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Morocco vs. Spain

Introduction

MoroccoSpain
BackgroundIn 788, about a century after the Arab conquest of North Africa, a series of Moroccan Muslim dynasties began to rule in Morocco. In the 16th century, the Sa'adi monarchy, particularly under Ahmad al-MANSUR (1578-1603), repelled foreign invaders and inaugurated a golden age. The Alaouite Dynasty, to which the current Moroccan royal family belongs, dates from the 17th century. In 1860, Spain occupied northern Morocco and ushered in a half century of trade rivalry among European powers that saw Morocco's sovereignty steadily erode; in 1912, the French imposed a protectorate over the country. A protracted independence struggle with France ended successfully in 1956. The internationalized city of Tangier and most Spanish possessions were turned over to the new country that same year. Sultan MOHAMMED V, the current monarch's grandfather, organized the new state as a constitutional monarchy and in 1957 assumed the title of king. Since Spain's 1976 withdrawal from what is today called Western Sahara, Morocco has extended its de facto administrative control to roughly 80% of this territory; however, the UN does not recognize Morocco as the administering power for Western Sahara. The UN since 1991 has monitored a cease-fire between Morocco and the Polisario Front - Western Sahara's liberation movement - and leads ongoing negotiations over the status of the territory.
King MOHAMMED VI in early 2011 responded to the spread of pro-democracy protests in the region by implementing a reform program that included a new constitution, passed by popular referendum in July 2011, under which some new powers were extended to parliament and the prime minister but ultimate authority remains in the hands of the monarch. In November 2011, the Justice and Development Party (PJD) - a moderate Islamist party - won the largest number of seats in parliamentary elections, becoming the first Islamist party to lead the Moroccan Government. In September 2015, Morocco held its first ever direct elections for regional councils, one of the reforms included in the 2011 constitution. The PJD again won the largest number of seats in nationwide parliamentary elections in October 2016.
Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World War I and II but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). A peaceful transition to democracy following the death of dictator Francisco FRANCO in 1975, and rapid economic modernization (Spain joined the EU in 1986) gave Spain a dynamic and rapidly growing economy and made it a global champion of freedom and human rights. More recently Spain has emerged from a severe economic recession that began in mid-2008, posting three straight years of GDP growth above the EU average. Unemployment has fallen, but remains high especially among youth. Spain is the Eurozone’s fourth largest economy.

Geography

MoroccoSpain
LocationNorthern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara
Southwestern Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Bay of Biscay, and Pyrenees Mountains; southwest of France
Geographic coordinates32 00 N, 5 00 W
40 00 N, 4 00 W
Map referencesAfrica
Europe
Areatotal: 446,550 sq km
land: 446,300 sq km
water: 250 sq km
total: 505,370 sq km
land: 498,980 sq km
water: 6,390 sq km
note: there are two autonomous cities - Ceuta and Melilla - and 17 autonomous communities including Balearic Islands and Canary Islands, and three small Spanish possessions off the coast of Morocco - Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera
Area - comparativeslightly more than three times the size of New York; slightly larger than California
almost five times the size of Kentucky; slightly more than twice the size of Oregon
Land boundariestotal: 2,362.5 km
border countries (3): Algeria 1,900 km, Western Sahara 444 km, Spain (Ceuta) 8 km, Spain (Melilla) 10.5 km
note: an additional 75-meter border segment exists between Morocco and the Spanish exclave of Penon de Velez de la Gomera
total: 1,952.7 km
border countries (5): Andorra 63 km, France 646 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1,224 km, Morocco (Ceuta) 8 km, Morocco (Melilla) 10.5 km
note: an additional 75-meter border segment exists between Morocco and the Spanish exclave of Penon de Velez de la Gomera
Coastline1,835 km
4,964 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (applies only to the Atlantic Ocean)
ClimateMediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior
temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast
Terrainmountainous northern coast (Rif Mountains) and interior (Atlas Mountains) bordered by large plateaus with intermontane valleys, and fertile coastal plains
large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees Mountains in north
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 909 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Sebkha Tah -55 m
highest point: Jebel Toubkal 4,165 m
mean elevation: 660 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico de Teide (Tenerife) on Canary Islands 3,718 m
Natural resourcesphosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt
coal, lignite, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, tungsten, mercury, pyrites, magnesite, fluorspar, gypsum, sepiolite, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 67.5%
arable land 17.5%; permanent crops 2.9%; permanent pasture 47.1%
forest: 11.5%
other: 21% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 54.1%
arable land 24.9%; permanent crops 9.1%; permanent pasture 20.1%
forest: 36.8%
other: 9.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land14,850 sq km (2012)
38,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsnorthern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes; periodic droughts
periodic droughts, occasional flooding
volcanism: volcanic activity in the Canary Islands, located off Africa's northwest coast; Teide (elev. 3,715 m) has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; La Palma (elev. 2,426 m), which last erupted in 1971, is the most active of the Canary Islands volcanoes; Lanzarote is the only other historically active volcano
Environment - current issuesland degradation/desertification (soil erosion resulting from farming of marginal areas, overgrazing, destruction of vegetation); water supplies contaminated by raw sewage; siltation of reservoirs; oil pollution of coastal waters
pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - notestrategic location along Strait of Gibraltar; the only African nation to have both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines
strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar; Spain controls a number of territories in northern Morocco including the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas
Population distributionthe highest population density is found along the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts; a number of densely populated agglomerations are found scattered through the Atlas Mountains
with the notable exception of Madrid, Sevilla, and Zaragoza, the largest urban agglomerations are found along the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts; numerous smaller cities are spread throughout the interior reflecting Spain's agrarian heritage; dense settlement is found around the capital of Madrid, as well as the port city of Barcelona

Demographics

MoroccoSpain
Population33,655,786 (July 2016 est.)
48,563,476 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 26.08% (male 4,459,511/female 4,319,538)
15-24 years: 17.22% (male 2,882,145/female 2,913,917)
25-54 years: 42.24% (male 6,874,144/female 7,341,892)
55-64 years: 7.89% (male 1,318,302/female 1,337,192)
65 years and over: 6.56% (male 995,620/female 1,213,525) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 15.43% (male 3,854,687/female 3,638,288)
15-24 years: 9.56% (male 2,400,188/female 2,243,311)
25-54 years: 45.24% (male 11,200,786/female 10,771,652)
55-64 years: 11.91% (male 2,820,933/female 2,963,050)
65 years and over: 17.85% (male 3,700,832/female 4,969,749) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 28.9 years
male: 28.3 years
female: 29.5 years (2016 est.)
total: 42.3 years
male: 41.2 years
female: 43.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.99% (2016 est.)
0.84% (2016 est.)
Birth rate18 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate4.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-3.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 22.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 26.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 76.9 years
male: 73.8 years
female: 80.1 years (2016 est.)
total population: 81.7 years
male: 78.7 years
female: 84.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.12 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.49 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.12% (2015 est.)
0.39% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Moroccan(s)
adjective: Moroccan
noun: Spaniard(s)
adjective: Spanish
Ethnic groupsArab-Berber 99%, other 1%
composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS24,300 (2015 est.)
148,900 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 99% (official; virtually all Sunni, <0.1% Shia), other 1% (includes Christian, Jewish, and Baha'i); note - Jewish about 6,000 (2010 est.)
Roman Catholic 67.8%, atheist 9.1%, other 2.2%, non-believer 18.4%, unspecified 2.5% (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths900 (2015 est.)
1,200 (2015 est.)
LanguagesArabic (official), Berber languages (Tamazight (official), Tachelhit, Tarifit), French (often the language of business, government, and diplomacy)
Castilian Spanish (official nationwide) 74%, Catalan (official in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and the Valencian Community (where it is known as Valencian)) 17%, Galician (official in Galicia) 7%, Basque (official in the Basque Country and in the Basque-speaking area of Navarre) 2%, Aranese (official in the northwest corner of Catalonia (Vall d'Aran) along with Catalan; <5,000 speakers)
note: Aragonese, Aranese Asturian, Basque, Calo, Catalan, Galician, and Valencian are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 68.5%
male: 78.6%
female: 58.8% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.1%
male: 98.7%
female: 97.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 12 years
male: 13 years
female: 12 years (2012)
total: 18 years
male: 18 years
female: 18 years (2015)
Education expenditures5.3% of GDP (2009)
4.3% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 60.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.26% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 79.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.52% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 98.7% of population
rural: 65.3% of population
total: 85.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.3% of population
rural: 34.7% of population
total: 14.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 84.1% of population
rural: 65.5% of population
total: 76.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 15.9% of population
rural: 34.5% of population
total: 23.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.8% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 99.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.2% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0.1% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationCasablanca 3.515 million; RABAT (capital) 1.967 million; Fes 1.172 million; Marrakech 1.134 million; Tangier 982,000 (2015)
MADRID (capital) 6.199 million; Barcelona 5.258 million; Valencia 810,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate121 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
5 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures5.9% of GDP (2014)
9% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.62 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
3.82 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density0.9 beds/1,000 population (2012)
3.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate21.7% (2014)
26.5% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 50.1
youth dependency ratio: 40.9
elderly dependency ratio: 9.3
potential support ratio: 10.8 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 50.8
youth dependency ratio: 22.4
elderly dependency ratio: 28.3
potential support ratio: 3.5 (2015 est.)

Government

MoroccoSpain
Country name"conventional long form: Kingdom of Morocco
conventional short form: Morocco
local long form: Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah
local short form: Al Maghrib
etymology: the English name ""Morocco"" derives from, respectively, the Spanish and Portuguese names ""Marruecos"" and ""Marrocos,"" which stem from ""Marrakesh"" the Latin name for the former capital of ancient Morocco; the Arabic name ""Al Maghrib"" translates as ""The West""
"
"conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain
conventional short form: Spain
local long form: Reino de Espana
local short form: Espana
etymology: derivation of the name ""Espana"" is uncertain, but may come from the Phoenician term ""span,"" related to the word ""spy,"" meaning ""to forge metals,"" so, ""i-spn-ya"" would mean ""place where metals are forged""; the ancient Phoenicians long exploited the Iberian Peninsula for its mineral wealth
"
Government typeparliamentary constitutional monarchy
parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Capitalname: Rabat
geographic coordinates: 34 01 N, 6 49 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in September
name: Madrid
geographic coordinates: 40 24 N, 3 41 W
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
note: Spain has two time zones including the Canary Islands
Administrative divisions11 regions (recognized); Beni Mellal-Khenifra, Casablanca-Settat, Draa-Tafilalet, Fes-Meknes, Guelmim-Oued Noun, Laayoune-Sakia al Hamra, Oriental, Marrakech-Safi, Rabat-Sale-Kenitra, Souss-Massa, Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
note: Morocco claims the territory of Western Sahara, the political status of which is considered undetermined by the US Government; portions of the regions Guelmim-Oued Noun and Laayoune-Sakia al Hamra as claimed by Morocco lie within Western Sahara; Morocco also claims a 12th region, Dakhla-Oued ed Dahab, that falls entirely within Western Sahara
17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma) and 2 autonomous cities* (ciudades autonomas, singular - ciudad autonoma); Andalucia; Aragon; Asturias; Canarias (Canary Islands); Cantabria; Castilla-La Mancha; Castilla-Leon; Cataluna (Castilian), Catalunya (Catalan), Catalonha (Aranese) [Catalonia]; Ceuta*; Comunidad Valenciana (Castilian), Comunitat Valenciana (Valencian) [Valencian Community]; Extremadura; Galicia; Illes Baleares (Balearic Islands); La Rioja; Madrid; Melilla*; Murcia; Navarra (Castilian), Nafarroa (Basque) [Navarre]; Pais Vasco (Castilian), Euskadi (Basque) [Basque Country]
note: the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla plus three small islands of Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, administered directly by the Spanish central government, are all along the coast of Morocco and are collectively referred to as Places of Sovereignty (Plazas de Soberania)
Independence2 March 1956 (from France)
1492; the Iberian peninsula was characterized by a variety of independent kingdoms prior to the Muslim occupation that began in the early 8th century A.D. and lasted nearly seven centuries; the small Christian redoubts of the north began the reconquest almost immediately, culminating in the seizure of Granada in 1492; this event completed the unification of several kingdoms and is traditionally considered the forging of present-day Spain
National holidayThrone Day (accession of King MOHAMMED VI to the throne), 30 July (1999)
National Day (Hispanic Day), 12 October (1492); note - commemorates COLUMBUS' arrival in the Americas
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest drafted 17 June 2011, approved by referendum 1 July 2011; note - sources disagree on whether the 2011 referendum was for a new constitution or for reforms to the previous constitution
amendments: proposed by the king, by the prime minister, or by members in either chamber of Parliament; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by both chambers and approval in a referendum; the king can opt to submit self-initiated proposals directly to a referendum (2016)
history: previous 1812; latest approved by the General Courts 31 October 1978, passed by referendum 6 December 1978, signed by the king 27 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978
amendments: proposed by the government, by the General Courts (the Congress or the Senate), or by the self-governing communities submitted through the government; passage requires three-fifths majority vote by both houses and passage by referendum if requested by one-tenth of members of either house; proposals disapproved by both houses are submitted to a joint committee, which submits an agreed upon text for another vote; passage requires two-thirds vote in Congress and simple majority vote in the Senate; amended 1992, 2007, 2011 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of civil law based on French law and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts by Constitutional Court
civil law system with regional variations
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: King MOHAMMED VI (since 30 July 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Saad-Eddine al-OTHMANI (since 17 March 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the prime minister in consultation with Parliament and appointed by the monarch
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from the majority party following legislative elections
chief of state: King FELIPE VI (since 19 June 2014); Heir Apparent Princess LEONOR, Princess of Asturias, daughter of the monarch, born 31 October 2005
head of government: President of the Government or Prime Minister Mariano RAJOY (since 20 December 2011); Vice President (and Minister of the President's Office) Soraya SAENZ DE SANTAMARIA (since 22 December 2011)
cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the monarch usually proposes the leader of the party or coalition with the largest majority of seats as president, who is then indirectly elected by the Congress of Deputies; election last held on 26 June 2016; vice president and Council of Ministers appointed by the president
election results: percent of National Assembly vote - NA
note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government, but its recommendations are non-binding
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament consists of the Chamber of Advisors (120 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college of local councils, professional organizations, and labor unions; members serve 6-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives (395 seats; 305 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 90 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - in the national constituency, 60 seats are reserved for women and 30 reserved for those under age 40
elections: Chamber of Advisors - last held on 2 October 2015 (next to be held in fall 2021); Chamber of Representatives - last held on 7 October 2016 (next to be held in fall 2021)
election results: Chamber of Advisors- percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - JDP 31.7%, PAM 25.8%, PI 11.7%, RNI 9.4%, MP 6.8%, USFP 5.1%, UC 4.8%, PPS 3.0%, MDS 0.8%, other 1.0%; seats by party - PJD 125, PAM 102, PI 46, RNI 37, MP 27, USFP 20, UC 19, PPS 12, MDS 3, other 4
description: bicameral General Courts or Las Cortes Generales consists of the Senate or Senado (266 seats as of 2017; 208 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 58 appointed by the regional legislatures; members serve 4-year terms) and the Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; 348 members directly elected in 50 multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 directly elected from the North African Ceuta and Melilla enclaves by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms or until the government is dissolved)
elections: Senate - last held on 26 June 2016; Congress of Deputies - last held on 26 June 2016 (next to be held no later than June 2020)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PP 149, PSOE 62, Podemos 20, ERC 12, EAJ/PNV 6, other 17; Congress of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PP 33.0%, PSOE 22.7%, Podemos 21.1%, C's 13.0%, ERC-CatSi 2.6%, CDC 2.0%, EAJ/PNV 1.2%, other 4.4%; seats by party - PP 134, PSOE 84, Podemos 67, C's 32, ERC-CatSi 9, EAJ/PNV 5, other 19
Judicial branch"highest court(s): Supreme Court or Court of Cassation (consists of 5-judge panels organized into civil, family matters, commercial, administrative, social, and criminal sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 12 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the Superior Council of Judicial Power, a 20-member body presided by the monarch and including the Supreme Court president, the prosecutor general, representatives of the appeals and first instance courts - among them 1 woman magistrate, the president of the National Council of the Rights of Man, and 5 ""notable persons"" appointed by the monarch; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court members - 6 designated by the monarch and 6 elected by Parliament; court president appointed by the monarch from among the court members; members serve 9-year non-renewable terms
subordinate courts: courts of appeal; High Court of Justice; administrative and commercial courts; regional and sadad courts (for religious, civil and administrative, and penal adjudication); first instance courts
"
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo (consists of the court president and organized into the Civil Room with a president and 9 judges, the Penal Room with a president and 14 judges, the Administrative Room with a president and 32 judges, the Social Room with a president and 12 judges, and the Military Room with a president and 7 judges); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional de Espana (consists of 12 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch from candidates proposed by the General Council of the Judiciary Power, a 20-member governing board chaired by the monarch that includes presidential appointees, and lawyers and jurists confirmed by the National Assembly; judges can serve until age 70; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the National Assembly, executive branch, and the General Council of the Judiciary, and appointed by the monarch for 9-year terms
subordinate courts: National High Court; High Courts of Justice (in each of the autonomous communities); provincial courts; courts of first instance
Political parties and leadersAction Party or PA [Mohammed EL IDRISSI]
Amal (hope) Party [Mohamed BANI]
An-Nahj Ad-Dimocrati or An-Nahj [Mustapha BRAHMA]
Authenticity and Modernity Party or PAM [Ilyas EL OMARI]
Constitutional Union Party or UC [Mohamed SAJID]
Democratic and Social Movement or MDS [Abdessamad ARCHANE]
Democratic Forces Front or FFD [Mustapha BENALI]
Democratic Oath Party or SD
Democratic Socialist Vanguard Party or PADS [Abderrahman BENAMROU]
Democratic Society Party [Zhour CHAKKAFI]
Environment and Development Party or PED [Karim HRITAN]
Green Left Party [Mohamed FARES]
Istiqlal (Independence) Party or PI [Hamid CHABAT]
Ittihadi National Congress or CNI [Abdesalam EL AZIZ]
Labor Party or PT
Moroccan Liberal Party or PML [Mohammed ZIANE]
Moroccan Union for Democracy or UMD [Jamal MANDRI]
National Rally of Independents or RNI [Aziz AKHANNOUCH]
Neo-Democrats Party [Mohamed DARIF]
Party of Development Reform or PRD [Abderrahmane EL KOHEN]
Party of Justice and Development or PJD [Abdelillah BENKIRANE]
Party of Liberty and Social Justice [Miloud MOUSSAOUI]
Popular Movement or MP [Mohand LAENSER]
Progress and Socialism Party or PPS [Nabil BENABDELLAH]
Renaissance and Virtue Party [Mohamed KHALIDI]
Renaissance Party [Said EL GHENNIOUI]
Renewal and Equity Party or PRE [Chakir ACHEHABAR]
Shoura (consultation) and Istiqlal Party [Ahmed BELGHAZI]
Social Center Party or PCS [Lahcen MADIH]
Socialist Party [Abdelmajid BOUZOUBAA]
Socialist Union of Popular Forces or USFP [Driss LACHGAR]
Unified Socialist Party or GSU [Nabila MOUNIB]
Unity and Democracy Party [Ahmed FITRI]
Amaiur [Xabier ERREKONDO] (a separatist political coalition that advocates Basque independence from Spain)
Asturias Forum or FAC [Cristina COTO]
Basque Country Unite (Euskal Herria Bildu) or EH Bildu [Pello URIZAR] (coalition of 4 Basque pro-independence parties)
Basque Nationalist Party or PNV or EAJ [Andoni ORTUZAR]
Canarian Coalition or CC [Claudina MORALES Rodriguez] (coalition of five parties)
Canarian Nationalist Party or PNC [Juan Manuel GARCIA Ramos]
Catalan Agreement of Progress (Entesa Catalonia de Progress) or ECP [Carles BONET i Reves] (Senate coalition of Catalan parties - PSC, ERC, ICV, EUA)
Catalan European Democratic Party or PDeCat [Artur MAS]
Ciudadanos Party or C's [Albert RIVERA]
Compromis [Monica Oltra JARQUE]
Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Ana PONTON Mondelo]
Gomera Socialist Group or ASG
Initiative for Catalonia Greens or ICV [Joan HERRERA i Torres and Dolors CAMATS]
Podemos [Pablo IGLESIAS Turrion]
Popular Party or PP [Mariano RAJOY Brey]
Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Oriol JUNQUERAS i Vies]
Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Pedro SANCHEZ]
Union of People of Navarra or UPN [Javier ESPARZA]
Union, Progress and Democracy or UPyD [Gorka MAEIRO]
United Left or IU [Alberto GARZON] (a coalition of parties including the Communist Party of Spain or PCE and other small parties; ran as Popular Unity or UP in 2015 election)
Yes to the Future or Geroa Bai [Koldo MARTINEZ] (a coalition of four Navarran parties)
Political pressure groups and leadersDemocratic Confederation of Labor or CDT [Noubir EL AMAOUI]
General Union of Moroccan Workers or UGTM [Mohamed KAFI CHERRAT]
Justice and Charity Organization or JCO [Mohammed ben Abdesslam ABBADI]
Moroccan Employers Association or CGEM [Miriem BENSALAH-CHAQROUN]
National Labor Union of Morocco or UNMT [Mohamed YATIM]
Union of Moroccan Workers or UMT [Miloudi EL MOUKHARIK]
Association for Victims of Terrorism or AVT (grassroots organization devoted primarily to supporting victims of the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) terrorist organization)
Catholic Church
Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT (includes the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO)
Trade Union Confederation of Workers' Commissions or CC.OO.
Spanish Confederation of Employers' Organizations or CEOE
other: business and landowning interests; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977); university students
International organization participationABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CD, EBRD, FAO, G-11, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE (partner), Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNSC (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Lalla JOUMALA Alaoui (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 1601 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 462-7979
FAX: [1] (202) 462-7643
consulate(s) general: New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Pedro MORENES Eulate (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 2375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 452-0100, 728-2340
FAX: [1] (202) 833-5670
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Kansas City (MO)
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Stephanie MILEY (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Km 5.7 Avenue Mohammed VI, Souissi, Rabat 10170
mailing address: Unit 9400, Box Front Office, DPO, AE 09718
telephone: [212] 537 637 200
FAX: [212] 537 637 201
consulate(s) general: Casablanca
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kris URS (since January 2017) note - also accredited to Andorra
embassy: Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid
mailing address: PSC 61, APO AE 09642
telephone: [34] (91) 587-2200
FAX: [34] (91) 587-2303
consulate(s) general: Barcelona
Flag descriptionred with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as Sulayman's (Solomon's) seal in the center of the flag; red and green are traditional colors in Arab flags, although the use of red is more commonly associated with the Arab states of the Persian Gulf; the pentacle represents the five pillars of Islam and signifies the association between God and the nation; design dates to 1912
"three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms is quartered to display the emblems of the traditional kingdoms of Spain (clockwise from upper left, Castile, Leon, Navarre, and Aragon) while Granada is represented by the stylized pomegranate at the bottom of the shield; the arms are framed by two columns representing the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar; the red scroll across the two columns bears the imperial motto of ""Plus Ultra"" (further beyond) referring to Spanish lands beyond Europe; the triband arrangement with the center stripe twice the width of the outer dates to the 18th century
note: the red and yellow colors are related to those of the oldest Spanish kingdoms: Aragon, Castile, Leon, and Navarre
"
National anthem"name: ""Hymne Cherifien"" (Hymn of the Sharif)
lyrics/music: Ali Squalli HOUSSAINI/Leo MORGAN
note: music adopted 1956, lyrics adopted 1970
"
"name: ""Himno Nacional Espanol"" (National Anthem of Spain)
lyrics/music: no lyrics/unknown
note: officially in use between 1770 and 1931, restored in 1939; the Spanish anthem is the first anthem to be officially adopted, but it has no lyrics; in the years prior to 1931 it became known as ""Marcha Real"" (The Royal March); it first appeared in a 1761 military bugle call book and was replaced by ""Himno de Riego"" in the years between 1931 and 1939; the long version of the anthem is used for the king, while the short version is used for the prince, prime minister, and occasions such as sporting events
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)pentacle symbol, lion; national colors: red, green
Pillars of Hercules; national colors: red, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Morocco; if the father is unknown or stateless, the mother must be a citizen
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Spain
dual citizenship recognized: only with select Latin American countries
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years for persons with no ties to Spain

Economy

MoroccoSpain
Economy - overviewMorocco has capitalized on its proximity to Europe and relatively low labor costs to work towards building a diverse, open, market-oriented economy. Key sectors of the economy include agriculture, tourism, aerospace, automotive, phosphates, textiles, apparel, and subcomponents. Morocco has increased investment in its port, transportation, and industrial infrastructure to position itself as a center and broker for business throughout Africa. Industrial development strategies and infrastructure improvements - most visibly illustrated by a new port and free trade zone near Tangier - are improving Morocco's competitiveness.

In the 1980s, Morocco was a heavily indebted country before pursuing austerity measures and pro-market reforms, overseen by the IMF. Since taking the throne in 1999, King MOHAMMED VI has presided over a stable economy marked by steady growth, low inflation, and gradually falling unemployment, although poor harvests and economic difficulties in Europe contributed to an economic slowdown. To boost exports, Morocco entered into a bilateral Free Trade Agreement with the US in 2006 and an Advanced Status agreement with the EU in 2008. In late 2014, Morocco eliminated subsidies for gasoline, diesel, and fuel oil, dramatically reducing outlays that weighted on the country’s budget and current account. Subsidies on butane gas and certain food products remain in place. Morocco also seeks to expand its renewable energy capacity with a goal of making renewable more than 50% of installed electricity generation capacity by 2030.

Despite Morocco's economic progress, the country suffers from high unemployment, poverty, and illiteracy, particularly in rural areas. Key economic challenges for Morocco include reforming the education system and the judiciary.
After experiencing a prolonged recession in the wake of the global financial crisis that began in 2008, in 2016 Spain marked the third full year of positive economic growth in nine years, largely due to increased private consumption. At the onset of the financial crisis, Spain's GDP contracted by 3.7% in 2009, ending a 16-year growth trend, and continued contracting through most of 2013. In 2013, the government successfully shored up struggling banks - exposed to the collapse of Spain's depressed real estate and construction sectors - and in January 2014 completed an EU-funded restructuring and recapitalization program for its financial sector.

Until 2014, credit contraction in the private sector, fiscal austerity, and high unemployment weighed on domestic consumption and investment. The unemployment rate rose from a low of about 8% in 2007 to more than 26% in 2013, but labor reforms prompted a modest reduction to 19.7% in 2016. High unemployment has strained Spain's public finances, as spending on social benefits increased while tax revenues fell. Spain’s budget deficit peaked at 11.4% of GDP in 2010, but Spain gradually reduced the deficit to about 5% of GDP in 2015, and 4.1% of GDP in 2016. Public debt has increased substantially – from 60.1% of GDP in 2010 to nearly 99.5% in 2016.

Exports were resilient throughout the economic downturn and helped to bring Spain's current account into surplus in 2013 for the first time since 1986, where it remained in 2014-16. Rising labor productivity and an internal devaluation resulting from moderating labor costs and lower inflation have helped to improve foreign investor interest in the economy and positive FDI flows have been restored.

Political gridlock after the national elections in December 2015 and June 2016 and ensuing government formation process constrained the caretaker government’s ability to implement needed labor, pension, healthcare, tax, and education reforms— in 2016. The European Commission criticized Spain’s 2016 budget for its easing of austerity measures and its alleged overly optimistic growth and deficit projections. Spain’s borrowing costs are dramatically lower since their peak in mid-2012, and despite the recent uptick in economic activity, inflation has dropped sharply, from 1.5% in 2013 to a negative 0.3% in 2016.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$282.8 billion (2016 est.)
$277.7 billion (2015 est.)
$265.7 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1.69 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.64 trillion (2015 est.)
$1.589 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate1.8% (2016 est.)
4.5% (2015 est.)
2.6% (2014 est.)
3.1% (2016 est.)
3.2% (2015 est.)
1.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$8,400 (2016 est.)
$8,300 (2015 est.)
$8,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$36,500 (2016 est.)
$35,300 (2015 est.)
$34,200 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 13.1%
industry: 29.8%
services: 57.2% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 2.5%
industry: 22.4%
services: 75.1% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line15% (2007 est.)
21.1% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 33.2% (2007)
lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 24% (2011)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1.8% (2016 est.)
1.6% (2015 est.)
-0.3% (2016 est.)
-0.6% (2015 est.)
Labor force12.23 million (2016 est.)
22.89 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 39.1%
industry: 20.3%
services: 40.5% (2014 est.)
agriculture: 4.2%
industry: 24%
services: 71.7% (2009)
Unemployment rate9.9% (2016 est.)
9.7% (2015 est.)
19.7% (2016 est.)
22.1% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index40.9 (2007 est.)
39.5 (1999 est.)
35.9 (2012)
32 (2005)
Budgetrevenues: $25.22 billion
expenditures: $29.43 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $461.3 billion
expenditures: $512.9 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesautomotive parts, phosphate mining and processing, aerospace, food processing, leather goods, textiles, construction, energy, tourism
textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment
Industrial production growth rate1.6% (2016 est.)
2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsbarley, wheat, citrus fruits, grapes, vegetables, olives; livestock; wine
grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish
Exports$18.72 billion (2016 est.)
$18.48 billion (2015 est.)
$266.3 billion (2016 est.)
$277.9 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesclothing and textiles, automobiles, electric components, inorganic chemicals, transistors, crude minerals, fertilizers (including phosphates), petroleum products, citrus fruits, vegetables, fish
machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, medicines, other consumer goods
Exports - partnersSpain 22.1%, France 19.7%, India 4.9%, US 4.3%, Italy 4.3% (2015)
France 15.7%, Germany 11%, Italy 7.4%, UK 7.4%, Portugal 7.1%, US 4.5% (2015)
Imports$33.15 billion (2016 est.)
$32.74 billion (2015 est.)
$287.9 billion (2016 est.)
$302.6 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiescrude petroleum, textile fabric, telecommunications equipment, wheat, gas and electricity, transistors, plastics
machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semi-finished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, measuring and medical control instruments
Imports - partnersSpain 13.9%, France 12.4%, China 8.5%, US 6.5%, Germany 5.8%, Italy 5.5%, Russia 4.4%, Turkey 4.3% (2015)
Germany 14.4%, France 11.7%, China 7.1%, Italy 6.5%, Netherlands 5%, UK 4.9% (2015)
Debt - external$42.98 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$42.25 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.094 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$1.963 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesMoroccan dirhams (MAD) per US dollar -
9.929 (2016 est.)
9.7351 (2015 est.)
9.7351 (2014 est.)
8.3798 (2013 est.)
8.6 (2012 est.)
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.7525 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt77% of GDP (2016 est.)
75.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
99.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
99.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$24.67 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$23.01 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$53.97 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$50.35 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Current Account Balance-$4.02 billion (2016 est.)
-$2.165 billion (2015 est.)
$24.66 billion (2016 est.)
$16.34 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$104.9 billion (2016 est.)
$1.252 trillion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$51.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$48.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$781.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$758.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$3.818 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.555 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$770.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$720.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$45.93 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$52.75 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$53.83 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$787.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$992.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.117 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate6.5% (31 December 2010)
3.31% (31 December 2009)
0.05% (10 September 2014)
0.25% (13 November 2013)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
Commercial bank prime lending rate5.9% (31 December 2016 est.)
6% (31 December 2015 est.)
2.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.74% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$107.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$106.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.135 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.279 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$76.06 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$71.58 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$827.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$745 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
Stock of broad money$92.72 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$92.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.257 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.369 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues24% of GDP (2016 est.)
36.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4% of GDP (2016 est.)
-4.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 20%
male: 20.3%
female: 19.1% (2014 est.)
total: 53.2%
male: 53.4%
female: 52.9% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 58.5%
government consumption: 19.4%
investment in fixed capital: 28.6%
investment in inventories: 1.6%
exports of goods and services: 34.4%
imports of goods and services: -42.5% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 57.2%
government consumption: 19%
investment in fixed capital: 20.8%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 32.2%
imports of goods and services: -29.3% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving29% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
26.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
22.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
22.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
20.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

MoroccoSpain
Electricity - production27 billion kWh (2014 est.)
264 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption29 billion kWh (2014 est.)
234 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports100 million kWh (2014 est.)
16 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports6.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
12 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production160 bbl/day (2015 est.)
4,652 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports145,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
1.349 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
54,230 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves680,000 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
150 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves1.444 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
2.548 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production97 million cu m (2014 est.)
24 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption597 million cu m (2014 est.)
27.23 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
8.219 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports500 million cu m (2014 est.)
36.38 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity7.7 million kW (2014 est.)
102.3 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels69% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
43% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants19.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
19.6% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
7.7% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources4.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
30% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production149,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
1.352 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption296,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
1.241 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports28,510 bbl/day (2013 est.)
416,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports186,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
302,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy39 million Mt (2013 est.)
276 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 400,000
electrification - total population: 98.9%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 97.4% (2013)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

MoroccoSpain
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 2,222,370
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 19,180,192
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 40 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 43.08 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 129 (July 2015 est.)
total: 50.926 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; principal switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat; national network nearly 100% digital using fiber-optic links; improved rural service employs microwave radio relay; Internet available but expensive
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is below 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership exceeds 120 per 100 persons
international: country code - 212; landing point for the Atlas Offshore, Estepona-Tetouan, Euroafrica, Spain-Morocco, and SEA-ME-WE-3 fiber-optic telecommunications undersea cables that provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria; participant in Medarabtel; fiber-optic cable link from Agadir to Algeria and Tunisia (2015)
general assessment: well-developed, modern facilities
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 145 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 34; submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Middle East, Asia, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries (2015)
Internet country code.ma
.es
Internet userstotal: 19.021 million
percent of population: 57.1% (July 2015 est.)
total: 37.886 million
percent of population: 78.7% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast media2 TV broadcast networks with state-run Radio-Television Marocaine (RTM) operating one network and the state partially owning the other; foreign TV broadcasts are available via satellite dish; 3 radio broadcast networks with RTM operating one; the government-owned network includes 10 regional radio channels in addition to its national service (2007)
a mixture of both publicly operated and privately owned TV and radio stations; overall, hundreds of TV channels are available including national, regional, local, public, and international channels; satellite and cable TV systems available; multiple national radio networks, a large number of regional radio networks, and a larger number of local radio stations; overall, hundreds of radio stations (2008)

Transportation

MoroccoSpain
Railwaystotal: 2,067 km
standard gauge: 2,067 km 1.435-m gauge (1,022 km electrified) (2014)
total: 16,101.5 km
broad gauge: 11,873 km 1.668-m gauge (6,488 km electrified)
standard gauge: 2,312 km 1.435-m gauge (2,312 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,884.9 km 1.000-m gauge (807 km electrified); 28 km 0.914-m gauge (28 km electrified); 3.6 km 0.600-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 58,395 km
paved: 41,116 km (includes 1,080 km of expressways)
unpaved: 17,279 km (2010)
total: 683,175 km
paved: 683,175 km (includes 16,205 km of expressways) (2011)
Pipelinesgas 944 km; oil 270 km; refined products 175 km (2013)
gas 10,481 km; oil 616 km; refined products 3,461 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Casablanca, Jorf Lasfar, Mohammedia, Safi, Tangier
container port(s) (TEUs): Tangier (2,093,408)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Jorf Lasfar
major seaport(s): Algeciras, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cartagena, Huelva, Tarragona, Valencia (all in Spain); Las Palmas, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (in the Canary Islands)
container port(s) (TEUs): Algeciras (3,608,301), Barcelona (2,033,747), Valencia (4,327,371); Las Palmas (1,287,389)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Barcelona, Bilbao, Cartagena, Huelva, Mugardos, Sagunto
Merchant marinetotal: 26
by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 3, container 6, passenger/cargo 14, roll on/roll off 2
foreign-owned: 14 (France 3, Germany 1, Italy 1, Spain 9)
registered in other countries: 4 (Gibraltar 4) (2010)
total: 132
by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 19, chemical tanker 8, container 5, liquefied gas 12, passenger/cargo 43, petroleum tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 9, vehicle carrier 7
foreign-owned: 27 (Canada 4, Germany 4, Italy 1, Mexico 1, Norway 10, Russia 6, Switzerland 1)
registered in other countries: 103 (Angola 1, Argentina 3, Bahamas 6, Brazil 12, Cabo Verde 1, Cyprus 6, Ireland 1, Malta 8, Morocco 9, Panama 30, Peru 1, Portugal 18, Uruguay 5, Venezuela 1, unknown 1) (2010)
Airports55 (2013)
150 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 31
over 3,047 m: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
total: 99
over 3,047 m: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 24
under 914 m: 24 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 24
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
total: 51
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 36 (2013)
Heliports1 (2013)
10 (2013)

Military

MoroccoSpain
Military branchesRoyal Armed Forces (Forces Armees Royales, FAR): Royal Moroccan Army (includes Air Defense), Royal Moroccan Navy (includes Coast Guard, Marines), Royal Moroccan Air Force (Al Quwwat al Jawyiya al Malakiya Marakishiya; Force Aerienne Royale Marocaine) (2010)
Spanish Armed Forces: Army (Ejercito de Tierra), Spanish Navy (Armada Espanola, AE, includes Marine Corps), Spanish Air Force (Ejercito del Aire Espanola, EdA) (2013)
Military service age and obligation20 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; service obligation - 18 months (2012)
18-26 years of age for voluntary military service by a Spanish citizen or legal immigrant, 2-3 year obligation; women allowed to serve in all SAF branches, including combat units; no conscription, but Spanish Government retains right to mobilize citizens 19-25 years of age in a national emergency; mandatory retirement of non-NCO enlisted personnel at age 45 or 58, depending on service length (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP3.25% of GDP (2015)
3.68% of GDP (2014)
3.81% of GDP (2013)
3.46% of GDP (2012)
3.3% of GDP (2011)
0.91% of GDP (2017)
1.18% of GDP (2015)
1.23% of GDP (2014)
1.26% of GDP (2013)
1.41% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

MoroccoSpain
Disputes - internationalclaims and administers Western Sahara whose sovereignty remains unresolved; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, the islands of Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); discussions have not progressed on a comprehensive maritime delimitation, setting limits on resource exploration and refugee interdiction, since Morocco's 2002 rejection of Spain's unilateral designation of a median line from the Canary Islands; Morocco serves as one of the primary launching areas of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; the National Liberation Front's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco is a dormant dispute
"in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any ""shared sovereignty"" arrangement; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; after voters in the UK chose to leave the EU in a June 2016 referendum, Spain again proposed shared sovereignty of Gibraltar; UK officials rejected Spain’s joint sovereignty proposal; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); Morocco serves as the primary launching site of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz
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Illicit drugsone of the world's largest producers of illicit hashish; shipments of hashish mostly directed to Western Europe; transit point for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; significant consumer of cannabis
despite rigorous law enforcement efforts, North African, Latin American, Galician, and other European traffickers take advantage of Spain's long coastline to land large shipments of cocaine and hashish for distribution to the European market; consumer for Latin American cocaine and North African hashish; destination and minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin; money-laundering site for Colombian narcotics trafficking organizations and organized crime

Source: CIA Factbook