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Mongolia vs. China

Introduction

MongoliaChina
BackgroundThe Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing and a communist regime was installed in 1924. The modern country of Mongolia, however, represents only part of the Mongols' historical homeland; more ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia. Following a peaceful democratic revolution, the ex-communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections in 1990 and 1992, but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) in the 1996 parliamentary election. The MPRP won an overwhelming majority in the 2000 parliamentary election, but the party lost seats in the 2004 election and shared power with democratic coalition parties from 2004-08. The MPRP regained a solid majority in the 2008 parliamentary elections but nevertheless formed a coalition government with the Democratic Party that lasted until January 2012. In 2009, current President ELBEGDORJ of the Democratic Party was elected to office and was re-elected for his second term in June 2013. In 2010, the MPRP voted to retake the name of the Mongolian People's Party (MPP), a name it used in the early 1920s. Shortly thereafter, a new party was formed by former president ENKHBAYAR, which adopted the MPRP name. In the 2012 Parliamentary elections, a coalition of four political parties led by the Democratic Party, gained control of the Parliament.For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, MAO's successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight. Since the early 1990s, China has increased its global outreach and participation in international organizations.

Geography

MongoliaChina
LocationNorthern Asia, between China and RussiaEastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam
Geographic coordinates46 00 N, 105 00 E35 00 N, 105 00 E
Map referencesAsiaAsia
Areatotal: 1,564,116 sq km
land: 1,553,556 sq km
water: 10,560 sq km
total: 9,596,960 sq km
land: 9,326,410 sq km
water: 270,550 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Alaskaslightly smaller than the US
Land boundariestotal: 8,082 km
border countries: China 4,630 km, Russia 3,452 km
total: 22,457 km
border countries: Afghanistan 91 km, Bhutan 477 km, Burma 2,129 km, India 2,659 km, Kazakhstan 1,765 km, North Korea 1,352 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,063 km, Laos 475 km, Mongolia 4,630 km, Nepal 1,389 km, Pakistan 438 km, Russia (northeast) 4,139 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 477 km, Vietnam 1,297 km
regional borders: Hong Kong 33 km, Macau 3 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)14,500 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climatedesert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
Terrainvast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-centralmostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east
Elevation extremeslowest point: Hoh Nuur 560 m
highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (highest point in Asia)
Natural resourcesoil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, ironcoal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, rare earth elements, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)
Land usearable land: 0.39%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 99.61% (2011)
arable land: 11.62%
permanent crops: 1.53%
other: 86.84% (2011)
Irrigated land843 sq km (2003)629,380 sq km (2006)
Natural hazardsdust storms; grassland and forest fires; drought; "zud," which is harsh winter conditionsfrequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence
volcanism: China contains some historically active volcanoes including Changbaishan (also known as Baitoushan, Baegdu, or P'aektu-san), Hainan Dao, and Kunlun although most have been relatively inactive in recent centuries
Environment - current issueslimited natural freshwater resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environmentair pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; China is the world's largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; strategic location between China and Russiaworld's fourth largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US) and largest country situated entirely in Asia; Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peak
Total renewable water resources34.8 cu km (2011)2,840 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 0.55 cu km/yr (13%/43%/44%)
per capita: 196.8 cu m/yr (2009)
total: 554.1 cu km/yr (12%/23%/65%)
per capita: 409.9 cu m/yr (2005)

Demographics

MongoliaChina
Population2,953,190 (July 2014 est.)1,355,692,576 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 26.8% (male 404,051/female 388,546)
15-24 years: 18.7% (male 278,912/female 273,167)
25-54 years: 44.5% (male 636,799/female 677,236)
55-64 years: 5.9% (male 80,267/female 94,021)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 49,314/female 70,877) (2014 est.)
0-14 years: 17.1% (male 124,340,516/female 107,287,324)
15-24 years: 14.7% (male 105,763,058/female 93,903,845)
25-54 years: 47.2% (male 327,130,324/female 313,029,536)
55-64 years: 11.3% (male 77,751,100/female 75,737,968)
65 years and over: 9.6% (male 62,646,075/female 68,102,830) (2014 est.)
Median agetotal: 27.1 years
male: 26.3 years
female: 27.8 years (2014 est.)
total: 36.7 years
male: 35.8 years
female: 37.5 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate1.37% (2014 est.)0.44% (2014 est.)
Birth rate20.88 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)12.17 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate6.38 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)7.44 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate-0.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)-0.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.16 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 23.15 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 26.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
total: 14.79 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 14.93 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 68.98 years
male: 64.72 years
female: 73.45 years (2014 est.)
total population: 75.15 years
male: 73.09 years
female: 77.43 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate2.22 children born/woman (2014 est.)1.55 children born/woman (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateless than 0.1% (2009 est.)0.1% (2012 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Mongolian(s)
adjective: Mongolian
noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese
Ethnic groupsKhalkh 81.9%, Kazak 3.8%, Dorvod 2.7%, Bayad 2.1%, Buryat-Bouriates 1.7%, Zakhchin 1.2%, Dariganga 1%, Uriankhai 1%, other 4.6% (2010 est.)Han Chinese 91.6%, Zhuang 1.3%, other (includes Hui, Manchu, Uighur, Miao, Yi, Tujia, Tibetan, Mongol, Dong, Buyei, Yao, Bai, Korean, Hani, Li, Kazakh, Dai and other nationalities) 7.1%
note: the Chinese government officially recognizes 56 ethnic groups (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSfewer than 500 (2009 est.)780,000 (2012 est.)
ReligionsBuddhist 53%, Muslim 3%, Christian 2.2%, Shamanist 2.9%, other 0.4%, none 38.6% (2010 est.)Buddhist 18.2%, Christian 5.1%, Muslim 1.8%, folk religion 21.9%, Hindu < .1%, Jewish < .1%, other 0.7% (includes Daoist (Taoist)), unaffiliated 52.2%
note: officially atheist (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsfewer than 100 (2009 est.)26,000 (2009 est.)
LanguagesKhalkha Mongol 90% (official), Turkic, Russian (1999)Standard Chinese or Mandarin (official; Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)
note: Zhuang is official in Guangxi Zhuang, Yue is official in Guangdong, Mongolian is official in Nei Mongol, Uighur is official in Xinjiang Uygur, Kyrgyz is official in Xinjiang Uyghur, and Tibetan is official in Xizang (Tibet)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.4%
male: 96.8%
female: 97.9% (2011 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.1%
male: 97.5%
female: 92.7% (2010 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 16 years (2012)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2012)
Education expenditures5.5% of GDP (2011)NA
Urbanizationurban population: 68.5% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.81% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 50.6% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.85% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 94.8% of population
rural: 61.2% of population
total: 84.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 5.2% of population
rural: 38.8% of population
total: 15.4% of population (2012 est.)
improved:
urban: 98.4% of population
rural: 84.9% of population
total: 91.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.6% of population
rural: 15.1% of population
total: 8.1% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 65.3% of population
rural: 35.4% of population
total: 56.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 34.7% of population
rural: 64.6% of population
total: 43.8% of population (2012 est.)
improved:
urban: 74.1% of population
rural: 55.8% of population
total: 65.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 25.9% of population
rural: 44.2% of population
total: 34.7% of population (2012 est.)
Major cities - populationULAANBAATAR (capital) 1.184 million (2011)Shanghai 20.208 million; BEIJING (capital) 15.594 million; Guangzhou 10.849 million; Shenzhen 10.63 million; Chongqing 9.977 million; Wuhan 9.158 million (2011)
Maternal mortality rate63 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)37 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight5.3% (2005)3.4% (2010)
Health expenditures5.3% of GDP (2011)5.2% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density2.76 physicians/1,000 population (2008)1.46 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density6.8 beds/1,000 population (2011)3.8 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate14.4% (2008)5.7% (2008)
Contraceptive prevalence rate55% (2010)84.6% (2006)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 45.4 %
youth dependency ratio: 39.9 %
elderly dependency ratio: 5.5 %
potential support ratio: 18 (2014 est.)
total dependency ratio: 37.4 %
youth dependency ratio: 24.9 %
elderly dependency ratio: 12.5 %
potential support ratio: 8 (2014 est.)

Government

MongoliaChina
Country nameconventional long form: none
conventional short form: Mongolia
local long form: none
local short form: Mongol Uls
former: Outer Mongolia
conventional long form: People's Republic of China
conventional short form: China
local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
local short form: Zhongguo
abbreviation: PRC
Government typeparliamentaryCommunist state
Capitalname: Ulaanbaatar
geographic coordinates: 47 55 N, 106 55 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Beijing
geographic coordinates: 39 55 N, 116 23 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
note: despite its size, all of China falls within one time zone; many people in Xinjiang Province observe an unofficial "Xinjiang time zone" of UTC+6, two hours behind Beijing
Administrative divisions21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan-Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan (Zavkhan), Govi-Altay, Govisumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular and plural)
provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang; (see note on Taiwan)
autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia), Ningxia, Xinjiang Uygur, Xizang (Tibet)
municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin
note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau
Independence11 July 1921 (from China)1 October 1949 (People's Republic of China established); notable earlier dates: 221 B.C. (unification under the Qin Dynasty); 1 January 1912 (Qing Dynasty replaced by the Republic of China)
National holidayIndependence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China, 1 October (1949)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest adopted 13 January 1992, effective 12 February 1992; amended 1999, 2001 (2011)several previous; latest promulgated 4 December 1982; amended several times, last in 2005 (2005)
Legal systemcivil law system influenced by Soviet and Romano-Germanic legal systems; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative actscivil law influenced by Soviet and continental European civil law systems; legislature retains power to interpret statutes; note - criminal procedure law revised in early 2012
Suffrage18 years of age; universal18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ (since 18 June 2009)
head of government: Prime Minister Norov ALTANKHUYAG (since 9 August 2012); Deputy Prime Minister Dendev TERBISHDAGVA (since 20 August 2012)
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president and confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament)
elections: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 June 2013 (next to be held in June 2017); following legislative elections, leaders of the majority party or a majority coalition usually elect the prime minister of the State Great Hural
election results: Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ elected president; percent of vote - Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ 50.2%, Badmaanyambuu BAT-ERDENE 42%, Natsag UDVAL 6.5%, other 1.3%
chief of state: President XI Jinping (since 14 March 2013); Vice President LI Yuanchao (since 14 March 2013)
head of government: Premier LI Keqiang (since 16 March 2013); Executive Vice Premier ZHANG Gaoli (since 16 March 2013); Vice Premier LIU Yandong (since 16 March 2013); Vice Premier MA Kai (since 16 March 2013); Vice Premier WANG Yang (since 16 March 2013)
cabinet: State Council appointed by National People's Congress
elections: president and vice president elected by National People's Congress for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5-17 March 2013 (next to be held in March 2018); premier nominated by president, confirmed by National People's Congress
election results: XI Jinping elected president by National People's Congress with 2,952 votes; LI Yuanchao elected vice president with 2,940 votes
Legislative branchunicameral State Great Hural (76 seats; of which 48 members are directly elected from 26 electoral districts, while 28 members are proportionally elected based on a party's share of the total votes; all serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 28 June 2012 (next to be held in June 2016)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - DP 33, MPP 25, Justice Coalition 11, others 5, vacant 2
unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,987 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses, and People's Liberation Army to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held in December 2012-February 2013 (next to be held in late 2017 to early 2018)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - 2,987
note: in practice, only members of the CCP, its eight allied parties, and CCP-approved independent candidates are elected
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the Chief Justice and 16 judges organized into civil, criminal, and administrative chambers); Constitutional Court or Tsets (consists of a chairman and 8 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice and judges appointed by the president upon recommendation to the State Great Hural by the General Council of Courts; term of appointment is for life; chairman of the Constitutional Court elected from among its members; members appointed by the State Great Heral upon nominations - 3 each by the president, the State Great Hural, and the Supreme Court; term of appointment is 6 years; chairmanship limited to a single renewable 3-year term
subordinate courts: aimag (provincial) and capital city appellate courts; soum, inter-soum, and district courts; Administrative Cases Courts (established in 2004)
highest court(s): Supreme People's Court (consists of over 340 judges including the chief justice, 13 grand justices organized into a civil committee and tribunals for civil, economic, administrative, complaint and appeal, and communication and transportation cases)
judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the People's National Congress; term limited to two consecutive 5-year terms; other justices and judges nominated by the chief justice and appointed by the Standing Committee of the People's National Congress; term of other justices and judges NA
subordinate courts: Higher People's Courts; Intermediate People's Courts; District and County People's Courts; Autonomous Region People's Courts; Special People's Courts for military, maritime, transportation, and forestry issues
note - in October 2012, China issued a white paper on planned judicial reform
Political parties and leadersCivil Will-Green Party or CWGP [Sanjaasuren OYUN]
Democratic Party or DP [Norov ALTANHUYAG]
Justice Coalition (includes MPRP and MNDP)
Mongolian National Democratic Party or MNDP [Mendsaikhan ENKHSAIKHAN]
Mongolian People's Party or MPP [Miyegombo ENKHBOLD]
Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambar ENKHBAYAR]
Chinese Communist Party or CCP [XI Jinping]
eight nominally independent small parties ultimately controlled by the CCP
Political pressure groups and leadersother: human rights groups; women's groupsno substantial political opposition groups exist
International organization participationADB, ARF, CD, CICA, CP, EBRD, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, OSCE, SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTOADB, AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, CDB, CICA, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-24 (observer), G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SCO, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Bulgaa ALTANGEREL (since 8 January 2013)
chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117
FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227
consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco
chief of mission: Ambassador CUI Tiankai (since 3 April 2013)
chancery: 3505 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 495-2266
FAX: [1] (202) 495-2138
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Piper Anne Wind CAMPBELL (since 6 August 2012)
embassy: Denver Street #3, 11th Micro Region, Big Ring Road, Ulaanbaatar, 14190 Mongolia
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002; P.O. Box 341, Ulaanbaatar-14192
telephone: [976] 7007-6001
FAX: [976] 7007-6016
chief of mission: Ambassador Max Sieben BAUCUS (since 21 February 2014)
embassy: 55 An Jia Lou Lu, 100600 Beijing
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [86] (10) 8531-3000
FAX: [86] (10) 8531-3300
consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang, Wuhan
Flag descriptionthree equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol); blue represents the sky, red symbolizes progress and prosperityred with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner; the color red represents revolution, while the stars symbolize the four social classes - the working class, the peasantry, the urban petty bourgeoisie, and the national bourgeoisie (capitalists) - united under the Communist Party of China
National anthemname: "Mongol ulsyn toriin duulal" (National Anthem of Mongolia)
lyrics/music: Tsendiin DAMDINSUREN/Bilegiin DAMDINSUREN and Luvsanjamts MURJORJ
note: music adopted 1950, lyrics adopted 2006; the anthem's lyrics have been altered on numerous occasions
name: "Yiyongjun Jinxingqu" (The March of the Volunteers)
lyrics/music: TIAN Han/NIE Er
note: adopted 1949; the anthem, though banned during the Cultural Revolution, is more commonly known as "Zhongguo Guoge" (Chinese National Song); it was originally the theme song to the 1935 Chinese movie, "Sons and Daughters in a Time of Storm"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdictionhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Economy

MongoliaChina
Economy - overviewMongolia's extensive mineral deposits and attendant growth in mining-sector activities have transformed Mongolia's economy, which traditionally has been dependent on herding and agriculture. Mongolia's copper, gold, coal, molybdenum, fluorspar, uranium, tin, and tungsten deposits, among others, have attracted foreign direct investment. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession, because of political inaction and natural disasters, as well as economic growth, because of reform-embracing, free-market economics and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. The country opened a fledgling stock exchange in 1991. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade regimes. Growth averaged nearly 9% per year in 2004-08 largely because of high copper prices globally and new gold production. By late 2008, Mongolia was hit hard by the global financial crisis. Slower global economic growth hurt the country's exports, notably copper, and slashed government revenues. As a result, Mongolia's real economy contracted 1.3% in 2009. In early 2009, the International Monetary Fund reached a $236 million Stand-by Arrangement with Mongolia and the country has largely emerged from the crisis with better regulations and closer supervision. The banking sector strengthened but weaknesses remain. In October 2009, Mongolia passed long-awaited legislation on an investment agreement to develop the Oyu Tolgoi mine, considered to be among the world's largest untapped copper-gold deposits. Mongolia's ongoing dispute with a foreign investor over Oyu Tolgoi, however, has called into question the attractiveness of Mongolia as a destination for foreign direct investment. Negotiations to develop the massive Tavan Tolgoi coal field also have stalled. The economy has grown more than 10% per year since 2010, largely on the strength of commodity exports to nearby countries and high government spending domestically. Mongolia's economy, however, faces near-term economic risks from the government's loose fiscal and monetary policies, which are contributing to high inflation, and from uncertainties in foreign demand for Mongolian exports. Trade with China represents more than half of Mongolia's total external trade - China receives more than 90% of Mongolia's exports and is Mongolia's largest supplier. Mongolia has relied on Russia for energy supplies, leaving it vulnerable to price increases; in the first 11 months of 2013, Mongolia purchased 76% of its gasoline and diesel fuel and a substantial amount of electric power from Russia. A drop in foreign direct investment and a decrease in Chinese demand for Mongolia's mineral exports are putting pressure on Mongolia's balance of payments. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad, particularly in South Korea, are significant.Since the late 1970s China has moved from a closed, centrally planned system to a more market-oriented one that plays a major global role - in 2010 China became the world's largest exporter. Reforms began with the phasing out of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state enterprises, growth of the private sector, development of stock markets and a modern banking system, and opening to foreign trade and investment. China has implemented reforms in a gradualist fashion. In recent years, China has renewed its support for state-owned enterprises in sectors considered important to "economic security," explicitly looking to foster globally competitive industries. After keeping its currency tightly linked to the US dollar for years, in July 2005 China moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. From mid 2005 to late 2008 cumulative appreciation of the renminbi against the US dollar was more than 20%, but the exchange rate remained virtually pegged to the dollar from the onset of the global financial crisis until June 2010, when Beijing allowed resumption of a gradual appreciation and expanded the daily trading band within which the RMB is permitted to fluctuate. The restructuring of the economy and resulting efficiency gains have contributed to a more than tenfold increase in GDP since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis that adjusts for price differences, China in 2013 stood as the second-largest economy in the world after the US, having surpassed Japan in 2001. The dollar values of China's agricultural and industrial output each exceed those of the US; China is second to the US in the value of services it produces. Still, per capita income is below the world average. The Chinese government faces numerous economic challenges, including: (a) reducing its high domestic savings rate and correspondingly low domestic consumption; (b) facilitating higher-wage job opportunities for the aspiring middle class, including rural migrants and increasing numbers of college graduates; (c) reducing corruption and other economic crimes; and (d) containing environmental damage and social strife related to the economy's rapid transformation. Economic development has progressed further in coastal provinces than in the interior, and by 2011 more than 250 million migrant workers and their dependents had relocated to urban areas to find work. One consequence of population control policy is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. Deterioration in the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially in the North - is another long-term problem. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. The Chinese government is seeking to add energy production capacity from sources other than coal and oil, focusing on nuclear and alternative energy development. Several factors are converging to slow China's growth, including debt overhang from its credit-fueled stimulus program, industrial overcapacity, inefficient allocation of capital by state-owned banks, and the slow recovery of China's trading partners. The government's 12th Five-Year Plan, adopted in March 2011 and reiterated at the Communist Party's "Third Plenum" meeting in November 2013, emphasizes continued economic reforms and the need to increase domestic consumption in order to make the economy less dependent in the future on fixed investments, exports, and heavy industry. However, China has made only marginal progress toward these rebalancing goals. The new government of President XI Jinping has signaled a greater willingness to undertake reforms that focus on China's long-term economic health, including giving the market a more decisive role in allocating resources.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$17.03 billion (2013 est.)
$15.23 billion (2012 est.)
$13.57 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
$13.39 trillion (2013 est.)
$12.43 trillion (2012 est.)
$11.54 trillion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP - real growth rate11.8% (2013 est.)
12.3% (2012 est.)
17.5% (2011 est.)
7.7% (2013 est.)
7.7% (2012 est.)
9.3% (2011 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$5,900 (2013 est.)
$5,400 (2012 est.)
$4,900 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
$9,800 (2013 est.)
$9,100 (2012 est.)
$8,300 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 16.5%
industry: 32.6%
services: 50.9% (2013 est.)
agriculture: 10%
industry: 43.9%
services: 46.1%
(2013 est.)
Population below poverty line29.8% (2011 est.)6.1%
note: in 2011, China set a new poverty line at RMB 2300 (approximately US $3,630)
(2013)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 28.4% (2008)
lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 30%
note: data are for urban households only (2009)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)8.2% (2013 est.)
15% (2012 est.)
2.6% (2013 est.)
2.6% (2012 est.)
Labor force1.037 million (2011 est.)797.6 million
note: by the end of 2012, China's population at working age (15-64 years) was 1.0040 billion (2013 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 33%
industry: 10.6%
services: 56.4% (2011)
agriculture: 33.6%
industry: 30.3%
services: 36.1%
(2012 est.)
Unemployment rate9% (2011 est.)
13% (2010)
4.1% (2013 est.)
4.1% (2012 est.)
note: data are for registered urban unemployment, which excludes private enterprises and migrants
Distribution of family income - Gini index36.5 (2008)
32.8 (2002)
47.3 (2013)
47.4 (2012)
Budgetrevenues: $3.462 billion
expenditures: $4.36 billion (2013 est.)
revenues: $2.118 trillion
expenditures: $2.292 trillion (2013 est.)
Industriesconstruction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturingworld leader in gross value of industrial output; mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products (including footwear, toys, and electronics); food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites
Industrial production growth rate11% (2013 est.)7.6% (2013 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horsesworld leader in gross value of agricultural output; rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish
Exports$4.294 billion (2013 est.)
$4.382 billion (2012 est.)
$2.21 trillion (2013 est.)
$2.049 trillion (2012 est.)
Exports - commoditiescopper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals, coal, crude oilelectrical and other machinery, including data processing equipment, apparel, radio telephone handsets, textiles, integrated circuits
Exports - partnersChina 89%, Canada 4.1% (2012)Hong Kong 17.4%, US 16.7%, Japan 6.8%, South Korea 4.1% (2013 est.)
Imports$5.696 billion (2013 est.)
$5.934 billion (2012 est.)
$1.95 trillion (2013 est.)
$1.818 trillion (2012 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, cigarettes and tobacco, appliances, soap and detergentelectrical and other machinery, oil and mineral fuels; nuclear reactor, boiler, and machinery components; optical and medical equipment, metal ores, motor vehicles; soybeans
Imports - partnersChina 37.5%, Russia 25.6%, US 9.4%, South Korea 6.1%, Japan 4.9% (2012)South Korea 9.4%, Japan 8.3%, Taiwan 8%, United States 7.8%, Australia 5%, Germany 4.8% (2013 est.)
Debt - external$4.954 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$4.669 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$863.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$737 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Exchange ratestogrog/tugriks (MNT) per US dollar -
1,444.3 (2013 est.)
1,357.6 (2012 est.)
1,357.1 (2010 est.)
1,442.8 (2009)
1,170 (2007)
Renminbi yuan (RMB) per US dollar -
6.2 (2013 est.)
6.3123 (2012 est.)
6.7703 (2010 est.)
6.8314 (2009)
6.9385 (2008)
Fiscal yearcalendar yearcalendar year
Current Account Balance-$3.639 billion (2013 est.)
-$3.362 billion (2012 est.)
$182.8 billion (2013 est.)
$215.4 billion (2012 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$11.14 billion (2013 est.)$9.33 trillion
note: because China's exchange rate is determine by fiat, rather than by market forces, the official exchange rate measure of GDP is not an accurate measure of China's output; GDP at the official exchange rate substantially understates the actual level of China's output vis-a-vis the rest of the world; in China's situation, GDP at purchasing power parity provides the best measure for comparing output across countries (2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$1.69 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$4.452 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.344 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.232 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$NA (31 December 2013 est.)
$44 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$541 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$531.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$1.293 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.579 billion (31 December 2011)
$1.093 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$6.499 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$5.753 trillion (31 December 2012)
$3.389 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)
Central bank discount rate13.25% (31 December 2012)
12.25% (31 December 2011 est.)
2.25% (31 December 2013 est.)
2.25% (31 December 2012 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate17.5% (31 December 2013 est.)
18.2% (31 December 2012 est.)
5.73% (31 December 2013 est.)
6% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$3.297 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$3.09 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$11.79 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$10.02 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money$1.219 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.318 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$5.532 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$4.911 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money$6.329 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$5.472 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$18.15 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$15.5 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues31.1% of GDP (2013 est.)19.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-8.1% of GDP (2013 est.)-2.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 58.5%
government consumption: 14.9%
investment in fixed capital: 55.8%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 50%
imports of goods and services: -79.2%
(2013 est.)
household consumption: 36.3%
government consumption: 13.7%
investment in fixed capital: 46%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 25.1%
imports of goods and services: -22.2%
(2013 est.)

Energy

MongoliaChina
Electricity - production4.48 billion kWh (2010 est.)5.398 trillion kWh (2013)
Electricity - consumption3.951 billion kWh (2010 est.)5.322 trillion kWh (2013)
Electricity - exports22 million kWh (2010 est.)18.67 billion kWh (2013)
Electricity - imports263 million kWh (2010 est.)7.438 billion kWh (2013)
Oil - production9,935 bbl/day (2012 est.)4.197 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2010 est.)5.664 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports5,680 bbl/day (2010 est.)33,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reservesNA bbl17.3 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)3.1 trillion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2011 est.)117.1 billion cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2010 est.)150 billion cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2011 est.)2.4 billion cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2011 est.)53 billion cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity833,200 kW (2010 est.)1.247 billion kW (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2010 est.)9.371 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption21,610 bbl/day (2011 est.)9.79 million bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2010 est.)664,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports17,360 bbl/day (2010 est.)922,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy10.21 million Mt (2011 est.)10 billion Mt (2013 est.)

Telecommunications

MongoliaChina
Telephones - main lines in use176,700 (2012)278.86 million (2012)
Telephones - mobile cellular3.375 million (2012)1.1 billion (2012)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: network is improving with international direct dialing available in many areas; a fiber-optic network has been installed that is improving broadband and communication services between major urban centers with multiple companies providing inter-city fiber-optic cable services
domestic: very low fixed-line teledensity; there are multiple mobile-cellular providers and subscribership is increasing
international: country code - 976; satellite earth stations - 7 (2011)
general assessment: domestic and international services are increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns; China continues to develop its telecommunications infrastructure; China in the summer of 2008 began a major restructuring of its telecommunications industry, resulting in the consolidation of its six telecom service operators to three, China Telecom, China Mobile and China Unicom, each providing both fixed-line and mobile services
domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; the number of Internet users exceeded 564 million by the end of 2012; a domestic satellite system with several earth stations is in place
international: country code - 86; a number of submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean; 1 Intersputnik - Indian Ocean region; and 1 Inmarsat - Pacific and Indian Ocean regions) (2012)
Internet country code.mn.cn
Internet users330,000 (2008)389 million (2009)
Internet hosts20,084 (2012)20.602 million (2012)
Broadcast mediafollowing a law passed in 2005, Mongolia's state-run radio and TV provider converted to a public service provider; also available are private radio and TV broadcasters, as well as multi-channel satellite and cable TV providers; more than 100 radio stations, including some 20 via repeaters for the public broadcaster; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2008)all broadcast media are owned by, or affiliated with, the Communist Party of China or a government agency; no privately owned TV or radio stations; state-run Chinese Central TV, provincial, and municipal stations offer more than 2,000 channels; the Central Propaganda Department lists subjects that are off limits to domestic broadcast media with the government maintaining authority to approve all programming; foreign-made TV programs must be approved prior to broadcast

Transportation

MongoliaChina
Railwaystotal: 1,908 km
broad gauge: 1,908 km 1.520-m gauge
note: the railway is 50 percent owned by the Russian State Railway (2010)
total: 86,000 km
standard gauge: 86,000 km 1.435-m gauge (36,000 km electrified) (2008)
Roadwaystotal: 49,249 km
paved: 4,800 km
unpaved: 44,449 km (2013)
total: 4,106,387 km
paved: 3,453,890 km (includes 84,946 km of expressways)
unpaved: 652,497 km (2011)
Waterways580 km (the only waterway in operation is Lake Hovsgol) (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers freeze in winter, they are open from May to September) (2010)110,000 km (navigable waterways) (2011)
Merchant marinetotal: 57
by type: bulk carrier 21, cargo 25, chemical tanker 1, container 2, liquefied gas 2, passenger/cargo 2, roll on/roll off 3, vehicle carrier 1
foreign-owned: 44 (Indonesia 2, Japan 2, North Korea 1, Russia 2, Singapore 3, Ukraine 1, Vietnam 33) (2010)
total: 2,030
by type: barge carrier 7, bulk carrier 621, cargo 566, carrier 10, chemical tanker 140, container 206, liquefied gas 60, passenger 9, passenger/cargo 81, petroleum tanker 264, refrigerated cargo 33, roll on/roll off 8, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 23
foreign-owned: 22 (Hong Kong 18, Indonesia 2, Japan 2)
registered in other countries: 1,559 (Bangladesh 1, Belize 61, Cambodia 177, Comoros 1, Cyprus 6, Georgia 10, Honduras 2, Hong Kong 500, India 1, Indonesia 1, Kiribati 26, Liberia 4, Malta 6, Marshall Islands 14, North Korea 3, Panama 534, Philippines 4, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 65, Sao Tome and Principe 1, Sierra Leone 19, Singapore 29, South Korea 6, Thailand 1, Togo 1, Tuvalu 4, UK 7, Vanuatu 1, unknown 73) (2010)
Airports44 (2013)507 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 15
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
total: 463
over 3,047 m: 71
2,438 to 3,047 m: 158
1,524 to 2,437 m: 123
914 to 1,523 m: 25
under 914 m: 86 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 29
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
under 914 m:
1 (2013)
total: 44
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m:
18 (2013)
Heliports1 (2013)47 (2013)

Military

MongoliaChina
Military branchesMongolian Armed Forces (Mongol ulsyn zevsegt huchin): Mongolian Army (includes Mongolian Air and Air Defense, which is to become a separate service in 2015); there is no navy (2013)People's Liberation Army (PLA): Ground Forces, Navy (PLAN; includes marines and naval aviation), Air Force (Zhongguo Renmin Jiefangjun Kongjun, PLAAF; includes Airborne Forces), and Second Artillery Corps (strategic missile force); People's Armed Police (Renmin Wuzhuang Jingcha Budui, PAP); PLA Reserve Force (2012)
Military service age and obligation18-25 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation is 12 months in land or air defense forces or police; a small portion of Mongolian land forces (2.5 percent) is comprised of contract soldiers; women cannot be deployed overseas for military operations (2012)18-24 years of age for selective compulsory military service, with a 2-year service obligation; no minimum age for voluntary service (all officers are volunteers); 18-19 years of age for women high school graduates who meet requirements for specific military jobs; a recent military decision allows women in combat roles; the first class of women warship commanders was in 2011 (2012)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 898,546
females age 16-49: 891,192 (2010 est.)
males age 16-49: 385,821,101
females age 16-49: 363,789,674 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 726,199
females age 16-49: 756,628 (2010 est.)
males age 16-49: 318,265,016
females age 16-49: 300,323,611 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 30,829
female: 29,648 (2010 est.)
male: 10,406,544
female: 9,131,990 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.12% of GDP (2012)
0.99% of GDP (2011)
1.12% of GDP (2010)
1.99% of GDP (2012)
2% of GDP (2011)
1.99% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

MongoliaChina
Disputes - internationalnonecontinuing talks and confidence-building measures work toward reducing tensions over Kashmir that nonetheless remains militarized with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; China and India continue their security and foreign policy dialogue started in 2005 related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, and other matters; China claims most of India's Arunachal Pradesh to the base of the Himalayas; lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and China continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes arising from substantial cartographic discrepancies, the largest of which lie in Bhutan's northwest and along the Chumbi salient; Burmese forces attempting to dig in to the largely autonomous Shan State to rout local militias tied to the drug trade, prompts local residents to periodically flee into neighboring Yunnan Province in China; Chinese maps show an international boundary symbol off the coasts of the littoral states of the South China Seas, where China has interrupted Vietnamese hydrocarbon exploration; China asserts sovereignty over Scarborough Reef along with the Philippines and Taiwan, and over the Spratly Islands together with Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Brunei; the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea eased tensions in the Spratlys but is not the legally binding code of conduct sought by some parties; Vietnam and China continue to expand construction of facilities in the Spratlys and in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord on marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; China occupies some of the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; China and Taiwan continue to reject both Japan's claims to the uninhabited islands of Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japan's unilaterally declared equidistance line in the East China Sea, the site of intensive hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation; certain islands in the Yalu and Tumen rivers are in dispute with North Korea; North Korea and China seek to stem illegal migration to China by North Koreans, fleeing privations and oppression, by building a fence along portions of the border and imprisoning North Koreans deported by China; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with their 2004 Agreement; China and Tajikistan have begun demarcating the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; citing environmental, cultural, and social concerns, China has reconsidered construction of 13 dams on the Salween River, but energy-starved Burma, with backing from Thailand, remains intent on building five hydro-electric dams downstream despite regional and international protests; Chinese and Hong Kong authorities met in March 2008 to resolve ownership and use of lands recovered in Shenzhen River channelization, including 96-hectare Lok Ma Chau Loop;
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 220 (2012)refugees (country of origin): estimated 30,000-50,000 (North Korea) (2012); 300,896 (Vietnam) (2013)
IDPs: 90,000 (2010)

Source: CIA Factbook