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Mongolia vs. China

Introduction

MongoliaChina
BackgroundThe Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia declared its independence from the Manchu-led Qing Empire in 1911 and achieved limited autonomy until 1919, when it again came under Chinese control. The Mongolian Revolution of 1921 ended Chinese dominance, and a communist regime, the Mongolian People’s Republic, took power in 1924.
The modern country of Mongolia, however, represents only part of the Mongols' historical homeland; today, more ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia. Since the country's peaceful democratic revolution in 1990, the ex-communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) - which took the name Mongolian People’s Party (MPP) in 2010 - has competed for political power with the Democratic Party (DP) and several other smaller parties, including a new party formed by former President ENKHBAYAR, which confusingly adopted for itself the MPRP name. In the country's most recent parliamentary elections in June 2016, Mongolians handed the MPP overwhelming control of Parliament, largely pushing out the DP, which had overseen a sharp decline in Mongolia’s economy during its control of Parliament in the preceding years. President ELBEGDORJ, a DP member, will finish his second term as president in 2017, and is not eligible to run for re-election.
For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, MAO's successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight. Since the early 1990s, China has increased its global outreach and participation in international organizations.

Geography

MongoliaChina
LocationNorthern Asia, between China and Russia
Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam
Geographic coordinates46 00 N, 105 00 E
35 00 N, 105 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Asia
Areatotal: 1,564,116 sq km
land: 1,553,556 sq km
water: 10,560 sq km
total: 9,596,960 sq km
land: 9,326,410 sq km
water: 270,550 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Alaska; more than twice the size of Texas
slightly smaller than the US
Land boundariestotal: 8,082 km
border countries (2): China 4,630 km, Russia 3,452 km
total: 22,457 km
border countries (14): Afghanistan 91 km, Bhutan 477 km, Burma 2,129 km, India 2,659 km, Kazakhstan 1,765 km, North Korea 1,352 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,063 km, Laos 475 km, Mongolia 4,630 km, Nepal 1,389 km, Pakistan 438 km, Russia (northeast) 4,133 km, Russia (northwest) 46 km, Tajikistan 477 km, Vietnam 1,297 km
regional border(s) (2): Hong Kong 33 km, Macau 3 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
14,500 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climatedesert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
Terrainvast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,528 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Hoh Nuur 560 m
highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
mean elevation: 1,840 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (highest peak in Asia and highest point on earth above sea level)
Natural resourcesoil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron
coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, rare earth elements, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest), arable land
Land useagricultural land: 73%
arable land 0.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 72.6%
forest: 7%
other: 20% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 54.7%
arable land 11.3%; permanent crops 1.6%; permanent pasture 41.8%
forest: 22.3%
other: 23% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land840 sq km (2012)
690,070 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards"dust storms; grassland and forest fires; drought; ""zud,"" which is harsh winter conditions
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frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence
volcanism: China contains some historically active volcanoes including Changbaishan (also known as Baitoushan, Baegdu, or P'aektu-san), Hainan Dao, and Kunlun although most have been relatively inactive in recent centuries
Environment - current issueslimited natural freshwater resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment
air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; China is the world's largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; strategic location between China and Russia
world's fourth largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US) and largest country situated entirely in Asia; Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peak above sea level
Population distributionsparsely distributed population throughout the country; the capital of Ulaanbaatar and the northern city of Darhan support the highest population densities
overwhelming majority of the population is found in the eastern half of the country; the west, with its vast mountainous and desert areas, remains sparsely populated; though ranked first in the world in total population, overall density is less than that of many other countries in Asia and Europe; high population density is found along the Yangtze and Yellow River valleys, the Xi Jiang River delta, the Sichuan Basin (around Chengdu), in and around Beijing, and the industrial area around Shenyang

Demographics

MongoliaChina
Population3,031,330 (July 2016 est.)
1,373,541,278 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 26.92% (male 416,053/female 399,954)
15-24 years: 16.76% (male 256,897/female 251,160)
25-54 years: 45.45% (male 667,509/female 710,116)
55-64 years: 6.68% (male 92,781/female 109,768)
65 years and over: 4.19% (male 51,691/female 75,401) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 17.1% (male 126,732,020/female 108,172,771)
15-24 years: 13.27% (male 97,126,460/female 85,135,228)
25-54 years: 48.42% (male 339,183,101/female 325,836,319)
55-64 years: 10.87% (male 75,376,730/female 73,859,424)
65 years and over: 10.35% (male 67,914,015/female 74,205,210) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 27.9 years
male: 27.1 years
female: 28.7 years (2016 est.)
total: 37.1 years
male: 36.2 years
female: 38.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.25% (2016 est.)
0.43% (2016 est.)
Birth rate19.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
12.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate6.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.15 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.17 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 21.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 24.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 12.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 12.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 69.6 years
male: 65.4 years
female: 74.1 years (2016 est.)
total population: 75.5 years
male: 73.5 years
female: 77.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.13 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.6 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.02% (2015 est.)
0.1% (2012 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Mongolian(s)
adjective: Mongolian
noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese
Ethnic groupsKhalkh 81.9%, Kazak 3.8%, Dorvod 2.7%, Bayad 2.1%, Buryat-Bouriates 1.7%, Zakhchin 1.2%, Dariganga 1%, Uriankhai 1%, other 4.6% (2010 est.)
Han Chinese 91.6%, Zhuang 1.3%, other (includes Hui, Manchu, Uighur, Miao, Yi, Tujia, Tibetan, Mongol, Dong, Buyei, Yao, Bai, Korean, Hani, Li, Kazakh, Dai and other nationalities) 7.1%
note: the Chinese Government officially recognizes 56 ethnic groups (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS400 (2015 est.)
780,000 (2012 est.)
ReligionsBuddhist 53%, Muslim 3%, Shamanist 2.9%, Christian 2.2%, other 0.4%, none 38.6% (2010 est.)
Buddhist 18.2%, Christian 5.1%, Muslim 1.8%, folk religion 21.9%, Hindu < 0.1%, Jewish < 0.1%, other 0.7% (includes Daoist (Taoist)), unaffiliated 52.2%
note: officially atheist (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsfewer than 100 (2015 est.)
NA
LanguagesMongolian 90% (official) (Khalkha dialect is predominant), Turkic, Russian (1999)
Standard Chinese or Mandarin (official; Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)
note: Zhuang is official in Guangxi Zhuang, Yue is official in Guangdong, Mongolian is official in Nei Mongol, Uighur is official in Xinjiang Uygur, Kyrgyz is official in Xinjiang Uygur, and Tibetan is official in Xizang (Tibet)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.4%
male: 98.2%
female: 98.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.4%
male: 98.2%
female: 94.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 16 years (2015)
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2015)
Education expenditures4.6% of GDP (2011)
NA
Urbanizationurban population: 72% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.78% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 55.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.05% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 66.4% of population
rural: 59.2% of population
total: 64.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 33.6% of population
rural: 40.8% of population
total: 35.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 93% of population
total: 95.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 7% of population
total: 4.5% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 66.4% of population
rural: 42.6% of population
total: 59.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 33.6% of population
rural: 57.4% of population
total: 40.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 86.6% of population
rural: 63.7% of population
total: 76.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 13.4% of population
rural: 36.3% of population
total: 23.5% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationULAANBAATAR (capital) 1.377 million (2015)
Shanghai 23.741 million; BEIJING (capital) 20.384 million; Chongqing 13.332 million; Guangdong 12.458 million; Tianjin 11.21 million; Shenzhen 10.749 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate44 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
27 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight1.6% (2013)
3.4% (2010)
Health expenditures4.7% of GDP (2014)
5.5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.88 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
1.49 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
Hospital bed density6.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
3.8 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate15.7% (2014)
7.3% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 47.6
youth dependency ratio: 41.7
elderly dependency ratio: 6
potential support ratio: 16.7 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 36.6
youth dependency ratio: 23.5
elderly dependency ratio: 13
potential support ratio: 7.7 (2015 est.)

Government

MongoliaChina
Country name"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Mongolia
local long form: none
local short form: Mongol Uls
former: Outer Mongolia
etymology: the name means ""Land of the Mongols"" in Latin; the Mongolian name Mongol Uls translates as ""Mongol State""
"
"conventional long form: People's Republic of China
conventional short form: China
local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
local short form: Zhongguo
abbreviation: PRC
etymology: English name derives from the Qin (Chin) rulers of the 3rd century B.C., who comprised the first imperial dynasty of ancient China; the Chinese name Zhongguo translates as ""Central Nation""
"
Government typesemi-presidential republic
communist state
Capitalname: Ulaanbaatar
geographic coordinates: 47 55 N, 106 55 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Saturday in March; ends last Saturday in September
note: Mongolia has two time zones - Ulaanbaatar Time (8 hours in advance of UTC) and Hovd Time (7 hours in advance of UTC)
"name: Beijing
geographic coordinates: 39 55 N, 116 23 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
note: despite its size, all of China falls within one time zone; many people in Xinjiang Province observe an unofficial ""Xinjiang time zone"" of UTC+6, two hours behind Beijing
"
Administrative divisions21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan-Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan (Zavkhan), Govi-Altay, Govisumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular and plural)
provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang; (see note on Taiwan)
autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia), Ningxia, Xinjiang Uygur, Xizang (Tibet)
municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin
note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau
Independence29 December 1911 (independence declared from China; in actuality, autonomy attained); 11 July 1921 (from China)
1 October 1949 (People's Republic of China established); notable earlier dates: 221 B.C. (unification under the Qin Dynasty); 1 January 1912 (Qing Dynasty replaced by the Republic of China)
National holidayNaadam (games) holiday (commemorates independence from China in the 1921 Revolution), 11-15 July; Constitution Day (marks the date that the Mongolian People's Republic was created under a new constitution), 26 November (1924)
National Day (anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 13 January 1992, effective 12 February 1992
amendments: proposed by the State Great Hural, by the president of the republic, by the government, or by petition submitted to the State Great Hural by the Consitutional Court; conducting referenda on proposed amendments requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the State Great Hural; passage of amendments by the State Great Hural requires at least three-quarters majority vote; passage by referendum requires majority participation of qualified voters and a majority of votes; amended 1999, 2001 (2017)
several previous; latest promulgated 4 December 1982; amended several times, last in 2004 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system influenced by Soviet and Romano-Germanic legal systems; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts
civil law influenced by Soviet and continental European civil law systems; legislature retains power to interpret statutes; note - criminal procedure law revised in early 2012
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ (since 18 June 2009)
head of government: Prime Minister Jargaltulga ERDENEBAT (since 8 July 2016); Deputy Prime Minister Ukhnaa KHURELSUKH (since 25 July 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president, confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament)
elections/appointments: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in the State Great Hural and directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 June 2017, with second round to be held on 9 July 2017; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually elected prime minister by the State Great Hural
election results: percent of vote in first round - Khaltmaa BATTULGA (DP) 38.1%, Miyegombo ENKHBOLD (MPP) 30.3%, Sainkhuu GANBAATAR (MPRP) 30.2%, invalid 1.4%; percent of vote in second round (to be held 9 July 2017)
chief of state: President XI Jinping (since 14 March 2013); Vice President LI Yuanchao (since 14 March 2013)
head of government: Premier LI Keqiang (since 16 March 2013); Executive Vice Premiers ZHANG Gaoli (since 16 March 2013), LIU Yandong (since 16 March 2013), MA Kai (since 16 March 2013), WANG Yang (since 16 March 2013)
cabinet: State Council appointed by National People's Congress
elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by National People's Congress for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5-17 March 2013 (next to be held in March 2018); premier nominated by president, confirmed by National People's Congress
election results: XI Jinping elected president; National People's Congress vote - 2,952 ; LI Yuanchao elected vice president with 2,940 votes
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral State Great Hural or Ulsyn Ikh Khural (76 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; each constituency requires at least 50% voter participation for the poll to be valid; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 29 June 2016 (next to be held in June 2020)
election results: MPP 65, DP 9, MPRP 1, independent 1
description: unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,987 seats; members indirectly elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses, and the People's Liberation Army; members serve 5-year terms); note - in practice, only members of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its 8 allied parties, and CCP-approved independent candidates are elected
elections: last held in December 2012-February 2013 (next to be held in late 2017 to early 2018)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - 2,987
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the Chief Justice and 24 judges organized into civil, criminal, and administrative chambers); Constitutional Court or Tsets (consists of a chairman and 8 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice and judges appointed by the president upon recommendation to the State Great Hural by the General Council of Courts, a 14-member body of judges and judicial officials; term of appointment is for life; chairman of the Constitutional Court elected from among its members; members appointed by the State Great Hural upon nominations - 3 each by the president, the State Great Hural, and the Supreme Court; term of appointment is 6 years; chairmanship limited to a single renewable 3-year term
subordinate courts: aimag (provincial) and capital city appellate courts; soum, inter-soum, and district courts; Administrative Cases Courts
highest court(s): Supreme People's Court (consists of over 340 judges including the chief justice, 13 grand justices organized into a civil committee and tribunals for civil, economic, administrative, complaint and appeal, and communication and transportation cases)
judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the People's National Congress (NPC); term limited to 2 consecutive 5-year terms; other justices and judges nominated by the chief justice and appointed by the Standing Committee of the NPC; term of other justices and judges determined by the NPC
subordinate courts: Higher People's Courts; Intermediate People's Courts; District and County People's Courts; Autonomous Region People's Courts; Special People's Courts for military, maritime, transportation, and forestry issues
note: in late 2014, China unveiled planned judicial reforms
Political parties and leadersCivil Will-Green Party or CWGP [Sanjaasuren OYUN and Tserendorj GANKHUYAG]
Democratic Party or DP [Sodnomzundui ERDENE]
Mongolian National Democratic Party or MNDP [Mendsaikhan ENKHSAIKHAN]
Mongolian People's Party or MPP [Miyegombo ENKHBOLD]
Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambar ENKHBAYAR]
Chinese Communist Party or CCP [XI Jinping]
note: China has eight nominally independent small parties ultimately controlled by the CCP
Political pressure groups and leadersother: human rights groups; women's rights groups; disability rights groups
no substantial political opposition groups exist
International organization participationADB, ARF, CD, CICA, CP, EBRD, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, OSCE, SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, CDB, CICA, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-24 (observer), G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SCO, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Bulgaa ALTANGEREL (since 8 January 2013)
chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117
FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227
consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco
chief of mission: Ambassador CUI Tiankai (since 3 April 2013)
chancery: 3505 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 495-2266
FAX: [1] (202) 495-2138
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Jennifer Zimdahl GALT (since 5 October 2015)
embassy: Denver Street
mailing address: P.O.Box 341, Ulaanbaatar 14192
telephone: [976] 7007-6001
FAX: [976] 7007-6016
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires David A. RANK (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: 55 An Jia Lou Lu, 100600 Beijing
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [86] (10) 8531-3000
FAX: [86] (10) 8531-3300
consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang, Wuhan
Flag description"three, equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem (""soyombo"" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol); blue represents the sky, red symbolizes progress and prosperity
"
red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner; the color red represents revolution, while the stars symbolize the four social classes - the working class, the peasantry, the urban petty bourgeoisie, and the national bourgeoisie (capitalists) - united under the Communist Party of China
National anthem"name: ""Mongol ulsyn toriin duulal"" (National Anthem of Mongolia)
lyrics/music: Tsendiin DAMDINSUREN/Bilegiin DAMDINSUREN and Luvsanjamts MURJORJ
note: music adopted 1950, lyrics adopted 2006; lyrics altered on numerous occasions
"
"name: ""Yiyongjun Jinxingqu"" (The March of the Volunteers)
lyrics/music: TIAN Han/NIE Er
note: adopted 1949; the anthem, though banned during the Cultural Revolution, is more commonly known as ""Zhongguo Guoge"" (Chinese National Song); it was originally the theme song to the 1935 Chinese movie, ""Sons and Daughters in a Time of Storm""
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)soyombo emblem; national colors: red, blue, yellow
dragon; national colors: red, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Mongolia; one parent if born within Mongolia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: least one parent must be a citizen of China
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: while naturalization is theoretically possible, in practical terms it is extremely difficult; residency is required but not specified

Economy

MongoliaChina
Economy - overviewForeign direct investment in Mongolia's extractive industries – which are based on extensive deposits of copper, gold, coal, molybdenum, fluorspar, uranium, tin, and tungsten - has transformed Mongolia's landlocked economy from its traditional dependence on herding and agriculture. Exports now account for more than 40% of GDP. Mongolia depends on China for more than 60% of its external trade - China receives some 90% of Mongolia's exports and supplies Mongolia with more than one-third of its imports. Mongolia also relies on Russia for 90% of its energy supplies, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad, particularly in South Korea, are significant.

Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession, because of political inaction, and natural disasters, as well as strong economic growth, because of market reforms and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. The country opened a fledgling stock exchange in 1991. Mongolia joined the WTO in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade regimes.

Growth averaged nearly 9% per year in 2004-08 largely because of high copper prices globally and new gold production. By late 2008, Mongolia was hit by the global financial crisis and Mongolia's real economy contracted 1.3% in 2009. In early 2009, the IMF reached a $236 million Stand-by Arrangement with Mongolia and it emerged from the crisis with a stronger banking sector and better fiscal management. In October 2009, Mongolia passed long-awaited legislation on an investment agreement to develop the Oyu Tolgoi (OT) mine, among the world's largest untapped copper-gold deposits. However, a dispute with foreign investors developing OT called into question the attractiveness of Mongolia as a destination for foreign investment. This caused a severe drop in FDI, and a slowing economy, leading to the dismissal of Prime Minister ALTANKHUYAG in November 2014. The economy had grown more than 10% per year between 2011 and 2013 - largely on the strength of commodity exports and high government spending - before slowing to 7.8% in 2014, 2.3% in 2015, and 1% in 2016.

The May 2015 agreement with Rio Tinto to restart the OT mine and the subsequent $4.4 billion finance package signing in December 2015 stemmed the loss of investor confidence. The current government has made restoring investor trust and reviving the economy its top priority, but has failed to invigorate the economy in the face of the large drop off in foreign direct investment, mounting external debt, and a sizeable budget deficit. However, Mongolia reached staff-level agreement with the IMF in February 2017 on an Extended Fund Facility program, and once approved by the IMF Board, the program is expected to improve Mongolia’s long-term fiscal and economic stability.
"Since the late 1970s, China has moved from a closed, centrally planned system to a more market-oriented one that plays a major global role. China has implemented reforms in a gradualist fashion, resulting in efficiency gains that have contributed to a more than tenfold increase in GDP since 1978. Reforms began with the phase-out of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state enterprises, growth of the private sector, development of stock markets and a modern banking system, and opening to foreign trade and investment. China continues to pursue an industrial policy, state-support of key sectors, and a restrictive investment regime. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis that adjusts for price differences, China in 2016 stood as the largest economy in the world, surpassing the US in 2014 for the first time in modern history. China became the world's largest exporter in 2010, and the largest trading nation in 2013. Still, China's per capita income is below the world average.

After keeping its currency tightly linked to the US dollar for years, China in July 2005 moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. From mid-2005 to late 2008, the renminbi appreciated more than 20% against the US dollar, but the exchange rate remained virtually pegged to the dollar from the onset of the global financial crisis until June 2010, when Beijing allowed resumption of a gradual liberalization. In 2015, the People’s Bank of China announced it would continue to carefully push for full convertibility of the renminbi after the currency was accepted as part of the IMF’s special drawing rights basket. After engaging in one-way, large-scale intervention to resist appreciation of the RMB for a decade, China’s 2016 intervention in foreign exchange markets has sought to prevent a rapid RMB depreciation that would have negative consequences for the United States, China, and the global economy.

China’s economic growth has slowed since 2011. The Chinese Government faces numerous economic challenges including: (a) reducing its high domestic savings rate and correspondingly low domestic household consumption; (b) servicing its high corporate debt burdens to maintain financial stability (c) facilitating higher-wage job opportunities for the aspiring middle class, including rural migrants and college graduates, while maintaining competitiveness; (d) dampening speculative investment in the real estate sector; (e) reducing industrial overcapacity; and (f) raising productivity growth rates through the more efficient allocation of capital. Economic development has progressed further in coastal provinces than in the interior, and by 2016 more than 169.3 million migrant workers and their dependents had relocated to urban areas to find work. One consequence of China’s population control policy known as the “one-child policy”—which was relaxed in 2016 to permit all families to have two children-- is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. Deterioration in the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially in the North - is another long-term problem. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and urbanization. The Chinese government is seeking to add energy production capacity from sources other than coal and oil, focusing on natural gas, nuclear, and clean energy development. In 2016, China ratified the Paris Agreement, a multilateral agreement to combat climate change, and committed to peak its carbon dioxide emissions between 2025 and 2030.

The government's 13th Five-Year Plan, unveiled in March 2016, emphasizes the need to increase innovation and boost domestic consumption to make the economy less dependent on government investment, exports, and heavy industry. However, China has made only marginal progress toward these rebalancing goals. Under President XI Jinping, Beijing has signaled its understanding that China's long-term economic health depends on giving the market a more decisive role in allocating resources, but has moved slowly on market-oriented reforms because of potential negative consequences for stability and short-term economic growth. He has also increased state-control over key sectors and Party control over State Owned Enterprises. Chinese leaders in 2010 pledged to double China’s GDP by 2020, and the 13th Five Year Plan includes annual economic growth targets of at least 6.5% through 2020 to achieve that goal. In recent years, China has renewed its support for state-owned enterprises in sectors considered important to ""economic security,"" explicitly looking to foster globally competitive industries. Chinese leaders also have undermined some market-oriented reforms by reaffirming the “dominant” role of the state in the economy, a stance that threatens to discourage private initiative and make the economy less efficient over time.
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GDP (purchasing power parity)$37 billion (2016 est.)
$36.64 billion (2015 est.)
$35.79 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$21.14 trillion (2016 est.)
$19.82 trillion (2015 est.)
$18.34 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate1% (2016 est.)
2.4% (2015 est.)
7.9% (2014 est.)
6.7% (2016 est.)
6.9% (2015 est.)
7.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$12,200 (2016 est.)
$12,300 (2015 est.)
$12,200 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$14,600 (2016 est.)
$14,500 (2015 est.)
$13,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 14.6%
industry: 35.1%
services: 50.3% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 8.6%
industry: 39.8%
services: 51.6%
(2016 est.)
Population below poverty line21.6% (2014 est.)
3.3%
note: in 2011, China set a new poverty line at RMB 2300 (approximately US $400)
(2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 13.8%
highest 10%: 8.8% (2016)
lowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 31.4%
note: data are for urban households only (2012)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2.4% (2016 est.)
5.8% (2015 est.)
2% (2016 est.)
1.4% (2015 est.)
Labor force1.24 million (2016 est.)
907.5 million
note: by the end of 2012, China's population at working age (15-64 years) was 1.004 billion (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 31.1%
industry: 18.5%
services: 50.5% (2016)
agriculture: 28.3%
industry: 29.3%
services: 42.4%
(2015 est.)
Unemployment rate8.6% (2016 est.)
8.3% (2015 est.)
4% (2016 est.)
4.1% (2015 est.)
note: data are for registered urban unemployment, which excludes private enterprises and migrants
Distribution of family income - Gini index36.5 (2008)
32.8 (2002)
46.5 (2016 est.)
46.2 (2015 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $2.868 billion
expenditures: $4.035 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $2.3 trillion
expenditures: $2.708 trillion (2016 est.)
Industriesconstruction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing
world leader in gross value of industrial output; mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products (including footwear, toys, and electronics); food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites
Industrial production growth rate4.9% (2016 est.)
6% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
world leader in gross value of agricultural output; rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, apples, cotton, pork, mutton, eggs; fish, shrimp
Exports$4.319 billion (2016 est.)
$4.619 billion (2015 est.)
$2.098 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.143 trillion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiescopper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals, coal, crude oil
electrical and other machinery, including data processing equipment, apparel, furniture, textiles, integrated circuits
Exports - partnersChina 84%, Switzerland 9% (2015)
US 18%, Hong Kong 14.6%, Japan 6%, South Korea 4.5% (2015)
Imports$3.003 billion (2016 est.)
$3.512 billion (2015 est.)
$1.587 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.576 trillion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, cigarettes and tobacco, appliances, soap and detergent
electrical and other machinery, oil and mineral fuels; nuclear reactor, boiler, and machinery components; optical and medical equipment, metal ores, motor vehicles; soybeans
Imports - partnersChina 39.9%, Russia 28.4%, Japan 6.4%, South Korea 6.2% (2015)
South Korea 10.9%, US 9%, Japan 8.9%, Germany 5.5%, Australia 4.1% (2015)
Debt - external$18.67 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$18.16 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.421 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.418 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratestogrog/tugriks (MNT) per US dollar -
2,011 (2016 est.)
1,970.3 (2015 est.)
1,970.3 (2014 est.)
1,817.9 (2013 est.)
1,357.6 (2012 est.)
Renminbi yuan (RMB) per US dollar -
6.626 (2016 est.)
6.2275 (2015 est.)
6.2275 (2014 est.)
6.1958 (2013 est.)
6.3123 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt60% of GDP (2016 est.)
16.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: official data; data cover both central government debt and local government debt, which China's National Audit Office estimated at RMB 10.72 trillion (approximately US$1.66 trillion) in 2011; data exclude policy bank bonds, Ministry of Railway debt, China Asset Management Company debt, and non-performing loans
Current Account Balance-$449 million (2016 est.)
-$469 million (2015 est.)
$196.4 billion (2016 est.)
$304.2 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$11.16 billion (2016 est.)
$10.73 trillion (2016 est.)
note: because China's exchange rate is determined by fiat rather than by market forces, the official exchange rate measure of GDP is not an accurate measure of China's output; GDP at the official exchange rate substantially understates the actual level of China's output vis-a-vis the rest of the world; in China's situation, GDP at purchasing power parity provides the best measure for comparing output across countries
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$17.62 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$16.89 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.458 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.221 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$379.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$367.4 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.317 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.096 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$632.6 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$766.1 million (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.095 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$7.321 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.188 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.005 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate12% (14 January 2016)
13% (15 January 2015)
2.25% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.25% (31 December 2015 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate19.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
19.56% (31 December 2015 est.)
4.35% (31 December 2016 est.)
4.35% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$7.354 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.048 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$15.37 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14.47 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$935 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$844.4 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$7.015 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.175 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$5.822 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.035 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$22.35 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$21.44 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues25.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-10.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
-3% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 57.6%
government consumption: 12.1%
investment in fixed capital: 19.9%
investment in inventories: 7.4%
exports of goods and services: 40.1%
imports of goods and services: -37.1% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 37.1%
government consumption: 14%
investment in fixed capital: 43.7%
investment in inventories: 1.6%
exports of goods and services: 22%
imports of goods and services: 18.5% (2015 est.)
Gross national saving21.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
23.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
46% of GDP (2016 est.)
47.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
49.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

MongoliaChina
Electricity - production5.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
6.142 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption5.6 billion kWh (2014 est.)
5.92 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports33 million kWh (2014 est.)
18.91 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports1.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
6.185 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production23,180 bbl/day (2015 est.)
3.983 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
7.599 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - exports14,360 bbl/day (2013 est.)
58,650 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl
25 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
6 billion cu m (31 December 2016 )
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
150 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
224 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
3.918 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
75.1 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity1 million kW (2014 est.)
1.646 billion kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels99.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
64% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
20.2% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
2% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
13.7% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
10.35 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption28,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
11.12 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
593,400 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports25,620 bbl/day (2013 est.)
600,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy14 million Mt (2013 est.)
9.135 billion Mt (2014 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 300,000
electrification - total population: 90%
electrification - urban areas: 98%
electrification - rural areas: 73% (2013)
population without electricity: 1,200,000
electrification - total population: 99.9%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 99.8% (2016)

Telecommunications

MongoliaChina
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 255,634
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 230.996 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 3.068 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 103 (July 2015 est.)
total: 1,305.738 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 95 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: network is improving with international direct dialing available in many areas; a fiber-optic network has been installed that is improving broadband and communication services between major urban centers with multiple companies providing inter-city fiber-optic cable services
domestic: very low fixed-line teledensity; there are 3 mobile-cellular providers and subscribership is increasing
international: country code - 976; satellite earth stations - 7 (2015)
general assessment: domestic and international services are available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns; China continues to develop its telecommunications infrastructure; China in the summer of 2008 began a major restructuring of its telecommunications industry, resulting in the consolidation of its 6 telecom service operators to 3, China Telecom, China Mobile, and China Unicom, each providing both fixed-line and mobile services
domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; the number of Internet users now over 50% of the population; a domestic satellite system with several earth stations is in place
international: country code - 86; a number of submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean; 1 Intersputnik - Indian Ocean region; and 1 Inmarsat - Pacific and Indian Ocean regions) (2012)
Internet country code.mn
.cn
Internet userstotal: 642,000
percent of population: 21.4% (July 2015 est.)
total: 687.845 million
percent of population: 50.3% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediafollowing a law passed in 2005, Mongolia's state-run radio and TV provider converted to a public service provider; also available are 69 radio and 131 TV stations, including multi-channel satellite and cable TV providers; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2017)
all broadcast media are owned by, or affiliated with, the Communist Party of China or a government agency; no privately owned TV or radio stations; state-run Chinese Central TV, provincial, and municipal stations offer more than 2,000 channels; the Central Propaganda Department lists subjects that are off limits to domestic broadcast media with the government maintaining authority to approve all programming; foreign-made TV programs must be approved prior to broadcast; increasingly, Chinese turn to online television to access Chinese and international films and television shows (2017)

Transportation

MongoliaChina
Railwaystotal: 1,815 km
broad gauge: 1,815 km 1.520-m gauge
note: national operator Ulaanbaatar Railway is jointly owned by the Mongolian Government and by the Russian State Railway (2016)
total: 124,000 km
standard gauge: 124,000 km 1.435-m gauge (80,000 km electrified); 102,000 traditional, 22,000 high-speed (2017)
Roadwaystotal: 49,249 km
paved: 4,800 km
unpaved: 44,449 km (2013)
total: 4,577,300 km
paved: 4,046,300 km (includes 123,500 km of expressways)
unpaved: 531,000 km (2015)
Waterways580 km (the only waterway in operation is Lake Hovsgol) (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers ice free from May to September) (2010)
110,000 km (navigable waterways) (2011)
Merchant marinetotal: 57
by type: bulk carrier 21, cargo 25, chemical tanker 1, container 2, liquefied gas 2, passenger/cargo 2, roll on/roll off 3, vehicle carrier 1
foreign-owned: 44 (Indonesia 2, Japan 2, North Korea 1, Russia 2, Singapore 3, Ukraine 1, Vietnam 33) (2010)
total: 4,052
by type: bulk carrier 1,020, container 187, general cargo 632, oil tanker 474, other 1,739 (2016)
foreign-owned: 22 (Hong Kong 18, Indonesia 2, Japan 2) (2010)
registered in other countries: 1,559 (Bangladesh 1, Belize 61, Cambodia 177, Comoros 1, Cyprus 6, Georgia 10, Honduras 2, Hong Kong 500, India 1, Indonesia 1, Kiribati 26, Liberia 4, Malta 6, Marshall Islands 14, North Korea 3, Panama 534, Philippines 4, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 65, Sao Tome and Principe 1, Sierra Leone 19, Singapore 29, South Korea 6, Thailand 1, Togo 1, Tuvalu 4, UK 7, Vanuatu 1, unknown 73) (2010)
Airports44 (2013)
507 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 15
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
total: 463
over 3,047 m: 71
2,438 to 3,047 m: 158
1,524 to 2,437 m: 123
914 to 1,523 m: 25
under 914 m: 86 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 29
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 44
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 18 (2013)
Heliports1 (2013)
47 (2013)

Military

MongoliaChina
Military branchesMongolian Armed Forces (Mongol ulsyn zevsegt huchin): Mongolian Army, Mongolian Air Force (2016)
People's Liberation Army (PLA): Army, Navy (PLAN, includes marines and naval aviation), Air Force (Zhongguo Renmin Jiefangjun Kongjun, PLAAF, includes airborne forces), Rocket Force (strategic missile force), and Strategic Support Force (space and cyber forces); People's Armed Police (Renmin Wuzhuang Jingcha Budui, PAP); PLA Reserve Force (2016)
Military service age and obligation18-27 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; 1-year conscript service obligation in land or air forces or police for males only; after conscription, soldiers can contract into military service for 2 or 4 years; citizens can also voluntarily join the armed forces (2015)
18-24 years of age for selective compulsory military service, with a 2-year service obligation; no minimum age for voluntary service (all officers are volunteers); 18-19 years of age for women high school graduates who meet requirements for specific military jobs; a recent military decision allows women in combat roles; the first class of women warship commanders was in 2011 (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.87% of GDP (2015)
0.86% of GDP (2014)
0.85% of GDP (2013)
0.96% of GDP (2012)
0.84% of GDP (2011)
1.3% of GDP (2017 est)
1.28% of GDP (2016)
1.95% of GDP (2015)
1.9% of GDP (2014)
1.85% of GDP (2013)

Transnational Issues

MongoliaChina
Disputes - internationalnone
continuing talks and confidence-building measures work toward reducing tensions over Kashmir that nonetheless remains militarized with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; China and India continue their security and foreign policy dialogue started in 2005 related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, and other matters; China claims most of India's Arunachal Pradesh to the base of the Himalayas; lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and China continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes arising from substantial cartographic discrepancies, the largest of which lie in Bhutan's northwest and along the Chumbi salient; Burmese forces attempting to dig in to the largely autonomous Shan State to rout local militias tied to the drug trade, prompts local residents to periodically flee into neighboring Yunnan Province in China; Chinese maps show an international boundary symbol off the coasts of the littoral states of the South China Seas, where China has interrupted Vietnamese hydrocarbon exploration; China asserts sovereignty over Scarborough Reef along with the Philippines and Taiwan, and over the Spratly Islands together with Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Brunei; the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea eased tensions in the Spratlys but is not the legally binding code of conduct sought by some parties; Vietnam and China continue to expand construction of facilities in the Spratlys and in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord on marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands;
China occupies some of the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; the Japanese-administered Senkaku Islands are also claimed by China and Taiwan; certain islands in the Yalu and Tumen Rivers are in dispute with North Korea; North Korea and China seek to stem illegal migration to China by North Koreans, fleeing privations and oppression, by building a fence along portions of the border and imprisoning North Koreans deported by China; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with their 2004 Agreement; China and Tajikistan have begun demarcating the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; citing environmental, cultural, and social concerns, China has reconsidered construction of 13 dams on the Salween River, but energy-starved Burma, with backing from Thailand, remains intent on building five hydro-electric dams downstream despite regional and international protests
Chinese and Hong Kong authorities met in March 2008 to resolve ownership and use of lands recovered in Shenzhen River channelization, including 96-hectare Lok Ma Chau Loop
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 14 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 317,098 (Vietnam); undetermined (North Korea) (2016)
IDPs: undetermined (2014)

Source: CIA Factbook