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Mali vs. Senegal

Introduction

MaliSenegal
BackgroundThe Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou Toumani TOURE, who was elected to a second term in a 2007 election that was widely judged to be free and fair. Malian returnees from Libya in 2011 exacerbated tensions in northern Mali, and Tuareg ethnic militias rebelled in January 2012. Low- and mid-level soldiers, frustrated with the poor handling of the rebellion, overthrew TOURE on 22 March. Intensive mediation efforts led by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) returned power to a civilian administration in April with the appointment of Interim President Dioncounda TRAORE. The post-coup chaos led to rebels expelling the Malian military from the country's three northern regions and allowed Islamic militants to set up strongholds. Hundreds of thousands of northern Malians fled the violence to southern Mali and neighboring countries, exacerbating regional food shortages in host communities. An international military intervention to retake the three northern regions began in January 2013 and within a month most of the north had been retaken. In a democratic presidential election conducted in July and August of 2013, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA was elected president. The Malian Government and northern armed groups signed an internationally-mediated peace accord in June 2015.
The French colonies of Senegal and French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. The envisaged integration of the two countries was never implemented, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s. Several peace deals have failed to resolve the conflict, but an unofficial cease-fire has remained largely in effect since 2012. Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa and has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation. Senegal was ruled by a Socialist Party for 40 years until Abdoulaye WADE was elected president in 2000. He was reelected in 2007 and during his two terms amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and weaken the opposition. His decision to run for a third presidential term sparked a large public backlash that led to his defeat in a March 2012 runoff with Macky SALL, whose term runs until 2019. A 2016 constitutional referendum reduced the term to five years with a maximum of two consecutive terms for future presidents.

Geography

MaliSenegal
Locationinterior Western Africa, southwest of Algeria, north of Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, and Burkina Faso, west of Niger
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
Geographic coordinates17 00 N, 4 00 W
14 00 N, 14 00 W
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 1,240,192 sq km
land: 1,220,190 sq km
water: 20,002 sq km
total: 196,722 sq km
land: 192,530 sq km
water: 4,192 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly less than twice the size of Texas
slightly smaller than South Dakota
Land boundariestotal: 7,908 km
border countries (7): Algeria 1,359 km, Burkina Faso 1,325 km, Cote d'Ivoire 599 km, Guinea 1,062 km, Mauritania 2,236 km, Niger 838 km, Senegal 489 km
total: 2,684 km
border countries (5): The Gambia 749 km, Guinea 363 km, Guinea-Bissau 341 km, Mali 489 km, Mauritania 742 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
531 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climatesubtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)
tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
Terrainmostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 343 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
mean elevation: 69 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed elevation southwest of Kedougou 581 m
Natural resourcesgold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower
note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
fish, phosphates, iron ore
Land useagricultural land: 34.1%
arable land 5.6%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 28.4%
forest: 10.2%
other: 55.7% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 46.8%
arable land 17.4%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 29.1%
forest: 43.8%
other: 9.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land3,780 sq km (2012)
1,200 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardshot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
wildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan
westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal

Demographics

MaliSenegal
Population17,467,108 (July 2016 est.)
14,320,055 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 47.27% (male 4,145,290/female 4,110,642)
15-24 years: 19.19% (male 1,601,474/female 1,751,161)
25-54 years: 26.82% (male 2,173,415/female 2,511,844)
55-64 years: 3.76% (male 327,923/female 329,296)
65 years and over: 2.95% (male 257,519/female 258,544) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 41.85% (male 3,011,233/female 2,981,128)
15-24 years: 20.36% (male 1,452,415/female 1,462,989)
25-54 years: 30.93% (male 2,031,035/female 2,398,788)
55-64 years: 3.91% (male 242,429/female 317,439)
65 years and over: 2.95% (male 189,201/female 233,398) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 16.2 years
male: 15.5 years
female: 16.8 years (2016 est.)
total: 18.7 years
male: 17.8 years
female: 19.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.96% (2016 est.)
2.42% (2016 est.)
Birth rate44.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
34 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate12.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
8.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.76 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 100 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 106.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 93.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 50.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 56.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 44.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 55.8 years
male: 53.9 years
female: 57.7 years (2016 est.)
total population: 61.7 years
male: 59.7 years
female: 63.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate5.95 children born/woman (2016 est.)
4.36 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate1.25% (2015 est.)
0.52% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Malian(s)
adjective: Malian
noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Senegalese
Ethnic groupsBambara 34.1%, Fulani (Peul) 14.7%, Sarakole 10.8%, Senufo 10.5%, Dogon 8.9%, Malinke 8.7%, Bobo 2.9%, Songhai 1.6%, Tuareg 0.9%, other Malian 6.1%, from member of Economic Community of West African States 0.3%, other 0.4% (2012-13 est.)
Wolof 38.7%, Pular 26.5%, Serer 15%, Mandinka 4.2%, Jola 4%, Soninke 2.3%, other 9.3% (includes Europeans and persons of Lebanese descent) (2010-11 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS124,200 (2015 est.)
45,800 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 94.8%, Christian 2.4%, Animist 2%, none 0.5%, unspecified 0.3% (2009 est.)
Muslim 95.4% (most adhere to one of the four main Sufi brotherhoods), Christian 4.2% (mostly Roman Catholic), animist 0.4% (2010-11 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths6,500 (2015 est.)
2,200 (2015 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official), Bambara 46.3%, Peul/Foulfoulbe 9.4%, Dogon 7.2%, Maraka/Soninke 6.4%, Malinke 5.6%, Sonrhai/Djerma 5.6%, Minianka 4.3%, Tamacheq 3.5%, Senoufo 2.6%, Bobo 2.1%, unspecified 0.7%, other 6.3%
note: Mali has 13 national languages in addition to its official language (2009 est.)
French (official), Wolof, Pular, Jola, Mandinka, Serer, Soninke
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 38.7%
male: 48.2%
female: 29.2% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.7%
male: 69.7%
female: 46.6% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 8 years
male: 9 years
female: 7 years (2011)
total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 9 years (2015)
Education expenditures3.6% of GDP (2014)
7.2% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 39.9% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.08% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 43.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.59% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 96.5% of population
rural: 64.1% of population
total: 77% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.5% of population
rural: 35.9% of population
total: 23% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 92.9% of population
rural: 67.3% of population
total: 78.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7.1% of population
rural: 32.7% of population
total: 21.5% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 37.5% of population
rural: 16.1% of population
total: 24.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 62.5% of population
rural: 83.9% of population
total: 75.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 65.4% of population
rural: 33.8% of population
total: 47.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 34.6% of population
rural: 66.2% of population
total: 52.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationBAMAKO (capital) 2.515 million (2015)
DAKAR (capital) 3.52 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate587 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
315 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight27.9% (2006)
12.8% (2014)
Health expenditures6.9% of GDP (2014)
4.7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.09 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density0.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
0.3 beds/1,000 population (2008)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate5.7% (2014)
8.3% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 1,485,027
percentage: 36% (2010 est.)
total number: 657,216
percentage: 22% (2005 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth18.8 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012/13 est.)
21.4 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)
Demographic profileMali’s total population is expected to double by 2035; its capital Bamako is one of the fastest-growing cities in Africa. A young age structure, a declining mortality rate, and a sustained high total fertility rate of 6 children per woman – the third highest in the world – ensure continued rapid population growth for the foreseeable future. Significant outmigration only marginally tempers this growth. Despite decreases, Mali’s infant, child, and maternal mortality rates remain among the highest in sub-Saharan Africa because of limited access to and adoption of family planning, early childbearing, short birth intervals, the prevalence of female genital cutting, infrequent use of skilled birth attendants, and a lack of emergency obstetrical and neonatal care.
Mali’s high total fertility rate has been virtually unchanged for decades, as a result of the ongoing preference for large families, early childbearing, the lack of female education and empowerment, poverty, and extremely low contraceptive use. Slowing Mali’s population growth by lowering its birth rate will be essential for poverty reduction, improving food security, and developing human capital and the economy.
Mali has a long history of seasonal migration and emigration driven by poverty, conflict, demographic pressure, unemployment, food insecurity, and droughts. Many Malians from rural areas migrate during the dry period to nearby villages and towns to do odd jobs or to adjoining countries to work in agriculture or mining. Pastoralists and nomads move seasonally to southern Mali or nearby coastal states. Others migrate long term to Mali’s urban areas, Cote d’Ivoire, other neighboring countries, and in smaller numbers to France, Mali’s former colonial ruler. Since the early 1990s, Mali’s role has grown as a transit country for regional migration flows and illegal migration to Europe. Human smugglers and traffickers exploit the same regional routes used for moving contraband drugs, arms, and cigarettes.
Between early 2012 and 2013, renewed fighting in northern Mali between government forces and Tuareg secessionists and their Islamist allies, a French-led international military intervention, as well as chronic food shortages, caused the displacement of hundreds of thousands of Malians. Most of those displaced domestically sought shelter in urban areas of southern Mali, except for pastoralist and nomadic groups, who abandoned their traditional routes, gave away or sold their livestock, and dispersed into the deserts of northern Mali or crossed into neighboring countries. Almost all Malians who took refuge abroad (mostly Tuareg and Maure pastoralists) stayed in the region, largely in Mauritania, Niger, and Burkina Faso.
Senegal has a large and growing youth population but has not been successful in developing its potential human capital. Senegal’s high total fertility rate of almost 4.5 children per woman continues to bolster the country’s large youth cohort – more than 60% of the population is under the age of 25. Fertility remains high because of the continued desire for large families, the low use of family planning, and early childbearing. Because of the country’s high illiteracy rate (more than 40%), high unemployment (even among university graduates), and widespread poverty, Senegalese youths face dim prospects; women are especially disadvantaged.
Senegal historically was a destination country for economic migrants, but in recent years West African migrants more often use Senegal as a transit point to North Africa – and sometimes illegally onward to Europe. The country also has been host to several thousand black Mauritanian refugees since they were expelled from their homeland during its 1989 border conflict with Senegal. The country’s economic crisis in the 1970s stimulated emigration; departures accelerated in the 1990s. Destinations shifted from neighboring countries, which were experiencing economic decline, civil wars, and increasing xenophobia, to Libya and Mauritania because of their booming oil industries and to developed countries (most notably former colonial ruler France, as well as Italy and Spain). The latter became attractive in the 1990s because of job opportunities and their periodic regularization programs (legalizing the status of illegal migrants).
Additionally, about 16,000 Senegalese refugees still remain in The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau as a result of more than 30 years of fighting between government forces and rebel separatists in southern Senegal’s Casamance region.
Contraceptive prevalence rate10.3% (2012/13)
23.3% (2015)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 100.2
youth dependency ratio: 95.1
elderly dependency ratio: 5
potential support ratio: 19.8 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 87.6
youth dependency ratio: 82.1
elderly dependency ratio: 5.5
potential support ratio: 18.2 (2015 est.)

Government

MaliSenegal
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Mali
conventional short form: Mali
local long form: Republique de Mali
local short form: Mali
former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
etymology: name derives from the West African Mali Empire of the 13th to 16th centuries A.D.
"conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
conventional short form: Senegal
local long form: Republique du Senegal
local short form: Senegal
former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation
etymology: named for the Senegal River that forms the northern border of the country; many theories exist for the origin of the river name; perhaps the most widely cited derives the name from ""Azenegue,"" the Portuguese appellation for the Berber Zenaga people who lived north of the river
"
Government typesemi-presidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Bamako
geographic coordinates: 12 39 N, 8 00 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Dakar
geographic coordinates: 14 44 N, 17 38 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions8 regions (regions, singular - region), 1 district*; District de Bamako*, Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou (Timbuktu); note - two new regions, Menaka and Taoudenni, were reportedly created in early 2016, but these have not yet been vetted by the US Board on Geographic Names
14 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
Independence22 September 1960 (from France)
4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
National holidayIndependence Day, 22 September (1960)
Independence Day, 4 April (1960)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest drafted August 1991, approved by referendum 12 January 1992, effective 25 February 1992; amended 1999, suspended briefly in 2012 (2016)
previous 1959 (preindependence), 1963; latest adopted by referendum 7 January 2001, promulgated 22 January 2001; amended many times, last in 2016 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system based on the French civil law model and influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court
civil law system based on French law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (since 4 September 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister Abdoulaye Idrissa MAIGA (since 8 April 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 July 2013 with a runoff on 11 August 2013 (election delayed from April 2012 due to a coup in March 2012); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA elected president in runoff; percent of vote - Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (RPM) 77.6%, Soumaila CISSE (URD) 22.4%
chief of state: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Mohammed Abdallah Boun DIONNE (since 4 July 2014)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held on 26 February 2012 with a runoff on 25 March 2012 (next to be held in 2019); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Macky SALL elected president; percent of vote in runoff - Macky SALL (Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar) 65.8%, Abdoulaye WADE (PDS) 34.2%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held in two rounds on 24 November and 15 December 2013 (next to be held in 2018); note - the scheduled July 2012 election was canceled due to a coup d'etat and the Tuareg Rebellion
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FDR coalition 69 (RPM 66, PARENA 3), ADP coalition 37 (ADEMA-PASG 16, URD 17, CNID 4), FARE 6, CODEM 5, SADI 5, ASMA-CFP 3, PDES 3, MPR 3, independent 4, other 12; note - 13 seats were from voters abroad
description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (150 seats; 90 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 60 directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - following the July 2017 elections, 15 seats will be added for Senegalese diapora
elections: National Assembly - last held on 1 July 2012 (next originally scheduled for 2 July 2017, but postponed until 30 July)
election results: National Assembly results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Benno Bokk Yakaar coalition 119, PDS 12, Bokk Gis Gis coalition 4, MCRN-Bes Du Nakk 4, PVD 2, MRSD 2, URD 1, AJ/PADS 1, other 5
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 19 members organized into 3 civil chambers and a criminal chamber); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court members appointed by the Ministry of Justice to serve 5-year terms; Constitutional Court members selected - 3 each by the president, the National Assembly, and the Supreme Council of the Magistracy; members serve single renewable 7-year terms
subordinate courts: subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court of Justice (jurisdiction limited to cases of high treason or criminal offenses by the president or ministers while in office); magistrate courts; first instance courts; labor dispute courts; special court of state security
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of the president and 12 judges and organized into civil and commercial, criminal, administrative, and social chambers); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionel (consists of 7 members including the court president, vice-president, and 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges' appointed by the president of the republic upon recommendation of the Higher Council of the Judiciary, a body chaired by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Council members appointed 5 by the president and 2 by the National Assembly speaker to serve 6-year terms with the renewal of 2 members every 2 years
subordinate courts: High Court of Justice (for crimes of high treason by the president); Courts of Appeal; Court of Auditors; assize courts; regional and district courts, Labor Court; note - in early 2013, the Extraordinary African Chambers were established by agreement of the African Union and the Government of Senegal to try cases of high-level officials involved in crimes committed in Chad during the period 1982-1990
Political parties and leadersAfrican Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO]
Alliance for Democracy in Mali-Pan-African Party for Liberty, Solidarity, and Justice or ADEMA-PASJ [Dionconda TRAORE]
Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP (coalition including ADEMA and URD formed in December 2006 to support the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE)
Alliance for the Solidarity of Mali-Convergence of Patriotic Forces or ASMA-CFP [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA]
Alternative Forces for Renewal and Emergence or FARE [Modibo SIDIBE]
Convergence for the Development of Mali or CODEM [Housseyni Amion GUINDO]
Economic and Social Development Party or PDES [Jamille BITTAR]
Front for Democracy and the Republic or FDR (coalition including RPM and PARENA formed to oppose the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE)
National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL]
Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME]
Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel Kokalla MAIGA]
Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA] (ruling party)
Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Younoussi TOURE]
Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar or APR-Yakaar [Macky SALL]
Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]
And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Mamadou DIOP]
And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS-A [Landing SAVANE]
Bokk Gis Gis coalition [Pape DIOP]
Citizen Movement for National Reform or MCRN-Bes Du Nakk
Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Mamadou NDOYE]
Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]
Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]
Grand Party or GP [Malick GACKOU]
Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Magatte THIAM]
Jef-Jel [Talla SYLLA]
National Democratic Rally or RND [Madior DIOUF]
Party for Truth and Development or PVD [Cheikh Ahmadou Kara MBAKE]
People's Labor Party or PTP [El Hadji DIOUF]
Reform Party or PR [Abdourahim AGNE]
Republican Movement for Socialism and Democracy or MRSD
Rewmi Party [Idrissa SECK]
Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]
Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]
Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]
Political pressure groups and leadersother: the army; Islamic authorities; state-run cotton company CMDT
other: Catholic clergy; labor; religious groups; students; Sufi brotherhoods, including the Mourides and Tidjanes; teachers
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, CPLP (associate), ECOWAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603
chief of mission: Ambassador Babacar DIAGNE (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 2215 M Street, NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 629-2961
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Paul A. FOLMSBEE (since 2015)
embassy: located just off the Roi Bin Fahad Aziz Bridge just west of the Bamako central district
mailing address: ACI 2000, Rue 243, Porte 297, Bamako
telephone: [223] 2070-2300
FAX: [223] 2070-2479
chief of mission: ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Martina BOUSTANI (since 28 January 2017); note - also accredited to Guinea-Bissau
embassy: Route des Almadies, Dakar
mailing address: B.P. 49, Dakar
telephone: [221] 33-879-4000
FAX: [221] 33-822-2991
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Senegal (which has an additional green central star) and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; green represents Islam, progress, and hope; yellow signifies natural wealth and progress; red symbolizes sacrifice and determination; the star denotes unity and hope
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Mali and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea
National anthem"name: ""Le Mali"" (Mali)
lyrics/music: Seydou Badian KOUYATE/Banzoumana SISSOKO
note: adopted 1962; also known as ""Pour L'Afrique et pour toi, Mali"" (For Africa and for You, Mali) and ""A ton appel Mali"" (At Your Call, Mali)
"
"name: ""Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons"" (Pluck Your Koras, Strike the Balafons)
lyrics/music: Leopold Sedar SENGHOR/Herbert PEPPER
note: adopted 1960; lyrics written by Leopold Sedar SENGHOR, Senegal's first president; the anthem sometimes played incorporating the Koras (harp-like stringed instruments) and Balafons (types of xylophones) mentioned in the title
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Great Mosque of Djenne; national colors: green, yellow, red
lion; national colors: green, yellow, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Mali
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Senegal
dual citizenship recognized: no, but Senegalese citizens do not automatically lose their citizenship if they acquire citizenship in another state
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

MaliSenegal
Economy - overviewAmong the 25 poorest countries in the world, Mali is a landlocked country that depends on gold mining and agricultural exports for revenue. The country's fiscal status fluctuates with gold and agricultural commodity prices and the harvest; cotton and gold exports make up around 80% of export earnings. Mali remains dependent on foreign aid.

Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger River; about 65% of Mali’s land area is desert or semidesert. About 10% of the population is nomadic and about 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. The government subsidizes the production of cereals to decrease the country’s dependence on imported foodstuffs and to reduce its vulnerability to food price shocks.

Mali is developing its iron ore extraction industry to diversify foreign exchange earnings away from gold, but the pace will depend on global price trends. Although the political coup in 2012 slowed Mali’s growth, the economy has since bounced back, with GDP growth above 5% in 2014-16, although physical insecurity, high population growth, corruption, weak infrastructure, and low levels of human capital continue to constrain economic development. Higher rainfall should help boost cotton output in 2017, and the country’s 2017 budget calls for a more than 10% increase in spending, much of which will be devoted to infrastructure and agriculture. However, strong downside risks exist in the form of renewed political turmoil. Corruption is endemic.
Senegal’s economy is driven by mining, construction, tourism, fisheries and agriculture, which is the primary source of employment in rural areas. The country's key export industries include phosphate mining, fertilizer production, agricultural products and commercial fishing and it is also working on oil exploration projects. Senegal relies heavily on donor assistance, remittances and foreign direct investment. For the first time in the past twelve years, Senegal reached a growth rate of 6.5% in 2015 and surpassed 6.6% in 2016, due in part to a buoyant performance in agriculture because of higher rainfall and productivity in the sector.

President Macky SALL, who was elected in March 2012 under a reformist policy agenda, inherited an economy with high energy costs, a challenging business environment, and a culture of overspending. President SALL unveiled an ambitious economic plan, the Emerging Senegal Plan (ESP), which aims to implement priority economic reforms and investment projects to increase economic growth while preserving macroeconomic stability and debt sustainability. Bureaucratic bottlenecks and a challenging business climate are among the perennial challenges that may slow the implementation of this plan.

Senegal is receiving technical support from the IMF from 2015-2017 under a Policy Support Instrument (PSI) to assist with implementation of the ESP. The PSI implementation continues to be satisfactory as concluded by the IMF’s second review mission in March 2016. Investors have signaled confidence in the country through Senegal’s successful Eurobond issuances in recent years, including in 2014.

The government will focus on 19 projects under the ESP for the 2016 budget to continue the structural transformation of the economy. These 19 projects include the Thies-Touba Highway, including the new airport- Mbour-Thies Highway. Senegal will increase the national family allowances program and the community development emergency program in 2016. Electricity supply is a chief constraint for Senegal’s development. Electricity prices in Senegal are among the highest in the world. Power Africa, a program led by USAID and OPIC, plans to increase the current 500 mW of generating capacity to over 1,000 mW in the next three to five years. Recent gas discoveries on the Senegal-Mauritanian border, as well as just south of Dakar, will help alleviate some of the energy shortages.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$38.09 billion (2016 est.)
$36.16 billion (2015 est.)
$34.13 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$39.72 billion (2016 est.)
$37.24 billion (2015 est.)
$34.98 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate5.3% (2016 est.)
6% (2015 est.)
7% (2014 est.)
6.6% (2016 est.)
6.5% (2015 est.)
4.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$2,300 (2016 est.)
$2,200 (2015 est.)
$2,200 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$2,600 (2016 est.)
$2,500 (2015 est.)
$2,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 41%
industry: 18.6%
services: 40.4% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 15.6%
industry: 24.1%
services: 60.3% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line36.1% (2005 est.)
46.7% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 25.8% (2010 est.)
lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 31.1% (2011)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)-0.3% (2016 est.)
1.4% (2015 est.)
1.6% (2016 est.)
0.1% (2015 est.)
Labor force6.283 million (2016 est.)
6.737 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 80%
industry and services: 20% (2005 est.)
agriculture: 77.5%
industry and services: 22.5% (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate30% (2015 est.)
8.1% (2014 est.)
48% (2007 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index40.1 (2001)
50.5 (1994)
40.3 (2011)
Budgetrevenues: $2.571 billion
expenditures: $3.112 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $3.839 billion
expenditures: $4.453 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesfood processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, zircon, and gold mining, construction materials, ship construction and repair
Industrial production growth rate1.5% (2016 est.)
7.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish
Exports$2.79 billion (2016 est.)
$2.513 billion (2015 est.)
$2.934 billion (2016 est.)
$2.31 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiescotton, gold, livestock
fish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
Exports - partnersSwitzerland 45.5%, India 14.4%, China 8.8%, Bangladesh 7.5%, Thailand 4.3%, Indonesia 4.1% (2015)
Mali 12.8%, Switzerland 9.7%, India 5.9%, Cote dIvoire 5.3%, China 5.1%, UAE 4.1%, France 4.1% (2015)
Imports$2.904 billion (2016 est.)
$2.744 billion (2015 est.)
$5.001 billion (2016 est.)
$4.918 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiespetroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles
food and beverages, capital goods, fuels
Imports - partnersCote dIvoire 10%, France 9.6%, Senegal 7.7%, China 7% (2015)
France 17.9%, China 10%, Nigeria 8.7%, India 5.6%, Spain 4.9%, Netherlands 4.5% (2015)
Debt - external$3.626 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.334 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.186 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.735 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesCommunaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
605.7 (2016 est.)
591.16 (2015 est.)
591.16 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
605.7 (2016 est.)
591.45 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt27.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
25.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
55.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
54.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$1.12 billion (2016 est.)
-$955 million (2015 est.)
-$1.057 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.013 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$14.1 billion (2016 est.)
$14.87 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$NA
Central bank discount rate16% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
0.25% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate9.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
9.3% (31 December 2015 est.)
14.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
14.3% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$3.267 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.822 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$5.495 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.868 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$2.755 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.573 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.759 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.264 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$4.132 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.715 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$7.309 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.549 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues18.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
25.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
-4.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 11.1%
male: NA
female: NA (2014 est.)
total: 12.7%
male: 8.3%
female: 19% (2011 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 71.1%
government consumption: 17.6%
investment in fixed capital: 17.3%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 23.5%
imports of goods and services: -29.6% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 74.5%
government consumption: 15%
investment in fixed capital: 28.3%
investment in inventories: -0.3%
exports of goods and services: 26.5%
imports of goods and services: -44% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving13.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
19.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
20.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
16.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
16.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

MaliSenegal
Electricity - production1.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
3.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption1.4 billion kWh (2014 est.)
3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
17,240 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
9.911 billion cu m (1 January 2012 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
46 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
46 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity600,000 kW (2014 est.)
1 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels48.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
99.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants51.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
16,120 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption7,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
41,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
3,743 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports7,486 bbl/day (2013 est.)
26,560 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy800,000 Mt (2013 est.)
7.3 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 11,400,000
electrification - total population: 26%
electrification - urban areas: 53%
electrification - rural areas: 9% (2013)
population without electricity: 6,400,000
electrification - total population: 55%
electrification - urban areas: 90%
electrification - rural areas: 28% (2013)

Telecommunications

MaliSenegal
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 169,006
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 300,219
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 22.699 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 134 (July 2015 est.)
total: 14.959 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 107 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: domestic system improving; increasing use of local radio loops to extend network coverage to remote areas
domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has increased sharply to over 130 per 100 persons
international: country code - 223; satellite communications center and fiber-optic links to neighboring countries; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: good system with microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system
domestic: generally reliable urban system with a fiber-optic network; about two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar; mobile-cellular service is steadily displacing fixed-line service, even in urban areas
international: country code - 221; the ACE fiber-optic cable connects Senegal to Europe, the SAT-3/WASC provides fiber-optic connectivity to Europe and Asia, and Atlantis-2 provides connectivity to South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2017)
Internet country code.ml
.sn
Internet userstotal: 1.753 million
percent of population: 10.3% (July 2015 est.)
total: 3.031 million
percent of population: 21.7% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast medianational public TV broadcaster; 2 privately owned companies provide subscription services to foreign multi-channel TV packages; national public radio broadcaster supplemented by a large number of privately owned and community broadcast stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
state-run Radiodiffusion Television Senegalaise (RTS) broadcasts TV programs from five cities in Senegal; in most regions of the country, viewers can receive TV programming from at least 7 private broadcasters; a wide range of independent TV programming is available via satellite; RTS operates a national radio network and a number of regional FM stations; at least 7 community radio stations and 18 private-broadcast radio stations are available; transmissions of at least 5 international broadcasters are accessible on FM in Dakar (2017)

Transportation

MaliSenegal
Railwaystotal: 593 km
narrow gauge: 593 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
total: 906 km (713 km operational in 2017)
narrow gauge: 906 km 1.000-m gauge (2017)
Roadwaystotal: 22,474 km
paved: 5,522 km
unpaved: 16,952 km (2009)
total: 16,496 km
paved: 5,957 km (includes 72 km of expressways)
unpaved: 10,539 km (2017)
Waterways1,800 km (downstream of Koulikoro; low water levels on the River Niger cause problems in dry years; in the months before the rainy season the river is not navigable by commercial vessels) (2011)
1,000 km (primarily on the Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance Rivers) (2012)
Ports and terminalsriver port(s): Koulikoro (Niger)
major seaport(s): Dakar
Airports25 (2013)
20 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 8
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
total: 9
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 17
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
total: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Military

MaliSenegal
Military branchesMalian Armed Forces: Army (Armee de Terre), Republic of Mali Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Republique du Mali, FARM), National Guard (Garde National du Mali) (2013)
Senegalese Armed Forces: Army, Senegalese National Navy (Marine Senegalaise, MNS), Senegalese Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Senegal) (2017)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2012)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; 20 years of age for selective conscript service; 2-year service obligation; women have been accepted into military service since 2008 (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP2.43% of GDP (2015)
1.56% of GDP (2014)
1.2% of GDP (2013)
1.2% of GDP (2012)
1.24% of GDP (2011)
1.89% of GDP (2017 est.)
1.73% of GDP (2016)
1.58% of GDP (2015)
1.57% of GDP (2014)
1.6% of GDP (2013)

Transnational Issues

MaliSenegal
Disputes - internationaldemarcation is underway with Burkina Faso
cross-border trafficking in persons, timber, wildlife, and cannabis; rebels from the Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance find refuge in Guinea-Bissau
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 15,298 (Mauritania) (2016)
IDPs: 58,985 (Tuareg rebellion since 2012) (2017)
refugees (country of origin): 13,683 (Mauritania) (2016)
IDPs: 24,000 (clashes between government troops and separatists in Casamance region) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook