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Montenegro vs. Albania

Introduction

MontenegroAlbania
BackgroundThe use of the name Crna Gora or Black Mountain (Montenegro) began in the 13th century in reference to a highland region in the Serbian province of Zeta. The later medieval state of Zeta maintained its existence until 1496 when Montenegro finally fell under Ottoman rule. Over subsequent centuries, Montenegro managed to maintain a level of autonomy within the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro was a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it transformed into a secular principality. Montenegro was recognized as an independent sovereign principality at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. After World War I, during which Montenegro fought on the side of the Allies, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; at the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro federated with Serbia, creating the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, shifting to a looser State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia barely exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally restore its independence on 3 June 2006.
Albania declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912, but was conquered by Italy in 1939 and occupied by Germany in 1943. Communist partisans took over the country in 1944. Albania allied itself first with the USSR (until 1960), and then with China (to 1978). In the early 1990s, Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven challenging as successive governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, widespread corruption, dilapidated infrastructure, powerful organized crime networks, and combative political opponents.
Albania has made progress in its democratic development since first holding multiparty elections in 1991, but deficiencies remain. Most of Albania's post-communist elections were marred by claims of electoral fraud; however, international observers judged elections to be largely free and fair since the restoration of political stability following the collapse of pyramid schemes in 1997. Albania joined NATO in April 2009 and in June 2014 became a candidate for EU accession. Albania in November 2016 received a European Commission recommendation to open EU accession negotiations conditioned upon implementation of a judicial reform package passed earlier the same year. Although Albania's economy continues to grow, it has slowed, and the country is still one of the poorest in Europe. A large informal economy and a weak energy and transportation infrastructure remain obstacles.

Geography

MontenegroAlbania
LocationSoutheastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece to the south and Montenegro and Kosovo to the north
Geographic coordinates42 30 N, 19 18 E
41 00 N, 20 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 13,812 sq km
land: 13,452 sq km
water: 360 sq km
total: 28,748 sq km
land: 27,398 sq km
water: 1,350 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Connecticut
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundariestotal: 680 km
border countries (5): Albania 186 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 242 km, Croatia 19 km, Kosovo 76 km, Serbia 157 km
total: 691 km
border countries (4): Greece 212 km, Kosovo 112 km, Macedonia 181 km, Montenegro 186 km
Coastline293.5 km
362 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: defined by treaty
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
ClimateMediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland
mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter
Terrainhighly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus
mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,086 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Bobotov Kuk 2,522 m
mean elevation: 708 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,764 m
Natural resourcesbauxite, hydroelectricity
petroleum, natural gas, coal, bauxite, chromite, copper, iron ore, nickel, salt, timber, hydropower, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 38.2%
arable land 12.9%; permanent crops 1.2%; permanent pasture 24.1%
forest: 40.4%
other: 21.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 43.8%
arable land 22.7%; permanent crops 2.7%; permanent pasture 18.4%
forest: 28.3%
other: 27.9% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land24 sq km (2012)
3,310 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsdestructive earthquakes
destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast; floods; drought
Environment - current issuespollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor
deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notestrategic location along the Adriatic coast
strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)
Population distributionhighest population density is concentrated in the south, southwest; the extreme eastern border is the least populated area
a fairly even distribution, with somewhat higher concentrations of people in the western and central parts of the country

Demographics

MontenegroAlbania
Population644,578 (July 2016 est.)
3,038,594 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 15.13% (male 47,983/female 49,527)
15-24 years: 9.92% (male 29,003/female 34,907)
25-54 years: 46.83% (male 163,055/female 138,792)
55-64 years: 13.37% (male 42,998/female 43,168)
65 years and over: 14.76% (male 38,014/female 57,131) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 18.37% (male 295,022/female 263,141)
15-24 years: 18.09% (male 284,201/female 265,530)
25-54 years: 40.73% (male 589,707/female 648,021)
55-64 years: 11.23% (male 168,500/female 172,587)
65 years and over: 11.58% (male 165,076/female 186,809) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 40.2 years
male: 39.3 years
female: 41.3 years (2016 est.)
total: 32.5 years
male: 31.2 years
female: 33.8 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate-0.35% (2016 est.)
0.31% (2016 est.)
Birth rate10.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
13.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
6.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.83 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.17 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
0.04% (2013 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Montenegrin
noun: Albanian(s)
adjective: Albanian
Ethnic groupsMontenegrin 45%, Serbian 28.7%, Bosniak 8.7%, Albanian 4.9%, Muslim 3.3%, Romani 1%, Croat 1%, other 2.6%, unspecified 4.9% (2011 est.)
Albanian 82.6%, Greek 0.9%, other 1% (including Vlach, Romani, Macedonian, Montenegrin, and Egyptian), unspecified 15.5% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
NA
ReligionsOrthodox 72.1%, Muslim 19.1%, Catholic 3.4%, atheist 1.2%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.6% (2011 est.)
Muslim 56.7%, Roman Catholic 10%, Orthodox 6.8%, atheist 2.5%, Bektashi (a Sufi order) 2.1%, other 5.7%, unspecified 16.2%
note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
NA
LanguagesSerbian 42.9%, Montenegrin (official) 37%, Bosnian 5.3%, Albanian 5.3%, Serbo-Croat 2%, other 3.5%, unspecified 4% (2011 est.)
Albanian 98.8% (official - derived from Tosk dialect), Greek 0.5%, other 0.6% (including Macedonian, Romani, Vlach, Turkish, Italian, and Serbo-Croatian), unspecified 0.1% (2011 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.7%
male: 99.5%
female: 98% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.6%
male: 98.4%
female: 96.9% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2010)
total: 16 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2015)
Education expendituresNA
3.5% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 64% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.34% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 57.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.21% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 99.2% of population
total: 99.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0.8% of population
total: 0.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 84.3% of population
rural: 81.8% of population
total: 83.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 15.7% of population
rural: 18.2% of population
total: 16.4% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 92.2% of population
total: 95.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 7.8% of population
total: 4.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 95.5% of population
rural: 90.2% of population
total: 93.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4.5% of population
rural: 9.8% of population
total: 6.8% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationPODGORICA (capital) 165,000 (2014)
TIRANA (capital) 454,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate7 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
29 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight1% (2013)
6.3% (2009)
Health expenditures6.4% of GDP (2014)
5.9% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.34 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
1.29 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density4 beds/1,000 population (2011)
2.6 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate21.4% (2014)
18.1% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 8,520
percentage: 10% (2005 est.)
total number: 72,818
percentage: 12% (2005 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth26.3 years (2010 est.)
25 years (2010 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate23.3% (2013)
69.3% (2008/09)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 47.7
youth dependency ratio: 27.6
elderly dependency ratio: 20.2
potential support ratio: 5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 44.8
youth dependency ratio: 26.9
elderly dependency ratio: 18
potential support ratio: 5.6 (2015 est.)

Government

MontenegroAlbania
Country name"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Montenegro
local long form: none
local short form: Crna Gora
former: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro, Republic of Montenegro
etymology: the country's name locally as well as in most Western European languages means ""black mountain"" and refers to the dark coniferous forests on Mount Lovcen and the surrounding area
"
"conventional long form: Republic of Albania
conventional short form: Albania
local long form: Republika e Shqiperise
local short form: Shqiperia
former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania
etymology: the English-language country name seems to be derived from the ancient Illyrian tribe of the Albani; the native name ""Shqiperia"" is popularly interpreted to mean ""Land of the Eagles""
"
Government typeparliamentary republic
parliamentary republic
Capital"name: Podgorica; note - Cetinje retains the status of ""Old Royal Capital""
geographic coordinates: 42 26 N, 19 16 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
"
name: Tirana (Tirane)
geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 19 49 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions23 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina); Andrijevica, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Gusinje, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Petnijica, Plav, Pljevlja, Pluzine, Podgorica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Ulcinj, Zabljak
12 counties (qarqe, singular - qark); Berat, Diber, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Korce, Kukes, Lezhe, Shkoder, Tirane, Vlore
Independence3 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro)
28 November 1912 (from the Ottoman Empire)
National holidayNational Day, 13 July (1878, the day the Berlin Congress recognized Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the world, and 1941, the day the Montenegrins staged an uprising against fascist occupiers and sided with the partisan communist movement)
Independence Day, 28 November (1912) also known as Flag Day
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 22 October 2007
amendments: proposed by the president of Montenegro, by the government, or by at least 25 members of the Assembly; passage of draft proposals requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly, followed by a public hearing; passage of draft amendments requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly; changes to certain constitutional articles such as sovereignty, state symbols, citizenship, and constitutional change procedures require three-fifths majority vote in a referendum; amended 2013, 2014 (2016)
history: several previous; latest approved by the Assembly 21 October 1998, adopted by referendum 22 November 1998, promulgated 28 November 1998
amendments: proposed by at least one-fifth of the Assembly membership; passage requires at least a two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; referendum required only if approved by two-thirds of the Assembly; amendments approved by referendum effective upon declaration by the president of the republic; amended several times, last in 2016 (2017)
Legal systemcivil law
"civil law system except in the northern rural areas where customary law known as the ""Code of Leke"" prevails
"
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Filip VUJANOVIC (since 6 April 2008)
head of government: Prime Minister Dusko MARKOVIC (since 28 November 2016); note - Prime Minister Milo DJUKANOVIC resigned 26 October 2016
cabinet: Ministers act as cabinet
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 April 2013 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister nominated by the president, approved by the Assembly
election results: Filip VUJANOVIC reelected president; percent of vote - Filip VUJANOVIC (DPS) 51.2%, Miodrag LEKIC (independent) 48.8%
chief of state: President of the Republic Bujar NISHANI (since 24 July 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Edi RAMA (since 10 September 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Niko PELESHI
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, nominated by the president, and approved by the Assembly
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); a candidate needs three-fifths majority vote of the Assembly in 1 of 3 rounds or a simple majority in 2 additional rounds to become president; election last held in 3 rounds during the period 19, 20, and 27 April 2017 (next election to be held in 2022) but failed; prime minister appointed by the president on the proposal of the majority party or coalition of parties in the Assembly
election results: Ilir META (LSI) elected president; Assembly vote - 87 - 2 in fourth round; he takes office on 24 July 2017
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Assembly or Skupstina (81 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 16 October 2016 (next to be held by October 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - DPS 41.4%, DF 20.3%, Key Coalition, 11.1%, DCG 10.0%, SDP 5.2%, SD 3.3%, BS, 3.2%, Albanians Decisively 1.3%, HGI .5%, other 3.7%; seats by party/coalition - DPS 36, DF 18, Key Coalition 9, DCG 8, SDP 4, SD 2, BS 2, Albanians Decisively 1, HGI 1
description: unicameral Assembly or Kuvendi (140 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 25 June 2017 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - PS 48.3%, PD 28.8%, LSI 14.3%, PDIU 4.8%, PSD 1.0, other 2.8%; seats by party - PS 74, PD 43, LSI 19, PDIU 3, PSD 1
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Vrhovni Sud (consists of the court president, deputy president, and 15 judges); Constitutional Court or Ustavni Sud (consists of the court president and 7 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president proposed by general session of the Supreme Court and elected by the Judicial Council, a 9-member body consisting of judges, lawyers designated by the Assembly, and the minister of judicial affairs; Supreme Court president elected for a single renewable, 5-year term; other judges elected by the Judicial Council for life; Constitutional Court judges - 2 proposed by the president of Montenegro and 5 by the Assembly, and elected by the Assembly; court president elected from among the court members; court president elected for 3 years, other judges 9 years
subordinate courts: Administrative Courts; Appellate Court; Commercial Courts; High Courts; basic courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 17 judges, including the chief justice); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges, including the chairman)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges, including the chairman, appointed by the president with the consent of the Assembly to serve single 9-year terms); Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president with the consent of the Assembly to serve single 9-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years; chairman elected by the People's Assembly for a single 3-year term
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance
Political parties and leadersAlbanians Decisively [Genci NIMANBEGU] (includes FORCA, AA, DUA)
Albanian Alternative or AA [Nik DJELOSAJ]
Bosniak Party or BS [Rafet HUSOVIC]
Croatian Civic Initiative or HGI [Marija VUCINOVIC]
Democratic Alliance or DEMOS [Miodrag LEKIC]
Democratic Front or DF [collective leadership] (includes NOVA, PZP, DNP, RP)
Democratic Montenegro or DCG [Aleksa BECIC]
Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC]
Democratic People's Party or DNP [Milan KNEZEVIC]
Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Mehmet ZENKA]
Key Coalition [Miodrag LEKIC] (includes DEMOS, SNP, URA]
Liberal Party or LP [Andrija POPOVIC]
Movement for Change or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC]
New Democratic Power or FORCA [Nazif CUNGU]
New Serb Democracy or NOVA [Andrija MANDIC]
Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC]
Social Democrats or SD [Ivan BRAJOVIC]
Socialist People's Party or SNP [Srdjan MILIC]
United Reform Action or URA [Zarko RAKCEVIC]
Workers' Party or RP [Janko VUCINIC]
Democratic Party or PD [Lulzim BASHA]
Party for Justice, Integration and Unity or PDIU [Shpetim IDRIZI] (formerly part of APMI)
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI]
Socialist Movement for Integration or LSI [Petrit VASILI]
Socialist Party or PS [Edi RAMA]
Political pressure groups and leadersNA
Confederation of Trade Unions of Albania or KSSH [Kol NIKOLLAJ]
Omonia [Leonidha PAPA]
Union of Independent Trade Unions of Albania or BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA]
International organization participationCE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EITI (compliant country), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Nebojsa KALUDEROVIC (since 18 January 2017)
chancery: 1610 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-6108
FAX: [1] (202) 234-6109
consulate(s) general: New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Floreta FABER (since 18 May 2015)
chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942
FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Margaret UYEHARA (since 19 February 2015)
embassy: Dzona Dzeksona 2, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [382] (0) 20 410 500
FAX: [382] (0) 20 241 358
chief of mission: Ambassador Donald LU (since 13 January 2015)
embassy: Rruga e Elbasanit, 103, Tirana
mailing address: US Department of State, 9510 Tirana Place, Dulles, VA 20189-9510
telephone: [355] (4) 2247-285
FAX: [355] (4) 2232-222
Flag descriptiona red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered; the arms consist of a double-headed golden eagle - symbolizing the unity of church and state - surmounted by a crown; the eagle holds a golden scepter in its right claw and a blue orb in its left; the breast shield over the eagle shows a golden lion passant on a green field in front of a blue sky; the lion is a symbol of episcopal authority and harkens back to the three and a half centuries when Montenegro was ruled as a theocracy
"red with a black two-headed eagle in the center; the design is claimed to be that of 15th-century hero George Kastrioti SKANDERBEG, who led a successful uprising against the Ottoman Turks that resulted in a short-lived independence for some Albanian regions (1443-78); an unsubstantiated explanation for the eagle symbol is the tradition that Albanians see themselves as descendants of the eagle; they refer to themselves as ""Shqiptare,"" which translates as ""sons of the eagle""
"
National anthem"name: ""Oj, svijetla majska zoro"" (Oh, Bright Dawn of May)
lyrics/music: Sekula DRLJEVIC/unknown, arranged by Zarko MIKOVIC
note: adopted 2004; music based on a Montenegrin folk song
"
"name: ""Hymni i Flamurit"" (Hymn to the Flag)
lyrics/music: Aleksander Stavre DRENOVA/Ciprian PORUMBESCU
note: adopted 1912
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICC jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)double-headed eagle; national colors: red, gold
double-headed eagle; national colors: red, black
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Montenegro
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Albania
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

MontenegroAlbania
Economy - overviewMontenegro's economy is transitioning to a market system. As of 2015, around 90% of Montenegrin state-owned companies have been privatized, including 100% of banking, telecommunications, and oil distribution. Tourism, which accounts for roughly 20% of Montenegro’s GDP, brings in three times as many visitors as Montenegro’s total population every year. Several new luxury tourism complexes are in various stages of development along the coast, and a number are being offered in connection with nearby boating and yachting facilities. In addition to tourism, energy and agriculture are considered two distinct pillars of the economy. Only 20% of Montenegro’s hydro potential is utilized. Montenegro plans to become a net energy exporter, and the construction of an underwater cable to Italy, which will be completed by 2018, will help meet its goal.

Montenegro uses the euro as its domestic currency, though it is not an official member of the euro zone. In January 2007, Montenegro joined the World Bank and IMF, and in December 2011, the WTO. Montenegro began negotiations to join the EU in 2012, having met the conditions set down by the European Council, which called on Montenegro to take steps to fight corruption and organized crime.

The government recognizes the need to remove impediments in order to remain competitive and open the economy to foreign investors. The biggest foreign investors in Montenegro are Russia, Italy, Cyprus, Denmark, Hungary and Serbia. Net foreign direct investment in 2016 reached $755 million and investment per capita is one of the highest in Europe.

Montenegro is currently planning major overhauls of its road and rail networks, and possible expansions of its air transportation system. In 2014, the Government of Montenegro selected two Chinese companies to construct a 41 km-long section of the country’s highway system. Construction will cost around $1.1 billion. Cheaper borrowing costs have stimulated Montenegro’s growing debt, which currently sits at 65.9% of GDP. Montenegro first instituted a value-added tax (VAT) in April 2003, and introduced differentiated VAT rates of 17% and 7% (for tourism) in January 2006. In May 2013, the Montenegrin Government raised the higher level VAT rate to 19%.
Albania, a formerly closed, centrally-planned state, is a developing country with a modern open-market economy. Albania managed to weather the first waves of the global financial crisis but, the negative effects of the crisis caused a significant economic slowdown. Since 2014, Albania’s economy has steadily improved and economic growth is projected to increase to 3.8% in 2017. However, close trade, remittance, and banking sector ties with Greece and Italy make Albania vulnerable to spillover effects of possible debt crises and weak growth in the euro zone.

Remittances, a significant catalyst for economic growth, declined from 12-15% of GDP before the 2008 financial crisis to 5.8% of GDP in 2015, mostly from Albanians residing in Greece and Italy. The agricultural sector, which accounts for almost half of employment but only about one-fifth of GDP, is limited primarily to small family operations and subsistence farming, because of a lack of modern equipment, unclear property rights, and the prevalence of small, inefficient plots of land. Complex tax codes and licensing requirements, a weak judicial system, endemic corruption, poor enforcement of contracts and property issues, and antiquated infrastructure contribute to Albania's poor business environment making attracting foreign investment difficult. Since 2015, Albania has launched an ambitious program to increase tax compliance and bring more businesses into the formal economy. In July 2016, Albania passed constitutional amendments reforming the judicial system in order to strengthen the rule of law and to reduce deeply entrenched corruption.

Albania’s electricity supply is uneven despite upgraded transmission capacities with neighboring countries. However, the government has recently taken steps to stem non-technical losses and has begun to upgrade the distribution grid. Better enforcement of electricity contracts has improved the financial viability of the sector, decreasing its reliance on budget support. Also, with help from international donors, the government is taking steps to improve the poor road and rail networks, a long standing barrier to sustained economic growth.

Inward FDI has increased significantly in recent years as the government has embarked on an ambitious program to improve the business climate through fiscal and legislative reforms. The government is focused on the simplification of licensing requirements and tax codes, and it entered into a new arrangement with the IMF for additional financial and technical support. Albania’s three-year IMF program, an extended fund facility arrangement, was successfully concluded in February 2017. Albania’s 2017 budget aims to reach a small primary surplus, which the Albanian Government plans to achieve by strengthening tax collection amid moderate public wage and pension increases. The country continues to face high public debt, exceeding its former statutory limit of 60% of GDP in 2013 and reaching 71% in 2016.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$10.61 billion (2016 est.)
$10.23 billion (2015 est.)
$9.74 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$33.9 billion (2016 est.)
$32.66 billion (2015 est.)
$31.59 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
unreported output may be as large as 50% of official GDP
GDP - real growth rate3.7% (2016 est.)
3.7% (2015 est.)
1.8% (2014 est.)
3.8% (2017 est.)
3.4% (2016 est.)
2.6% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$17,000 (2016 est.)
$16,200 (2015 est.)
$15,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$11,900 (2016 est.)
$11,500 (2015 est.)
$11,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 8.3%
industry: 21.2%
services: 70.5% (2013 est.)
agriculture: 21.6%
industry: 14.9%
services: 63.5%
(2016 est.)
Population below poverty line8.6% (2013 est.)
14.3% (2012 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1.7% (2016 est.)
1.6% (2015 est.)
1.3% (2016 est.)
1.9% (2015 est.)
Labor force263,200 (2014 est.)
1.179 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 5.3%
industry: 17.9%
services: 76.8% (2014 est.)
agriculture: 41.8%
industry: 11.4%
services: 46.8% (December 2014 est)
Unemployment rate17.1% (2016 est.)
17.6% (2015 est.)
14.5% (2016 est.)
16.9% (2015 est.)
note: these official rates may not include those working at near-subsistence farming
Distribution of family income - Gini index26.2 (2013 est.)
24.3 (2010)
29 (2012 est.)
30 (2008 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $1.56 billion
expenditures: $1.878 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $3.203 billion
expenditures: $3.546 billion (2016 est.)
Industriessteelmaking, aluminum, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism
food; footwear, apparel and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower
Industrial production growth rate4.5% (2013 est.)
2.9% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productstobacco, potatoes, citrus fruits, olives, grapes; sheep
wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, olives and olive oil, grapes; meat, dairy products; sheep and goats
Exports$370.2 million (2014 est.)
$489.2 million (2012 est.)
$1.962 billion (2016 est.)
$1.93 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - partnersCroatia 22.7%, Serbia 22.7%, Slovenia 7.8% (2012 est.)
Italy 43.3%, Kosovo 9.8%, US 7.7%, China 6.2%, Greece 5.3%, Spain 4.8% (2015)
Imports$1.982 billion (2014 est.)
$2.4 billion (2012 est.)
$4.667 billion (2016 est.)
$4.322 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - partnersSerbia 29.3%, Greece 8.7%, China 7.1% (2012 est.)
Italy 33.4%, China 10%, Greece 9%, Turkey 6.7%, Germany 5.2% (2015)
Debt - external$1.576 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.433 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$7.797 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.716 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange rateseuros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)
leke (ALL) per US dollar -
127.4 (2016 est.)
125.96 (2015 est.)
125.96 (2014 est.)
105.48 (2013 est.)
108.19 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt70.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
61.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
71% of GDP (2016 est.)
71.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$599.6 million (31 December 2014 est.)
$3.093 billion (31 September 2016 est.)
$3.14 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$788 million (2016 est.)
-$536 million (2015 est.)
-$1.465 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.226 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$4.242 billion (2016 est.)
$12.14 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$483 million (31 December 2014 est.)
$446.5 million (31 December 2013 est.)
$6.056 billion (31 December 2014)
$5.459 billion (31 December 2013)
Market value of publicly traded shares$7.532 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$3.827 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$3.322 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$NA
Commercial bank prime lending rate9.22% (31 December 2014 est.)
9.36% (31 December 2013 est.)
9.1% (31 December 2016 est.)
8.7% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$2.63 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$2.682 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$7.008 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.166 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$749 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$783.3 million (31 December 2010 est.)
$3.508 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.095 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$1.982 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$2.01 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$10.18 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.652 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues36.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
26.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-7.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
-2.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 41.1%
male: 42.3%
female: 39.7% (2012 est.)
total: 30.2%
male: 32.5%
female: 26.1% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 81.8%
government consumption: 21.2%
investment in fixed capital: 19.5%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 42.1%
imports of goods and services: -64.5% (2013 est.)
household consumption: 85.7%
government consumption: 10.4%
investment in fixed capital: 27.6%
investment in inventories: 1.5%
exports of goods and services: 37.1%
imports of goods and services: -62.3% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving5.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
5.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
4.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
15.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
15% of GDP (2015 est.)
13% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

MontenegroAlbania
Electricity - production3.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
7.135 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption2.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
7.094 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports600 million kWh (2014 est.)
1.868 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports900 million kWh (2014 est.)
1.826 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
16,500 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
14,330 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
2.616 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014)
821.2 million cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
32 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
32 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity900,000 kW (2014 est.)
1.895 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels24.6% of total installed capacity (20113 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants75.3% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
100% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
290 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption6,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
27,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports622 bbl/day (2013 est.)
16,250 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports5,987 bbl/day (2013 est.)
13,250 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy18 million Mt (2013 est.)
4.3 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

MontenegroAlbania
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 154,448
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 24 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 226,718
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 1.008 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 156 (July 2015 est.)
total: 3.401 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 120 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites
domestic: GSM mobile-cellular service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing
international: country code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system (2015)
general assessment: fixed line, teledensity continues to decline due to heavy use of mobile-cellular telephone services; mobile-cellular telephone use is widespread and generally effective; of 3.4 million active mobile telephone users, 1.3 million use mobile broadband services (3G/4G)
domestic: offsetting the shortage of fixed-line capacity, mobile-cellular phone service has been available since 1996; by 2015, 4 companies were providing mobile services and mobile teledensity had reached 120 per 100 persons; Internet broadband services initiated in 2005, and the penetration rate per family reached 30% by 2015; Internet cafes are popular in major urban areas
international: country code - 355; submarine cable provides connectivity to Italy, Croatia, and Greece; the Trans-Balkan Line, a combination submarine cable and land fiber-optic system, provides additional connectivity to Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Turkey; international traffic carried by fiber-optic cable and, when necessary, by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece (2015)
Internet country code.me
.al
Internet userstotal: 418,000
percent of population: 64.6% (July 2015 est.)
total: 1.916 million
percent of population: 63.2% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-funded national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial TV networks, 1 satellite TV channel, and 2 radio networks; 4 local public TV stations and over 20 private TV stations; 14 local public radio stations and more than 50 private radio stations (2017)
Albania has more than 65 TV stations, including several that breoadcast nationally; Albanian TV broadcasts are also available to Albanian-speaking populations in neighboring countries; many viewers have access to Italian and Greek TV broadcasts via terrestrial reception; Albania's TV stations have begun a government-mandated conversion from analog to digital broadcast; the government has pledged to provide analog-to-digital converters to low-income families affected by this decision; cable TV service is available; 2 public radio networks and roughly 78 private radio stations; several international broadcasters are available (2017)

Transportation

MontenegroAlbania
Railwaystotal: 250 km
standard gauge: 250 km 1.435-m gauge (169 km electrified) (2014)
total: 677 km (447 km of major railway lines and 230 km of secondary lines)
standard gauge: 677 km 1.435-m gauge (2015)
Roadwaystotal: 7,762 km
paved: 7,141 km
unpaved: 621 km (2010)
total: 18,000 km
paved: 7,020 km
unpaved: 10,980 km (2002)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Bar
major seaport(s): Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore
Merchant marinetotal: 2
by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 1
registered in other countries: 4 (Bahamas 2, Honduras 1, Slovakia 1) (2010)
total: 17
by type: cargo 16, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 1 (Turkey 1)
registered in other countries: 5 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Panama 4) (2010)
Airports5 (2013)
4 (2016)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports1 (2012)
1 (2013)

Military

MontenegroAlbania
Military branchesArmed Forces of the Republic of Montenegro: Army of Montenegro (includes Ground Troops (Kopnena Vojska), Montenegrin Navy (Mornarica Crne Gore, MCG)), Air Force (2016)
Land Forces Command, Navy Force Command, Air Forces Command (2013)
Military service age and obligation18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
19 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; 18 is the legal minimum age in case of general/partial compulsory mobilization (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.63% of GDP (2015)
1.51% of GDP (2014)
1.58% of GDP (2013)
1.66% of GDP (2012)
1.75% of GDP (2011)
1.14% of GDP (2016)
1.16% of GDP (2015)
1.35% of GDP (2014)
1.41% of GDP (2013)
1.49% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

MontenegroAlbania
Disputes - internationalnone
none
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 3,237 (2016)
stateless persons: 4,921 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook