48, PP 26, UDF 14, other 2, independent 52
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 5 judges); Constitutional Council (consists of 7 judges); note - the Higher Council of the Judiciary is responsible for judiciary management and discipline
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and vice president appointed by Mozambique president in consultation with the Higher Council of the Judiciary (CSMJ) and with ratification by the legislature; other judges elected by the legislature; judges serve 5-year renewable terms; Constitutional Council judges appointed - 1 by the president, 5 by the legislature, and 1 by the CSMJ; judges serve 5-year nonrenewable terms
subordinate courts: Administrative Court (capital city only); provincial courts or Tribunais Judicias de Provincia; District Courts or Tribunais Judicias de Districto; customs courts; maritime courts; courts marshal; labor courts; community courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Appeal (consists of the chief justice and at least 3 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly; other judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission, which regulates judicial officers; judges serve until age 65
subordinate courts: High Court; magistrate courts; Industrial Relations Court; district and city traditional or local courts
Political parties and leadersDemocratic Movement of Mozambique (Movimento Democratico de Mocambique) or MDM [Daviz SIMANGO]
Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Filipe NYUS]
Mozambique National Resistance (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana) or RENAMO [Afonso DHLAKAMA]
Alliance for Democracy or AFORD [Godfrey SHAWA]
Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [Peter MUTHARIKA]
Malawi Congress Party or MCP [Lazarus CHAKWERA]
People's Party or PP [Joyce BANDA]
United Democratic Front or UDF [Atupele MULUZI]
Political pressure groups and leadersMozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTA, president]
Youth Parliament (parlamento Juvenil) [Salomao MUCHANGA]
Council for NGOs in Malawi or CONGOMA (human rights, democracy, and development)
Human Rights Consultative Committee or HRCC (human rights)
Malawi Economic Justice Network or MEJN (pro economic growth, development, government accountability)
Malawi Law Society (an umbrella organization of all lawyers in Malawi)
Public Affairs Committee or PAC (promotes democracy, development, peace and unity)
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, CPLP, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Carlos dos SANTOS (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
chief of mission: Ambassador Edward Yakobe SAWERENGERA (since 16 September 2016)
chancery: 2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 721-0270
FAX: [1] (202) 721-0288
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador H. Dean PITTMAN (since 18 February 2016)
embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
mailing address: P.O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone: [258] (21) 49 2797
FAX: [258] (21) 49 0114
chief of mission: Ambassador Virginia E. PALMER (since 5 February 2015)
embassy: 16 Jomo Kenyatta Road, Lilongwe 3
mailing address: P.O. Box 30016, Lilongwe 3, Malawi
telephone: [265] (1) 773-166
FAX: [265] (1) 770-471
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book; green represents the riches of the land, white peace, black the African continent, yellow the country's minerals, and red the struggle for independence; the rifle symbolizes defense and vigilance, the hoe refers to the country's agriculture, the open book stresses the importance of education, and the star represents Marxism and internationalism
note: one of only two national flags featuring a firearm, the other is Guatemala
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with a radiant, rising, red sun centered on the black band; black represents the native peoples, red the blood shed in their struggle for freedom, and green the color of nature; the rising sun represents the hope of freedom for the continent of Africa
National anthem"name: ""Patria Amada"" (Lovely Fatherland)
lyrics/music: Salomao J. MANHICA/unknown
note: adopted 2002
"
"name: ""Mulungu dalitsa Malawi"" (Oh God Bless Our Land of Malawi)
lyrics/music: Michael-Fredrick Paul SAUKA
note: adopted 1964
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)national colors: green, black, yellow, white, red
lion; national colors: black, red, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Mozambique
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Malawi
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Economy

MozambiqueMalawi
Economy - overviewAt independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist policies, economic mismanagement, and a brutal civil war from 1977 to 1992 further impoverished the country. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, propelled the country’s GDP from $4 billion in 1993, following the war, to about $35 billion in 2016. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities.

In spite of these gains, more than half the population remains below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's work force. Citizens rioted in September 2010 after fuel, water, electricity, and bread price increases were announced. In an attempt to lessen the negative impact on the population, the government implemented subsidies, decreased taxes and tariffs, and instituted other fiscal measures.

A substantial trade imbalance persists, although aluminum production from the Mozal Aluminum Smelter has significantly boosted export earnings in recent years. In 2012, the Mozambican Government took over Portugal's last remaining share in the Cahora Bassa Hydroelectricity Company, a significant contributor to the Southern African Power Pool. The government has plans to expand the Cahora Bassa Dam and build additional dams to increase its electricity exports and fulfill the needs of its burgeoning domestic industries.

Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt was reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives. However, in 2016, information surfaced revealing that the Mozambican Government was responsible for over $2 billion in government-backed loans originally secured between 2012-2014 by state-owned defense and security companies without parliamentary approval or national budget inclusion, which prompted the IMF and international donors to halt direct budget support to the Government of Mozambique. This sizable external debt burden, donor withdrawal, elevated inflation, and currency depreciation contributed to weak growth in 2016 and forebode weaker economic growth in the next few years.

Mozambique grew at an average annual rate of 6%-8% in the decade leading up to 2015, one of Africa's strongest performances, but growth slowed in 2016 to about 3.5% as low commodity prices reduced export earnings. However, many forecasts predict an increase in growth in 2017 as coal exports grow. Two major international consortiums are seeking approval to develop massive natural gas deposits off the coast of Cabo Delgado province, in what has the potential to become the largest infrastructure project in Africa. The government predicts sales of liquefied natural gas from these projects could generate several billion dollars in revenues annually sometime after 2022.
Landlocked Malawi ranks among the world's most densely populated and least developed countries. The country’s economic performance has historically been constrained by policy inconsistency, macroeconomic instability, limited connectivity to the region and the world, poor infrastructure, rampant corruption, high population growth, and poor health and education outcomes that limit labor productivity. The economy is predominately agricultural with about 80% of the population living in rural areas. Agriculture accounts for about one-third of GDP and 80% of export revenues. The performance of the tobacco sector is key to short-term growth as tobacco accounts for more than half of exports.

The economy depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF, the World Bank, and individual donor nations. In 2006, Malawi was approved for relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program but recent increases in domestic borrowing mean that debt servicing in 2016 exceeded the levels prior to HIPC debt relief. President MUTHARIKA launched the Public Financial Management and Public Sector reform programs upon taking office in 2014 to increase accountability following the 2013 “Cashgate” scandal.

Heavily dependent on rain-fed agriculture, with corn being the staple crop, Malawi’s economy was hit hard by the El Nino-driven drought in 2015-16. The drought also slowed economic activity, led to two consecutive years of declining economic growth, and contributed to high inflation rates. Following a successful humanitarian response in 2016-2017 providing food assistance to 6.7 million people - 40% of the population - and increased transparency by agricultural parastatals, the economy has stabilized and inflation is dropping.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$35.01 billion (2016 est.)
$33.79 billion (2015 est.)
$31.7 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$21.2 billion (2016 est.)
$20.65 billion (2015 est.)
$20.08 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.6% (2016 est.)
6.6% (2015 est.)
7.4% (2014 est.)
2.7% (2016 est.)
2.8% (2015 est.)
5.7% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$1,200 (2016 est.)
$1,200 (2015 est.)
$1,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1,100 (2016 est.)
$1,100 (2015 est.)
$1,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 25.3%
industry: 19.8%
services: 54.9% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 32%
industry: 17.5%
services: 50.5% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line46.1% (2015 est.)
50.7% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 36.7% (2008)
lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 37.5% (2010 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)17.1% (2016 est.)
3.6% (2015 est.)
21.8% (2016 est.)
21.9% (2015 est.)
Labor force13.31 million (2016 est.)
7 million (2013 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 81%
industry: 6%
services: 13% (1997 est.)
agriculture: 64.1%
industry: 6.7%
services: 29.2% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate22.4% (2014 est.)
17% (2007 est.)
NA%
Distribution of family income - Gini index45.6 (2008)
47.3 (2002)
46.1 (2010)
39.9 (2004)
Budgetrevenues: $2.554 billion
expenditures: $3.609 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $1.03 billion
expenditures: $1.247 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesaluminum, petroleum products, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco, food, beverages
tobacco, tea, sugar, sawmill products, cement, consumer goods
Industrial production growth rate2.1% (2016 est.)
4% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (manioc, tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
tobacco, sugarcane, tea, corn, potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava (manioc, tapioca), sorghum, pulses, cotton, groundnuts, macadamia nuts, coffee; cattle, goats
Exports$3.132 billion (2016 est.)
$3.413 billion (2015 est.)
$1.277 billion (2016 est.)
$1.278 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesaluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity
tobacco 55%, dried legumes (8.8%), sugar (6.7%), tea (5.7%), cotton (2%), peanuts, coffee, soy (2015 est.)
Exports - partnersSouth Africa 21.2%, China 10.6%, Italy 9.4%, India 8.8%, Belgium 8.2%, Spain 4.6% (2015)
Belgium 16.1%, Zimbabwe 12.2%, India 6.7%, US 6.1%, South Africa 6.1%, Russia 5.7%, Germany 4.7% (2015)
Imports$5.151 billion (2016 est.)
$7.577 billion (2015 est.)
$2.578 billion (2016 est.)
$2.607 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
food, petroleum products, semi-manufactures, consumer goods, transportation equipment
Imports - partnersSouth Africa 23.6%, China 19.7%, India 14.2%, Portugal 4% (2015)
South Africa 26%, China 17.5%, India 12.6%, Zambia 7.6%, Tanzania 6.3% (2015)
Debt - external$9.554 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.743 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.921 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.715 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesmeticais (MZM) per US dollar -
62.07 (2016 est.)
39.983 (2015 est.)
39.983 (2014 est.)
31.367 (2013 est.)
28.38 (2012 est.)
Malawian kwachas (MWK) per US dollar -
671.6 (2016 est.)
499.6 (2015 est.)
499.6 (2014 est.)
424.9 (2013 est.)
249.11 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
1 July - 30 June
Public debt100.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
75.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
61.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
54.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$1.541 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.582 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$605.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$693.1 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$4.386 billion (2016 est.)
-$5.833 billion (2015 est.)
-$849 million (2016 est.)
-$605 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$12.05 billion (2016 est.)
$5.474 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$796.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$936.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.341 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate9.5% (17 January 2013)
3.25% (31 December 2010)
24% (25 November 2016)
27% (July 2016)
Commercial bank prime lending rate24.9% (31 December 2016 est.)
14.87% (31 December 2015 est.)
42.88% (December 2016 est.)
44.9% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$4.702 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.565 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$711.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$724.5 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$3.961 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.758 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$550.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$512.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$7.48 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$7.871 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.481 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues21.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-8.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
-4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 39.4%
male: 40.2%
female: 38.7% (2012 est.)
total: 8.6%
male: 9.1%
female: 8.2% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 67.1%
government consumption: 23.2%
investment in fixed capital: 37.4%
investment in inventories: 4.3%
exports of goods and services: 31.3%
imports of goods and services: -63.3% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 75.1%
government consumption: 17.4%
investment in fixed capital: 11.9%
investment in inventories: 2.6%
exports of goods and services: 42.6%
imports of goods and services: -49.6% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving5% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
29.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
-4.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
3% of GDP (2015 est.)
3.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

MozambiqueMalawi
Electricity - production17 billion kWh (2014 est.)
2.1 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption12 billion kWh (2014 est.)
2.1 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports10 billion kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports7.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016)
Natural gas - proved reserves2.832 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2016)
Natural gas - production5.6 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption1.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports3.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity2.6 million kW (2014 est.)
353,100 kW (2017 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels10.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0.7% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants89.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
99.3% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption19,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
7,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports19,920 bbl/day (2013 est.)
6,843 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy3.9 million Mt (2013 est.)
1.9 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 15,700,000
electrification - total population: 39%
electrification - urban areas: 66%
electrification - rural areas: 27% (2013)
population without electricity: 14,900,000
electrification - total population: 9%
electrification - urban areas: 32%
electrification - rural areas: 4% (2013)

Telecommunications

MozambiqueMalawi
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 89,292
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 45,678
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 20.135 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 80 (July 2015 est.)
total: 6.116 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 34 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: a fair telecommunications system that is shackled with a heavy state presence, lack of competition, and high operating costs and charges
domestic: extremely low fixed-line teledensity contrasts with rapid growth in the mobile-cellular network; 3 mobile-cellular operators provide coverage that now includes all the main cities and key roads; mobile-cellular teledensity now about 80 per 100 persons
international: country code - 258; landing point for the EASSy and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: rudimentary; one fixed-line and two mobile-cellular operators govern the market
domestic: limited fixed-line subscribership of about 1 per 100 households; mobile-cellular services are expanding but network coverage is limited and is based around the main urban areas; mobile-cellular subscribership about 45 per 100 households
international: country code - 265; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
Internet country code.mz
.mw
Internet userstotal: 2.277 million
percent of population: 9% (July 2015 est.)
total: 1.67 million
percent of population: 9.3% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast media1 state-run TV station supplemented by private TV station; Portuguese state TV's African service, RTP Africa, and Brazilian-owned TV Miramar are available; state-run radio provides nearly 100% territorial coverage and broadcasts in multiple languages; a number of privately owned and community-operated stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
radio is the main broadcast medium; privately owned Zodiak radio has the widest national broadcasting reach, followed by state-run radio; numerous private and community radio stations broadcast in cities and towns around the country; the largest TV network is government-owned, but at least 4 private TV networks broadcast in urban areas; relays of multiple international broadcasters are available (2017)

Transportation

MozambiqueMalawi
Railwaystotal: 4,787 km
narrow gauge: 4,787 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
total: 767 km
narrow gauge: 767 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 31,083 km
paved: 7,365 km
unpaved: 23,718 km (2015)
total: 15,450 km
paved: 6,951 km
unpaved: 8,499 km (2011)
Waterways460 km (Zambezi River navigable to Tete and along Cahora Bassa Lake) (2010)
700 km (on Lake Nyasa [Lake Malawi] and Shire River) (2010)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Beira, Maputo, Nacala
lake port(s): Chipoka, Monkey Bay, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Chilumba (Lake Nyasa)
Airports98 (2013)
32 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 21
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 4 (2013)
total: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 77
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 29
under 914 m: 38 (2013)
total: 25
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 13 (2013)

Military

MozambiqueMalawi
Military branchesMozambique Armed Defense Forces (Forcas Armadas de Defesa de Mocambique, FADM): Mozambique Army, Mozambique Navy (Marinha de Guerra de Mocambique, MGM), Mozambique Air Force (Forca Aerea de Mocambique, FAM) (2012)
Malawi Defense Forces (MDF): Army (includes Air Wing, Marine Unit) (2012)
Military service age and obligationregistration for military service is mandatory for all males and females at 18 years of age; 18-35 years of age for selective compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary service; 2-year service obligation; women may serve as officers or enlisted (2012)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; high school equivalent required for enlisted recruits and college equivalent for officer recruits; initial engagement is 7 years for enlisted personnel and 10 years for officers (2014)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.99% of GDP (2015)
1.02% of GDP (2014)
0.99% of GDP (2013)
0.91% of GDP (2012)
0.91% of GDP (2011)
0.66% of GDP (2015)
0.89% of GDP (2014)
1.24% of GDP (2013)
0.82% of GDP (2012)
0.66% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

MozambiqueMalawi
Disputes - internationalSouth Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration
dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River; Malawi contends that the entire lake up to the Tanzanian shoreline is its territory, while Tanzania claims the border is in the center of the lake; the conflict was reignited in 2012 when Malawi awarded a license to a British company for oil exploration in the lake
Refugees and internally displaced personsIDPs: 15,000 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 5,444 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2016)
IDPs: 8,463 (floods in 2015) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook