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Montenegro vs. Bosnia and Herzegovina

Introduction

MontenegroBosnia and Herzegovina
BackgroundThe use of the name Crna Gora or Black Mountain (Montenegro) began in the 13th century in reference to a highland region in the Serbian province of Zeta. The later medieval state of Zeta maintained its existence until 1496 when Montenegro finally fell under Ottoman rule. Over subsequent centuries, Montenegro managed to maintain a level of autonomy within the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro was a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it transformed into a secular principality. Montenegro was recognized as an independent sovereign principality at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. After World War I, during which Montenegro fought on the side of the Allies, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; at the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro federated with Serbia, creating the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, shifting to a looser State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia barely exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally restore its independence on 3 June 2006.
"Bosnia and Herzegovina declared sovereignty in October 1991 and independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a ""Greater Serbia."" In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that ended three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995).
The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a multiethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government composed of two entities roughly equal in size: the predominantly Bosniak-Bosnian Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the predominantly Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments are responsible for overseeing most government functions. Additionally, the Dayton Accords established the Office of the High Representative to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. The Peace Implementation Council at its conference in Bonn in 1997 also gave the High Representative the authority to impose legislation and remove officials, the so-called ""Bonn Powers."" An original NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops assembled in 1995 was succeeded over time by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR). In 2004, European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR. Currently, EUFOR deploys around 600 troops in theater in a security assistance and training capacity.
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Geography

MontenegroBosnia and Herzegovina
LocationSoutheastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia
Geographic coordinates42 30 N, 19 18 E
44 00 N, 18 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 13,812 sq km
land: 13,452 sq km
water: 360 sq km
total: 51,197 sq km
land: 51,187 sq km
water: 10 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Connecticut
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundariestotal: 680 km
border countries (5): Albania 186 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 242 km, Croatia 19 km, Kosovo 76 km, Serbia 157 km
total: 1,543 km
border countries (3): Croatia 956 km, Montenegro 242 km, Serbia 345 km
Coastline293.5 km
20 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: defined by treaty
NA
ClimateMediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland
hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
Terrainhighly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus
mountains and valleys
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,086 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Bobotov Kuk 2,522 m
mean elevation: 500 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Maglic 2,386 m
Natural resourcesbauxite, hydroelectricity
coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, timber, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 38.2%
arable land 12.9%; permanent crops 1.2%; permanent pasture 24.1%
forest: 40.4%
other: 21.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 42.2%
arable land 19.7%; permanent crops 2%; permanent pasture 20.5%
forest: 42.8%
other: 15% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land24 sq km (2012)
30 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsdestructive earthquakes
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issuespollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor
air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife; deforestation
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notestrategic location along the Adriatic coast
within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and Montenegro, and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic Serb majority in the east
Population distributionhighest population density is concentrated in the south, southwest; the extreme eastern border is the least populated area
the northern and central areas of the country are the most densely populated

Demographics

MontenegroBosnia and Herzegovina
Population644,578 (July 2016 est.)
3,861,912 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 15.13% (male 47,983/female 49,527)
15-24 years: 9.92% (male 29,003/female 34,907)
25-54 years: 46.83% (male 163,055/female 138,792)
55-64 years: 13.37% (male 42,998/female 43,168)
65 years and over: 14.76% (male 38,014/female 57,131) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 13.36% (male 266,389/female 249,425)
15-24 years: 11.97% (male 238,682/female 223,599)
25-54 years: 46.2% (male 896,760/female 887,407)
55-64 years: 14.43% (male 267,628/female 289,464)
65 years and over: 14.05% (male 212,574/female 329,984) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 40.2 years
male: 39.3 years
female: 41.3 years (2016 est.)
total: 41.7 years
male: 40.2 years
female: 43.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate-0.35% (2016 est.)
-0.14% (2016 est.)
Birth rate10.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
8.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.83 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.17 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
NA
Nationalitynoun: Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Montenegrin
noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian
Ethnic groupsMontenegrin 45%, Serbian 28.7%, Bosniak 8.7%, Albanian 4.9%, Muslim 3.3%, Romani 1%, Croat 1%, other 2.6%, unspecified 4.9% (2011 est.)
Bosniak 50.1%, Serb 30.8%, Croat 15.4%, other 2.7%, not declared/no answer 1%
note: the methodology remains disputed and Republika Srspka authorities refuse to recognize the results; Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
NA
ReligionsOrthodox 72.1%, Muslim 19.1%, Catholic 3.4%, atheist 1.2%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.6% (2011 est.)
Muslim 50.7%, Orthodox 30.7%, Roman Catholic 15.2%, atheist 0.8%, agnostic 0.3%, other 1.2%, undeclared/no answer 1.1% (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
NA
LanguagesSerbian 42.9%, Montenegrin (official) 37%, Bosnian 5.3%, Albanian 5.3%, Serbo-Croat 2%, other 3.5%, unspecified 4% (2011 est.)
Bosnian (official) 52.9%, Serbian (official) 30.8%, Croatian (official) 14.6%, other 1.6%, no answer 0.2% (2013 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.7%
male: 99.5%
female: 98% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.5%
male: 99.5%
female: 97.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2010)
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2014)
Education expendituresNA
NA
Urbanizationurban population: 64% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.34% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 39.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.14% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 99.2% of population
total: 99.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0.8% of population
total: 0.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.7% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 99.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.3% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 92.2% of population
total: 95.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 7.8% of population
total: 4.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 98.9% of population
rural: 92% of population
total: 94.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.1% of population
rural: 8% of population
total: 5.2% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationPODGORICA (capital) 165,000 (2014)
SARAJEVO (capital) 318,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate7 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
11 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight1% (2013)
1.5% (2012)
Health expenditures6.4% of GDP (2014)
9.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.34 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
1.89 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density4 beds/1,000 population (2011)
3.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate21.4% (2014)
19.2% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 8,520
percentage: 10% (2005 est.)
total number: 24,722
percentage: 5% (2006 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth26.3 years (2010 est.)
26.7 years (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate23.3% (2013)
45.8% (2011/12)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 47.7
youth dependency ratio: 27.6
elderly dependency ratio: 20.2
potential support ratio: 5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 40.7
youth dependency ratio: 19
elderly dependency ratio: 21.7
potential support ratio: 4.6 (2015 est.)

Government

MontenegroBosnia and Herzegovina
Country name"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Montenegro
local long form: none
local short form: Crna Gora
former: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro, Republic of Montenegro
etymology: the country's name locally as well as in most Western European languages means ""black mountain"" and refers to the dark coniferous forests on Mount Lovcen and the surrounding area
"
"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
local long form: none
local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina
former: People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
abbreviation: BiH
etymology: the larger northern territory is named for the Bosna River; the smaller southern section takes its name from the German word ""herzog,"" meaning ""duke,"" and the ending ""-ovina,"" meaning ""land,"" forming the combination denoting ""dukedom""
"
Government typeparliamentary republic
parliamentary republic
Capital"name: Podgorica; note - Cetinje retains the status of ""Old Royal Capital""
geographic coordinates: 42 26 N, 19 16 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
"
name: Sarajevo
geographic coordinates: 43 52 N, 18 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions23 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina); Andrijevica, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Gusinje, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Petnijica, Plav, Pljevlja, Pluzine, Podgorica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Ulcinj, Zabljak
3 first-order administrative divisions - Brcko District (Brcko Distrikt) (ethnically mixed), the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine) (predominantly Bosniak-Croat), the Republic of Srpska (Republika Srpska) (predominantly Serb)
Independence3 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro)
1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia); note - referendum for independence completed on 1 March 1992; independence declared on 3 March 1992
National holidayNational Day, 13 July (1878, the day the Berlin Congress recognized Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the world, and 1941, the day the Montenegrins staged an uprising against fascist occupiers and sided with the partisan communist movement)
Independence Day, 1 March (1992) and Statehood Day, 25 November (1943) - both observed in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity; Victory Day, 9 May (1945) and Dayton Agreement Day, 21 November (1995) - both observed in the Republika Srpska entity
note: there is no national-level holiday
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 22 October 2007
amendments: proposed by the president of Montenegro, by the government, or by at least 25 members of the Assembly; passage of draft proposals requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly, followed by a public hearing; passage of draft amendments requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly; changes to certain constitutional articles such as sovereignty, state symbols, citizenship, and constitutional change procedures require three-fifths majority vote in a referendum; amended 2013, 2014 (2016)
history: 14 December 1995 (constitution included as part of the Dayton Peace Accords); note - each of the political entities has its own constitution
amendments: decided by the Parliamentary Assembly, including a two-thirds majority vote of members present in the House of Representatives; the constitutional article on human rights and fundamental freedoms cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2009
Legal systemcivil law
civil law system; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Filip VUJANOVIC (since 6 April 2008)
head of government: Prime Minister Dusko MARKOVIC (since 28 November 2016); note - Prime Minister Milo DJUKANOVIC resigned 26 October 2016
cabinet: Ministers act as cabinet
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 April 2013 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister nominated by the president, approved by the Assembly
election results: Filip VUJANOVIC reelected president; percent of vote - Filip VUJANOVIC (DPS) 51.2%, Miodrag LEKIC (independent) 48.8%
chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Mladen IVANIC (chairman since 17 November 2016, presidency member since 17 November 2014 - Serb); Dragan COVIC (presidency member since 17 November 2014 - Croat); Bakir IZETBEGOVIC (presidency member since 10 November 2010 - Bosniak)
head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Denis ZVIZDIC (since 11 February 2015)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman, approved by the state-level House of Representatives
elections/appointments: 3-member presidency (1 Bosniak and 1 Croat elected from the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 1 Serb elected from the Republika Srpska) directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term, but then ineligible for 4 years); the presidency chairpersonship rotates every 8 months and resumes where it left off following each general election; election last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018); the chairman of the Council of Ministers appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the state-level House of Representatives
election results: percent of vote - Mladen IVANIC 48.7% - Serb seat; Dragan COVIC 52.2% - Croat seat; Bakir IZETBEGOVIC 32.9% - Bosniak seat
note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Marinko CAVARA (since 11 February 2015); Vice Presidents Melika MAHMUTBEGOVIC (since 11 February 2015), Milan DUNOVIC (since 11 February 2015); President of the Republika Srpska Milorad DODIK (since 15 November 2010); Vice Presidents Ramiz SALKIC (since 24 November 2014), Josip JERKOVIC (since 24 November 2014)
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Assembly or Skupstina (81 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 16 October 2016 (next to be held by October 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - DPS 41.4%, DF 20.3%, Key Coalition, 11.1%, DCG 10.0%, SDP 5.2%, SD 3.3%, BS, 3.2%, Albanians Decisively 1.3%, HGI .5%, other 3.7%; seats by party/coalition - DPS 36, DF 18, Key Coalition 9, DCG 8, SDP 4, SD 2, BS 2, Albanians Decisively 1, HGI 1
description: bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members designated by the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina's House of Peoples and the Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve 4-year terms) and the state-level House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats to include 28 seats allocated to the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 to the Republika Srpska; members directly elected by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); note - the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature that consists of the House of Peoples (58 seats - 17 Bosniak, 17 Croat, 17 Serb, 7 other) and the House of Representatives (98 seats; members directly elected by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); Republika Srpska's unicameral legislature is the National Assembly (83 directly elected delegates serve 4-year terms)
elections: House of Peoples - last constituted in 11 February 2015 (next likely to be constituted in 2019); state-level House of Representatives - election last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018)
election results: House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - NA; state-level House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - Federation votes: SDA 27.9%, DF 15.3%, SBB BiH 14.4%, Croat People's Assembly coalition or HNS (HDZ BiH-HSS-NHI-HKDU-HSP BiH-HSP HB) 12.2%, SDP 9.5%, HDZ-1990 4.1%, BPS-Sefer Halilovic 3.7%, A-SDA 2.3%, other 10.6%; Republika Srpska votes: SNSD 38.5%, SDS 32.6%, PDP-NDP 7.8%, DNS 5.7%, SDA 4.9%, other 10.5%; seats by party/coalition - SDA 10, SNSD 6, SDS 5, DF 5, SBB BiH 4, Croat People's Assembly coalition or HNS (HDZ BiH-HSS-NHI-HKDU-HSP BiH-HSP HB) 4, SDP 3, PDP-NDP 1, HDZ-1990 1, BPS-Sefer Halilovic 1, DNS 1, A-SDA 1
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Vrhovni Sud (consists of the court president, deputy president, and 15 judges); Constitutional Court or Ustavni Sud (consists of the court president and 7 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president proposed by general session of the Supreme Court and elected by the Judicial Council, a 9-member body consisting of judges, lawyers designated by the Assembly, and the minister of judicial affairs; Supreme Court president elected for a single renewable, 5-year term; other judges elected by the Judicial Council for life; Constitutional Court judges - 2 proposed by the president of Montenegro and 5 by the Assembly, and elected by the Assembly; court president elected from among the court members; court president elected for 3 years, other judges 9 years
subordinate courts: Administrative Courts; Appellate Court; Commercial Courts; High Courts; basic courts
highest court(s): BiH Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members); Court of BiH (consists of 44 national judges and 7 international judges organized into 3 divisions - Administrative, Appellate, and Criminal, which includes a War Crimes Chamber)
judge selection and term of office: BiH Constitutional Court judges - 4 selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives, 2 selected by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and 3 non-Bosnian judges selected by the president of the European Court of Human Rights; Court of BiH president and national judges appointed by the High Judicial and Prosecutorial Council; Court of BiH president appointed for renewable 6-year term; other national judges appointed to serve until age 70; international judges recommended by the president of the Court of BiH and appointed by the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina; international judges appointed to serve until age 70
subordinate courts: the Federation has 10 cantonal courts plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has a supreme court, 5 district courts, and a number of municipal courts
Political parties and leadersAlbanians Decisively [Genci NIMANBEGU] (includes FORCA, AA, DUA)
Albanian Alternative or AA [Nik DJELOSAJ]
Bosniak Party or BS [Rafet HUSOVIC]
Croatian Civic Initiative or HGI [Marija VUCINOVIC]
Democratic Alliance or DEMOS [Miodrag LEKIC]
Democratic Front or DF [collective leadership] (includes NOVA, PZP, DNP, RP)
Democratic Montenegro or DCG [Aleksa BECIC]
Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC]
Democratic People's Party or DNP [Milan KNEZEVIC]
Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Mehmet ZENKA]
Key Coalition [Miodrag LEKIC] (includes DEMOS, SNP, URA]
Liberal Party or LP [Andrija POPOVIC]
Movement for Change or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC]
New Democratic Power or FORCA [Nazif CUNGU]
New Serb Democracy or NOVA [Andrija MANDIC]
Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC]
Social Democrats or SD [Ivan BRAJOVIC]
Socialist People's Party or SNP [Srdjan MILIC]
United Reform Action or URA [Zarko RAKCEVIC]
Workers' Party or RP [Janko VUCINIC]
Alliance for a Better Future of BiH or SBB BiH [Fahrudin RADONCIC]
Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]
Alternative Party for Democratic Activity or A-SDA [Nermin OGRESEVIC]
Bosnian-Herzegovinian Patriotic Party-Sefer Halilovic or BPS-Sefer Halilovic [Sefer HALILOVIC]
Croat Peasants' Party or HSS [Mario KARAMATIC]
Croatian Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HKDU [Ivan MUSA]
Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HDZ-BiH [Dragan COVIC]
Croatian Democratic Union 1990 or HDZ-1990 [acting president Ilija CVITANOVIC]
Croatian Party of Rights or HSP BiH [Stanko PRIMORAC]
Croatian Party of Rights of Herceg-Bosne or HSP HB [Vesna PINJUH]
Croatian People's Party-Liberal Democrats or HNS [Ivan VRDOLJAK]
Democratic Front of DF [Zeljko KOMSIC]
Democratic Peoples' Alliance or DNS [Marko PAVIC]
Party for Democratic Action or SDA [Bakir IZETBEGOVIC]
Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Branislav BORENOVIC]
People's Democratic Movement or NDP [Dragan CAVIC]
Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Vukota GOVEDARICA]
Social Democratic Party or SDP [Nermin NIKSIC]
Political pressure groups and leadersNA
other: war veterans; displaced persons associations; family associations of missing persons; private media
International organization participationCE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Nebojsa KALUDEROVIC (since 18 January 2017)
chancery: 1610 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-6108
FAX: [1] (202) 234-6109
consulate(s) general: New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Haris HRLE (since 23 October 2015)
chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500
FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Margaret UYEHARA (since 19 February 2015)
embassy: Dzona Dzeksona 2, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [382] (0) 20 410 500
FAX: [382] (0) 20 241 358
chief of mission: Ambassador Maureen CORMACK (since 16 January 2015)
embassy: 1 Robert C. Frasure Street, 71000 Sarajevo
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [387] (33) 704-000
FAX: [387] (33) 659-722
branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar
Flag descriptiona red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered; the arms consist of a double-headed golden eagle - symbolizing the unity of church and state - surmounted by a crown; the eagle holds a golden scepter in its right claw and a blue orb in its left; the breast shield over the eagle shows a golden lion passant on a green field in front of a blue sky; the lion is a symbol of episcopal authority and harkens back to the three and a half centuries when Montenegro was ruled as a theocracy
a wide blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle; the triangle approximates the shape of the country and its three points stand for the constituent peoples - Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs; the stars represent Europe and are meant to be continuous (thus the half stars at top and bottom); the colors (white, blue, and yellow) are often associated with neutrality and peace, and traditionally are linked with Bosnia
note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Brazil, Eritrea, and Vanuatu
National anthem"name: ""Oj, svijetla majska zoro"" (Oh, Bright Dawn of May)
lyrics/music: Sekula DRLJEVIC/unknown, arranged by Zarko MIKOVIC
note: adopted 2004; music based on a Montenegrin folk song
"
"name: ""Drzavna himna Bosne i Hercegovine"" (The National Anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina)
lyrics/music: none officially; Dusan SESTIC and Benjamin ISOVIC/Dusan SESTIC
note: music adopted 1999; lyrics accepted 2009 but not yet approved
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICC jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)double-headed eagle; national colors: red, gold
golden lily; national colors: blue, yellow, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Montenegro
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina
dual citizenship recognized: yes, provided there is a bilateral agreement with the other state
residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years

Economy

MontenegroBosnia and Herzegovina
Economy - overviewMontenegro's economy is transitioning to a market system. As of 2015, around 90% of Montenegrin state-owned companies have been privatized, including 100% of banking, telecommunications, and oil distribution. Tourism, which accounts for roughly 20% of Montenegro’s GDP, brings in three times as many visitors as Montenegro’s total population every year. Several new luxury tourism complexes are in various stages of development along the coast, and a number are being offered in connection with nearby boating and yachting facilities. In addition to tourism, energy and agriculture are considered two distinct pillars of the economy. Only 20% of Montenegro’s hydro potential is utilized. Montenegro plans to become a net energy exporter, and the construction of an underwater cable to Italy, which will be completed by 2018, will help meet its goal.

Montenegro uses the euro as its domestic currency, though it is not an official member of the euro zone. In January 2007, Montenegro joined the World Bank and IMF, and in December 2011, the WTO. Montenegro began negotiations to join the EU in 2012, having met the conditions set down by the European Council, which called on Montenegro to take steps to fight corruption and organized crime.

The government recognizes the need to remove impediments in order to remain competitive and open the economy to foreign investors. The biggest foreign investors in Montenegro are Russia, Italy, Cyprus, Denmark, Hungary and Serbia. Net foreign direct investment in 2016 reached $755 million and investment per capita is one of the highest in Europe.

Montenegro is currently planning major overhauls of its road and rail networks, and possible expansions of its air transportation system. In 2014, the Government of Montenegro selected two Chinese companies to construct a 41 km-long section of the country’s highway system. Construction will cost around $1.1 billion. Cheaper borrowing costs have stimulated Montenegro’s growing debt, which currently sits at 65.9% of GDP. Montenegro first instituted a value-added tax (VAT) in April 2003, and introduced differentiated VAT rates of 17% and 7% (for tourism) in January 2006. In May 2013, the Montenegrin Government raised the higher level VAT rate to 19%.
Bosnia and Herzegovina has a transitional economy with limited market reforms. The economy relies heavily on the export of metals, energy, textiles, and furniture as well as on remittances and foreign aid. A highly decentralized government hampers economic policy coordination and reform, while excessive bureaucracy and a segmented market discourage foreign investment. Foreign banks, primarily from Austria and Italy, control much of the banking sector, though the largest bank in the Republika Srpska entity is a private domestic one. The konvertibilna marka (convertible mark) - the national currency introduced in 1998 - is pegged to the euro through a currency board arrangement, which has maintained confidence in the currency and has facilitated reliable trade links with European partners. In 2016, Bosnia began a three-year IMF loan program that requires Bosnia to meet economic reform benchmarks to receive future funding installments.

Interethnic warfare in Bosnia and Herzegovina caused production to plummet by 80% from 1992 to 1995 and unemployment to soar, but the economy made progress until 2008, when the global economic crisis caused a downturn. Since 2013, Bosnia and Herzegovina has posted positive economic growth, though severe flooding hampered recovery in 2014. Bosnia and Herzegovina became a full member of the Central European Free Trade Agreement in September 2007.

Bosnia and Herzegovina's private sector is growing slowly, but foreign investment has dropped sharply since 2007. High unemployment remains the most serious macroeconomic problem. Successful implementation of a value-added tax in 2006 provided a steady source of revenue for the government and helped rein in gray-market activity, though public perceptions of government corruption and misuse of taxpayer money has encouraged a large informal economy to persist. National-level statistics have improved over time, but a large share of economic activity remains unofficial and unrecorded.

Bosnia and Herzegovina's top economic priorities are: acceleration of integration into the EU; strengthening the fiscal system; public administration reform; World Trade Organization membership; and securing economic growth by fostering a dynamic, competitive private sector.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$10.61 billion (2016 est.)
$10.23 billion (2015 est.)
$9.74 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$42.53 billion (2016 est.)
$41.29 billion (2015 est.)
$40.03 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.7% (2016 est.)
3.7% (2015 est.)
1.8% (2014 est.)
3% (2016 est.)
3.2% (2015 est.)
1.1% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$17,000 (2016 est.)
$16,200 (2015 est.)
$15,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$11,000 (2016 est.)
$10,700 (2015 est.)
$10,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 8.3%
industry: 21.2%
services: 70.5% (2013 est.)
agriculture: 7.8%
industry: 26.8%
services: 65.4% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line8.6% (2013 est.)
17.2% (2011 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1.7% (2016 est.)
1.6% (2015 est.)
0.2% (2016 est.)
-1% (2015 est.)
Labor force263,200 (2014 est.)
1.48 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 5.3%
industry: 17.9%
services: 76.8% (2014 est.)
agriculture: 19%
industry: 30%
services: 51% (2013)
Unemployment rate17.1% (2016 est.)
17.6% (2015 est.)
28% (2016 est.)
27.7% (2015 est.)
note: official rate; actual rate is lower as many technically unemployed persons work in the gray economy
Distribution of family income - Gini index26.2 (2013 est.)
24.3 (2010)
36.2 (2007)
Budgetrevenues: $1.56 billion
expenditures: $1.878 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $7.681 billion
expenditures: $7.975 billion (2016 est.)
Industriessteelmaking, aluminum, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism
steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, ammunition, domestic appliances, oil refining
Industrial production growth rate4.5% (2013 est.)
4% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productstobacco, potatoes, citrus fruits, olives, grapes; sheep
wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock
Exports$370.2 million (2014 est.)
$489.2 million (2012 est.)
$3.93 billion (2016 est.)
$3.95 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - partnersCroatia 22.7%, Serbia 22.7%, Slovenia 7.8% (2012 est.)
Slovenia 16.6%, Italy 16%, Germany 12.2%, Croatia 11.6%, Austria 11.2%, Turkey 5.3% (2016)
Imports$1.982 billion (2014 est.)
$2.4 billion (2012 est.)
$7.765 billion (2016 est.)
$8.173 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - partnersSerbia 29.3%, Greece 8.7%, China 7.1% (2012 est.)
Croatia 19.3%, Germany 13.9%, Slovenia 13.8%, Italy 10.9%, Austria 5.7%, Hungary 5.2%, Turkey 4.5% (2016)
Debt - external$1.576 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.433 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$9.768 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.597 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange rateseuros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)
konvertibilna markas (BAM) per US dollar -
1.806 (2016 est.)
1.7626 (2015 est.)
1.7626 (2014 est.)
1.4718 (2013 est.)
1.52 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt70.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
61.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
46.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
46.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions.
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$599.6 million (31 December 2014 est.)
$4.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.791 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$788 million (2016 est.)
-$536 million (2015 est.)
-$927 million (2016 est.)
-$925 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$4.242 billion (2016 est.)
$16.53 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$483 million (31 December 2014 est.)
$446.5 million (31 December 2013 est.)
$7.92 billion (2014 est.)
$7.721 billion (2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$133 million (31 December 2014 est.)
$0 (2014)
Market value of publicly traded shares$7.532 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$3.827 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$3.322 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$NA
Commercial bank prime lending rate9.22% (31 December 2014 est.)
9.36% (31 December 2013 est.)
5% (31 December 2016 est.)
5.79% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$2.63 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$2.682 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$9.367 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.389 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$749 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$783.3 million (31 December 2010 est.)
$5.008 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.554 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$1.982 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$2.01 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$9.223 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$10.72 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues36.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
46.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-7.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
-1.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 41.1%
male: 42.3%
female: 39.7% (2012 est.)
total: 62.8%
male: 62.8%
female: 62.8% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 81.8%
government consumption: 21.2%
investment in fixed capital: 19.5%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 42.1%
imports of goods and services: -64.5% (2013 est.)
household consumption: 80.9%
government consumption: 21.5%
investment in fixed capital: 18.6%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 32.8%
imports of goods and services: -55.1% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving5.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
5.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
4.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
12% of GDP (2016 est.)
10.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
10.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

MontenegroBosnia and Herzegovina
Electricity - production3.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
15 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption2.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
11 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports600 million kWh (2014 est.)
6 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports900 million kWh (2014 est.)
3.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
20,690 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
169 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
169 million cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity900,000 kW (2014 est.)
4.3 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels24.6% of total installed capacity (20113 est.)
54.8% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants75.3% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
43.6% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
1.5% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
20,280 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption6,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
30,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports622 bbl/day (2013 est.)
5,342 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports5,987 bbl/day (2013 est.)
15,230 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy18 million Mt (2013 est.)
17 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

MontenegroBosnia and Herzegovina
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 154,448
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 24 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 771,684
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 1.008 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 156 (July 2015 est.)
total: 3.444 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 89 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites
domestic: GSM mobile-cellular service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing
international: country code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system (2015)
general assessment: post-war reconstruction of the telecommunications network, aided by an internationally sponsored program, resulted in sharp increases in fixed-line telephone availability
domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing rapidly and stands at roughly 90 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations (2015)
Internet country code.me
.ba
Internet userstotal: 418,000
percent of population: 64.6% (July 2015 est.)
total: 2.516 million
percent of population: 65.1% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-funded national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial TV networks, 1 satellite TV channel, and 2 radio networks; 4 local public TV stations and over 20 private TV stations; 14 local public radio stations and more than 50 private radio stations (2017)
3 public TV broadcasters: Radio and TV of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Federation TV (operating 2 networks), and Republika Srpska Radio-TV; a local commercial network of 5 TV stations; 3 private, near-national TV stations and dozens of small independent TV broadcasting stations; 3 large public radio broadcasters and many private radio stations (2010)

Transportation

MontenegroBosnia and Herzegovina
Railwaystotal: 250 km
standard gauge: 250 km 1.435-m gauge (169 km electrified) (2014)
total: 965 km
standard gauge: 965 km 1.435-m gauge (565 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 7,762 km
paved: 7,141 km
unpaved: 621 km (2010)
total: 22,926 km
paved: 19,426 km (4,652 km of interurban roads)
unpaved: 3,500 km (2010)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Bar
river port(s): Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, Brcko, Orasje (Sava River)
Airports5 (2013)
24 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Heliports1 (2012)
6 (2013)

Military

MontenegroBosnia and Herzegovina
Military branchesArmed Forces of the Republic of Montenegro: Army of Montenegro (includes Ground Troops (Kopnena Vojska), Montenegrin Navy (Mornarica Crne Gore, MCG)), Air Force (2016)
Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Oruzanih Snaga Bosne i Hercegovine, OSBiH): Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Air Force and Air Defense (Brigada Zracnih Snaga i Protuzracne Odbrane, br ZSiPZO), Tactical Support Brigade (Brigada Takticke Podrske, br TP) (2015)
Military service age and obligation18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; mandatory retirement at age 35 or after 15 years of service for E-1 through E-4, mandatory retirement at age 50 and 30 years of service for E-5 through E-9, mandatory retirement at age 55 and 30 years of service for all officers (2014)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.63% of GDP (2015)
1.51% of GDP (2014)
1.58% of GDP (2013)
1.66% of GDP (2012)
1.75% of GDP (2011)
1% of GDP (2015)
1.03% of GDP (2014)
1.09% of GDP (2013)
1.15% of GDP (2012)
1.14% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

MontenegroBosnia and Herzegovina
Disputes - internationalnone
Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 3,237 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 5,164 (Croatia) (2016)
IDPs: 98,000 (Bosnian Croats, Serbs, and Bosniaks displaced by inter-ethnic violence, human rights violations, and armed conflict during the 1992-1995 war) (2016)
stateless persons: 49 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook