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Mongolia vs. Russia

Introduction

MongoliaRussia
BackgroundThe Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia declared its independence from the Manchu-led Qing Empire in 1911 and achieved limited autonomy until 1919, when it again came under Chinese control. The Mongolian Revolution of 1921 ended Chinese dominance, and a communist regime, the Mongolian People’s Republic, took power in 1924.
The modern country of Mongolia, however, represents only part of the Mongols' historical homeland; today, more ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia. Since the country's peaceful democratic revolution in 1990, the ex-communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) - which took the name Mongolian People’s Party (MPP) in 2010 - has competed for political power with the Democratic Party (DP) and several other smaller parties, including a new party formed by former President ENKHBAYAR, which confusingly adopted for itself the MPRP name. In the country's most recent parliamentary elections in June 2016, Mongolians handed the MPP overwhelming control of Parliament, largely pushing out the DP, which had overseen a sharp decline in Mongolia’s economy during its control of Parliament in the preceding years. President ELBEGDORJ, a DP member, will finish his second term as president in 2017, and is not eligible to run for re-election.
Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century, a new ROMANOV Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted in the formation of a parliament and other reforms. Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household. The communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53) strengthened communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. After defeating Germany in World War II as part of an alliance with the US (1939-1945), the USSR expanded its territory and influence in Eastern Europe and emerged as a global power. The USSR was the principal adversary of the US during the Cold War (1947-1991). The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the decades following Stalin’s rule, until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent republics.
Following economic and political turmoil during President Boris YELTSIN's term (1991-99), Russia shifted toward a centralized authoritarian state under the leadership of President Vladimir PUTIN (2000-2008, 2012-present) in which the regime seeks to legitimize its rule through managed elections, populist appeals, a foreign policy focused on enhancing the country's geopolitical influence, and commodity-based economic growth. Russia faces a largely subdued rebel movement in Chechnya and some other surrounding regions, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus.

Geography

MongoliaRussia
LocationNorthern Asia, between China and Russia
North Asia bordering the Arctic Ocean, extending from Europe (the portion west of the Urals) to the North Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates46 00 N, 105 00 E
60 00 N, 100 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Asia
Areatotal: 1,564,116 sq km
land: 1,553,556 sq km
water: 10,560 sq km
total: 17,098,242 sq km
land: 16,377,742 sq km
water: 720,500 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Alaska; more than twice the size of Texas
approximately 1.8 times the size of the US
Land boundariestotal: 8,082 km
border countries (2): China 4,630 km, Russia 3,452 km
total: 22,408 km
border countries (14): Azerbaijan 338 km, Belarus 1,312 km, China (southeast) 4,133 km, China (south) 46 km, Estonia 324 km, Finland 1,309 km, Georgia 894 km, Kazakhstan 7,644 km, North Korea 18 km, Latvia 332 km, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 261 km, Mongolia 3,452 km, Norway 191 km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 210 km, Ukraine 1,944 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
37,653 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatedesert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast
Terrainvast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,528 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Hoh Nuur 560 m
highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
mean elevation: 600 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Gora El'brus 5,633 m (highest point in Europe)
Natural resourcesoil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron
wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, reserves of rare earth elements, timber
note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources
Land useagricultural land: 73%
arable land 0.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 72.6%
forest: 7%
other: 20% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 13.1%
arable land 7.3%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 5.7%
forest: 49.4%
other: 37.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land840 sq km (2012)
43,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards"dust storms; grassland and forest fires; drought; ""zud,"" which is harsh winter conditions
"
permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula; spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia
volcanism: significant volcanic activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands; the peninsula alone is home to some 29 historically active volcanoes, with dozens more in the Kuril Islands; Kliuchevskoi (elev. 4,835 m), which erupted in 2007 and 2010, is Kamchatka's most active volcano; Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes, which pose a threat to the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, have been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Bezymianny, Chikurachki, Ebeko, Gorely, Grozny, Karymsky, Ketoi, Kronotsky, Ksudach, Medvezhia, Mutnovsky, Sarychev Peak, Shiveluch, Tiatia, Tolbachik, and Zheltovsky
Environment - current issueslimited natural freshwater resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment
air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation in major cities; industrial, municipal, and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and seacoasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination; groundwater contamination from toxic waste; urban solid waste management; abandoned stocks of obsolete pesticides
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
Geography - notelandlocked; strategic location between China and Russia
largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture; Mount El'brus is Europe's tallest peak; Lake Baikal, the deepest lake in the world, is estimated to hold one fifth of the world's fresh water
Population distributionsparsely distributed population throughout the country; the capital of Ulaanbaatar and the northern city of Darhan support the highest population densities
population is heavily concentrated in the westernmost fifth of the country extending from the Baltic Sea, south to the Caspian Sea, and eastward parallel to the Kazakh border; elsewhere, sizeable pockets are isolated and generally found in the south

Demographics

MongoliaRussia
Population3,031,330 (July 2016 est.)
142,355,415 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 26.92% (male 416,053/female 399,954)
15-24 years: 16.76% (male 256,897/female 251,160)
25-54 years: 45.45% (male 667,509/female 710,116)
55-64 years: 6.68% (male 92,781/female 109,768)
65 years and over: 4.19% (male 51,691/female 75,401) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 16.94% (male 12,385,281/female 11,726,473)
15-24 years: 9.71% (male 7,071,489/female 6,754,928)
25-54 years: 45.16% (male 31,528,258/female 32,753,350)
55-64 years: 14.27% (male 8,727,233/female 11,591,221)
65 years and over: 13.92% (male 6,152,252/female 13,664,930) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 27.9 years
male: 27.1 years
female: 28.7 years (2016 est.)
total: 39.3 years
male: 36.4 years
female: 42.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.25% (2016 est.)
-0.06% (2016 est.)
Birth rate19.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
11.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate6.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
13.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
1.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.75 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.45 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 21.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 24.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 6.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 69.6 years
male: 65.4 years
female: 74.1 years (2016 est.)
total population: 70.8 years
male: 65 years
female: 76.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.13 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.61 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.02% (2015 est.)
NA
Nationalitynoun: Mongolian(s)
adjective: Mongolian
noun: Russian(s)
adjective: Russian
Ethnic groupsKhalkh 81.9%, Kazak 3.8%, Dorvod 2.7%, Bayad 2.1%, Buryat-Bouriates 1.7%, Zakhchin 1.2%, Dariganga 1%, Uriankhai 1%, other 4.6% (2010 est.)
Russian 77.7%, Tatar 3.7%, Ukrainian 1.4%, Bashkir 1.1%, Chuvash 1%, Chechen 1%, other 10.2%, unspecified 3.9%
note: nearly 200 national and/or ethnic groups are represented in Russia's 2010 census (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS400 (2015 est.)
NA
ReligionsBuddhist 53%, Muslim 3%, Shamanist 2.9%, Christian 2.2%, other 0.4%, none 38.6% (2010 est.)
Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.)
note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule; Russia officially recognizes Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism as traditional religions
HIV/AIDS - deathsfewer than 100 (2015 est.)
NA
LanguagesMongolian 90% (official) (Khalkha dialect is predominant), Turkic, Russian (1999)
Russian (official) 85.7%, Tatar 3.2%, Chechen 1%, other 10.1%
note: data represent native language spoken (2010 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.4%
male: 98.2%
female: 98.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 16 years (2015)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2014)
Education expenditures4.6% of GDP (2011)
3.9% of GDP (2012)
Urbanizationurban population: 72% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.78% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 74% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.13% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 66.4% of population
rural: 59.2% of population
total: 64.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 33.6% of population
rural: 40.8% of population
total: 35.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 98.9% of population
rural: 91.2% of population
total: 96.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.1% of population
rural: 8.8% of population
total: 3.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 66.4% of population
rural: 42.6% of population
total: 59.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 33.6% of population
rural: 57.4% of population
total: 40.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 77% of population
rural: 58.7% of population
total: 72.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 23% of population
rural: 41.3% of population
total: 27.8% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationULAANBAATAR (capital) 1.377 million (2015)
MOSCOW (capital) 12.166 million; Saint Petersburg 4.993 million; Novosibirsk 1.497 million; Yekaterinburg 1.379 million; Nizhniy Novgorod 1.212 million; Samara 1.164 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate44 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
25 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures4.7% of GDP (2014)
7.1% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.88 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
3.31 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density6.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
9.7 beds/1,000 population (2006)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate15.7% (2014)
26.2% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth20.5 years
note: median age at first birth among women 20-24 (2008 est.)
24.6 years (2009 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate54.6% (2013)
68%
note: percent of women aged 15-44 (2011)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 47.6
youth dependency ratio: 41.7
elderly dependency ratio: 6
potential support ratio: 16.7 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 43.1
youth dependency ratio: 24
elderly dependency ratio: 19.1
potential support ratio: 5.2 (2015 est.)

Government

MongoliaRussia
Country name"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Mongolia
local long form: none
local short form: Mongol Uls
former: Outer Mongolia
etymology: the name means ""Land of the Mongols"" in Latin; the Mongolian name Mongol Uls translates as ""Mongol State""
"
conventional long form: Russian Federation
conventional short form: Russia
local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
local short form: Rossiya
former: Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
etymology: Russian lands were generally referred to as Muscovy until PETER I officially declared the Russian Empire in 1721; the new name sought to invoke the patrimony of the medieval eastern European Rus state centered on Kyiv in present-day Ukraine; the Rus were a Varangian (eastern Viking) elite that imposed their rule and eventually their name on their Slavic subjects
Government typesemi-presidential republic
semi-presidential federation
Capitalname: Ulaanbaatar
geographic coordinates: 47 55 N, 106 55 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Saturday in March; ends last Saturday in September
note: Mongolia has two time zones - Ulaanbaatar Time (8 hours in advance of UTC) and Hovd Time (7 hours in advance of UTC)
name: Moscow
geographic coordinates: 55 45 N, 37 36 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
note: Russia has 11 time zones, the largest number of contiguous time zones of any country in the world; in 2014, two time zones were added and DST was dropped
Administrative divisions21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan-Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan (Zavkhan), Govi-Altay, Govisumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
46 provinces (oblastey, singular - oblast), 21 republics (respublik, singular - respublika), 4 autonomous okrugs (avtonomnykh okrugov, singular - avtonomnyy okrug), 9 krays (krayev, singular - kray), 2 federal cities (goroda, singular - gorod), and 1 autonomous oblast (avtonomnaya oblast')
oblasts: Amur (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', Belgorod, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad, Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Orel, Penza, Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan', Sakhalin (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara, Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver', Tyumen', Ul'yanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl'
republics: Adygeya (Maykop), Altay (Gorno-Altaysk), Bashkortostan (Ufa), Buryatiya (Ulan-Ude), Chechnya (Groznyy), Chuvashiya (Cheboksary), Dagestan (Makhachkala), Ingushetiya (Magas), Kabardino-Balkariya (Nal'chik), Kalmykiya (Elista), Karachayevo-Cherkesiya (Cherkessk), Kareliya (Petrozavodsk), Khakasiya (Abakan), Komi (Syktyvkar), Mariy-El (Yoshkar-Ola), Mordoviya (Saransk), North Ossetia (Vladikavkaz), Sakha [Yakutiya] (Yakutsk), Tatarstan (Kazan'), Tyva (Kyzyl), Udmurtiya (Izhevsk)
autonomous okrugs: Chukotka (Anadyr'), Khanty-Mansi-Yugra (Khanty-Mansiysk), Nenets (Nar'yan-Mar), Yamalo-Nenets (Salekhard)
krays: Altay (Barnaul), Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Perm', Primorskiy [Maritime] (Vladivostok), Stavropol', Zabaykal'sk [Transbaikal] (Chita)
federal cities: Moscow [Moskva], Saint Petersburg [Sankt-Peterburg]
autonomous oblast: Yevreyskaya [Jewish] (Birobidzhan)
note 1: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
note 2: the United States does not recognize Russia's annexation of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the municipality of Sevastopol, nor their redesignation as the Republic of Crimea and the Federal City of Sevastopol
Independence29 December 1911 (independence declared from China; in actuality, autonomy attained); 11 July 1921 (from China)
24 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: 1157 (Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal created); 16 January 1547 (Tsardom of Muscovy established); 22 October 1721 (Russian Empire proclaimed); 30 December 1922 (Soviet Union established)
National holidayNaadam (games) holiday (commemorates independence from China in the 1921 Revolution), 11-15 July; Constitution Day (marks the date that the Mongolian People's Republic was created under a new constitution), 26 November (1924)
Russia Day, 12 June (1990)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 13 January 1992, effective 12 February 1992
amendments: proposed by the State Great Hural, by the president of the republic, by the government, or by petition submitted to the State Great Hural by the Consitutional Court; conducting referenda on proposed amendments requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the State Great Hural; passage of amendments by the State Great Hural requires at least three-quarters majority vote; passage by referendum requires majority participation of qualified voters and a majority of votes; amended 1999, 2001 (2017)
history: several previous (during Russian Empire and Soviet eras); latest drafted 12 July 1993, adopted by referendum 12 December 1993, effective 25 December 1993
amendments: proposed by the president of the Russian Federation, by either house of the Federal Assembly, by the government of the Russian Federation, or by legislative (representative) bodies of the Federation's constituent entities; proposals to amend the government’s constitutional system, human and civil rights and freedoms, and procedures for amending or drafting a new constitution require formation of a Constitutional Assembly; passage of such amendments requires two-thirds majority vote of its total membership; passage in a referendum requires participation of an absolute majority of eligible voters and an absolute majority of valid votes; approval of proposed amendments to the government structure, authorities, and procedures requires approval by the legislative bodies of at least two-thirds of the Russian Federation's constituent entities; amended 2008, 2014 (2017)
Legal systemcivil law system influenced by Soviet and Romano-Germanic legal systems; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts
civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ (since 18 June 2009)
head of government: Prime Minister Jargaltulga ERDENEBAT (since 8 July 2016); Deputy Prime Minister Ukhnaa KHURELSUKH (since 25 July 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president, confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament)
elections/appointments: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in the State Great Hural and directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 June 2017, with second round to be held on 9 July 2017; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually elected prime minister by the State Great Hural
election results: percent of vote in first round - Khaltmaa BATTULGA (DP) 38.1%, Miyegombo ENKHBOLD (MPP) 30.3%, Sainkhuu GANBAATAR (MPRP) 30.2%, invalid 1.4%; percent of vote in second round (to be held 9 July 2017)
"chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (since 7 May 2012)
head of government: Premier Dmitriy Anatolyevich MEDVEDEV (since 8 May 2012); First Deputy Premier Igor Ivanovich SHUVALOV (since 12 May 2008); Deputy Premiers Arkadiy Vladimirovich DVORKOVICH (since 21 May 2012), Olga Yuryevna GOLODETS (since 21 May 2012), Aleksandr Gennadiyevich KHLOPONIN (since 19 January 2010), Dmitriy Nikolayevich KOZAK (since 14 October 2008), Vitaliy Leontyevich MUTKO (since 19 October 2016), Dmitriy Olegovich ROGOZIN (since 23 December 2011), Sergey Eduardovich PRIKHODKO (since 22 May 2013), Yuriy Petrovich TRUTNEV (since 31 August 2013)
cabinet: the ""Government"" is composed of the premier, his deputies, and ministers, all appointed by the president; the premier is also confirmed by the Duma
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 4 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2018); note - term length extended to 6 years from 4 years in late 2008, effective after the 2012 election; there is no vice president; premier appointed by the president with the approval of the Duma
election results: Vladimir PUTIN elected president; percent of vote - Vladimir PUTIN (United Russia) 63.6%, Gennadiy ZYUGANOV (CPRF) 17.2%, Mikhail PROKHOROV(Civic Platform) 8%, Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY (LDPR) 6.2%, Sergey MIRONOV (A Just Russia) 3.9%, other 1.1%; Dmitriy MEDVEDEV (United Russia) approved as premier by Duma; vote - 299 to 144
note: there is also a Presidential Administration that provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president
"
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral State Great Hural or Ulsyn Ikh Khural (76 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; each constituency requires at least 50% voter participation for the poll to be valid; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 29 June 2016 (next to be held in June 2020)
election results: MPP 65, DP 9, MPRP 1, independent 1
description: bicameral Federal Assembly or Federalnoye Sobraniye consists of the Federation Council or Sovet Federatsii (166 seats; 2 members in each of the 83 federal administrative units (see note below) - oblasts, krays, republics, autonomous okrugs and oblasts, and the federal cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg - appointed by the top executive and legislative officials; members serve 4-year terms) and the State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya Duma (450 seats; as of February 2014, the electoral system reverted to a mixed electoral system for the 2016 election in which one-half of the members are directly elected by simple majority vote and one-half directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: State Duma - last held on 18 September 2016 (next to be held in fall 2021)
election results: State Duma - United Russia 76.5%, CPRF 9.3%, LDPR 8.7%, A Just Russia 5.1%, Rodina 0.2%, CP 0.2%; seats by party - United Russia 344, CPRF 42, LDPR 39, A Just Russia 23, Rodina 1, CP 1
note: the State Duma now includes 3 representatives and the Federation Council 2 each from the Republic of Crimea and the Federal City of Sevastopol, two regions that Russia occupied and attempted to annex from Ukraine and that the US does not recognize as part of Russia
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the Chief Justice and 24 judges organized into civil, criminal, and administrative chambers); Constitutional Court or Tsets (consists of a chairman and 8 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice and judges appointed by the president upon recommendation to the State Great Hural by the General Council of Courts, a 14-member body of judges and judicial officials; term of appointment is for life; chairman of the Constitutional Court elected from among its members; members appointed by the State Great Hural upon nominations - 3 each by the president, the State Great Hural, and the Supreme Court; term of appointment is 6 years; chairmanship limited to a single renewable 3-year term
subordinate courts: aimag (provincial) and capital city appellate courts; soum, inter-soum, and district courts; Administrative Cases Courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (consists of 170 members organized into the Judicial Panel for Civil Affairs, the Judicial Panel for Criminal Affairs, and the Military Panel); Constitutional Court (consists of 19 members); note - in February 2014, Russia’s Superior Court of Arbitration was abolished and its former authorities transferred to the Supreme Court, which in addition to being the country’s highest judicial authority for appeals, civil, criminal, administrative cases, and military cases, and the disciplinary judicial board, now has jurisdiction over economic disputes
judge selection and term of office: all members of Russia's 3 highest courts nominated by the president and appointed by the Federation Council (the upper house of the legislature); members of all 3 courts appointed for life
subordinate courts: Higher Arbitration Court; regional (kray) and provincial (oblast) courts; Moscow and St. Petersburg city courts; autonomous province and district courts; note - the 14 Russian Republics have court systems specified by their own constitutions
Political parties and leadersCivil Will-Green Party or CWGP [Sanjaasuren OYUN and Tserendorj GANKHUYAG]
Democratic Party or DP [Sodnomzundui ERDENE]
Mongolian National Democratic Party or MNDP [Mendsaikhan ENKHSAIKHAN]
Mongolian People's Party or MPP [Miyegombo ENKHBOLD]
Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambar ENKHBAYAR]
A Just Russia [Sergey MIRONOV]
Civic Platform or CP [Rifat SHAYKHUTDINOV]
Communist Party of the Russian Federation or CPRF [Gennadiy ZYUGANOV]
Liberal Democratic Party of Russia or LDPR [Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY]
Rodina [Aleksei ZHURAVLYOV]
United Russia [Dmitriy MEDVEDEV]
note: 78 political parties are registered with Russia's Ministry of Justice (as of October 2015), but only six parties maintain representation in Russia's national legislature, and two of these only have one deputy apiece
Political pressure groups and leadersother: human rights groups; women's rights groups; disability rights groups
Committees of Soldiers' Mothers
Confederation of Labor of Russia or KTR
Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Russia
Golos Association in Defense of Voters' Rights
Memorial
Movement Against Illegal Migration
Russkiye
Solidarnost
The World Russian People's Congress
Union of Russian Writers
other: business associations; environmental organizations; religious groups (especially those with Orthodox or Muslim affiliation); veterans groups
International organization participationADB, ARF, CD, CICA, CP, EBRD, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, OSCE, SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, BSEC, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAEU, EAPC, EAS, EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-20, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Bulgaa ALTANGEREL (since 8 January 2013)
chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117
FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227
consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco
chief of mission: Ambassador Sergey Ivanovich KISLYAK (since 16 September 2008)
chancery: 2650 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5700, 5701, 5704, 5708
FAX: [1] (202) 298-5735
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York, San Francisco, Seattle
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Jennifer Zimdahl GALT (since 5 October 2015)
embassy: Denver Street
mailing address: P.O.Box 341, Ulaanbaatar 14192
telephone: [976] 7007-6001
FAX: [976] 7007-6016
chief of mission: Ambassador John Francis TEFFT (since 19 November 2014)
embassy: Bolshoy Deviatinskiy Pereulok No. 8, 121099 Moscow
mailing address: PSC-77, APO AE 09721
telephone: [7] (495) 728-5000
FAX: [7] (495) 728-5090
consulate(s) general: Saint Petersburg, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg
Flag description"three, equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem (""soyombo"" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol); blue represents the sky, red symbolizes progress and prosperity
"
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red
note: the colors may have been based on those of the Dutch flag; despite many popular interpretations, there is no official meaning assigned to the colors of the Russian flag; this flag inspired several other Slav countries to adopt horizontal tricolors of the same colors but in different arrangements, and so red, blue, and white became the Pan-Slav colors
National anthem"name: ""Mongol ulsyn toriin duulal"" (National Anthem of Mongolia)
lyrics/music: Tsendiin DAMDINSUREN/Bilegiin DAMDINSUREN and Luvsanjamts MURJORJ
note: music adopted 1950, lyrics adopted 2006; lyrics altered on numerous occasions
"
"name: ""Gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii"" (National Anthem of the Russian Federation)
lyrics/music: Sergey Vladimirovich MIKHALKOV/Aleksandr Vasilyevich ALEKSANDROV
note: in 2000, Russia adopted the tune of the anthem of the former Soviet Union (composed in 1939); the lyrics, also adopted in 2000, were written by the same person who authored the Soviet lyrics in 1943
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)soyombo emblem; national colors: red, blue, yellow
bear, double-headed eagle; national colors: white, blue, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Mongolia; one parent if born within Mongolia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Russia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 3-5 years

Economy

MongoliaRussia
Economy - overviewForeign direct investment in Mongolia's extractive industries – which are based on extensive deposits of copper, gold, coal, molybdenum, fluorspar, uranium, tin, and tungsten - has transformed Mongolia's landlocked economy from its traditional dependence on herding and agriculture. Exports now account for more than 40% of GDP. Mongolia depends on China for more than 60% of its external trade - China receives some 90% of Mongolia's exports and supplies Mongolia with more than one-third of its imports. Mongolia also relies on Russia for 90% of its energy supplies, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad, particularly in South Korea, are significant.

Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession, because of political inaction, and natural disasters, as well as strong economic growth, because of market reforms and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. The country opened a fledgling stock exchange in 1991. Mongolia joined the WTO in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade regimes.

Growth averaged nearly 9% per year in 2004-08 largely because of high copper prices globally and new gold production. By late 2008, Mongolia was hit by the global financial crisis and Mongolia's real economy contracted 1.3% in 2009. In early 2009, the IMF reached a $236 million Stand-by Arrangement with Mongolia and it emerged from the crisis with a stronger banking sector and better fiscal management. In October 2009, Mongolia passed long-awaited legislation on an investment agreement to develop the Oyu Tolgoi (OT) mine, among the world's largest untapped copper-gold deposits. However, a dispute with foreign investors developing OT called into question the attractiveness of Mongolia as a destination for foreign investment. This caused a severe drop in FDI, and a slowing economy, leading to the dismissal of Prime Minister ALTANKHUYAG in November 2014. The economy had grown more than 10% per year between 2011 and 2013 - largely on the strength of commodity exports and high government spending - before slowing to 7.8% in 2014, 2.3% in 2015, and 1% in 2016.

The May 2015 agreement with Rio Tinto to restart the OT mine and the subsequent $4.4 billion finance package signing in December 2015 stemmed the loss of investor confidence. The current government has made restoring investor trust and reviving the economy its top priority, but has failed to invigorate the economy in the face of the large drop off in foreign direct investment, mounting external debt, and a sizeable budget deficit. However, Mongolia reached staff-level agreement with the IMF in February 2017 on an Extended Fund Facility program, and once approved by the IMF Board, the program is expected to improve Mongolia’s long-term fiscal and economic stability.
Russia has undergone significant changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, moving from a centrally planned economy towards a more market-based system. Both economic growth and reform have stalled in recent years, however, and Russia remains a predominantly statist economy with a high concentration of wealth in officials' hands. Economic reforms in the 1990s privatized most industry, with notable exceptions in the energy, transportation, banking, and defense-related sectors. The protection of property rights is still weak, and the state continues to interfere in the free operation of the private sector.

Russia is one of the world's leading producers of oil and natural gas, and is also a top exporter of metals such as steel and primary aluminum. Russia's reliance on commodity exports makes it vulnerable to boom and bust cycles that follow the volatile swings in global prices.

The economy, which had averaged 7% growth during 1998-2008 as oil prices rose rapidly, has seen diminishing growth rates since then due to the exhaustion of Russia’s commodity-based growth model.

A combination of falling oil prices, international sanctions, and structural limitations pushed Russia into a deep recession in 2015, with the GDP falling by close to 4%. The downturn continued through 2016, with GDP contracting by 0.6%. Government support for import substitution has increased recently in an effort to diversify the economy away from extractive industries. Russia is heavily dependent on the movement of world commodity prices and the Central Bank of Russia estimates that if oil prices remain below $40 per barrel in 2017, the resulting shock would cause GDP to fall by up to 5%.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$37 billion (2016 est.)
$36.64 billion (2015 est.)
$35.79 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3.751 trillion (2016 est.)
$3.774 trillion (2015 est.)
$3.92 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate1% (2016 est.)
2.4% (2015 est.)
7.9% (2014 est.)
-0.6% (2016 est.)
-3.7% (2015 est.)
0.7% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$12,200 (2016 est.)
$12,300 (2015 est.)
$12,200 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$26,100 (2016 est.)
$26,300 (2015 est.)
$27,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 14.6%
industry: 35.1%
services: 50.3% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 4.7%
industry: 33.1%
services: 62.2% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line21.6% (2014 est.)
13.3% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 13.8%
highest 10%: 8.8% (2016)
lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 32.2% (2012 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2.4% (2016 est.)
5.8% (2015 est.)
5.8% (2016 est.)
15.5% (2015 est.)
Labor force1.24 million (2016 est.)
76.9 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 31.1%
industry: 18.5%
services: 50.5% (2016)
agriculture: 9.4%
industry: 27.6%
services: 63% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate8.6% (2016 est.)
8.3% (2015 est.)
5.3% (2016 est.)
5.8% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index36.5 (2008)
32.8 (2002)
41.2 (2015)
41.9 (2013)
Budgetrevenues: $2.868 billion
expenditures: $4.035 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $186.5 billion
expenditures: $230.2 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesconstruction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing
complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; defense industries (including radar, missile production, advanced electronic components), shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts
Industrial production growth rate4.9% (2016 est.)
0.7% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables, fruits; beef, milk
Exports$4.319 billion (2016 est.)
$4.619 billion (2015 est.)
$285.5 billion (2016 est.)
$343.5 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiescopper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals, coal, crude oil
petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, metals, wood and wood products, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures
Exports - partnersChina 84%, Switzerland 9% (2015)
Netherlands 11.9%, China 8.3%, Germany 7.4%, Italy 6.5%, Turkey 5.6%, Belarus 4.4%, Japan 4.2% (2015)
Imports$3.003 billion (2016 est.)
$3.512 billion (2015 est.)
$182.3 billion (2016 est.)
$182.7 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, cigarettes and tobacco, appliances, soap and detergent
machinery, vehicles, pharmaceutical products, plastic, semi-finished metal products, meat, fruits and nuts, optical and medical instruments, iron, steel
Imports - partnersChina 39.9%, Russia 28.4%, Japan 6.4%, South Korea 6.2% (2015)
China 19.2%, Germany 11.2%, US 6.4%, Belarus 4.8%, Italy 4.6% (2015)
Debt - external$18.67 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$18.16 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$514.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$520.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratestogrog/tugriks (MNT) per US dollar -
2,011 (2016 est.)
1,970.3 (2015 est.)
1,970.3 (2014 est.)
1,817.9 (2013 est.)
1,357.6 (2012 est.)
Russian rubles (RUB) per US dollar -
68.06 (2016 est.)
60.938 (2015 est.)
60.938 (2014 est.)
38.378 (2013 est.)
30.84 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt60% of GDP (2016 est.)
13.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
9.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Current Account Balance-$449 million (2016 est.)
-$469 million (2015 est.)
$22.2 billion (2016 est.)
$69 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$11.16 billion (2016 est.)
$1.268 trillion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$17.62 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$16.89 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$348 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$342.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$379.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$367.4 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$359.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$336.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$632.6 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$766.1 million (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.095 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$635.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$393.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$385.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate12% (14 January 2016)
13% (15 January 2015)
10% (31 December 2016 est.)
11% (03 August 2015)
note: this is the so-called refinancing rate, but in Russia banks do not get refinancing at this rate; this is a reference rate used primarily for fiscal purposes
Commercial bank prime lending rate19.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
19.56% (31 December 2015 est.)
12.7% (31 December 2016 est.)
15.73% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$7.354 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.048 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$818.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$603.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$935 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$844.4 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$199.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$151.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$5.822 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.035 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$177.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$926.8 billion (31 October 2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues25.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-10.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
-3.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 16.6%
male: 14.7%
female: 19.1% (2013 est.)
total: 13.7%
male: 13.3%
female: 14.1% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 57.6%
government consumption: 12.1%
investment in fixed capital: 19.9%
investment in inventories: 7.4%
exports of goods and services: 40.1%
imports of goods and services: -37.1% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 55.8%
government consumption: 19.9%
investment in fixed capital: 21.6%
investment in inventories: -3.2%
exports of goods and services: 25.8%
imports of goods and services: -19.9% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving21.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
23.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
24.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
23.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
23.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

MongoliaRussia
Electricity - production5.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
1.062 trillion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption5.6 billion kWh (2014 est.)
1.065 trillion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports33 million kWh (2014 est.)
14.67 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports1.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
6.623 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production23,180 bbl/day (2015 est.)
10.83 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
15,110 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - exports14,360 bbl/day (2013 est.)
5.116 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl
80 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
47.8 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
635.5 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
453.3 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
222.9 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
8.9 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity1 million kW (2014 est.)
248 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels99.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
68.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
20.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
10.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
6.053 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption28,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
3.693 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
3.133 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports25,620 bbl/day (2013 est.)
13,350 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy14 million Mt (2013 est.)
1.756 billion Mt (2014 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 300,000
electrification - total population: 90%
electrification - urban areas: 98%
electrification - rural areas: 73% (2013)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

MongoliaRussia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 255,634
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 36,524,978
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 26 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 3.068 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 103 (July 2015 est.)
total: 227.288 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 160 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: network is improving with international direct dialing available in many areas; a fiber-optic network has been installed that is improving broadband and communication services between major urban centers with multiple companies providing inter-city fiber-optic cable services
domestic: very low fixed-line teledensity; there are 3 mobile-cellular providers and subscribership is increasing
international: country code - 976; satellite earth stations - 7 (2015)
general assessment: the telephone system is experiencing significant changes; more than 1,000 companies licensed to offer communication services; access to digital lines has improved, particularly in urban centers; progress made toward building the telecommunications infrastructure necessary for a market economy; the estimated number of mobile subscribers jumped from fewer than 1 million in 1998 to 255 million in 2016; fixed-line service has improved but a large demand remains
domestic: cross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from Moscow to Novorossiysk; the telephone systems in 60 regional capitals have modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are available in many areas; in rural areas, telephone services are still outdated, inadequate, and low-density
international: country code - 7; connected internationally by undersea fiber -optic cables; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat, Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Orbita systems (2016)
Internet country code.mn
".ru; note - Russia also has responsibility for a legacy domain "".su"" that was allocated to the Soviet Union and is being phased out
"
Internet userstotal: 642,000
percent of population: 21.4% (July 2015 est.)
total: 104.553 million
percent of population: 73.4% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediafollowing a law passed in 2005, Mongolia's state-run radio and TV provider converted to a public service provider; also available are 69 radio and 131 TV stations, including multi-channel satellite and cable TV providers; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2017)
13 national TV stations with the federal government owning 1 and holding a controlling interest in a second; state-owned Gazprom maintains a controlling interest in 2 of the national channels; government-affiliated Bank Rossiya owns controlling interest in a fourth and fifth, while a sixth national channel is owned by the Moscow city administration; the Russian Orthodox Church and the Russian military, respectively, own 2 additional national channels; roughly 3,300 national, regional, and local TV stations with over two-thirds completely or partially controlled by the federal or local governments; satellite TV services are available; 2 state-run national radio networks with a third majority-owned by Gazprom; roughly 2,400 public and commercial radio stations (2016)

Transportation

MongoliaRussia
Railwaystotal: 1,815 km
broad gauge: 1,815 km 1.520-m gauge
note: national operator Ulaanbaatar Railway is jointly owned by the Mongolian Government and by the Russian State Railway (2016)
total: 87,157 km
broad gauge: 86,200 km 1.520-m gauge (40,300 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 957 km 1.067-m gauge (on Sakhalin Island)
note: an additional 30,000 km of non-common carrier lines serve industries (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 49,249 km
paved: 4,800 km
unpaved: 44,449 km (2013)
total: 1,283,387 km
paved: 927,721 km (includes 39,143 km of expressways)
unpaved: 355,666 km (2012)
Waterways580 km (the only waterway in operation is Lake Hovsgol) (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers ice free from May to September) (2010)
102,000 km (including 48,000 km with guaranteed depth; the 72,000-km system in European Russia links Baltic Sea, White Sea, Caspian Sea, Sea of Azov, and Black Sea) (2009)
Merchant marinetotal: 57
by type: bulk carrier 21, cargo 25, chemical tanker 1, container 2, liquefied gas 2, passenger/cargo 2, roll on/roll off 3, vehicle carrier 1
foreign-owned: 44 (Indonesia 2, Japan 2, North Korea 1, Russia 2, Singapore 3, Ukraine 1, Vietnam 33) (2010)
total: 1,143
by type: bulk carrier 20, cargo 642, carrier 3, chemical tanker 57, combination ore/oil 42, container 13, passenger 15, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 244, refrigerated cargo 84, roll on/roll off 13, specialized tanker 3
foreign-owned: 155 (Belgium 4, Cyprus 13, Estonia 1, Ireland 1, Italy 14, Latvia 2, Netherlands 2, Romania 1, South Korea 1, Switzerland 3, Turkey 101, Ukraine 12)
registered in other countries: 439 (Antigua and Barbuda 3, Belgium 1, Belize 30, Bulgaria 2, Cambodia 50, Comoros 12, Cook Islands 1, Cyprus 46, Dominica 3, Georgia 6, Hong Kong 1, Kiribati 1, Liberia 109, Malaysia 2, Malta 45, Marshall Islands 5, Moldova 5, Mongolia 2, Panama 49, Romania 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 13, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11, Sierra Leone 7, Singapore 2, Spain 6, Vanuatu 7, unknown 19) (2010)
Airports44 (2013)
1,218 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 15
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
total: 594
over 3,047 m: 54
2,438 to 3,047 m: 197
1,524 to 2,437 m: 123
914 to 1,523 m: 95
under 914 m: 125 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 29
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 624
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 69
914 to 1,523 m: 81
under 914 m: 457 (2013)
Heliports1 (2013)
49 (2013)

Military

MongoliaRussia
Military branchesMongolian Armed Forces (Mongol ulsyn zevsegt huchin): Mongolian Army, Mongolian Air Force (2016)
"Ground Troops (Sukhoputnyye Voyskia, SV), Navy (Voyenno-Morskoy Flot, VMF), Air Forces (Voyenno-Vozdushniye Sily, VVS); Airborne Troops (Vozdushno-Desantnyye Voyska, VDV), Missile Troops of Strategic Purpose (Raketnyye Voyska Strategicheskogo Naznacheniya, RVSN) referred to commonly as Strategic Rocket Forces, and Aerospace Defense Troops (Voyska Vozdushno-Kosmicheskoy Oborony or Voyska VKO) are independent ""combat arms,"" not subordinate to any of the three branches; Russian Ground Troops include the following combat arms: motorized-rifle troops, tank troops, missile and artillery troops, air defense of the Ground Troops (2014)
"
Military service age and obligation18-27 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; 1-year conscript service obligation in land or air forces or police for males only; after conscription, soldiers can contract into military service for 2 or 4 years; citizens can also voluntarily join the armed forces (2015)
18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; males are registered for the draft at 17 years of age; 1-year service obligation (conscripts can only be sent to combat zones after 6 months of training); reserve obligation for non-officers to age 50; enrollment in military schools from the age of 16, cadets classified as members of the armed forces
note: the chief of the General Staff Mobilization Directorate announced in March 2015 that for health reasons, only 76% of draftees called up during the spring 2015 draft campaign were fit for military service (2015)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.87% of GDP (2015)
0.86% of GDP (2014)
0.85% of GDP (2013)
0.96% of GDP (2012)
0.84% of GDP (2011)
5.01% of GDP (2015)
4.17% of GDP (2014)
3.96% of GDP (2013)
3.75% of GDP (2012)
3.46% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

MongoliaRussia
Disputes - internationalnone
"Russia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan through Central Asian countries; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with the 2004 Agreement, ending their centuries-long border disputes; the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known in Japan as the ""Northern Territories"" and in Russia as the ""Southern Kurils,"" occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, and claimed by Japan, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending World War II hostilities; Russia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010; various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia (Kareliya) and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union following World War II but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands; Russia and Estonia signed a technical border agreement in May 2005, but Russia recalled its signature in June 2005 after the Estonian parliament added to its domestic ratification act a historical preamble referencing the Soviet occupation and Estonia's pre-war borders under the 1920 Treaty of Tartu; Russia contends that the preamble allows Estonia to make territorial claims on Russia in the future, while Estonian officials deny that the preamble has any legal impact on the treaty text; Russia demands better treatment of the Russian-speaking population in Estonia and Latvia; Russia remains involved in the conflict in eastern Ukraine while also occupying Ukraine’s territory of Crimea
Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as an EU member state with an EU external border, where strict Schengen border rules apply; preparations for the demarcation delimitation of land boundary with Ukraine have commenced; the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov is suspended due to the occupation of Crimea by Russia; Kazakhstan and Russia boundary delimitation was ratified on November 2005 and field demarcation should commence in 2007; Russian Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Bering Sea Maritime Boundary Agreement with the US; Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission
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Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 14 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 226,232 (Ukraine) (2016)
IDPs: 19,000 (armed conflict, human rights violations, generalized violence in North Caucasus, particularly Chechnya and North Ossetia) (2016)
stateless persons: 90,771 (2016); note - Russia's stateless population consists of Roma, Meskhetian Turks, and ex-Soviet citizens from the former republics; between 2003 and 2010 more than 600,000 stateless people were naturalized; most Meskhetian Turks, followers of Islam with origins in Georgia, fled or were evacuated from Uzbekistan after a 1989 pogrom and have lived in Russia for more than the required five-year residency period; they continue to be denied registration for citizenship and basic rights by local Krasnodar Krai authorities on the grounds that they are temporary illegal migrants

Source: CIA Factbook