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Malaysia vs. Indonesia

Introduction

MalaysiaIndonesia
BackgroundDuring the late 18th and 19th centuries, Great Britain established colonies and protectorates in the area of current Malaysia; these were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945. In 1948, the British-ruled territories on the Malay Peninsula except Singapore formed the Federation of Malaya, which became independent in 1957. Malaysia was formed in 1963 when the former British colonies of Singapore, as well as Sabah and Sarawak on the northern coast of Borneo, joined the Federation. The first several years of the country's independence were marred by a communist insurgency, Indonesian confrontation with Malaysia, Philippine claims to Sabah, and Singapore's withdrawal in 1965. During the 22-year term of Prime Minister MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (1981-2003), Malaysia was successful in diversifying its economy from dependence on exports of raw materials to the development of manufacturing, services, and tourism. Prime Minister Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Razak (in office since April 2009) has continued these pro-business policies.
"The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence shortly before Japan's surrender, but it required four years of sometimes brutal fighting, intermittent negotiations, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. A period of sometimes unruly parliamentary democracy ended in 1957 when President SOEKARNO declared martial law and instituted ""Guided Democracy."" After an abortive coup in 1965 by alleged communist sympathizers, SOEKARNO was gradually eased from power. From 1967 until 1998, President SUHARTO ruled Indonesia with his ""New Order"" government. After street protests toppled SUHARTO in 1998, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and the world's largest Muslim-majority nation. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance in Papua by the separatist Free Papua Movement.
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Geography

MalaysiaIndonesia
LocationSoutheastern Asia, peninsula bordering Thailand and northern one-third of the island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia, Brunei, and the South China Sea, south of Vietnam
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates2 30 N, 112 30 E
5 00 S, 120 00 E
Map referencesSoutheast Asia
Southeast Asia
Areatotal: 329,847 sq km
land: 328,657 sq km
water: 1,190 sq km
total: 1,904,569 sq km
land: 1,811,569 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly larger than New Mexico
slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 2,742 km
border countries (3): Brunei 266 km, Indonesia 1,881 km, Thailand 595 km
total: 2,958 km
border countries (3): Timor-Leste 253 km, Malaysia 1,881 km, Papua New Guinea 824 km
Coastline4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607 km)
54,716 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation; specified boundary in the South China Sea
measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatetropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terraincoastal plains rising to hills and mountains
mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 419 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Gunung Kinabalu 4,100 m
mean elevation: 367 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 4,884 m
Natural resourcestin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite
petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land useagricultural land: 23.2%
arable land 2.9%; permanent crops 19.4%; permanent pasture 0.9%
forest: 62%
other: 14.8% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 31.2%
arable land 13%; permanent crops 12.1%; permanent pasture 6.1%
forest: 51.7%
other: 17.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land3,800 sq km (2012)
67,220 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsflooding; landslides; forest fires
occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires
volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (elev. 2,968 m), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, and Tambora
Environment - current issuesair pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation; smoke/haze from Indonesian forest fires
deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - notestrategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China Sea
according to Indonesia's National Coordinating Agency for Survey and Mapping, the total number of islands in the archipelago is 13,466, of which 922 are permanently inhabited (Indonesia is the world's largest country comprised solely of islands); the country straddles the equator and occupies a strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean; despite having the fourth largest population in the world, Indonesia is the most heavily forested region on earth after the Amazon
Population distributiona highly uneven distribution with over 80% of the population residing on the Malay Peninsula
major concentration on the island of Java, which is considered one of the most densely populated places on earth; of the outer islands (those surrounding Java and Bali), Sumatra contains some of the most significant clusters, particularly in the south near the Selat Sunda, and along the northeastern coast near Medan; the cities of Makasar (Sulawesi), Banjarmasin (Kalimantan) are also noteworthy

Demographics

MalaysiaIndonesia
Population30,949,962 (July 2016 est.)
258,316,051 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 28.16% (male 4,484,188/female 4,231,557)
15-24 years: 16.86% (male 2,647,105/female 2,571,883)
25-54 years: 41.06% (male 6,430,455/female 6,276,427)
55-64 years: 8.06% (male 1,266,415/female 1,227,690)
65 years and over: 5.86% (male 861,151/female 953,091) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 25.42% (male 33,435,020/female 32,224,706)
15-24 years: 17.03% (male 22,397,086/female 21,604,985)
25-54 years: 42.35% (male 55,857,415/female 53,543,682)
55-64 years: 8.4% (male 9,918,897/female 11,790,016)
65 years and over: 6.79% (male 7,630,251/female 9,913,993) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 28.2 years
male: 28 years
female: 28.5 years (2016 est.)
total: 29.9 years
male: 29.3 years
female: 30.5 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.4% (2016 est.)
0.89% (2016 est.)
Birth rate19.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
16.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate5.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-1.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 12.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 14.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 23.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 27.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 75 years
male: 72.2 years
female: 78 years (2016 est.)
total population: 72.7 years
male: 70.1 years
female: 75.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.53 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.13 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.4% (2015 est.)
0.48% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Malaysian(s)
adjective: Malaysian
noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian
Ethnic groupsMalay 50.1%, Chinese 22.6%, indigenous 11.8%, Indian 6.7%, other 0.7%, non-citizens 8.2% (2010 est.)
Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS91,600 (2015 est.)
692,800 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim (official) 61.3%, Buddhist 19.8%, Christian 9.2%, Hindu 6.3%, Confucianism, Taoism, other traditional Chinese religions 1.3%, other 0.4%, none 0.8%, unspecified 1% (2010 est.)
Muslim 87.2%, Christian 7%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Hindu 1.7%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths7,200 (2015 est.)
35,300 (2015 est.)
LanguagesBahasa Malaysia (official), English, Chinese (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai
note: in East Malaysia there are several indigenous languages; most widely spoken are Iban and Kadazan
Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese)
note: more than 700 languages are used in Indonesia
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.6%
male: 96.2%
female: 93.2% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.9%
male: 96.3%
female: 91.5% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever
water contact disease: leptospirosis (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 13 years
male: 12 years
female: 13 years (2015)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2014)
Education expenditures5% of GDP (2015)
3.3% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 74.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.66% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 53.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.69% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 93% of population
total: 98.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 7% of population
total: 1.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 94.2% of population
rural: 79.5% of population
total: 87.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 5.8% of population
rural: 20.5% of population
total: 12.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 96.1% of population
rural: 95.9% of population
total: 96% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.9% of population
rural: 4.1% of population
total: 4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 72.3% of population
rural: 47.5% of population
total: 60.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 27.7% of population
rural: 52.5% of population
total: 39.2% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationKUALA LUMPUR (capital) 6.837 million; Johor Bahru 912,000 (2015)
JAKARTA (capital) 10.323 million; Surabaya 2.853 million; Bandung 2.544 million; Medan 2.204 million; Semarang 1.63 million; Makassar 1.489 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate40 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
126 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight12.9% (2006)
19.9% (2013)
Health expenditures4.2% of GDP (2014)
2.8% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.28 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density1.9 beds/1,000 population (2012)
0.9 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate12.9% (2014)
5.7% (2014)
Contraceptive prevalence rate52.2% (2014)
61.1% (2015)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 43.6
youth dependency ratio: 35.2
elderly dependency ratio: 8.4
potential support ratio: 11.9 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 49
youth dependency ratio: 41.2
elderly dependency ratio: 7.7
potential support ratio: 13 (2015 est.)

Government

MalaysiaIndonesia
Country name"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Malaysia
local long form: none
local short form: Malaysia
former: Federation of Malaya
etymology: the name means ""Land of the Malays""
"
"conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies
etymology: the name is an 18th-century construct of two Greek words, ""Indos"" (India) and ""nesoi"" (islands), meaning ""Indian islands""
"
Government typefederal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
note: all Peninsular Malaysian states have hereditary rulers (commonly referred to as sultans) except Melaka (Malacca) and Pulau Pinang (Penang); those two states along with Sabah and Sarawak in East Malaysia have governors appointed by government; powers of state governments are limited by federal constitution; under terms of federation, Sabah and Sarawak retain certain constitutional prerogatives (e.g., right to maintain their own immigration controls)
presidential republic
Capitalname: Kuala Lumpur; note - nearby Putrajaya is referred to as a federal government administrative center but not the capital; Parliament meets in Kuala Lumpur
geographic coordinates: 3 10 N, 101 42 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Jakarta
geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
note: Indonesia has three time zones
Administrative divisions13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu; and 1 federal territory (Wilayah Persekutuan) with 3 components, Kuala Lumpur, Labuan, and Putrajaya
31 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 1 autonomous province*, 1 special region** (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 national capital district*** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya***, Jambi, Jawa Barat (West Java), Jawa Tengah (Central Java), Jawa Timur (East Java), Kalimantan Barat (West Kalimantan), Kalimantan Selatan (South Kalimantan), Kalimantan Tengah (Central Kalimantan), Kalimantan Timur (East Kalimantan), Kalimantan Utara (North Kalimantan), Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (Bangka Belitung Islands), Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands), Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara (North Maluku), Nusa Tenggara Barat (West Nusa Tenggara), Nusa Tenggara Timur (East Nusa Tenggara), Papua, Papua Barat (West Papua), Riau, Sulawesi Barat (West Sulawesi), Sulawesi Selatan (South Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tengah (Central Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tenggara (Southeast Sulawesi), Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi), Sumatera Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatera Selatan (South Sumatra), Sumatera Utara (North Sumatra), Yogyakarta**
note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
Independence31 August 1957 (from the UK)
17 August 1945 (declared independence from the Netherlands)
National holidayIndependence Day (or Merdeka Day), 31 August (1957) (independence of Malaya); Malaysia Day, 16 September (1963) (formation of Malaysia)
Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
Constitutionprevious 1948; latest drafted 21 February 1957, effective 27 August 1957; amended many times, last in 2010 (2016)
"drafted July to August 1945, effective 17 August 1945, abrogated by 1949 and 1950 constitutions, 1945 constitution restored 5 July 1959; amended several times, last in 2002; note - an amendment on ""national character building and national consciousness awareness"" was pending parliamentary review in early 2016 (2016)
"
Legal systemmixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Federal Court at request of supreme head of the federation
civil law system based on the Roman-Dutch model and influenced by customary law
Suffrage21 years of age; universal
17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
Executive branchchief of state: King MUHAMMAD V (formerly known as Tuanku Muhammad Faris Petra) (selected on 14 October 2016; installed on 13 December 2016); the position of the king is primarily ceremonial but he is the final arbiter on the appointment of the prime minister
head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Najib Razak (since 3 April 2009); Deputy Prime Minister Ahmad ZAHID Hamidi (since 29 July 2015)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among members of Parliament with the consent of the king
elections/appointments: king elected by and from the hereditary rulers of 9 states for a 5-year term; election is on a rotational basis among rulers of the 9 states; election last held on 14 October 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister designated from among members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader who commands support of the majority of members in the House becomes prime minister
election results: Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Najib Razak (UMNO) sworn in as prime minister for second term on 3 April 2009
chief of state: President Joko WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Jusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Joko WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Jusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 9 July 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: Joko WiDODO elected president; percent of vote - Joko WIDODO (PDI-P) 53.2%, PRABOWO Subianto (GERINDRA) 46.8%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament or Parlimen consists of the Senate or Dewan Negara (70 seats; 44 members appointed by the king and 26 indirectly elected by 13 state legislatures; members serve 3-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat (222 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held on 5 May 2013 (next to be held by May 2018)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - BN 47.4%, People's Alliance (DAP, PAS, PKR) 50.9%, other 1.7%; seats by party/coalition - BN 133, People's Alliance (DAP, PAS, PKR) 89
note: seats by party/coalition as of October 2016 - BN 132, PH 72 (DAP 37, PKR 28, AMANAH 6, PPBM 1), PAS 14, WARISAN 2, PSM 1, independent 1
description: bicameral People's Consultative Assembly or Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat consists of the Regional Representative Council or Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (132 seats; non-partisan members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (560 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by single non-transferable vote to serve 5-year terms)
note: 29 other parties received less than the 2.5% vote threshold and failed to win so did not obtain any seats; because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the percentage of votes received by parties
elections: last held on 9 April 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDI-P 19%, Golkar 15%, Gerindra 12%, PD 10%, PKB 9%, PAN 8%, PKS 7%, NasDem 7%, PPP 7%, Hanura 5%; seats by party - PDI-P 109, Golkar 91, Gerindra 73, PD 61, PAN 49, PKB 47, PKS 40, NasDem 35, PPP 39, Hanura 16
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Federal Court (consists of the chief justice, president of the Court of Appeal, chief justice of the High Court of Malaya, chief judge of the High Court of Sabah and Sarawak and 7 judges); note - Malaysia has a dual judicial hierarchy of civil and religious (sharia) courts
judge selection and term of office: Federal Court justices appointed by the monarch on advice of the prime minister; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Sessions Court; Magistrates' Court
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (51 judges divided into 8 chambers); Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by Judicial Commission, appointed by president with concurrence of parliament; judges serve until retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by president, 3 by Supreme Court, and 3 by parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: High Courts of Appeal, district courts, religious courts
Political parties and leadersNational Front (Barisan Nasional) or BN::
Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia Party or GERAKAN [MAH Siew Keong]
Liberal Democratic Party (Parti Liberal Demokratik - Sabah) or LDP [TEO Chee Kang]
Malaysian Chinese Association (Persatuan China Malaysia) or MCA [LIOW Tiong Lai]
Malaysian Indian Congress (Kongres India Malaysia) or MIC [S. SUBRAMANIAM]
Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah or PBRS [Joseph KURUP]
Parti Bersatu Sabah or PBS [Joseph PAIRIN Kitingan]
Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu or PBB [Adenan SATEM]
Parti Rakyat Sarawak or PRS [James MASING]
Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party or SPDP [TIONG King Sing]
Sarawak United People's Party (Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sarawak) or SUPP [Dr. SIM Kui Hian]
United Malays National Organization or UMNO [NAJIB bin Abdul Razak]
United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organization (Pertubuhan Pasko Momogun Kadazan Dusun Bersatu) or UPKO [Wilfred Madius TANGAU]
People's Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Penduduk Malaysia) or PPP [M. Kayveas]

Coalition of Hope (Pakatan Harapan) or PH::
Democratic Action Party (Parti Tindakan Demokratik) or DAP [TAN Kok Wai, Acting National Chairman]
National Trust Party (Parti Amanah Negara) or Amanah [Mohamad SABU]
People's Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Rakyat) or PKR [WAN AZIZAH Wan Ismail]
Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia or PPBM [MAHATHIR Mohamad]

Other::
Islamic Party of Malaysia (Parti Islam se Malaysia) or PAS [Abdul HADI Awang]
Sabah Heritage Party or WARISAN [Shafie APDAL]
Socialist Party of Malaysia (Parti Sosialis Malaysia) or PSM [Mohd Nasir HASHIM]
Democrat Party or PD [Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO]
Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Aburizal BAKRIE]
Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo]
Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]
National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]
National Mandate Party or PAN [Hatta RAJASA]
People's Conscience Party or HANURA [WIRANTO]
Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Anis MATTA]
United Development Party or PPP [NA]
Political pressure groups and leadersBar Council
BERSIH (electoral reform coalition)
ISMA (Muslim NGO)
PERKASA (defense of Malay rights)
other: religious groups; women's groups; youth groups
"Commission for the ""Disappeared"" and Victims of Violence or KontraS
Indonesia Corruption Watch or ICW
Indonesian Forum for the Environment or WALHI
"
International organization participationADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, C, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-11, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OIC, OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador ZULHASNAN Rafique (since 9 January 2017)
chancery: 3516 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 572-9700
FAX: [1] (202) 572-9882
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Budi BOWOLEKSONO (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Joseph Y. YUN (since 2 October 2013)
embassy: 376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur
mailing address: US Embassy Kuala Lumpur, APO AP 96535-8152
telephone: [60] (3) 2168-5000
FAX: [60] (3) 2142-2207
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert O. BLAKE, Jr. (since 30 January 2014)
embassy: Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta 10110
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000
FAX: [62] (21) 386-2259
consulate general: Surabaya
consulate: Medan
Flag description14 equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white (bottom); there is a dark blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow 14-pointed star; the flag is often referred to as Jalur Gemilang (Stripes of Glory); the 14 stripes stand for the equal status in the federation of the 13 member states and the federal government; the 14 points on the star represent the unity between these entities; the crescent is a traditional symbol of Islam; blue symbolizes the unity of the Malay people and yellow is the royal color of Malay rulers
note: the design is based on the flag of the US
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit Empire of the 13th-15th centuries; red symbolizes courage, white represents purity
note: similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red
National anthem"name: ""Negaraku"" (My Country)
lyrics/music: collective, led by Tunku ABDUL RAHMAN/Pierre Jean DE BERANGER
note: adopted 1957; full version only performed in the presence of the king; the tune, which was adopted from a popular French melody titled ""La Rosalie,"" was originally the anthem of Perak, one of Malaysia's 13 states
"
"name: ""Indonesia Raya"" (Great Indonesia)
lyrics/music: Wage Rudolf SOEPRATMAN
note: adopted 1945
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)tiger, hibiscus; national colors: red, white, blue, yellow
garuda (mythical bird); national colors: red, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Malaysia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 out 12 years preceding application
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Indonesia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 continuous years

Economy

MalaysiaIndonesia
Economy - overviewMalaysia, an upper middle-income country, has transformed itself since the 1970s from a producer of raw materials into a multi-sector economy. Under current Prime Minister NAJIB, Malaysia is attempting to achieve high-income status by 2020 and to move farther up the value-added production chain by attracting investments in high technology, knowledge-based industries and services. NAJIB's Economic Transformation Program is a series of projects and policy measures intended to accelerate the country's economic growth. The government has also taken steps to liberalize some services sub-sectors. Malaysia is vulnerable to a fall in world commodity prices or a general slowdown in global economic activity.

The NAJIB administration is continuing efforts to boost domestic demand and reduce the economy's dependence on exports. Domestic demand continues to anchor economic growth, supported mainly by private consumption, which accounts for 53% of GDP. Nevertheless, exports - particularly of electronics, oil and gas, and palm oil - remain a significant driver of the economy. In 2015, gross exports of goods and services were equivalent to 73% of GDP. The oil and gas sector supplied about 22% of government revenue in 2015, down significantly from prior years amid a decline in commodity prices and diversification of government revenues. Malaysia has embarked on a fiscal reform program with the aim of achieving a balanced budget by 2020, including rationalization of subsidies and the 2015 introduction of a 6% value added tax. Sustained low commodity prices throughout the period not only strained government finances, but also shrunk Malaysia’s current account surplus and weighed heavily on the Malaysian ringgit, which was among the region’s worst performing currencies during 2015. The ringgit rebounded in early 2016, but hit new lows following U.S. presidential elections amid a broader selloff of emerging market assets.

Bank Negara Malaysia (the central bank) maintains adequate foreign exchange reserves; a well-developed regulatory regime has limited Malaysia's exposure to riskier financial instruments, although it remains vulnerable to volatile global capital flows. In order to increase Malaysia’s competitiveness, NAJIB raised possible revisions to the special economic and social preferences accorded to ethnic Malays under the New Economic Policy of 1970, but retreated in 2013 after he encountered significant opposition from Malay nationalists and other vested interests. In September 2013 NAJIB launched the new Bumiputra Economic Empowerment Program, policies that favor and advance the economic condition of ethnic Malays.

Malaysia signed the 12-nation Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) free trade agreement in February 2016, although the future of the TPP remains unclear following the US withdrawal from the agreement. Along with nine other ASEAN members, Malaysia established the ASEAN Economic Community in 2015, which aims to advance regional economic integration.
Indonesia, the largest economy in Southeast Asia, has seen a slowdown in growth since 2012, mostly due to the end of the commodities export boom. During the global financial crisis, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth. Indonesia’s annual budget deficit is capped at 3% of GDP, and the Government of Indonesia lowered its debt-to-GDP ratio from a peak of 100% shortly after the Asian financial crisis in 1999 to less than 27 percent today. While Fitch and Moody's Investors upgraded Indonesia's credit rating to investment grade in December 2011, Standard & Poor’s has yet to raise Indonesia’s rating to this status amid several constraints to foreign direct investment in the country, such as a high level of protectionism.

Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among its regions. President Joko WIDODO - elected in July 2014 – seeks to develop Indonesia’s maritime resources and pursue other infrastructure development, including significantly increasing its electrical power generation capacity. Fuel subsidies were significantly reduced in early 2015, a move which has helped the government redirect its spending to development priorities. Indonesia, with the nine other ASEAN members, will continue to move towards participation in the ASEAN Economic Community, though full implementation of economic integration has not yet materialized.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$863 billion (2016 est.)
$828.2 billion (2015 est.)
$789 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3.033 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.888 trillion (2015 est.)
$2.753 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate4.2% (2016 est.)
5% (2015 est.)
6% (2014 est.)
5% (2016 est.)
4.9% (2015 est.)
5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$27,200 (2016 est.)
$26,600 (2015 est.)
$25,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$11,700 (2016 est.)
$11,300 (2015 est.)
$10,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 8.2%
industry: 37.8%
services: 54% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 13.7%
industry: 40.3%
services: 46% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line3.8% (2009 est.)
10.9% (2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 34.7% (2009 est.)
lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 28.2% (2010)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2% (2016 est.)
2.1% (2015 est.)
note: approximately 30% of goods are price-controlled
3% (2016 est.)
3.5% (2015 est.)
Labor force14.77 million (2016 est.)
125 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 11%
industry: 36%
services: 53% (2012 est.)
agriculture: 32%
industry: 21%
services: 47% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate3.3% (2016 est.)
3.2% (2015 est.)
5.6% (2016 est.)
6.2% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index46.2 (2009)
49.2 (1997)
36.8 (2009)
39.4 (2005)
Budgetrevenues: $52.66 billion
expenditures: $63.01 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $114.8 billion
expenditures: $137.7 billion (2016 est.)
IndustriesPeninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, petroleum and natural gas, light manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, medical technology, electronics and semiconductors, timber processing; Sabah - logging, petroleum and natural gas production; Sarawak - agriculture processing, petroleum and natural gas production, logging
petroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instruments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism
Industrial production growth rate4.2% (2016 est.)
3.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsPeninsular Malaysia - palm oil, rubber, cocoa, rice; Sabah - palm oil, subsistence crops; rubber, timber; Sarawak - palm oil, rubber, timber; pepper
rubber and similar products, palm oil, poultry, beef, forest products, shrimp, cocoa, coffee, medicinal herbs, essential oil, fish and its similar products, and spices
Exports$167.3 billion (2016 est.)
$175.7 billion (2015 est.)
$144.4 billion (2016 est.)
$148.4 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiessemiconductors and electronic equipment, palm oil, petroleum and liquefied natural gas, wood and wood products, palm oil, rubber, textiles, chemicals, solar panels
mineral fuels, animal or vegetable fats (includes palm oil), electrical machinery, rubber, machinery and mechanical appliance parts
Exports - partnersSingapore 13.9%, China 13%, Japan 9.5%, US 9.4%, Thailand 5.7%, Hong Kong 4.7%, India 4.1% (2015)
Japan 12%, US 10.8%, China 10%, Singapore 8.4%, India 7.8%, South Korea 5.1%, Malaysia 5.1% (2015)
Imports$139.5 billion (2016 est.)
$147.7 billion (2015 est.)
$129.1 billion (2016 est.)
$135.1 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditieselectronics, machinery, petroleum products, plastics, vehicles, iron and steel products, chemicals
mineral fuels, boilers, machinery, and mechanical parts, electric machinery, iron and steel, foodstuffs
Imports - partnersChina 18.8%, Singapore 12%, US 8.1%, Japan 7.8%, Thailand 6.1%, South Korea 4.5%, Indonesia 4.5% (2015)
China 20.6%, Singapore 12.6%, Japan 9.3%, Malaysia 6%, South Korea 5.9%, Thailand 5.7%, US 5.3% (2015)
Debt - external$187.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$186.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$316.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$302.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesringgits (MYR) per US dollar -
4.079 (2016 est.)
3.91 (2015 est.)
3.91 (2014 est.)
3.27 (2013 est.)
3.09 (2012 est.)
Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar -
13,483 (2016 est.)
13,389.4 (2015 est.)
13,389.4 (2014 est.)
11,865.2 (2013 est.)
9,386.63 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt55.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
54.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: this figure is based on the amount of federal government debt, RM501.6 billion ($167.2 billion) in 2012; this includes Malaysian Treasury bills and other government securities, as well as loans raised externally and bonds and notes issued overseas; this figure excludes debt issued by non-financial public enterprises and guaranteed by the federal government, which was an additional $47.7 billion in 2012
32.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$97.38 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$95.29 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$116.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$105.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$6.067 billion (2016 est.)
$8.874 billion (2015 est.)
-$16.35 billion (2016 est.)
-$17.52 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$302.7 billion (2016 est.)
$941 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$154.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$144.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$292.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$271.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$155.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$145.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$42.82 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$33.32 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$383 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$459 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$500.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$428.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$353.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$422.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate3% (31 December 2011)
2.83% (31 December 2010)
6.37% (31 December 2010)
6.46% (31 December 2009)
note: this figure represents the 3-month SBI rate; the Bank of Indonesia has not employed the one-month SBI since September 2010
Commercial bank prime lending rate4.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
4.57% (31 December 2015 est.)
12.2% (31 October 2016 est.)
12.9% (31 December 2015 est.)
note: these figures represent the average annualized rate on working capital loans
Stock of domestic credit$437.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$390.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$324 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$354.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$91.28 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$83.97 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$86.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$78.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$478.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$440.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$350.9 billion (30 September 2016 est.)
$359.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues17.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
-2.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 10.2%
male: 9.3%
female: 11.6% (2014 est.)
total: 31.3%
male: 19.5%
female: 21.4% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 55.2%
government consumption: 12.9%
investment in fixed capital: 26%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 66.5%
imports of goods and services: -60.7% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 56.5%
government consumption: 9.3%
investment in fixed capital: 33%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 17.7%
imports of goods and services: -17.7% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving27.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
29.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
32.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
32.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
31.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

MalaysiaIndonesia
Electricity - production139 billion kWh (2014 est.)
224.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption131 billion kWh (2014 est.)
217.8 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports12 million kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports23 million kWh (2014 est.)
100 kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production654,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
831,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports180,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
463,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports299,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
310,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves3.6 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
3.7 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves1.183 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
2.83 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production65.42 billion cu m (2014 est.)
75 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption35.18 billion cu m (2014 est.)
39.7 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports34.87 billion cu m (2014 est.)
31.78 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports4.63 billion cu m (2014 est.)
1.8 billion cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity30 million kW (2014 est.)
51.92 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels87.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
83.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants11.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
11% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
5.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production544,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
926,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption745,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
1.688 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports243,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
81,950 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports410,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
691,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy208 million Mt (2013 est.)
442 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 100,000
electrification - total population: 99.5%
electrification - urban areas: 99.8%
electrification - rural areas: 98.7% (2013)
population without electricity: 48,700,000
electrification - total population: 81%
electrification - urban areas: 94%
electrification - rural areas: 66% (2013)

Telecommunications

MalaysiaIndonesia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 4,394,559
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 14 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 22.386 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 44.111 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 145 (July 2015 est.)
total: 338.426 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 132 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: modern system featuring good intercity service on Peninsular Malaysia provided mainly by microwave radio relay and an adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; international service excellent
domestic: domestic satellite system with 2 earth stations; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 160 per 100 persons
international: country code - 60; landing point for several major international submarine cable networks that provide connectivity to Asia, Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Pacific Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: domestic service includes an interisland microwave system, an HF radio police net, and a domestic satellite communications system; international service good
domestic: coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly
international: country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.my
.id
Internet userstotal: 21.684 million
percent of population: 71.1% (July 2015 est.)
total: 56.257 million
percent of population: 22% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-owned TV broadcaster operates 2 TV networks with relays throughout the country, and the leading private commercial media group operates 4 TV stations with numerous relays throughout the country; satellite TV subscription service is available; state-owned radio broadcaster operates multiple national networks, as well as regional and local stations; many private commercial radio broadcasters and some subscription satellite radio services are available; about 55 radio stations overall (2012)
mixture of about a dozen national TV networks - 2 public broadcasters, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks, as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations with more than 650 privately operated (2008)

Transportation

MalaysiaIndonesia
Railwaystotal: 1,849 km
standard gauge: 59 km 1.435-m gauge (59 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,792 km 1.000-m gauge (339 km electrified) (2014)
total: 8,159 km
narrow gauge: 8,159 km 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified)
note: 4,816 km operational (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 144,403 km (excludes local roads)
paved: 116,169 km (includes 1,821 km of expressways)
unpaved: 28,234 km (2010)
total: 496,607 km
paved: 283,102 km
unpaved: 213,505 km (2011)
Waterways7,200 km (Peninsular Malaysia 3,200 km; Sabah 1,500 km; Sarawak 2,500 km) (2011)
21,579 km (2011)
Pipelinescondensate 354 km; gas 6,439 km; liquid petroleum gas 155 km; oil 1,937 km; oil/gas/water 43 km; refined products 114 km; water 26 km (2013)
condensate 1,064 km; condensate/gas 150 km; gas 11,702 km; liquid petroleum gas 119 km; oil 7,767 km; oil/gas/water 77 km; refined products 728 km; unknown 53 km; water 44 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Bintulu, Johor Bahru, George Town (Penang), Port Kelang (Port Klang), Tanjung Pelepas
container port(s) (TEUs): George Town (Penang) (1,202,180), Port Kelang (Port Klang) (9,435,403), Tanjung Pelepas (7,302,461)
LNG terminal(s) (export): Bintulu (Sarawak)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Sungei Udang
major seaport(s): Banjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok
container port(s) (TEUs): Tanjung Priok (5,617,562)
LNG terminal(s) (export): Bontang, Tangguh
LNG terminal(s) (import): Arun, Lampung, West Java
Merchant marinetotal: 315
by type: bulk carrier 11, cargo 83, carrier 2, chemical tanker 47, container 41, liquefied gas 34, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 86, roll on/roll off 2, vehicle carrier 5
foreign-owned: 26 (Denmark 1, Hong Kong 8, Japan 2, Russia 2, Singapore 13)
registered in other countries: 82 (Bahamas 13, India 1, Indonesia 1, Isle of Man 6, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 11, Panama 12, Papua New Guinea 1, Philippines 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Singapore 27, Thailand 3, US 2, unknown 2) (2010)
total: 1,340
by type: bulk carrier 105, cargo 618, chemical tanker 69, container 120, liquefied gas 28, passenger 49, passenger/cargo 77, petroleum tanker 244, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 12, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 11
foreign-owned: 69 (China 1, France 1, Greece 1, Japan 8, Jordan 1, Malaysia 1, Norway 3, Singapore 46, South Korea 2, Taiwan 1, UK 2, US 2)
registered in other countries: 95 (Bahamas 2, Cambodia 2, China 2, Hong Kong 10, Liberia 4, Marshall Islands 1, Mongolia 2, Panama 10, Singapore 60, Tuvalu 1, unknown 1) (2010)
Airports114 (2013)
673 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 39
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 8 (2013)
total: 186
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 51
914 to 1,523 m: 72
under 914 m: 37 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 75
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 69 (2013)
total: 487
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 460 (2013)
Heliports4 (2013)
76 (2013)
Transportation - notethe International Maritime Bureau reports that the territorial and offshore waters in the Strait of Malacca and South China Sea remain high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; in the past, commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift; 24 attacks were reported in 2014
the International Maritime Bureau continues to report the territorial and offshore waters in the Strait of Malacca and South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; attacks have increased yearly since 2009; in 2014, 100 commercial vessels were attacked and 90 crew members taken hostage; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift

Military

MalaysiaIndonesia
Military branchesMalaysian Armed Forces (Angkatan Tentera Malaysia, ATM): Malaysian Army (Tentera Darat Malaysia), Royal Malaysian Navy (Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia, TLDM), Royal Malaysian Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Malaysia, TUDM) (2013)
Indonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL), includes marines (Korps Marinir, KorMar), naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2013)
Military service age and obligation17 years 6 months of age for voluntary military service (younger with parental consent and proof of age); mandatory retirement age 60; women serve in the Malaysian Armed Forces; no conscription (2013)
18-45 years of age for voluntary military service, with selective conscription authorized; 2-year service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.54% of GDP (2015)
1.46% of GDP (2014)
1.52% of GDP (2013)
1.43% of GDP (2012)
1.57% of GDP (2011)
0.89% of GDP (2015)
0.78% of GDP (2014)
0.92% of GDP (2013)
0.71% of GDP (2012)
0.65% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

MalaysiaIndonesia
Disputes - international"while the 2002 ""Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea"" has eased tensions over the Spratly Islands, it is not the legally binding ""code of conduct"" sought by some parties; Malaysia was not party to the March 2005 joint accord among the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam on conducting marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; disputes continue over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's land reclamation, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries in the Johor and Singapore Straits; in 2008, ICJ awarded sovereignty of Pedra Branca (Pulau Batu Puteh/Horsburgh Island) to Singapore, and Middle Rocks to Malaysia, but did not rule on maritime regimes, boundaries, or disposition of South Ledge; land and maritime negotiations with Indonesia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; separatist violence in Thailand's predominantly Muslim southern provinces prompts measures to close and monitor border with Malaysia to stem terrorist activities; Philippines retains a dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo; per Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor, which divides Brunei; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait
"
Indonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; three stretches of land borders with Timor-Leste have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) boundaries have been established between the countries; all borders between Indonesia and Australia have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and EEZ boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches; land and maritime negotiations with Malaysia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalizing their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; EEZ negotiations with Vietnam are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary
Illicit drugsdrug trafficking prosecuted vigorously, including enforcement of the death penalty; heroin still primary drug of abuse, but synthetic drug demand remains strong; continued ecstasy and methamphetamine producer for domestic users and, to a lesser extent, the regional drug market
illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasy; President WIDODO's war on drugs has led to an increase in death sentences and executions, particularly of foreign drug traffickers (2015)
Refugees and internally displaced persons"refugees (country of origin): 87,036 (Burma) (2016)
stateless persons: 10,931 (2016); note - Malaysia's stateless population consists of Rohingya refugees from Burma, ethnic Indians, and the children of Filipino and Indonesian illegal migrants; Burma stripped the Rohingya of their nationality in 1982; Filipino and Indonesian children who have not have been registered for birth certificates by their parents or who received birth certificates stamped ""foreigner"" are not eligible to attend government schools; these children are vulnerable to statelessness should they not be able to apply to their parents' country of origin for passports
"
IDPs: 7,100 (inter-communal, inter-faith, and separatist violence between 1998 and 2004 in Aceh and Papua; religious attacks and land conflicts in 2012 and 2013; most IDPs in Aceh, Maluku, East Nusa Tengarra) (2016) (2011)

Source: CIA Factbook