Home

Mongolia vs. Russia

Introduction

MongoliaRussia
BackgroundThe Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing and a communist regime was installed in 1924. The modern country of Mongolia, however, represents only part of the Mongols' historical homeland; more ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia. Following a peaceful democratic revolution, the ex-communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections in 1990 and 1992, but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) in the 1996 parliamentary election. The MPRP won an overwhelming majority in the 2000 parliamentary election, but the party lost seats in the 2004 election and shared power with democratic coalition parties from 2004-08. The MPRP regained a solid majority in the 2008 parliamentary elections but nevertheless formed a coalition government with the Democratic Party that lasted until January 2012. In 2009, current President ELBEGDORJ of the Democratic Party was elected to office and was re-elected for his second term in June 2013. In 2010, the MPRP voted to retake the name of the Mongolian People's Party (MPP), a name it used in the early 1920s. Shortly thereafter, a new party was formed by former president ENKHBAYAR, which adopted the MPRP name. In the 2012 Parliamentary elections, a coalition of four political parties led by the Democratic Party, gained control of the Parliament.Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy, was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century, a new ROMANOV Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted in the formation of a parliament and other reforms. Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household. The communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53) strengthened communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the following decades until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent republics. Since then, Russia has shifted its post-Soviet democratic ambitions in favor of a centralized semi-authoritarian state in which the leadership seeks to legitimize its rule through managed national elections, populist appeals by President PUTIN, and continued economic growth. Russia has severely disabled a Chechen rebel movement, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus.

Geography

MongoliaRussia
LocationNorthern Asia, between China and RussiaNorth Asia bordering the Arctic Ocean, extending from Europe (the portion west of the Urals) to the North Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates46 00 N, 105 00 E60 00 N, 100 00 E
Map referencesAsiaAsia
Areatotal: 1,564,116 sq km
land: 1,553,556 sq km
water: 10,560 sq km
total: 17,098,242 sq km
land: 16,377,742 sq km
water: 720,500 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Alaskaapproximately 1.8 times the size of the US
Land boundariestotal: 8,082 km
border countries: China 4,630 km, Russia 3,452 km
total: 22,407 km
border countries: Azerbaijan 338 km, Belarus 1,312 km, China (southeast) 4,133 km, China (south) 46 km, Estonia 324 km, Finland 1,309 km, Georgia 894 km, Kazakhstan 7,644 km, North Korea 18 km, Latvia 332 km, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 261 km, Mongolia 3,452 km, Norway 191 km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 209 km, Ukraine 1,944 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)37,653 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatedesert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast
Terrainvast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-centralbroad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions
Elevation extremeslowest point: Hoh Nuur 560 m
highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Gora El'brus 5,633 m (highest point in Europe)
Natural resourcesoil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, ironwide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, reserves of rare earth elements, timber
note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources
Land usearable land: 0.39%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 99.61% (2011)
arable land: 7.11%
permanent crops: 0.1%
other: 92.79% (2011)
Irrigated land843 sq km (2003)43,460 sq km (2008)
Natural hazardsdust storms; grassland and forest fires; drought; "zud," which is harsh winter conditionspermafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula; spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia
volcanism: significant volcanic activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands; the peninsula alone is home to some 29 historically active volcanoes, with dozens more in the Kuril Islands; Kliuchevskoi (elev. 4,835 m), which erupted in 2007 and 2010, is Kamchatka's most active volcano; Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes, which pose a threat to the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, have been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Bezymianny, Chikurachki, Ebeko, Gorely, Grozny, Karymsky, Ketoi, Kronotsky, Ksudach, Medvezhia, Mutnovsky, Sarychev Peak, Shiveluch, Tiatia, Tolbachik, and Zheltovsky
Environment - current issueslimited natural freshwater resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environmentair pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation in major cities; industrial, municipal, and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and seacoasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination; groundwater contamination from toxic waste; urban solid waste management; abandoned stocks of obsolete pesticides
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
Geography - notelandlocked; strategic location between China and Russialargest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture; Mount El'brus is Europe's tallest peak; Lake Baikal, the deepest lake in the world, is estimated to hold one fifth of the world's fresh water
Total renewable water resources34.8 cu km (2011)4,508 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 0.55 cu km/yr (13%/43%/44%)
per capita: 196.8 cu m/yr (2009)
total: 66.2 cu km/yr (20%/60%/20%)
per capita: 454.9 cu m/yr (2001)

Demographics

MongoliaRussia
Population2,953,190 (July 2014 est.)142,470,272 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 26.8% (male 404,051/female 388,546)
15-24 years: 18.7% (male 278,912/female 273,167)
25-54 years: 44.5% (male 636,799/female 677,236)
55-64 years: 5.9% (male 80,267/female 94,021)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 49,314/female 70,877) (2014 est.)
0-14 years: 16.4% (male 11,980,138/female 11,344,818)
15-24 years: 10.7% (male 7,828,947/female 7,482,143)
25-54 years: 45.8% (male 31,928,886/female 33,319,671)
55-64 years: 13.8% (male 8,408,637/female 11,287,153)
65 years and over: 13.3% (male 5,783,983/female 13,105,896) (2014 est.)
Median agetotal: 27.1 years
male: 26.3 years
female: 27.8 years (2014 est.)
total: 38.9 years
male: 36 years
female: 41.9 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate1.37% (2014 est.)-0.03% (2014 est.)
Birth rate20.88 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)11.87 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate6.38 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)13.83 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate-0.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)1.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.44 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 23.15 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 26.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
total: 7.08 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.93 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 68.98 years
male: 64.72 years
female: 73.45 years (2014 est.)
total population: 70.16 years
male: 64.37 years
female: 76.3 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate2.22 children born/woman (2014 est.)1.61 children born/woman (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateless than 0.1% (2009 est.)1% (2009 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Mongolian(s)
adjective: Mongolian
noun: Russian(s)
adjective: Russian
Ethnic groupsKhalkh 81.9%, Kazak 3.8%, Dorvod 2.7%, Bayad 2.1%, Buryat-Bouriates 1.7%, Zakhchin 1.2%, Dariganga 1%, Uriankhai 1%, other 4.6% (2010 est.)Russian 77.7%, Tatar 3.7%, Ukrainian 1.4%, Bashkir 1.1%, Chuvash 1%, Chechen 1%, other 10.2%, unspecified 3.9%
note: more than 190 ethnic groups are represents in Russia's 2010 census (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSfewer than 500 (2009 est.)980,000 (2009 est.)
ReligionsBuddhist 53%, Muslim 3%, Christian 2.2%, Shamanist 2.9%, other 0.4%, none 38.6% (2010 est.)Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.)
note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule
HIV/AIDS - deathsfewer than 100 (2009 est.)NA
LanguagesKhalkha Mongol 90% (official), Turkic, Russian (1999)Russian (official) 96.3%, Dolgang 5.3%, German 1.5%, Chechen 1%, Tatar 3%, other 10.3%
note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2010 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.4%
male: 96.8%
female: 97.9% (2011 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6% (2010 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 16 years (2012)
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2009)
Education expenditures5.5% of GDP (2011)4.1% of GDP (2008)
Urbanizationurban population: 68.5% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.81% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 73.8% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 0.13% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 94.8% of population
rural: 61.2% of population
total: 84.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 5.2% of population
rural: 38.8% of population
total: 15.4% of population (2012 est.)
improved:
urban: 98.7% of population
rural: 92.2% of population
total: 97% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.3% of population
rural: 7.8% of population
total: 3% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 65.3% of population
rural: 35.4% of population
total: 56.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 34.7% of population
rural: 64.6% of population
total: 43.8% of population (2012 est.)
improved:
urban: 74.4% of population
rural: 59.3% of population
total: 70.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 25.6% of population
rural: 40.7% of population
total: 29.5% of population (2012 est.)
Major cities - populationULAANBAATAR (capital) 1.184 million (2011)MOSCOW (capital) 11.621 million; Saint Petersburg 4.866 million; Novosibirsk 1.478 million; Yekaterinburg 1.355 million; Nizhniy Novgorod 1.245 million; Samara 1.166 million (2011)
Maternal mortality rate63 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)34 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Health expenditures5.3% of GDP (2011)6.2% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density2.76 physicians/1,000 population (2008)4.31 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
Hospital bed density6.8 beds/1,000 population (2011)9.7 beds/1,000 population (2006)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate14.4% (2008)26.5% (2008)
Mother's mean age at first birth21.9
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2008 est.)
24.6 (2009 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate55% (2010)79.5%
note: percent of women under age 50 (2007)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 45.4 %
youth dependency ratio: 39.9 %
elderly dependency ratio: 5.5 %
potential support ratio: 18 (2014 est.)
total dependency ratio: 41.3 %
youth dependency ratio: 22.8 %
elderly dependency ratio: 18.5 %
potential support ratio: 5.4 (2014 est.)

Government

MongoliaRussia
Country nameconventional long form: none
conventional short form: Mongolia
local long form: none
local short form: Mongol Uls
former: Outer Mongolia
conventional long form: Russian Federation
conventional short form: Russia
local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
local short form: Rossiya
former: Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Government typeparliamentaryfederation
Capitalname: Ulaanbaatar
geographic coordinates: 47 55 N, 106 55 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Moscow
geographic coordinates: 55 45 N, 37 36 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr; note - Russia has announced that it will remain on daylight saving time permanently, which began on 27 March 2011
note: Russia has 9 time zones
Administrative divisions21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan-Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan (Zavkhan), Govi-Altay, Govisumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs46 provinces (oblastey, singular - oblast), 21 republics (respublik, singular - respublika), 4 autonomous okrugs (avtonomnykh okrugov, singular - avtonomnyy okrug), 9 krays (krayev, singular - kray), 2 federal cities (goroda, singular - gorod), and 1 autonomous oblast (avtonomnaya oblast')
oblasts: Amur (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', Belgorod, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad, Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Orel, Penza, Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan', Sakhalin (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara, Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver', Tyumen', Ul'yanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl'
republics: Adygeya (Maykop), Altay (Gorno-Altaysk), Bashkortostan (Ufa), Buryatiya (Ulan-Ude), Chechnya (Groznyy), Chuvashiya (Cheboksary), Dagestan (Makhachkala), Ingushetiya (Magas), Kabardino-Balkariya (Nal'chik), Kalmykiya (Elista), Karachayevo-Cherkesiya (Cherkessk), Kareliya (Petrozavodsk), Khakasiya (Abakan), Komi (Syktyvkar), Mariy-El (Yoshkar-Ola), Mordoviya (Saransk), North Ossetia (Vladikavkaz), Sakha [Yakutiya] (Yakutsk), Tatarstan (Kazan'), Tyva (Kyzyl), Udmurtiya (Izhevsk)
autonomous okrugs: Chukotka (Anadyr'), Khanty-Mansi (Khanty-Mansiysk), Nenets (Nar'yan-Mar), Yamalo-Nenets (Salekhard)
krays: Altay (Barnaul), Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Perm', Primorskiy [Maritime] (Vladivostok), Stavropol', Zabaykal'sk (Chita)
federal cities: Moscow [Moskva], Saint Petersburg [Sankt-Peterburg]
autonomous oblast: Yevrey [Jewish] (Birobidzhan)
note 1: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
note 2: the United States does not recognize Russia's annexation of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the municipality of Sevastopol, nor their redesignation as the Republic of Crimea and the Federal City of Sevastopol
Independence11 July 1921 (from China)24 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: 1157 (Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal created); 16 January 1547 (Tsardom of Muscovy established); 22 October 1721 (Russian Empire proclaimed); 30 December 1922 (Soviet Union established)
National holidayIndependence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)Russia Day, 12 June (1990)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest adopted 13 January 1992, effective 12 February 1992; amended 1999, 2001 (2011)several previous (during Russian Empire and Soviet eras); latest drafted 12 July 1993, adopted by referendum 12 December 1993, effective 25 December 1993; amended 2008 (2013)
Legal systemcivil law system influenced by Soviet and Romano-Germanic legal systems; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative actscivil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage18 years of age; universal18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ (since 18 June 2009)
head of government: Prime Minister Norov ALTANKHUYAG (since 9 August 2012); Deputy Prime Minister Dendev TERBISHDAGVA (since 20 August 2012)
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president and confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament)
elections: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 June 2013 (next to be held in June 2017); following legislative elections, leaders of the majority party or a majority coalition usually elect the prime minister of the State Great Hural
election results: Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ elected president; percent of vote - Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ 50.2%, Badmaanyambuu BAT-ERDENE 42%, Natsag UDVAL 6.5%, other 1.3%
chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (since 7 May 2012)
head of government: Premier Dmitriy Anatolyevich MEDVEDEV (since 8 May 2012); First Deputy Premier Igor Ivanovich SHUVALOV (since 12 May 2008); Deputy Premiers Arkadiy Vladimirovich DVORKOVICH (since 21 May 2012), Olga Yuryevna GOLODETS (since 21 May 2012), Aleksandr Gennadiyevich KHLOPONIN (since 19 January 2010), Dmitriy Nikolayevich KOZAK (since 14 October 2008), Dmitriy Olegovich ROGOZIN (since 23 December 2011), Sergey Eduardovich PRIKHODKO (since 22 May 2013), Yuriy Petrovich TRUTNEV (since 31 August 2013)
cabinet: the "Government" is composed of the premier, his deputies, and ministers; all are appointed by the president, and the premier is also confirmed by the Duma
note: there is also a Presidential Administration (PA) that provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 4 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2018); note - the term length was extended from four to six years in late 2008, effective after the 2012 election; there is no vice president; if the president dies in office, cannot exercise his powers because of ill health, is impeached, or resigns, the premier serves as acting president until a new presidential election is held, which must be within three months; premier appointed by the president with the approval of the Duma
election results: Vladimir PUTIN elected president; percent of vote - Vladimir PUTIN 63.6%, Gennadiy ZYUGANOV 17.2%, Mikhail PROKHOROV 8%, Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY 6.2%, Sergey MIRONOV 3.9%, other 1.1%; Dmitriy MEDVEDEV approved as premier by Duma; vote - 299 to 144
Legislative branchunicameral State Great Hural (76 seats; of which 48 members are directly elected from 26 electoral districts, while 28 members are proportionally elected based on a party's share of the total votes; all serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 28 June 2012 (next to be held in June 2016)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - DP 33, MPP 25, Justice Coalition 11, others 5, vacant 2
bicameral Federal Assembly or Federalnoye Sobraniye consists of an upper house, the Federation Council or Sovet Federatsii (166 seats; two members appointed by the top executive and legislative officials in each of the 83 federal administrative units - oblasts, krays, republics, autonomous okrugs and oblasts, and the federal cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg; term lengths are not fixed but instead are determined by the regional bodies represented) and a lower house, the State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya Duma (450 seats; as of 2007, all members elected by proportional representation from party lists winning at least 7% of the vote; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: State Duma - last held on 4 December 2011 (next to be held in December 2016)
election results: State Duma - United Russia 49.6%, CPRF 19.2%, Just Russia 13.2%, LDPR 11.7%, other 6.3%; total seats by party - United Russia 238, CPRF 92, Just Russia 64, LDPR 56
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the Chief Justice and 16 judges organized into civil, criminal, and administrative chambers); Constitutional Court or Tsets (consists of a chairman and 8 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice and judges appointed by the president upon recommendation to the State Great Hural by the General Council of Courts; term of appointment is for life; chairman of the Constitutional Court elected from among its members; members appointed by the State Great Heral upon nominations - 3 each by the president, the State Great Hural, and the Supreme Court; term of appointment is 6 years; chairmanship limited to a single renewable 3-year term
subordinate courts: aimag (provincial) and capital city appellate courts; soum, inter-soum, and district courts; Administrative Cases Courts (established in 2004)
highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (consists of 23 members); Constitutional Court (consists of 19 members); Superior Court of Arbitration (consists of a chairman and 4 deputy chairmen); note - as of January 2014 legislation was pending that would merge the Constitutional Court and Superior Court of Arbitration
judge selection and term of office: all members of Russia's three highest courts nominated by the president and appointed by the Federation Council (the upper house of the legislature); members of all three courts appointed for life
subordinate courts: Higher Arbitration Court; regional (kray) and provincial (oblast) courts; Moscow and St. Petersburg city courts; autonomous province and district courts; note - the 14 Russian Republics have court systems specified by their own constitutions
Political parties and leadersCivil Will-Green Party or CWGP [Sanjaasuren OYUN]
Democratic Party or DP [Norov ALTANHUYAG]
Justice Coalition (includes MPRP and MNDP)
Mongolian National Democratic Party or MNDP [Mendsaikhan ENKHSAIKHAN]
Mongolian People's Party or MPP [Miyegombo ENKHBOLD]
Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambar ENKHBAYAR]
seventy eight political parties are registered with Russia's Ministry of Justice (as of January 2014), but only four parties maintain representation in Russia's national legislature:
A Just Russia [Sergey MIRONOV]
Communist Party of the Russian Federation or CPRF [Gennadiy ZYUGANOV]
Liberal Democratic Party of Russia or LDPR [Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY]
United Russia [Dmitriy MEDVEDEV]
Political pressure groups and leadersother: human rights groups; women's groupsConfederation of Labor of Russia (KTR)
Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Russia
Golos Association in Defense of Voters' Rights
Memorial
Movement Against Illegal Migration
Russkiye
Solidarnost
The World Russian People's Congress
Union of the Committees of Soldiers' Mothers
Union of Russian Writers
other - business associations, environmental organizations, religious groups (especially those with Orthodox or Muslim affiliation), and veterans groups
International organization participationADB, ARF, CD, CICA, CP, EBRD, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, OSCE, SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTOAPEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, BSEC, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EAS, EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-20, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Bulgaa ALTANGEREL (since 8 January 2013)
chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117
FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227
consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco
chief of mission: Ambassador Sergey Ivanovich KISLYAK (since 16 September 2008)
chancery: 2650 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5700, 5701, 5704, 5708
FAX: [1] (202) 298-5735
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York, San Francisco, Seattle
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Piper Anne Wind CAMPBELL (since 6 August 2012)
embassy: Denver Street #3, 11th Micro Region, Big Ring Road, Ulaanbaatar, 14190 Mongolia
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002; P.O. Box 341, Ulaanbaatar-14192
telephone: [976] 7007-6001
FAX: [976] 7007-6016
chief of mission: Chargé d'Affaires Sheila GWALTNEY (since 27 February 2014)
embassy: Bolshoy Deviatinskiy Pereulok No. 8, 121099 Moscow
mailing address: PSC-77, APO AE 09721
telephone: [7] (495) 728-5000
FAX: [7] (495) 728-5090
consulate(s) general: Saint Petersburg, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg
Flag descriptionthree equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol); blue represents the sky, red symbolizes progress and prosperitythree equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red
note: the colors may have been based on those of the Dutch flag; despite many popular interpretations, there is no official meaning assigned to the colors of the Russian flag; this flag inspired other Slav countries to adopt horizontal tricolors of the same colors but in different arrangements, and so red, blue, and white became the Pan-Slav colors
National anthemname: "Mongol ulsyn toriin duulal" (National Anthem of Mongolia)
lyrics/music: Tsendiin DAMDINSUREN/Bilegiin DAMDINSUREN and Luvsanjamts MURJORJ
note: music adopted 1950, lyrics adopted 2006; the anthem's lyrics have been altered on numerous occasions
name: "Gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii" (National Anthem of the Russian Federation)
lyrics/music: Sergey Vladimirovich MIKHALKOV/Aleksandr Vasilyevich ALEKSANDROV
note: in 2000, Russia adopted the tune of the anthem of the former Soviet Union (composed in 1939); the lyrics, also adopted in 2000, were written by the same person who authored the Soviet lyrics in 1943
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdictionhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Economy

MongoliaRussia
Economy - overviewMongolia's extensive mineral deposits and attendant growth in mining-sector activities have transformed Mongolia's economy, which traditionally has been dependent on herding and agriculture. Mongolia's copper, gold, coal, molybdenum, fluorspar, uranium, tin, and tungsten deposits, among others, have attracted foreign direct investment. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession, because of political inaction and natural disasters, as well as economic growth, because of reform-embracing, free-market economics and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. The country opened a fledgling stock exchange in 1991. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade regimes. Growth averaged nearly 9% per year in 2004-08 largely because of high copper prices globally and new gold production. By late 2008, Mongolia was hit hard by the global financial crisis. Slower global economic growth hurt the country's exports, notably copper, and slashed government revenues. As a result, Mongolia's real economy contracted 1.3% in 2009. In early 2009, the International Monetary Fund reached a $236 million Stand-by Arrangement with Mongolia and the country has largely emerged from the crisis with better regulations and closer supervision. The banking sector strengthened but weaknesses remain. In October 2009, Mongolia passed long-awaited legislation on an investment agreement to develop the Oyu Tolgoi mine, considered to be among the world's largest untapped copper-gold deposits. Mongolia's ongoing dispute with a foreign investor over Oyu Tolgoi, however, has called into question the attractiveness of Mongolia as a destination for foreign direct investment. Negotiations to develop the massive Tavan Tolgoi coal field also have stalled. The economy has grown more than 10% per year since 2010, largely on the strength of commodity exports to nearby countries and high government spending domestically. Mongolia's economy, however, faces near-term economic risks from the government's loose fiscal and monetary policies, which are contributing to high inflation, and from uncertainties in foreign demand for Mongolian exports. Trade with China represents more than half of Mongolia's total external trade - China receives more than 90% of Mongolia's exports and is Mongolia's largest supplier. Mongolia has relied on Russia for energy supplies, leaving it vulnerable to price increases; in the first 11 months of 2013, Mongolia purchased 76% of its gasoline and diesel fuel and a substantial amount of electric power from Russia. A drop in foreign direct investment and a decrease in Chinese demand for Mongolia's mineral exports are putting pressure on Mongolia's balance of payments. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad, particularly in South Korea, are significant.Russia has undergone significant changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, moving from a globally-isolated, centrally-planned economy towards a more market-based and globally-integrated economy, but stalling as a partially reformed, statist economy with a high concentration of wealth in officials' hands. Economic reforms in the 1990s privatized most industry, with notable exceptions in the energy and defense-related sectors. The protection of property rights is still weak and the private sector remains subject to heavy state interference. Russia is one of the world's leading producers of oil and natural gas and is also a top exporter of metals such as steel and primary aluminum. Russia's manufacturing sector is generally uncompetitive on world markets and is geared toward domestic consumption. Russia's reliance on commodity exports makes it vulnerable to boom and bust cycles that follow the volatile swings in global prices. The economy, which had averaged 7% growth during 1998-2008 as oil prices rose rapidly, was one of the hardest hit by the 2008-09 global economic crisis as oil prices plummeted and the foreign credits that Russian banks and firms relied on dried up. Slowly declining oil prices over the past few years and difficulty attracting foreign direct investment have contributed to a noticeable slowdown in GDP growth rates. In late 2013, the Russian Economic Development Ministry reduced its growth forecast through 2030 to an average of only 2.5% per year, down from its previous forecast of 4.0 to 4.2%. In 2014, following Russia's military intervention in Ukraine, prospects for economic growth declined further, with expections that GDP growth could drop as low as zero.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$17.03 billion (2013 est.)
$15.23 billion (2012 est.)
$13.57 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
$2.553 trillion (2013 est.)
$2.52 trillion (2012 est.)
$2.437 trillion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP - real growth rate11.8% (2013 est.)
12.3% (2012 est.)
17.5% (2011 est.)
1.3% (2013 est.)
3.4% (2012 est.)
4.3% (2011 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$5,900 (2013 est.)
$5,400 (2012 est.)
$4,900 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
$18,100 (2013 est.)
$17,800 (2012 est.)
$17,100 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 16.5%
industry: 32.6%
services: 50.9% (2013 est.)
agriculture: 4.2%
industry: 37.5%
services: 58.3% (2013 est.)
Population below poverty line29.8% (2011 est.)11% (2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 28.4% (2008)
lowest 10%: 5.7%
highest 10%: 42.4% (2011 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)8.2% (2013 est.)
15% (2012 est.)
6.8% (2013 est.)
5.1% (2012 est.)
Labor force1.037 million (2011 est.)75.29 million (2013 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 33%
industry: 10.6%
services: 56.4% (2011)
agriculture: 9.7%
industry: 27.8%
services: 62.5% (2012)
Unemployment rate9% (2011 est.)
13% (2010)
5.8% (2013 est.)
5.5% (2012 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index36.5 (2008)
32.8 (2002)
42 (2012)
41.7 (2011)
Budgetrevenues: $3.462 billion
expenditures: $4.36 billion (2013 est.)
revenues: $439 billion
expenditures: $450.3 billion (2013 est.)
Industriesconstruction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturingcomplete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; defense industries (including radar, missile production, advanced electronic components), shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts
Industrial production growth rate11% (2013 est.)0.1% (2013 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horsesgrain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables, fruits; beef, milk
Exports$4.294 billion (2013 est.)
$4.382 billion (2012 est.)
$515 billion (2013 est.)
$528 billion (2012 est.)
Exports - commoditiescopper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals, coal, crude oilpetroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, metals, wood and wood products, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures
Exports - partnersChina 89%, Canada 4.1% (2012)Netherlands 14.6%, China 6.8%, Germany 6.8%, Italy 6.2%, Turkey 5.2%, Ukraine 5.2%, Belarus 4.7% (2012 est.)
Imports$5.696 billion (2013 est.)
$5.934 billion (2012 est.)
$341 billion (2013 est.)
$335.7 billion (2012 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, cigarettes and tobacco, appliances, soap and detergentmachinery, vehicles, pharmaceutical products, plastic, semi-finished metal products, meat, fruits and nuts, optical and medical instruments, iron, steel
Imports - partnersChina 37.5%, Russia 25.6%, US 9.4%, South Korea 6.1%, Japan 4.9% (2012)China 16.6%, Germany 12.2%, Ukraine 5.7%, Japan 5%, United States 4.9%, France 4.4%, Italy 4.3% (2012 est.)
Debt - external$4.954 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$4.669 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$714.2 billion (30 September 2013 est.)
$636.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Exchange ratestogrog/tugriks (MNT) per US dollar -
1,444.3 (2013 est.)
1,357.6 (2012 est.)
1,357.1 (2010 est.)
1,442.8 (2009)
1,170 (2007)
Russian rubles (RUB) per US dollar -
31.82 (2013 est.)
30.84 (2012 est.)
30.368 (2010 est.)
31.74 (2009)
24.853 (2008)
Fiscal yearcalendar yearcalendar year
Current Account Balance-$3.639 billion (2013 est.)
-$3.362 billion (2012 est.)
$74.8 billion (2012 est.)
$71.43 billion (2012 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$11.14 billion (2013 est.)$2.113 trillion (2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$1.69 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$4.452 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$552.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$497.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$NA (31 December 2013 est.)
$44 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$439.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$387.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$1.293 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.579 billion (31 December 2011)
$1.093 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$874.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$796.4 billion (31 December 2011)
$1.005 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate13.25% (31 December 2012)
12.25% (31 December 2011 est.)
8.25% (31 December 2012 est.)
8% (31 December 2011)
note: this is the so-called refinancing rate, but in Russia banks do not get refinancing at this rate; this is a reference rate used primarily for fiscal purposes
Commercial bank prime lending rate17.5% (31 December 2013 est.)
18.2% (31 December 2012 est.)
9.3% (31 December 2013 est.)
9.1% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$3.297 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$3.09 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$947 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$922.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money$1.219 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.318 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$452.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$399.3 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of broad money$6.329 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$5.472 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.061 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
$893.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Taxes and other revenues31.1% of GDP (2013 est.)20.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-8.1% of GDP (2013 est.)-0.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 11.9%
male: 10.7%
female: 13.2% (2011)
total: 14.8%
male: 14.5%
female: 15.1% (2012)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 58.5%
government consumption: 14.9%
investment in fixed capital: 55.8%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 50%
imports of goods and services: -79.2%
(2013 est.)
household consumption: 51.3%
government consumption: 18.8%
investment in fixed capital: 22%
investment in inventories: 1.4%
exports of goods and services: 29.6%
imports of goods and services: -23%
(2013 est.)

Energy

MongoliaRussia
Electricity - production4.48 billion kWh (2010 est.)1.057 trillion kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - consumption3.951 billion kWh (2010 est.)1.038 trillion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - exports22 million kWh (2010 est.)19.14 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - imports263 million kWh (2010 est.)2.661 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Oil - production9,935 bbl/day (2012 est.)10.44 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2010 est.)16,380 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Oil - exports5,680 bbl/day (2010 est.)4.72 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reservesNA bbl80 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)47.8 trillion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2011 est.)669.7 billion cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2010 est.)457.2 billion cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2011 est.)196 billion cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2011 est.)32.5 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity833,200 kW (2010 est.)223.1 million kW (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2010 est.)4.812 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption21,610 bbl/day (2011 est.)3.196 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2010 est.)2.92 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports17,360 bbl/day (2010 est.)24,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy10.21 million Mt (2011 est.)1.788 billion Mt (2011 est.)

Telecommunications

MongoliaRussia
Telephones - main lines in use176,700 (2012)42.9 million (2012)
Telephones - mobile cellular3.375 million (2012)261.9 million (2012)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: network is improving with international direct dialing available in many areas; a fiber-optic network has been installed that is improving broadband and communication services between major urban centers with multiple companies providing inter-city fiber-optic cable services
domestic: very low fixed-line teledensity; there are multiple mobile-cellular providers and subscribership is increasing
international: country code - 976; satellite earth stations - 7 (2011)
general assessment: the telephone system is experiencing significant changes; there are more than 1,000 companies licensed to offer communication services; access to digital lines has improved, particularly in urban centers; Internet and e-mail services are improving; Russia has made progress toward building the telecommunications infrastructure necessary for a market economy; the estimated number of mobile subscribers jumped from fewer than 1 million in 1998 to more than 235 million in 2011; fixed line service has improved but a large demand remains
domestic: cross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from Moscow to Novorossiysk; the telephone systems in 60 regional capitals have modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are available in many areas; in rural areas, the telephone services are still outdated, inadequate, and low density
international: country code - 7; Russia is connected internationally by undersea fiber optic cables; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat, Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Orbita systems (2011)
Internet country code.mn.ru; note - Russia also has responsibility for a legacy domain ".su" that was allocated to the Soviet Union and is being phased out
Internet users330,000 (2008)40.853 million (2009)
Internet hosts20,084 (2012)14.865 million (2012)
Broadcast mediafollowing a law passed in 2005, Mongolia's state-run radio and TV provider converted to a public service provider; also available are private radio and TV broadcasters, as well as multi-channel satellite and cable TV providers; more than 100 radio stations, including some 20 via repeaters for the public broadcaster; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2008)6 national TV stations with the federal government owning 1 and holding a controlling interest in a second; state-owned Gazprom maintains a controlling interest in a third national channel; government-affiliated Bank Rossiya owns controlling interest in a fourth and fifth, while the sixth national channel is owned by the Moscow city administration; roughly 3,300 national, regional, and local TV stations with over two-thirds completely or partially controlled by the federal or local governments; satellite TV services are available; 2 state-run national radio networks with a third majority-owned by Gazprom; roughly 2,400 public and commercial radio stations (2007)

Transportation

MongoliaRussia
Railwaystotal: 1,908 km
broad gauge: 1,908 km 1.520-m gauge
note: the railway is 50 percent owned by the Russian State Railway (2010)
total: 87,157 km
broad gauge: 86,200 km 1.520-m gauge (40,300 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 957 km 1.067-m gauge (on Sakhalin Island)
note: an additional 30,000 km of non-common carrier lines serve industries (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 49,249 km
paved: 4,800 km
unpaved: 44,449 km (2013)
total: 1,283,387 km
paved: 927,721 km (includes 39,143 km of expressways)
unpaved: 355,666 km (2012)
Waterways580 km (the only waterway in operation is Lake Hovsgol) (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers freeze in winter, they are open from May to September) (2010)102,000 km (including 48,000 km with guaranteed depth; the 72,000 km system in European Russia links Baltic Sea, White Sea, Caspian Sea, Sea of Azov, and Black Sea) (2009)
Merchant marinetotal: 57
by type: bulk carrier 21, cargo 25, chemical tanker 1, container 2, liquefied gas 2, passenger/cargo 2, roll on/roll off 3, vehicle carrier 1
foreign-owned: 44 (Indonesia 2, Japan 2, North Korea 1, Russia 2, Singapore 3, Ukraine 1, Vietnam 33) (2010)
total: 1,143
by type: bulk carrier 20, cargo 642, carrier 3, chemical tanker 57, combination ore/oil 42, container 13, passenger 15, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 244, refrigerated cargo 84, roll on/roll off 13, specialized tanker 3
foreign-owned: 155 (Belgium 4, Cyprus 13, Estonia 1, Ireland 1, Italy 14, Latvia 2, Netherlands 2, Romania 1, South Korea 1, Switzerland 3, Turkey 101, Ukraine 12)
registered in other countries: 439 (Antigua and Barbuda 3, Belgium 1, Belize 30, Bulgaria 2, Cambodia 50, Comoros 12, Cook Islands 1, Cyprus 46, Dominica 3, Georgia 6, Hong Kong 1, Kiribati 1, Liberia 109, Malaysia 2, Malta 45, Marshall Islands 5, Moldova 5, Mongolia 2, Panama 49, Romania 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 13, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11, Sierra Leone 7, Singapore 2, Spain 6, Vanuatu 7, unknown 19) (2010)
Airports44 (2013)1,218 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 15
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
total: 594
over 3,047 m: 54
2,438 to 3,047 m: 197
1,524 to 2,437 m: 123
914 to 1,523 m: 95
under 914 m: 125 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 29
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
under 914 m:
1 (2013)
total: 624
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 69
914 to 1,523 m: 81
under 914 m:
457 (2013)
Heliports1 (2013)49 (2013)

Military

MongoliaRussia
Military branchesMongolian Armed Forces (Mongol ulsyn zevsegt huchin): Mongolian Army (includes Mongolian Air and Air Defense, which is to become a separate service in 2015); there is no navy (2013)Ground Troops (Sukhoputnyye Voyskia, SV), Navy (Voyenno-Morskoy Flot, VMF), Air Forces (Voyenno-Vozdushniye Sily, VVS); Airborne Troops (Vozdushno-Desantnyye Voyska, VDV), Missile Troops of Strategic Purpose (Raketnyye Voyska Strategicheskogo Naznacheniya, RVSN) referred to commonly as Strategic Rocket Forces, and Aerospace Defense Troops (Voyska Vozdushno-Kosmicheskoy Oborony or Voyska VKO) are independent "combat arms," not subordinate to any of the three branches; Russian Ground Troops include the following combat arms: motorized-rifle troops, tank troops, missile and artillery troops, air defense of the Ground Troops (2014)
Military service age and obligation18-25 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation is 12 months in land or air defense forces or police; a small portion of Mongolian land forces (2.5 percent) is comprised of contract soldiers; women cannot be deployed overseas for military operations (2012)18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; males are registered for the draft at 17 years of age; service obligation is 1 year (conscripts can only be sent to combat zones after 6 months of training); reserve obligation for non-officers to age 50; enrollment in military schools from the age of 16, cadets classified as members of the armed forces
note: the chief of the General Staff Mobilization Directorate announced in May 2013 that for health reasons, only 65% of draftees called up during the spring 2013 draft campaign were fit for military service, and over 12% of these were sent for an additional medical examination (by way of comparison, 69.9% in 2012 and 57.7% in 2011 were deemed fit for military service); approximately 50% of draft-age Russian males receive some type of legal deferment each draft cycle (2014)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 898,546
females age 16-49: 891,192 (2010 est.)
males age 16-49: 34,765,736
females age 16-49: 35,410,779 (2013 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 726,199
females age 16-49: 756,628 (2010 est.)
males age 16-49: 22,597,728
females age 16-49: 23,017,006 (2013 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 30,829
female: 29,648 (2010 est.)
male: 696,768
female: 664,847 (2013 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.12% of GDP (2012)
0.99% of GDP (2011)
1.12% of GDP (2010)
4.47% of GDP (2012)
4.13% of GDP (2011)
4.47% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

MongoliaRussia
Disputes - internationalnoneRussia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan through Central Asian countries; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with the 2004 Agreement, ending their centuries-long border disputes; the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known in Japan as the "Northern Territories" and in Russia as the "Southern Kurils," occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, and claimed by Japan, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending World War II hostilities; Russia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010; various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia (Kareliya) and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union following World War II but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands; Russia and Estonia signed a technical border agreement in May 2005, but Russia recalled its signature in June 2005 after the Estonian parliament added to its domestic ratification act a historical preamble referencing the Soviet occupation and Estonia's pre-war borders under the 1920 Treaty of Tartu; Russia contends that the preamble allows Estonia to make territorial claims on Russia in the future, while Estonian officials deny that the preamble has any legal impact on the treaty text; Russia demands better treatment of the Russian-speaking population in Estonia and Latvia; Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as an EU member state with an EU external border, where strict Schengen border rules apply; preparations for the demarcation delimitation of land boundary with Ukraine have commenced; the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov is suspended due to the occupation of Crimea by Russia; Kazakhstan and Russia boundary delimitation was ratified on November 2005 and field demarcation should commence in 2007; Russian Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Bering Sea Maritime Boundary Agreement with the US; Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 220 (2012)IDPs: at least 34,900 (armed conflict, human rights violations, generalized violence in North Caucasus, particularly Chechnya and North Ossetia) (2013)
stateless persons: 178,000 (2012); note - Russia's stateless population consists of Roma, Meskhetian Turks, and ex-Soviet citizens from the former republics; between 2003 and 2010 more than 600,000 stateless people were naturalized; most Meskhetian Turks, followers of Islam with origins in Georgia, fled or were evacuated from Uzbekistan after a 1989 pogrom and have lived in Russia for more than the required five-year residency period; they continue to be denied registration for citizenship and basic rights by local Krasnodar Krai authorities on the grounds that they are temporary illegal migrants

Source: CIA Factbook