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Mali vs. Guinea

Introduction

MaliGuinea
BackgroundThe Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou Toumani TOURE, who was elected to a second term in a 2007 election that was widely judged to be free and fair. Malian returnees from Libya in 2011 exacerbated tensions in northern Mali, and Tuareg ethnic militias rebelled in January 2012. Low- and mid-level soldiers, frustrated with the poor handling of the rebellion, overthrew TOURE on 22 March. Intensive mediation efforts led by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) returned power to a civilian administration in April with the appointment of Interim President Dioncounda TRAORE. The post-coup chaos led to rebels expelling the Malian military from the country's three northern regions and allowed Islamic militants to set up strongholds. Hundreds of thousands of northern Malians fled the violence to southern Mali and neighboring countries, exacerbating regional food shortages in host communities. An international military intervention to retake the three northern regions began in January 2013 and within a month most of the north had been retaken. In a democratic presidential election conducted in July and August of 2013, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA was elected president. The Malian Government and northern armed groups signed an internationally-mediated peace accord in June 2015.
Guinea is at a turning point after decades of authoritarian rule since gaining its independence from France in 1958. Guinea held its first free and competitive democratic presidential and legislative elections in 2010 and 2013 respectively, and in October 2015 held a second consecutive presidential election. Alpha CONDE was reelected to a second five-year term as president in 2015, and the National Assembly was seated in January 2014. CONDE's first cabinet is the first all-civilian government in Guinea. The country held a successful political dialogue in August and September 2016 that brought together the government and opposition to address long-standing tensions. Likewise, President CONDE’s election as AU chairperson has instilled confidence in Guinea. Previously, Sekou TOURE ruled the country as president from independence to his death in 1984. Lansana CONTE came to power in 1984 when the military seized the government after TOURE's death. Gen. CONTE organized and won presidential elections in 1993, 1998, and 2003, though all the polls were rigged. Upon CONTE's death in December 2008, Capt. Moussa Dadis CAMARA led a military coup, seizing power and suspending the constitution. His unwillingness to yield to domestic and international pressure to step down led to heightened political tensions that culminated in September 2009 when presidential guards opened fire on an opposition rally killing more than 150 people, and in early December 2009 when CAMARA was wounded in an assassination attempt and exiled to Burkina Faso. A transitional government led by Gen. Sekouba KONATE paved the way for Guinea's transition to a fledgling democracy.

Geography

MaliGuinea
Locationinterior Western Africa, southwest of Algeria, north of Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, and Burkina Faso, west of Niger
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone
Geographic coordinates17 00 N, 4 00 W
11 00 N, 10 00 W
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 1,240,192 sq km
land: 1,220,190 sq km
water: 20,002 sq km
total: 245,857 sq km
land: 245,717 sq km
water: 140 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly less than twice the size of Texas
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundariestotal: 7,908 km
border countries (7): Algeria 1,359 km, Burkina Faso 1,325 km, Cote d'Ivoire 599 km, Guinea 1,062 km, Mauritania 2,236 km, Niger 838 km, Senegal 489 km
total: 4,046 km
border countries (6): Cote d'Ivoire 816 km, Guinea-Bissau 421 km, Liberia 590 km, Mali 1,062 km, Senegal 363 km, Sierra Leone 794 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
320 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatesubtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)
generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
Terrainmostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 343 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
mean elevation: 472 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m
Natural resourcesgold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower
note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish, salt
Land useagricultural land: 34.1%
arable land 5.6%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 28.4%
forest: 10.2%
other: 55.7% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 58.1%
arable land 11.8%; permanent crops 2.8%; permanent pasture 43.5%
forest: 26.5%
other: 15.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land3,780 sq km (2012)
950 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardshot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
deforestation; inadequate potable water; desertification; soil contamination and erosion; overfishing, overpopulation in forest region; poor mining practices have led to environmental damage
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan
the Niger and its important tributary the Milo River have their sources in the Guinean highlands

Demographics

MaliGuinea
Population17,467,108 (July 2016 est.)
12,093,349 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 47.27% (male 4,145,290/female 4,110,642)
15-24 years: 19.19% (male 1,601,474/female 1,751,161)
25-54 years: 26.82% (male 2,173,415/female 2,511,844)
55-64 years: 3.76% (male 327,923/female 329,296)
65 years and over: 2.95% (male 257,519/female 258,544) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 41.7% (male 2,547,037/female 2,495,495)
15-24 years: 19.67% (male 1,200,618/female 1,177,633)
25-54 years: 30.52% (male 1,851,200/female 1,839,952)
55-64 years: 4.46% (male 258,455/female 281,497)
65 years and over: 3.65% (male 195,054/female 246,408) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 16.2 years
male: 15.5 years
female: 16.8 years (2016 est.)
total: 18.8 years
male: 18.6 years
female: 19.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.96% (2016 est.)
2.62% (2016 est.)
Birth rate44.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
35.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate12.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.2 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 100 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 106.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 93.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 51.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 54.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 48.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 55.8 years
male: 53.9 years
female: 57.7 years (2016 est.)
total population: 60.6 years
male: 59 years
female: 62.2 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate5.95 children born/woman (2016 est.)
4.82 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate1.25% (2015 est.)
1.56% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Malian(s)
adjective: Malian
noun: Guinean(s)
adjective: Guinean
Ethnic groupsBambara 34.1%, Fulani (Peul) 14.7%, Sarakole 10.8%, Senufo 10.5%, Dogon 8.9%, Malinke 8.7%, Bobo 2.9%, Songhai 1.6%, Tuareg 0.9%, other Malian 6.1%, from member of Economic Community of West African States 0.3%, other 0.4% (2012-13 est.)
Fulani (Peul) 33.9%, Malinke 31.1%, Susu 19.1%, Guerze 6%, Kissi 4.7%, Toma 2.6%, other/no answer 2.7% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS124,200 (2015 est.)
116,800 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 94.8%, Christian 2.4%, Animist 2%, none 0.5%, unspecified 0.3% (2009 est.)
Muslim 86.7%, Christian 8.9%, animist/other/none 4.4% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths6,500 (2015 est.)
4,600 (2015 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official), Bambara 46.3%, Peul/Foulfoulbe 9.4%, Dogon 7.2%, Maraka/Soninke 6.4%, Malinke 5.6%, Sonrhai/Djerma 5.6%, Minianka 4.3%, Tamacheq 3.5%, Senoufo 2.6%, Bobo 2.1%, unspecified 0.7%, other 6.3%
note: Mali has 13 national languages in addition to its official language (2009 est.)
French (official)
note: each ethnic group has its own language
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 38.7%
male: 48.2%
female: 29.2% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 30.4%
male: 38.1%
female: 22.8% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: Lassa fever
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 8 years
male: 9 years
female: 7 years (2011)
total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 8 years (2014)
Education expenditures3.6% of GDP (2014)
3.2% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 39.9% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.08% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 37.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.82% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 96.5% of population
rural: 64.1% of population
total: 77% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.5% of population
rural: 35.9% of population
total: 23% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 92.7% of population
rural: 67.4% of population
total: 76.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7.3% of population
rural: 32.6% of population
total: 23.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 37.5% of population
rural: 16.1% of population
total: 24.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 62.5% of population
rural: 83.9% of population
total: 75.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 34.1% of population
rural: 11.8% of population
total: 20.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 65.9% of population
rural: 88.2% of population
total: 79.9% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationBAMAKO (capital) 2.515 million (2015)
CONAKRY (capital) 1.936 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate587 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
679 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight27.9% (2006)
18.7% (2012)
Health expenditures6.9% of GDP (2014)
5.6% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density0.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
0.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate5.7% (2014)
5.9% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 1,485,027
percentage: 36% (2010 est.)
total number: 571,774
percentage: 25% (2003 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth18.8 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012/13 est.)
18.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)
Demographic profileMali’s total population is expected to double by 2035; its capital Bamako is one of the fastest-growing cities in Africa. A young age structure, a declining mortality rate, and a sustained high total fertility rate of 6 children per woman – the third highest in the world – ensure continued rapid population growth for the foreseeable future. Significant outmigration only marginally tempers this growth. Despite decreases, Mali’s infant, child, and maternal mortality rates remain among the highest in sub-Saharan Africa because of limited access to and adoption of family planning, early childbearing, short birth intervals, the prevalence of female genital cutting, infrequent use of skilled birth attendants, and a lack of emergency obstetrical and neonatal care.
Mali’s high total fertility rate has been virtually unchanged for decades, as a result of the ongoing preference for large families, early childbearing, the lack of female education and empowerment, poverty, and extremely low contraceptive use. Slowing Mali’s population growth by lowering its birth rate will be essential for poverty reduction, improving food security, and developing human capital and the economy.
Mali has a long history of seasonal migration and emigration driven by poverty, conflict, demographic pressure, unemployment, food insecurity, and droughts. Many Malians from rural areas migrate during the dry period to nearby villages and towns to do odd jobs or to adjoining countries to work in agriculture or mining. Pastoralists and nomads move seasonally to southern Mali or nearby coastal states. Others migrate long term to Mali’s urban areas, Cote d’Ivoire, other neighboring countries, and in smaller numbers to France, Mali’s former colonial ruler. Since the early 1990s, Mali’s role has grown as a transit country for regional migration flows and illegal migration to Europe. Human smugglers and traffickers exploit the same regional routes used for moving contraband drugs, arms, and cigarettes.
Between early 2012 and 2013, renewed fighting in northern Mali between government forces and Tuareg secessionists and their Islamist allies, a French-led international military intervention, as well as chronic food shortages, caused the displacement of hundreds of thousands of Malians. Most of those displaced domestically sought shelter in urban areas of southern Mali, except for pastoralist and nomadic groups, who abandoned their traditional routes, gave away or sold their livestock, and dispersed into the deserts of northern Mali or crossed into neighboring countries. Almost all Malians who took refuge abroad (mostly Tuareg and Maure pastoralists) stayed in the region, largely in Mauritania, Niger, and Burkina Faso.
Guinea’s strong population growth is a result of declining mortality rates and sustained elevated fertility. The population growth rate was somewhat tempered in the 2000s because of a period of net outmigration. Although life expectancy and mortality rates have improved over the last two decades, the nearly universal practice of female genital cutting continues to contribute to high infant and maternal mortality rates. Guinea’s total fertility remains high at about 5 children per woman because of the ongoing preference for larger families, low contraceptive usage and availability, a lack of educational attainment and empowerment among women, and poverty. A lack of literacy and vocational training programs limit job prospects for youths, but even those with university degrees often have no option but to work in the informal sector. About 60% of the country’s large youth population is unemployed.
Tensions and refugees have spilled over Guinea’s borders with Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Cote d’Ivoire. During the 1990s Guinea harbored as many as half a million refugees from Sierra Leone and Liberia, more refugees than any other African country for much of that decade. About half sought refuge in the volatile “Parrot’s Beak” region of southwest Guinea, a wedge of land jutting into Sierra Leone near the Liberian border. Many were relocated within Guinea in the early 2000s because the area suffered repeated cross-border attacks from various government and rebel forces, as well as anti-refugee violence. As of 2016, Guinea sheltered more than 7,000 Ivoirians.
Contraceptive prevalence rate10.3% (2012/13)
5.6% (2012)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 100.2
youth dependency ratio: 95.1
elderly dependency ratio: 5
potential support ratio: 19.8 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 83.8
youth dependency ratio: 78.2
elderly dependency ratio: 5.6
potential support ratio: 17.8 (2015 est.)

Government

MaliGuinea
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Mali
conventional short form: Mali
local long form: Republique de Mali
local short form: Mali
former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
etymology: name derives from the West African Mali Empire of the 13th to 16th centuries A.D.
conventional long form: Republic of Guinea
conventional short form: Guinea
local long form: Republique de Guinee
local short form: Guinee
former: French Guinea
etymology: the country is named after the Guinea region of West Africa that lies along the Gulf of Guinea and stretches north to the Sahel
Government typesemi-presidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Bamako
geographic coordinates: 12 39 N, 8 00 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Conakry
geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 13 42 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions8 regions (regions, singular - region), 1 district*; District de Bamako*, Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou (Timbuktu); note - two new regions, Menaka and Taoudenni, were reportedly created in early 2016, but these have not yet been vetted by the US Board on Geographic Names
7 regions administrative and 1 gouvenorat*; Boke, Conakry*, Faranah, Kankan, Kindia, Labe, Mamou, N'Zerekore
Independence22 September 1960 (from France)
2 October 1958 (from France)
National holidayIndependence Day, 22 September (1960)
Independence Day, 2 October (1958)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest drafted August 1991, approved by referendum 12 January 1992, effective 25 February 1992; amended 1999, suspended briefly in 2012 (2016)
previous 1958, 1990; latest promulgated 19 April 2010, approved 7 May 2010 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system based on the French civil law model and influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court
civil law system based on the French model
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (since 4 September 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister Abdoulaye Idrissa MAIGA (since 8 April 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 July 2013 with a runoff on 11 August 2013 (election delayed from April 2012 due to a coup in March 2012); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA elected president in runoff; percent of vote - Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (RPM) 77.6%, Soumaila CISSE (URD) 22.4%
chief of state: President Alpha CONDE (since 21 December 2010)
head of government: Prime Minister Mamady YOULA (since 26 December 2015); Prime Minister Mohamed Said FOFANA (since 24 December 2010) resigned 12/23/15
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 October 2015 (next scheduled for 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Alpha CONDE reelected president; percent of vote - Alpha CONDE (RPG) 57.8%, Cellou Dalein DIALLO (UFDG) 31.4%, other 10.8%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held in two rounds on 24 November and 15 December 2013 (next to be held in 2018); note - the scheduled July 2012 election was canceled due to a coup d'etat and the Tuareg Rebellion
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FDR coalition 69 (RPM 66, PARENA 3), ADP coalition 37 (ADEMA-PASG 16, URD 17, CNID 4), FARE 6, CODEM 5, SADI 5, ASMA-CFP 3, PDES 3, MPR 3, independent 4, other 12; note - 13 seats were from voters abroad
description: unicameral People's National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale Populaire (114 seats; 76 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote and 38 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 28 September 2013 (next scheduled for 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPG 53, UFDG 37, UFR 10, PEDN 2, UPG 2, other parties 10
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 19 members organized into 3 civil chambers and a criminal chamber); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court members appointed by the Ministry of Justice to serve 5-year terms; Constitutional Court members selected - 3 each by the president, the National Assembly, and the Supreme Council of the Magistracy; members serve single renewable 7-year terms
subordinate courts: subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court of Justice (jurisdiction limited to cases of high treason or criminal offenses by the president or ministers while in office); magistrate courts; first instance courts; labor dispute courts; special court of state security
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Administrative Chamber and Civil, Penal, and Social Chamber; court consists of the first president, 2 chamber presidents, at least 4 councillors, the solicitor general and NA deputies); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court first president appointed by the national president after consultation with the National Assembly; other members appointed by presidential decree; members serve until age 65; Constitutional Court member appointments - 2 by the National Assembly and the president of the republic, 3 experienced judges designated by their peers, 1 experienced lawyer, 1 university professor with expertise in public law designated by peers, and 2 experienced representatives of the Independent National Institution of Human Rights; members serve single 9-year terms
subordinate courts: includes Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; courts of first instance or Tribunal de Premiere Instance; High Court of Justice or Cour d'Assises; labor court; military tribunal; justices of the peace; specialized courts
Political parties and leadersAfrican Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO]
Alliance for Democracy in Mali-Pan-African Party for Liberty, Solidarity, and Justice or ADEMA-PASJ [Dionconda TRAORE]
Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP (coalition including ADEMA and URD formed in December 2006 to support the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE)
Alliance for the Solidarity of Mali-Convergence of Patriotic Forces or ASMA-CFP [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA]
Alternative Forces for Renewal and Emergence or FARE [Modibo SIDIBE]
Convergence for the Development of Mali or CODEM [Housseyni Amion GUINDO]
Economic and Social Development Party or PDES [Jamille BITTAR]
Front for Democracy and the Republic or FDR (coalition including RPM and PARENA formed to oppose the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE)
National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL]
Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME]
Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel Kokalla MAIGA]
Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA] (ruling party)
Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Younoussi TOURE]
Liberal Block or BL [Faya MILLIMONO]
National Party for Hope and Development or PEDN [Lansana KOUYATE]
Rally for the Guinean People or RPG [Alpha CONDE]
Union for the Progress of Guinea or UPG
Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea or UFDG [Cellou Dalein DIALLO]
Union of Republican Forces or UFR [Sidya TOURE]
Political pressure groups and leadersother: the army; Islamic authorities; state-run cotton company CMDT
National Confederation of Guinean Workers-Labor Union of Guinean Workers or CNTG-USTG Alliance (includes National Confederation of Guinean Workers or CNTG, Labor Union of Guinean Workers or USTG)
Syndicate of Guinean Teachers and Researchers or SLECG
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603
chief of mission: Ambassador Mamady CONDE (since 14 July 2014)
chancery: 2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 986-4300
FAX: [1] (202) 986-3800
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Paul A. FOLMSBEE (since 2015)
embassy: located just off the Roi Bin Fahad Aziz Bridge just west of the Bamako central district
mailing address: ACI 2000, Rue 243, Porte 297, Bamako
telephone: [223] 2070-2300
FAX: [223] 2070-2479
chief of mission: Ambassador Dennis B. HANKINS (since December 2015)
embassy: Koloma, Conakry, across from the Radio Television de Guinee
mailing address: P.O. Box 603, Transversale No. 2, Centre Administratif de Koloma, Commune de Ratoma, Conakry
telephone: [224] 655-10-40-00
FAX: [224] 655-10-42-97
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Senegal (which has an additional green central star) and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea
three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green; red represents the people's sacrifice for liberation and work; yellow stands for the sun, for the riches of the earth, and for justice; green symbolizes the country's vegetation and unity
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the reverse of those on the flags of neighboring Mali and Senegal
National anthem"name: ""Le Mali"" (Mali)
lyrics/music: Seydou Badian KOUYATE/Banzoumana SISSOKO
note: adopted 1962; also known as ""Pour L'Afrique et pour toi, Mali"" (For Africa and for You, Mali) and ""A ton appel Mali"" (At Your Call, Mali)
"
"name: ""Liberte"" (Liberty)
lyrics/music: unknown/Fodeba KEITA
note: adopted 1958
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Great Mosque of Djenne; national colors: green, yellow, red
national colors: red, yellow, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Mali
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Guinea
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: na

Economy

MaliGuinea
Economy - overviewAmong the 25 poorest countries in the world, Mali is a landlocked country that depends on gold mining and agricultural exports for revenue. The country's fiscal status fluctuates with gold and agricultural commodity prices and the harvest; cotton and gold exports make up around 80% of export earnings. Mali remains dependent on foreign aid.

Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger River; about 65% of Mali’s land area is desert or semidesert. About 10% of the population is nomadic and about 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. The government subsidizes the production of cereals to decrease the country’s dependence on imported foodstuffs and to reduce its vulnerability to food price shocks.

Mali is developing its iron ore extraction industry to diversify foreign exchange earnings away from gold, but the pace will depend on global price trends. Although the political coup in 2012 slowed Mali’s growth, the economy has since bounced back, with GDP growth above 5% in 2014-16, although physical insecurity, high population growth, corruption, weak infrastructure, and low levels of human capital continue to constrain economic development. Higher rainfall should help boost cotton output in 2017, and the country’s 2017 budget calls for a more than 10% increase in spending, much of which will be devoted to infrastructure and agriculture. However, strong downside risks exist in the form of renewed political turmoil. Corruption is endemic.
Guinea is a poor country of approximately 12.9 million people in 2016 that possesses the world's largest reserves of bauxite and largest untapped high-grade iron ore reserves, as well as gold and diamonds. In addition, Guinea has fertile soil, ample rainfall, and is the source of several West African rivers, including the Senegal, Niger, and Gambia. Guinea's hydro potential is enormous and the country could be a major exporter of electricity. The country also has tremendous agriculture potential. Gold, bauxite, and diamonds are Guinea’s main exports. International investors have shown interest in Guinea's unexplored mineral reserves, which have the potential to propel Guinea's future growth.

Following the death of long-term President Lansana CONTE in 2008 and the coup that followed, international donors, including the G-8, the IMF, and the World Bank, significantly curtailed their development programs in Guinea. However, the IMF approved a 3-year Extended Credit Facility arrangement in 2012, following the December 2010 presidential elections. In September 2012, Guinea achieved Heavily Indebted Poor Countries completion point status. Future access to international assistance and investment will depend on the government’s ability to be transparent, combat corruption, reform its banking system, improve its business environment, and build infrastructure. In April 2013, the government amended its mining code to reduce taxes and royalties. In 2014, Guinea also complied with requirements of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative by publishing its mining contracts and was found to be compliant. Guinea completed its program with the IMF in October 2016 even though some targeted reforms have been delayed. Currently Guinea is negotiating a new IMF program which will be based on Guinea’s new five-year economic plan, focusing on the development of higher value-added products, including from the agro-business sector and development of the rural economy.

The biggest threats to Guinea’s economy are political instability, a reintroduction of the Ebola virus epidemic, and low international commodity prices. Economic recovery will be a long process while the government adjusts to lower inflows of international donor aid following the surge of Ebola-related emergency support. Ebola stalled promising economic growth in 2014-15 and impeded several projects, such as offshore oil exploration and the Simandou iron ore project. The economy, however, grew by 5.2% in 2016, mainly due to growth from bauxite mining and thermal energy generation as well as the resiliency of the agricultural sector. The economy is projected to grow by 4.6% in 2017. The 240 megawatt Kaleta Dam, inaugurated in September 2015, has expanded access to electricity for residents of Conakry. An enduring legacy of corruption, inefficiency, and lack of government transparency, combined with fears of Ebola virus, continue to undermine Guinea's economic viability.

Guinea’s iron ore industry took a hit in 2016 when investors in the Simandou iron ore project announced plans to divest from the project. In 2017, agriculture output and public investment will boost economic growth while the mining sector continues to play a prominent role in economic performance.

Successive governments have failed to address the country's crumbling infrastructure. Guinea suffers from chronic electricity shortages; poor roads, rail lines and bridges; and a lack of access to clean water - all of which continue to plague economic development. The present government, led by President Alpha CONDE, is working to create an environment to attract foreign investment and hopes to have greater participation from western countries and firms in Guinea's economic development.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$38.09 billion (2016 est.)
$36.16 billion (2015 est.)
$34.13 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$16.08 billion (2016 est.)
$15.49 billion (2015 est.)
$15.47 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate5.3% (2016 est.)
6% (2015 est.)
7% (2014 est.)
3.8% (2016 est.)
0.1% (2015 est.)
1.1% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$2,300 (2016 est.)
$2,200 (2015 est.)
$2,200 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1,300 (2016 est.)
$1,300 (2015 est.)
$1,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 41%
industry: 18.6%
services: 40.4% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 19.7%
industry: 37.7%
services: 42.6% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line36.1% (2005 est.)
47% (2006 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 25.8% (2010 est.)
lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 30.3% (2007)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)-0.3% (2016 est.)
1.4% (2015 est.)
7.9% (2016 est.)
8.1% (2015 est.)
Labor force6.283 million (2016 est.)
5.392 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 80%
industry and services: 20% (2005 est.)
agriculture: 76%
industry and services: 24% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate30% (2015 est.)
8.1% (2014 est.)
NA%
Distribution of family income - Gini index40.1 (2001)
50.5 (1994)
39.4 (2007)
40.3 (1994)
Budgetrevenues: $2.571 billion
expenditures: $3.112 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $1.421 billion
expenditures: $1.857 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesfood processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
bauxite, gold, diamonds, iron ore; light manufacturing, agricultural processing
Industrial production growth rate1.5% (2016 est.)
6.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
rice, coffee, pineapples, mangoes, palm kernels, cocoa, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, potatoes, sweet potatoes; cattle, sheep, goats; timber
Exports$2.79 billion (2016 est.)
$2.513 billion (2015 est.)
$1.705 billion (2016 est.)
$1.611 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiescotton, gold, livestock
bauxite, gold, diamonds, coffee, fish, agricultural products
Exports - partnersSwitzerland 45.5%, India 14.4%, China 8.8%, Bangladesh 7.5%, Thailand 4.3%, Indonesia 4.1% (2015)
India 22.1%, Spain 8.2%, Ireland 7.3%, Germany 6.3%, Belgium 5.5%, Ukraine 5.3%, France 4.1% (2015)
Imports$2.904 billion (2016 est.)
$2.744 billion (2015 est.)
$2.185 billion (2016 est.)
$2.173 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiespetroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles
petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment, textiles, grain and other foodstuffs
Imports - partnersCote dIvoire 10%, France 9.6%, Senegal 7.7%, China 7% (2015)
China 20.5%, Netherlands 5.4%, India 4.4% (2015)
Debt - external$3.626 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.334 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.332 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.329 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesCommunaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
605.7 (2016 est.)
591.16 (2015 est.)
591.16 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)
Guinean francs (GNF) per US dollar -
8,230 (2016 est.)
7,485.5 (2015 est.)
7,485.5 (2014 est.)
7,014.1 (2013 est.)
6,986 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Current Account Balance-$1.12 billion (2016 est.)
-$955 million (2015 est.)
-$839 million (2016 est.)
-$1.363 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$14.1 billion (2016 est.)
$6.754 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$57.48 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$49.48 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$67.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$67.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$NA
Central bank discount rate16% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
22.25% (31 December 2005)
Commercial bank prime lending rate9.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
9.3% (31 December 2015 est.)
22% (31 December 2016 est.)
23% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$3.267 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.822 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.757 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.863 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$2.755 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.573 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.701 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.658 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$4.132 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.715 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.093 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.175 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues18.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
21% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
-6.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 11.1%
male: NA
female: NA (2014 est.)
total: 1%
male: 1.5%
female: 0.6% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 71.1%
government consumption: 17.6%
investment in fixed capital: 17.3%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 23.5%
imports of goods and services: -29.6% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 97.2%
government consumption: 8.4%
investment in fixed capital: 13.3%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 23.5%
imports of goods and services: -42.4% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving13.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
19.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
3.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
-8.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
-8% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

MaliGuinea
Electricity - production1.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption1.4 billion kWh (2014 est.)
900 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity600,000 kW (2014 est.)
500,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels48.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
67.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants51.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
32.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption7,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
16,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports7,486 bbl/day (2013 est.)
16,130 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy800,000 Mt (2013 est.)
1.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 11,400,000
electrification - total population: 26%
electrification - urban areas: 53%
electrification - rural areas: 9% (2013)
population without electricity: 8,700,000
electrification - total population: 26%
electrification - urban areas: 53%
electrification - rural areas: 11% (2013)

Telecommunications

MaliGuinea
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 169,006
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 18,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2011 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 22.699 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 134 (July 2015 est.)
total: 10.764 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 91 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: domestic system improving; increasing use of local radio loops to extend network coverage to remote areas
domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has increased sharply to over 130 per 100 persons
international: country code - 223; satellite communications center and fiber-optic links to neighboring countries; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: huge improvement over the last 10 years; the capital and the regional administrative centers have 3G access
domestic: there is national coverage and Conakry is reasonably well-served; coverage elsewhere remains inadequate but is improving; fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is expanding rapidly and exceeds 90 per 100 persons
international: country code - 224; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2017)
Internet country code.ml
.gn
Internet userstotal: 1.753 million
percent of population: 10.3% (July 2015 est.)
total: 554,000
percent of population: 4.7% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast medianational public TV broadcaster; 2 privately owned companies provide subscription services to foreign multi-channel TV packages; national public radio broadcaster supplemented by a large number of privately owned and community broadcast stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
government maintains marginal control over broadcast media; single state-run TV station; state-run radio broadcast station also operates several stations in rural areas; a steadily increasing number of privately owned radio stations, nearly all in Conakry, and about a dozen community radio stations; foreign TV programming available via satellite and cable subscription services (2011)

Transportation

MaliGuinea
Railwaystotal: 593 km
narrow gauge: 593 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
total: 1,086 km
standard gauge: 279 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 807 km 1.000-m gauge (2017)
Roadwaystotal: 22,474 km
paved: 5,522 km
unpaved: 16,952 km (2009)
total: 44,348 km
paved: 4,342 km
unpaved: 40,006 km (2003)
Waterways1,800 km (downstream of Koulikoro; low water levels on the River Niger cause problems in dry years; in the months before the rainy season the river is not navigable by commercial vessels) (2011)
1,300 km (navigable by shallow-draft native craft in the northern part of the Niger River system) (2011)
Ports and terminalsriver port(s): Koulikoro (Niger)
major seaport(s): Conakry, Kamsar
Airports25 (2013)
16 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 8
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 17
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
total: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Military

MaliGuinea
Military branchesMalian Armed Forces: Army (Armee de Terre), Republic of Mali Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Republique du Mali, FARM), National Guard (Garde National du Mali) (2013)
National Armed Forces: Army, Guinean Navy (Armee de Mer or Marine Guineenne, includes Marines), Guinean Air Force (Force Aerienne de Guinee) (2009)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2012)
no compulsory military service (2017)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP2.43% of GDP (2015)
1.56% of GDP (2014)
1.2% of GDP (2013)
1.2% of GDP (2012)
1.24% of GDP (2011)
3.85% of GDP (2014)
3.09% of GDP (2013)
2.98% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

MaliGuinea
Disputes - internationaldemarcation is underway with Burkina Faso
Sierra Leone considers Guinea's definition of the flood plain limits to define the left bank boundary of the Makona and Moa Rivers excessive and protests Guinea's continued occupation of these lands, including the hamlet of Yenga, occupied since 1998
Trafficking in personscurrent situation: Mali is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; internal trafficking is more prevalent than transnational trafficking, but foreign women and girls are forced into domestic servitude, agricultural labor, and support roles in gold mines, as well as subjected to sex trafficking; Malian boys are forced to work in agricultural settings, gold mines, the informal commercial sector and to beg within Mali and neighboring countries; Malians and other Africans who travel through Mali to Mauritania, Algeria, or Libya in hopes of reaching Europe are particularly at risk of becoming victims of human trafficking; men and boys, primarily of Songhai ethnicity, are subjected to debt bondage in the salt mines of Taoudenni in northern Mali; some members of Mali's Tamachek community are subjected to hereditary slavery-related practices; Malian women and girls are victims of sex trafficking in Gabon, Libya, Lebanon, and Tunisia; the recruitment of child soldiers by armed groups in northern Mali decreased
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Mali does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, Mali was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; officials failed to distribute the 2012 anti-trafficking law to judicial and law enforcement personnel, perpetuating a lack of understanding and awareness of the legislation; anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts decreased in 2014, with only one case investigated and no prosecutions or convictions; fewer victims were identified, and the government did not support the privately funded NGOs and international organizations it relied upon to provide victims with services; the government did not conduct any awareness-raising campaigns, workshops, or training sessions (2015)
current situation: Guinea is a source, transit, and, to a lesser extent, a destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the majority of trafficking victims are Guinean children, and trafficking is more prevalent among Guineans than foreign national migrants; Guinean girls are subjected to domestic servitude and commercial sexual exploitation, while boys are forced to beg or to work as street vendors, shoe shiners, or miners; Guinea is a source country and transit point for West African children forced to work as miners in the region; Guinean women and girls are subjected to domestic servitude and sex trafficking in West Africa, the Middle East, the US, and increasingly Europe, while Thai, Chinese, and Vietnamese women are forced into prostitution and some West Africans are forced into domestic servitude in Guinea
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Guinea does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, Guinea was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; no new investigations were conducted in 2014, and the one ongoing case led to the prosecution of four offenders for forced child labor, three of whom were convicted but given inadequate sentences for the crime; the government did not identify or provide protective services to victims and did not support NGOs that assisted victims but continued to refer child victims to NGOs on an ad hoc basis; Guinean law does not prohibit all forms of trafficking, excluding, for example, debt bondage; the 2014 Ebolavirus outbreak negatively affected Guinea’s ability to address human trafficking (2015)

Source: CIA Factbook