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Morocco vs. Algeria

Introduction

MoroccoAlgeria
BackgroundIn 788, about a century after the Arab conquest of North Africa, a series of Moroccan Muslim dynasties began to rule in Morocco. In the 16th century, the Sa'adi monarchy, particularly under Ahmad al-MANSUR (1578-1603), repelled foreign invaders and inaugurated a golden age. The Alaouite Dynasty, to which the current Moroccan royal family belongs, dates from the 17th century. In 1860, Spain occupied northern Morocco and ushered in a half century of trade rivalry among European powers that saw Morocco's sovereignty steadily erode; in 1912, the French imposed a protectorate over the country. A protracted independence struggle with France ended successfully in 1956. The internationalized city of Tangier and most Spanish possessions were turned over to the new country that same year. Sultan MOHAMMED V, the current monarch's grandfather, organized the new state as a constitutional monarchy and in 1957 assumed the title of king. Since Spain's 1976 withdrawal from what is today called Western Sahara, Morocco has extended its de facto administrative control to roughly 80% of this territory; however, the UN does not recognize Morocco as the administering power for Western Sahara. The UN since 1991 has monitored a cease-fire between Morocco and the Polisario Front - Western Sahara's liberation movement - and leads ongoing negotiations over the status of the territory.
King MOHAMMED VI in early 2011 responded to the spread of pro-democracy protests in the region by implementing a reform program that included a new constitution, passed by popular referendum in July 2011, under which some new powers were extended to parliament and the prime minister but ultimate authority remains in the hands of the monarch. In November 2011, the Justice and Development Party (PJD) - a moderate Islamist party - won the largest number of seats in parliamentary elections, becoming the first Islamist party to lead the Moroccan Government. In September 2015, Morocco held its first ever direct elections for regional councils, one of the reforms included in the 2011 constitution. The PJD again won the largest number of seats in nationwide parliamentary elections in October 2016.
After more than a century of rule by France, Algerians fought through much of the 1950s to achieve independence in 1962. Algeria's primary political party, the National Liberation Front (FLN), was established in 1954 as part of the struggle for independence and has since largely dominated politics. The Government of Algeria in 1988 instituted a multi-party system in response to public unrest, but the surprising first round success of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in the December 1991 balloting led the Algerian army to intervene and postpone the second round of elections to prevent what the secular elite feared would be an extremist-led government from assuming power. The army began a crackdown on the FIS that spurred FIS supporters to begin attacking government targets. Fighting escalated into an insurgency, which saw intense violence from 1992-98, resulting in over 100,000 deaths - many attributed to indiscriminate massacres of villagers by extremists. The government gained the upper hand by the late-1990s, and FIS's armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded in January 2000.
Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA, with the backing of the military, won the presidency in 1999 in an election widely viewed as fraudulent and won subsequent elections in 2004, 2009, and 2014. The government in 2011 introduced some political reforms in response to the Arab Spring, including lifting the 19-year-old state of emergency restrictions and increasing women's quotas for elected assemblies, while also increasing subsidies to the populace. Since 2014, Algeria’s reliance on hydrocarbon revenues to fund the government and finance the large subsidies for the population has fallen under stress because of declining oil prices.

Geography

MoroccoAlgeria
LocationNorthern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia
Geographic coordinates32 00 N, 5 00 W
28 00 N, 3 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 446,550 sq km
land: 446,300 sq km
water: 250 sq km
total: 2,381,741 sq km
land: 2,381,741 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly more than three times the size of New York; slightly larger than California
slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 2,362.5 km
border countries (3): Algeria 1,900 km, Western Sahara 444 km, Spain (Ceuta) 8 km, Spain (Melilla) 10.5 km
note: an additional 75-meter border segment exists between Morocco and the Spanish exclave of Penon de Velez de la Gomera
total: 6,734 km
border countries (7): Libya 989 km, Mali 1,359 km, Mauritania 460 km, Morocco 1,900 km, Niger 951 km, Tunisia 1,034 km, Western Sahara 41 km
Coastline1,835 km
998 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm
ClimateMediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior
arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer
Terrainmountainous northern coast (Rif Mountains) and interior (Atlas Mountains) bordered by large plateaus with intermontane valleys, and fertile coastal plains
mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 909 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Sebkha Tah -55 m
highest point: Jebel Toubkal 4,165 m
mean elevation: 800 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m
highest point: Tahat 3,003 m
Natural resourcesphosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc
Land useagricultural land: 67.5%
arable land 17.5%; permanent crops 2.9%; permanent pasture 47.1%
forest: 11.5%
other: 21% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 17.3%
arable land 3.1%; permanent crops 0.4%; permanent pasture 13.8%
forest: 0.6%
other: 82% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land14,850 sq km (2012)
5,700 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsnorthern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes; periodic droughts
mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and floods in rainy season
Environment - current issuesland degradation/desertification (soil erosion resulting from farming of marginal areas, overgrazing, destruction of vegetation); water supplies contaminated by raw sewage; siltation of reservoirs; oil pollution of coastal waters
soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notestrategic location along Strait of Gibraltar; the only African nation to have both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines
largest country in Africa
Population distributionthe highest population density is found along the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts; a number of densely populated agglomerations are found scattered through the Atlas Mountains
the vast majority of the populace is found in the extreme northern part of the country along the Mediterranean Coast

Demographics

MoroccoAlgeria
Population33,655,786 (July 2016 est.)
40,263,711 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 26.08% (male 4,459,511/female 4,319,538)
15-24 years: 17.22% (male 2,882,145/female 2,913,917)
25-54 years: 42.24% (male 6,874,144/female 7,341,892)
55-64 years: 7.89% (male 1,318,302/female 1,337,192)
65 years and over: 6.56% (male 995,620/female 1,213,525) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 29.06% (male 5,991,164/female 5,709,616)
15-24 years: 15.95% (male 3,287,448/female 3,136,624)
25-54 years: 42.88% (male 8,737,944/female 8,526,137)
55-64 years: 6.61% (male 1,349,291/female 1,312,339)
65 years and over: 5.5% (male 1,027,126/female 1,186,022) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 28.9 years
male: 28.3 years
female: 29.5 years (2016 est.)
total: 27.8 years
male: 27.5 years
female: 28.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.99% (2016 est.)
1.77% (2016 est.)
Birth rate18 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
23 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate4.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
4.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-3.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 22.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 26.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 20.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 76.9 years
male: 73.8 years
female: 80.1 years (2016 est.)
total population: 76.8 years
male: 75.5 years
female: 78.2 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.12 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.74 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.12% (2015 est.)
0.04% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Moroccan(s)
adjective: Moroccan
noun: Algerian(s)
adjective: Algerian
Ethnic groupsArab-Berber 99%, other 1%
Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%
note: although almost all Algerians are Berber in origin (not Arab), only a minority identify themselves as Berber, about 15% of the total population; these people live mostly in the mountainous region of Kabylie east of Algiers; the Berbers are also Muslim but identify with their Berber rather than Arab cultural heritage; Berbers have long agitated, sometimes violently, for autonomy; the government is unlikely to grant autonomy but has offered to begin sponsoring teaching Berber language in schools
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS24,300 (2015 est.)
8,800 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 99% (official; virtually all Sunni, <0.1% Shia), other 1% (includes Christian, Jewish, and Baha'i); note - Jewish about 6,000 (2010 est.)
Muslim (official; predominantly Sunni) 99%, other (includes Christian and Jewish) <1% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths900 (2015 est.)
100 (2015 est.)
LanguagesArabic (official), Berber languages (Tamazight (official), Tachelhit, Tarifit), French (often the language of business, government, and diplomacy)
Arabic (official), French (lingua franca), Berber or Tamazight (official); dialects include Kabyle Berber (Taqbaylit), Shawiya Berber (Tacawit), Mzab Berber, Tuareg Berber (Tamahaq)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 68.5%
male: 78.6%
female: 58.8% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 80.2%
male: 87.2%
female: 73.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 12 years
male: 13 years
female: 12 years (2012)
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2011)
Education expenditures5.3% of GDP (2009)
4.3% of GDP (2008)
Urbanizationurban population: 60.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.26% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 70.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.77% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 98.7% of population
rural: 65.3% of population
total: 85.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.3% of population
rural: 34.7% of population
total: 14.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 84.3% of population
rural: 81.8% of population
total: 83.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 15.7% of population
rural: 18.2% of population
total: 16.4% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 84.1% of population
rural: 65.5% of population
total: 76.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 15.9% of population
rural: 34.5% of population
total: 23.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 89.8% of population
rural: 82.2% of population
total: 87.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 10.2% of population
rural: 17.8% of population
total: 12.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationCasablanca 3.515 million; RABAT (capital) 1.967 million; Fes 1.172 million; Marrakech 1.134 million; Tangier 982,000 (2015)
ALGIERS (capital) 2.594 million; Oran 858,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate121 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
140 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight3.1% (2011)
3% (2013)
Health expenditures5.9% of GDP (2014)
7.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.62 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
1.19 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate21.7% (2014)
23.6% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 500,960
percentage: 8% (2007 est.)
total number: 304,358
percentage: 5% (2006 est.)
Demographic profileMorocco is undergoing a demographic transition. Its population is growing but at a declining rate, as people live longer and women have fewer children. Infant, child, and maternal mortality rates have been reduced through better health care, nutrition, hygiene, and vaccination coverage, although disparities between urban and rural and rich and poor households persist. Morocco’s shrinking child cohort reflects the decline of its total fertility rate from 5 in mid-1980s to 2.2 in 2010, which is a result of increased female educational attainment, higher contraceptive use, delayed marriage, and the desire for smaller families. Young adults (persons aged 15-29) make up almost 26% of the total population and represent a potential economic asset if they can be gainfully employed. Currently, however, many youths are unemployed because Morocco’s job creation rate has not kept pace with the growth of its working-age population. Most youths who have jobs work in the informal sector with little security or benefits.
During the second half of the 20th century, Morocco became one of the world’s top emigration countries, creating large, widely dispersed migrant communities in Western Europe. The Moroccan Government has encouraged emigration since its independence in 1956, both to secure remittances for funding national development and as an outlet to prevent unrest in rebellious (often Berber) areas. Although Moroccan labor migrants earlier targeted Algeria and France, the flood of Moroccan “guest workers” from the mid-1960s to the early 1970s spread widely across northwestern Europe to fill unskilled jobs in the booming manufacturing, mining, construction, and agriculture industries. Host societies and most Moroccan migrants expected this migration to be temporary, but deteriorating economic conditions in Morocco related to the 1973 oil crisis and tighter European immigration policies resulted in these stays becoming permanent.
A wave of family migration followed in the 1970s and 1980s, with a growing number of second generation Moroccans opting to become naturalized citizens of their host countries. Spain and Italy emerged as new destination countries in the mid-1980s, but their introduction of visa restrictions in the early 1990s pushed Moroccans increasingly to migrate either legally by marrying Moroccans already in Europe or illegally to work in the underground economy. Women began to make up a growing share of these labor migrants. At the same time, some higher-skilled Moroccans went to the US and Quebec, Canada.
In the mid-1990s, Morocco developed into a transit country for asylum seekers from sub-Saharan Africa and illegal labor migrants from sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia trying to reach Europe via southern Spain, Spain’s Canary Islands, or Spain’s North African enclaves, Ceuta and Melilla. Forcible expulsions by Moroccan and Spanish security forces have not deterred these illegal migrants or calmed Europe’s security concerns. Rabat remains unlikely to adopt an EU agreement to take back third-country nationals who have entered the EU illegally via Morocco. Thousands of other illegal migrants have chosen to stay in Morocco until they earn enough money for further travel or permanently as a “second-best” option. The launching of a regularization program in 2014 legalized the status of some migrants and granted them equal access to education, health care, and work, but xenophobia and racism remain obstacles.
For the first two-thirds of the 20th century, Algeria’s high fertility rate caused its population to grow rapidly. However, about a decade after independence from France in 1962 the total fertility rate fell dramatically from 7 children per woman in the 1970s to about 2.4 in 2000, slowing Algeria’s population growth rate by the late 1980s. The lower fertility rate was mainly the result of women’s rising age at first marriage (virtually all Algerian children being born in wedlock) and to a lesser extent the wider use of contraceptives. Later marriages and a preference for smaller families are attributed to increases in women’s education and participation in the labor market; higher unemployment; and a shortage of housing forcing multiple generations to live together. The average woman’s age at first marriage increased from about 19 in the mid-1950s to 24 in the mid-1970s to 30.5 in the late 1990s.
Algeria’s fertility rate experienced an unexpected upturn in the early 2000s, as the average woman’s age at first marriage dropped slightly. The reversal in fertility could represent a temporary fluctuation in marriage age or, less likely, a decrease in the steady rate of contraceptive use.
Thousands of Algerian peasants – mainly Berber men from the Kabylia region – faced with land dispossession and economic hardship under French rule migrated temporarily to France to work in manufacturing and mining during the first half of the 20th century. This movement accelerated during World War I, when Algerians filled in for French factory workers or served as soldiers. In the years following independence, low-skilled Algerian workers and Algerians who had supported the French (harkis) emigrated en masse to France. Tighter French immigration rules and Algiers’ decision to cease managing labor migration to France in the 1970s limited legal emigration largely to family reunification.
Not until Algeria’s civil war in the 1990s did the country again experience substantial outmigration. Many Algerians legally entered Tunisia without visas claiming to be tourists and then stayed as workers. Other Algerians headed to Europe seeking asylum, although France imposed restrictions. Sub-Saharan African migrants came to Algeria after its civil war to work in agriculture and mining. In the 2000s, a wave of educated Algerians went abroad seeking skilled jobs in a wider range of destinations, increasing their presence in North America and Spain. At the same time, legal foreign workers principally from China and Egypt came to work in Algeria’s construction and oil sectors. Illegal migrants from sub-Saharan Africa, particularly Malians, Nigeriens, and Gambians, continue to come to Algeria in search of work or to use it as a stepping stone to Libya and Europe.
Since 1975, Algeria also has been the main recipient of Sahrawi refugees from the ongoing conflict in Western Sahara. An estimated 90,000 Sahrawis live in five refugee camps in southwestern Algeria near Tindouf.
Contraceptive prevalence rate67.4% (2010/11)
57.1% (2012/13)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 50.1
youth dependency ratio: 40.9
elderly dependency ratio: 9.3
potential support ratio: 10.8 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 52.6
youth dependency ratio: 43.6
elderly dependency ratio: 9.1
potential support ratio: 11 (2015 est.)

Government

MoroccoAlgeria
Country name"conventional long form: Kingdom of Morocco
conventional short form: Morocco
local long form: Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah
local short form: Al Maghrib
etymology: the English name ""Morocco"" derives from, respectively, the Spanish and Portuguese names ""Marruecos"" and ""Marrocos,"" which stem from ""Marrakesh"" the Latin name for the former capital of ancient Morocco; the Arabic name ""Al Maghrib"" translates as ""The West""
"
conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
conventional short form: Algeria
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah
local short form: Al Jaza'ir
etymology: the country name derives from the capital city of Algiers
Government typeparliamentary constitutional monarchy
presidential republic
Capitalname: Rabat
geographic coordinates: 34 01 N, 6 49 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in September
name: Algiers
geographic coordinates: 36 45 N, 3 03 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions11 regions (recognized); Beni Mellal-Khenifra, Casablanca-Settat, Draa-Tafilalet, Fes-Meknes, Guelmim-Oued Noun, Laayoune-Sakia al Hamra, Oriental, Marrakech-Safi, Rabat-Sale-Kenitra, Souss-Massa, Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
note: Morocco claims the territory of Western Sahara, the political status of which is considered undetermined by the US Government; portions of the regions Guelmim-Oued Noun and Laayoune-Sakia al Hamra as claimed by Morocco lie within Western Sahara; Morocco also claims a 12th region, Dakhla-Oued ed Dahab, that falls entirely within Western Sahara
48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanrasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen
Independence2 March 1956 (from France)
5 July 1962 (from France)
National holidayThrone Day (accession of King MOHAMMED VI to the throne), 30 July (1999)
Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest drafted 17 June 2011, approved by referendum 1 July 2011; note - sources disagree on whether the 2011 referendum was for a new constitution or for reforms to the previous constitution
amendments: proposed by the king, by the prime minister, or by members in either chamber of Parliament; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by both chambers and approval in a referendum; the king can opt to submit self-initiated proposals directly to a referendum (2016)
history: several previous; latest approved by referendum 23 February 1989
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or through the president with the support of three-fourths of the members of both houses of Parliament in joint session; passage requires approval by both houses, approval by referendum, and promulgation by the president; the president can forego a referendum if the Constitutional Council determines the proposed amendment does not conflict with basic constitutional principles; articles including the republican form of government, the integrity and unity of the country, and fundamental citizens’ liberties and rights cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2016 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of civil law based on French law and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts by Constitutional Court
mixed legal system of French civil law and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials including several Supreme Court justices
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: King MOHAMMED VI (since 30 July 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Saad-Eddine al-OTHMANI (since 17 March 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the prime minister in consultation with Parliament and appointed by the monarch
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from the majority party following legislative elections
chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Abdel Madjid TEBBOUNE (since 25 May 2017)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds if needed for a 5-year term (2-term limit reinstated by constitutional amendment in February 2016); election last held on 17 April 2014 (next to be held in April 2019); prime minister nominated by the president from the majority party in Parliament
election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president for a fourth term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (FLN) 81.5%, Ali BENFLIS (FLN) 12.2%, Abdelaziz BELAID (Future Front) 3.4%, other 2.9%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament consists of the Chamber of Advisors (120 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college of local councils, professional organizations, and labor unions; members serve 6-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives (395 seats; 305 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 90 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - in the national constituency, 60 seats are reserved for women and 30 reserved for those under age 40
elections: Chamber of Advisors - last held on 2 October 2015 (next to be held in fall 2021); Chamber of Representatives - last held on 7 October 2016 (next to be held in fall 2021)
election results: Chamber of Advisors- percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - JDP 31.7%, PAM 25.8%, PI 11.7%, RNI 9.4%, MP 6.8%, USFP 5.1%, UC 4.8%, PPS 3.0%, MDS 0.8%, other 1.0%; seats by party - PJD 125, PAM 102, PI 46, RNI 37, MP 27, USFP 20, UC 19, PPS 12, MDS 3, other 4
description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Council of the Nation (upper house with 144 seats; one-third of members appointed by the president, two-thirds indirectly elected by simple majority vote by an electoral college composed of local council members; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the National People's Assembly (lower house with 462 seats including 8 seats for Algerians living abroad); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: Council of the Nation - last held on 29 December 2015 (next to be held in December 2018); National People's Assembly - last held on 4 May 2017 (next to be held in 2022)
election results: Council of the Nation - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; National People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FLN 164, RND 97, MSP-FC 33, TAJ 19, Ennahda -FJD 15, FFS 14, El Mostakbel 14, MPA 13, PT 11, RCD 9, ANR 8, MEN 4, other 33, independent 28
Judicial branch"highest court(s): Supreme Court or Court of Cassation (consists of 5-judge panels organized into civil, family matters, commercial, administrative, social, and criminal sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 12 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the Superior Council of Judicial Power, a 20-member body presided by the monarch and including the Supreme Court president, the prosecutor general, representatives of the appeals and first instance courts - among them 1 woman magistrate, the president of the National Council of the Rights of Man, and 5 ""notable persons"" appointed by the monarch; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court members - 6 designated by the monarch and 6 elected by Parliament; court president appointed by the monarch from among the court members; members serve 9-year non-renewable terms
subordinate courts: courts of appeal; High Court of Justice; administrative and commercial courts; regional and sadad courts (for religious, civil and administrative, and penal adjudication); first instance courts
"
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 150 judges organized into 4 divisions: civil and commercial; social security and labor; criminal; and administrative; Constitutional Council (consists of 12 members including the court chairman and deputy chairman); note - Algeria's judicial system does not include sharia courts
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the High Council of Magistracy, an administrative body presided over by the president of the republic, and includes the republic vice-president and several members; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council members - 4 appointed by the president of the republic, 2 each by the 2 houses of Parliament, 2 by the Supreme Court, and 2 by the Council of State; Council president and members appointed for single 6-year terms with half the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: appellate or wilaya courts; first instance or daira tribunals
Political parties and leadersAction Party or PA [Mohammed EL IDRISSI]
Amal (hope) Party [Mohamed BANI]
An-Nahj Ad-Dimocrati or An-Nahj [Mustapha BRAHMA]
Authenticity and Modernity Party or PAM [Ilyas EL OMARI]
Constitutional Union Party or UC [Mohamed SAJID]
Democratic and Social Movement or MDS [Abdessamad ARCHANE]
Democratic Forces Front or FFD [Mustapha BENALI]
Democratic Oath Party or SD
Democratic Socialist Vanguard Party or PADS [Abderrahman BENAMROU]
Democratic Society Party [Zhour CHAKKAFI]
Environment and Development Party or PED [Karim HRITAN]
Green Left Party [Mohamed FARES]
Istiqlal (Independence) Party or PI [Hamid CHABAT]
Ittihadi National Congress or CNI [Abdesalam EL AZIZ]
Labor Party or PT
Moroccan Liberal Party or PML [Mohammed ZIANE]
Moroccan Union for Democracy or UMD [Jamal MANDRI]
National Rally of Independents or RNI [Aziz AKHANNOUCH]
Neo-Democrats Party [Mohamed DARIF]
Party of Development Reform or PRD [Abderrahmane EL KOHEN]
Party of Justice and Development or PJD [Abdelillah BENKIRANE]
Party of Liberty and Social Justice [Miloud MOUSSAOUI]
Popular Movement or MP [Mohand LAENSER]
Progress and Socialism Party or PPS [Nabil BENABDELLAH]
Renaissance and Virtue Party [Mohamed KHALIDI]
Renaissance Party [Said EL GHENNIOUI]
Renewal and Equity Party or PRE [Chakir ACHEHABAR]
Shoura (consultation) and Istiqlal Party [Ahmed BELGHAZI]
Social Center Party or PCS [Lahcen MADIH]
Socialist Party [Abdelmajid BOUZOUBAA]
Socialist Union of Popular Forces or USFP [Driss LACHGAR]
Unified Socialist Party or GSU [Nabila MOUNIB]
Unity and Democracy Party [Ahmed FITRI]
Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]
Algerian Popular Movement or MPA [Amara BENYOUNES]
Algerian Rally or RA [Ali ZAGHDOUD]
Algeria's Hope Rally or TAJ [Amar GHOUL]
Dignity or El Karama [Mohamed BENHAMOU]
Ennour El Djazairi Party (Algerian Radiance Party) or PED [Badreddine BELBAZ]
Front for Change or FC [Abdelmadjid MENASRA]
Front for Justice and Development or El Adala [Abdallah DJABALLAH]
Future Front or El Mostakbel [Abdelaziz BELAID]
Green Algeria Alliance or AAV (includes Islah, Ennahda Movement, and MSP)
Islamic Renaissance Movement or Ennahda Movement [Mohamed DOUIBI]
Movement of National Understanding or MEN
Movement for National Reform or Islah [Djilali GHOUINI]
Movement of Society for Peace or MSP [Abderrazak MOKRI]
National Democratic Rally (Rassemblement National Democratique) or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA]
National Front for Social Justice or FNJS [Khaled BOUNEDJEMA]
National Liberation Front or FLN [Djamel OULD ABBES]
National Party for Solidarity and Development or PNSD
National Reform Movement or Islah [Djahid YOUNSI]
National Republican Alliance or ANR [Redha MALEK]
New Dawn Party or PFJ
New Generation or Jil Jadid [Soufiane DJILALI]
Oath of 1954 or Ahd 54 [Ali Fawzi REBAINE]
Party of Justice and Liberty [Mohammed SAID]
Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Mohcine BELABBAS]
Rally for Hope in Algeria or TAJ
Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Mustafa BOUCHACHI]
Union of Democratic and Social Forces or UFDS [Noureddine BAHBOUH]
Vanguard of Freedoms [Ali BENFLIS]
Youth Party or PJ [Hamana BOUCHARMA]
Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUNE]
note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted in March 1997
Political pressure groups and leadersDemocratic Confederation of Labor or CDT [Noubir EL AMAOUI]
General Union of Moroccan Workers or UGTM [Mohamed KAFI CHERRAT]
Justice and Charity Organization or JCO [Mohammed ben Abdesslam ABBADI]
Moroccan Employers Association or CGEM [Miriem BENSALAH-CHAQROUN]
National Labor Union of Morocco or UNMT [Mohamed YATIM]
Union of Moroccan Workers or UMT [Miloudi EL MOUKHARIK]
Algerian League for the Defense of Human Rights or LADDH [Noureddine BENISSAD]
SOS Disparus [Nacera DUTOUR]
Youth Action Rally or RAJ
International organization participationABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CD, EBRD, FAO, G-11, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE (partner), Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNSC (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BIS, CAEU, CD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Lalla JOUMALA Alaoui (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 1601 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 462-7979
FAX: [1] (202) 462-7643
consulate(s) general: New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Madjid BOUGUERRA (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800
FAX: [1] (202) 986-5906
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Stephanie MILEY (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Km 5.7 Avenue Mohammed VI, Souissi, Rabat 10170
mailing address: Unit 9400, Box Front Office, DPO, AE 09718
telephone: [212] 537 637 200
FAX: [212] 537 637 201
consulate(s) general: Casablanca
chief of mission: Ambassador Joan A. POLASCHIK (since 22 September 2014)
embassy: 05 Chemin Cheikh Bachir, El Ibrahimi, El-Biar 16030 Algieria
mailing address: B. P. 408, Alger-Gare, 16030 Algiers
telephone: [213] (0) 770-08-2000
FAX: [213] (0) 770-08-2064
Flag descriptionred with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as Sulayman's (Solomon's) seal in the center of the flag; red and green are traditional colors in Arab flags, although the use of red is more commonly associated with the Arab states of the Persian Gulf; the pentacle represents the five pillars of Islam and signifies the association between God and the nation; design dates to 1912
two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color boundary; the colors represent Islam (green), purity and peace (white), and liberty (red); the crescent and star are also Islamic symbols, but the crescent is more closed than those of other Muslim countries because Algerians believe the long crescent horns bring happiness
National anthem"name: ""Hymne Cherifien"" (Hymn of the Sharif)
lyrics/music: Ali Squalli HOUSSAINI/Leo MORGAN
note: music adopted 1956, lyrics adopted 1970
"
"name: ""Kassaman"" (We Pledge)
lyrics/music: Mufdi ZAKARIAH/Mohamed FAWZI
note: adopted 1962; ZAKARIAH wrote ""Kassaman"" as a poem while imprisoned in Algiers by French colonial forces
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)pentacle symbol, lion; national colors: red, green
star and crescent, fennec fox; national colors: green, white, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Morocco; if the father is unknown or stateless, the mother must be a citizen
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the mother must be a citizen of Algeria
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Economy

MoroccoAlgeria
Economy - overviewMorocco has capitalized on its proximity to Europe and relatively low labor costs to work towards building a diverse, open, market-oriented economy. Key sectors of the economy include agriculture, tourism, aerospace, automotive, phosphates, textiles, apparel, and subcomponents. Morocco has increased investment in its port, transportation, and industrial infrastructure to position itself as a center and broker for business throughout Africa. Industrial development strategies and infrastructure improvements - most visibly illustrated by a new port and free trade zone near Tangier - are improving Morocco's competitiveness.

In the 1980s, Morocco was a heavily indebted country before pursuing austerity measures and pro-market reforms, overseen by the IMF. Since taking the throne in 1999, King MOHAMMED VI has presided over a stable economy marked by steady growth, low inflation, and gradually falling unemployment, although poor harvests and economic difficulties in Europe contributed to an economic slowdown. To boost exports, Morocco entered into a bilateral Free Trade Agreement with the US in 2006 and an Advanced Status agreement with the EU in 2008. In late 2014, Morocco eliminated subsidies for gasoline, diesel, and fuel oil, dramatically reducing outlays that weighted on the country’s budget and current account. Subsidies on butane gas and certain food products remain in place. Morocco also seeks to expand its renewable energy capacity with a goal of making renewable more than 50% of installed electricity generation capacity by 2030.

Despite Morocco's economic progress, the country suffers from high unemployment, poverty, and illiteracy, particularly in rural areas. Key economic challenges for Morocco include reforming the education system and the judiciary.
Algeria's economy remains dominated by the state, a legacy of the country's socialist post-independence development model. In recent years the Algerian Government has halted the privatization of state-owned industries and imposed restrictions on imports and foreign involvement in its economy.

Hydrocarbons have long been the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 30% of GDP, 60% of budget revenues, and nearly 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the 10th-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the sixth-largest gas exporter. It ranks 16th in oil reserves. Hydrocarbon exports enabled Algeria to maintain macroeconomic stability and amass large foreign currency reserves while oil prices were high. In addition, Algeria's external debt is extremely low at about 2% of GDP. However, Algeria has struggled to develop non-hydrocarbon industries because of heavy regulation and an emphasis on state-driven growth. Declining oil prices since 2014 have reduced the government’s ability to use state-driven growth to distribute rents and fund generous public subsidies. Algeria’s foreign exchange reserves have declined by more than 40% since late 2013 and its oil stabilization fund has decreased from about $75 billion at the end of 2013 to about $7 billion in 2017, which is the statutory minimum.

Algiers has strengthened protectionist measures since 2015 to limit its import bill and encourage domestic production of non-oil and gas industries. Since 2015, the government has imposed additional regulatory requirements on access to foreign exchange for imports and import quotas for specific products, such as cars, to limit their importation. Meanwhile, Algeria has not increased non-hydrocarbon exports, and hydrocarbon exports have declined because of field depletion and increased domestic demand.

With declining revenues caused by falling oil prices, the government has been under pressure to reduce spending. A wave of economic protests in February and March 2011 prompted Algiers to offer more than $23 billion in public grants and retroactive salary and benefit increases, moves which continue to weigh on public finances. In 2016, the government increased taxes on electricity and fuel, resulting in a modest increase in gasoline prices, and in 2017 raised by 2% the value-added tax on nearly all products, but has refrained from directly reducing subsidies, particularly for education, healthcare, and housing programs.

Long-term economic challenges include diversifying the economy away from its reliance on hydrocarbon exports, bolstering the private sector, attracting foreign investment, and providing adequate jobs for younger Algerians.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$282.8 billion (2016 est.)
$277.7 billion (2015 est.)
$265.7 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$609.4 billion (2016 est.)
$588.4 billion (2015 est.)
$566.3 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate1.8% (2016 est.)
4.5% (2015 est.)
2.6% (2014 est.)
3.6% (2016 est.)
3.9% (2015 est.)
3.8% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$8,400 (2016 est.)
$8,300 (2015 est.)
$8,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$15,000 (2016 est.)
$14,700 (2015 est.)
$14,500 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 13.1%
industry: 29.8%
services: 57.2% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 13.2%
industry: 38.4%
services: 48.4% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line15% (2007 est.)
23% (2006 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 33.2% (2007)
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1.8% (2016 est.)
1.6% (2015 est.)
5.9% (2016 est.)
4.4% (2015 est.)
Labor force12.23 million (2016 est.)
11.78 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 39.1%
industry: 20.3%
services: 40.5% (2014 est.)
agriculture: 30.9%
industry: 30.9%
services: 58.4% (2011 est.) (2011 est.)
Unemployment rate9.9% (2016 est.)
9.7% (2015 est.)
9.9% (2016 est.)
11.2% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index40.9 (2007 est.)
39.5 (1999 est.)
35.3 (1995)
Budgetrevenues: $25.22 billion
expenditures: $29.43 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $42.69 billion
expenditures: $66.45 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesautomotive parts, phosphate mining and processing, aerospace, food processing, leather goods, textiles, construction, energy, tourism
petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing
Industrial production growth rate1.6% (2016 est.)
0.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsbarley, wheat, citrus fruits, grapes, vegetables, olives; livestock; wine
wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle
Exports$18.72 billion (2016 est.)
$18.48 billion (2015 est.)
$27.5 billion (2016 est.)
$33 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesclothing and textiles, automobiles, electric components, inorganic chemicals, transistors, crude minerals, fertilizers (including phosphates), petroleum products, citrus fruits, vegetables, fish
petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97% (2009 est.)
Exports - partnersSpain 22.1%, France 19.7%, India 4.9%, US 4.3%, Italy 4.3% (2015)
Spain 17.4%, Italy 13.7%, France 12.3%, UK 7.2%, US 6.4%, Netherlands 6%, Turkey 5.2%, Brazil 4.5% (2015)
Imports$33.15 billion (2016 est.)
$32.74 billion (2015 est.)
$44.6 billion (2016 est.)
$50.7 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiescrude petroleum, textile fabric, telecommunications equipment, wheat, gas and electricity, transistors, plastics
capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods
Imports - partnersSpain 13.9%, France 12.4%, China 8.5%, US 6.5%, Germany 5.8%, Italy 5.5%, Russia 4.4%, Turkey 4.3% (2015)
China 15%, France 10.3%, Italy 8.8%, Spain 7.2%, Germany 6.2%, US 4.9% (2015)
Debt - external$42.98 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$42.25 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.301 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesMoroccan dirhams (MAD) per US dollar -
9.929 (2016 est.)
9.7351 (2015 est.)
9.7351 (2014 est.)
8.3798 (2013 est.)
8.6 (2012 est.)
Algerian dinars (DZD) per US dollar -
110.1 (2016 est.)
100.691 (2015 est.)
100.691 (2014 est.)
80.579 (2013 est.)
77.54 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt77% of GDP (2016 est.)
75.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
13% of GDP (2016 est.)
9.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover central government debt, as well as debt issued by subnational entities and intra-governmental debt
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$24.67 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$23.01 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$113.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$145 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$4.02 billion (2016 est.)
-$2.165 billion (2015 est.)
-$26.31 billion (2016 est.)
-$27.29 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$104.9 billion (2016 est.)
$168.3 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$51.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$48.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$25.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$25.89 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$3.818 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.555 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.025 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.95 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$45.93 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$52.75 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$53.83 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$NA
Central bank discount rate6.5% (31 December 2010)
3.31% (31 December 2009)
4% (31 December 2010)
4% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate5.9% (31 December 2016 est.)
6% (31 December 2015 est.)
8% (31 December 2016 est.)
8% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$107.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$106.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$100.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$61.78 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$76.06 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$71.58 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$91.41 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$86.43 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$92.72 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$92.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$133.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$127.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues24% of GDP (2016 est.)
25.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4% of GDP (2016 est.)
-13.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 20%
male: 20.3%
female: 19.1% (2014 est.)
total: 25.3%
male: 22.1%
female: 41.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 58.5%
government consumption: 19.4%
investment in fixed capital: 28.6%
investment in inventories: 1.6%
exports of goods and services: 34.4%
imports of goods and services: -42.5% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 41.5%
government consumption: 22.1%
investment in fixed capital: 42.1%
investment in inventories: 6.6%
exports of goods and services: 25.1%
imports of goods and services: -37.4% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving29% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
26.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
32.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
34.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
43.4% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

MoroccoAlgeria
Electricity - production27 billion kWh (2014 est.)
60 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption29 billion kWh (2014 est.)
49 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports100 million kWh (2014 est.)
900 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports6.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
700 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production160 bbl/day (2015 est.)
1.37 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports145,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
2,920 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
1.146 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves680,000 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
12 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves1.444 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
4.504 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production97 million cu m (2014 est.)
83.29 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption597 million cu m (2014 est.)
37.5 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
40.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports500 million cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity7.7 million kW (2014 est.)
16 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels69% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
98% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants19.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
1.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources4.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production149,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
505,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption296,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
430,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports28,510 bbl/day (2013 est.)
435,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports186,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
108,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy39 million Mt (2013 est.)
128 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 400,000
electrification - total population: 98.9%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 97.4% (2013)
population without electricity: 400,000
electrification - total population: 99%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 97% (2016)

Telecommunications

MoroccoAlgeria
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 2,222,370
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 3,267,592
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 43.08 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 129 (July 2015 est.)
total: 45.928 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 116 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; principal switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat; national network nearly 100% digital using fiber-optic links; improved rural service employs microwave radio relay; Internet available but expensive
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is below 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership exceeds 120 per 100 persons
international: country code - 212; landing point for the Atlas Offshore, Estepona-Tetouan, Euroafrica, Spain-Morocco, and SEA-ME-WE-3 fiber-optic telecommunications undersea cables that provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria; participant in Medarabtel; fiber-optic cable link from Agadir to Algeria and Tunisia (2015)
general assessment: privatization of Algeria's telecommunications sector began in 2000; three mobile cellular licenses have been issued and, in 2005, a consortium led by Egypt's Orascom Telecom won a 15-year license to build and operate a fixed-line network in Algeria
domestic: a limited network of fixed lines with a teledensity of less than 10 telephones per 100 persons has been offset by the rapid increase in mobile-cellular subscribership; in 2015, mobile-cellular teledensity was roughly 116 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 213; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia (2015)
Internet country code.ma
.dz
Internet userstotal: 19.021 million
percent of population: 57.1% (July 2015 est.)
total: 15.105 million
percent of population: 38.2% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast media2 TV broadcast networks with state-run Radio-Television Marocaine (RTM) operating one network and the state partially owning the other; foreign TV broadcasts are available via satellite dish; 3 radio broadcast networks with RTM operating one; the government-owned network includes 10 regional radio channels in addition to its national service (2007)
state-run Radio-Television Algerienne operates the broadcast media and carries programming in Arabic, Berber dialects, and French; use of satellite dishes is widespread, providing easy access to European and Arab satellite stations; state-run radio operates several national networks and roughly 40 regional radio stations (2009)

Transportation

MoroccoAlgeria
Railwaystotal: 2,067 km
standard gauge: 2,067 km 1.435-m gauge (1,022 km electrified) (2014)
total: 3,973 km
standard gauge: 2,888 km 1.432-m gauge (283 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,085 km 1.055-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 58,395 km
paved: 41,116 km (includes 1,080 km of expressways)
unpaved: 17,279 km (2010)
total: 113,655 km
paved: 87,605 km (includes 645 km of expressways)
unpaved: 26,050 km (2010)
Pipelinesgas 944 km; oil 270 km; refined products 175 km (2013)
condensate 2,600 km; gas 16,415 km; liquid petroleum gas 3,447 km; oil 7,036 km; refined products 144 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Casablanca, Jorf Lasfar, Mohammedia, Safi, Tangier
container port(s) (TEUs): Tangier (2,093,408)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Jorf Lasfar
major seaport(s): Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda
LNG terminal(s) (export): Arzew, Bethioua, Skikda
Merchant marinetotal: 26
by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 3, container 6, passenger/cargo 14, roll on/roll off 2
foreign-owned: 14 (France 3, Germany 1, Italy 1, Spain 9)
registered in other countries: 4 (Gibraltar 4) (2010)
total: 38
by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 8, chemical tanker 3, liquefied gas 11, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 3
foreign-owned: 15 (UK, 15) (2010)
Airports55 (2013)
157 (2016)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 31
over 3,047 m: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
total: 64
over 3,047 m: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 29
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 24
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
total: 93
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 39
under 914 m: 34 (2013)
Heliports1 (2013)
3 (2013)

Military

MoroccoAlgeria
Military branchesRoyal Armed Forces (Forces Armees Royales, FAR): Royal Moroccan Army (includes Air Defense), Royal Moroccan Navy (includes Coast Guard, Marines), Royal Moroccan Air Force (Al Quwwat al Jawyiya al Malakiya Marakishiya; Force Aerienne Royale Marocaine) (2010)
People's National Army (Armee Nationale Populaire, ANP): Land Forces (Forces Terrestres, FT), Navy of the Republic of Algeria (Marine de la Republique Algerienne, MRA), Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Jaza'eriya, QJJ), Territorial Air Defense Force (2016)
Military service age and obligation20 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; service obligation - 18 months (2012)
17 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; 19-30 years of age for compulsory service; conscript service obligation is 18 months (6 months basic training, 12 months civil projects) (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP3.25% of GDP (2015)
3.68% of GDP (2014)
3.81% of GDP (2013)
3.46% of GDP (2012)
3.3% of GDP (2011)
6% of GDP (2016)
6.24% of GDP (2015)
5.56% of GDP (2014)
4.96% of GDP (2013)
4.46% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

MoroccoAlgeria
Disputes - internationalclaims and administers Western Sahara whose sovereignty remains unresolved; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, the islands of Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); discussions have not progressed on a comprehensive maritime delimitation, setting limits on resource exploration and refugee interdiction, since Morocco's 2002 rejection of Spain's unilateral designation of a median line from the Canary Islands; Morocco serves as one of the primary launching areas of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; the National Liberation Front's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco is a dormant dispute
Algeria and many other states reject Moroccan administration of Western Sahara; the Polisario Front, exiled in Algeria, represents the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic; Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; dormant disputes include Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algeria and the National Liberation Front's (FLN) assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco

Source: CIA Factbook