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Malaysia vs. Brunei

Introduction

MalaysiaBrunei
BackgroundDuring the late 18th and 19th centuries, Great Britain established colonies and protectorates in the area of current Malaysia; these were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945. In 1948, the British-ruled territories on the Malay Peninsula except Singapore formed the Federation of Malaya, which became independent in 1957. Malaysia was formed in 1963 when the former British colonies of Singapore, as well as Sabah and Sarawak on the northern coast of Borneo, joined the Federation. The first several years of the country's independence were marred by a communist insurgency, Indonesian confrontation with Malaysia, Philippine claims to Sabah, and Singapore's withdrawal in 1965. During the 22-year term of Prime Minister MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (1981-2003), Malaysia was successful in diversifying its economy from dependence on exports of raw materials to the development of manufacturing, services, and tourism. Prime Minister Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Razak (in office since April 2009) has continued these pro-business policies.
The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and 17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the world.

Geography

MalaysiaBrunei
LocationSoutheastern Asia, peninsula bordering Thailand and northern one-third of the island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia, Brunei, and the South China Sea, south of Vietnam
Southeastern Asia, along the northern coast of the island of Borneo, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia
Geographic coordinates2 30 N, 112 30 E
4 30 N, 114 40 E
Map referencesSoutheast Asia
Southeast Asia
Areatotal: 329,847 sq km
land: 328,657 sq km
water: 1,190 sq km
total: 5,765 sq km
land: 5,265 sq km
water: 500 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly larger than New Mexico
slightly smaller than Delaware
Land boundariestotal: 2,742 km
border countries (3): Brunei 266 km, Indonesia 1,881 km, Thailand 595 km
total: 266 km
border countries (1): Malaysia 266 km
Coastline4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607 km)
161 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation; specified boundary in the South China Sea
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line
Climatetropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons
tropical; hot, humid, rainy
Terraincoastal plains rising to hills and mountains
flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 419 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Gunung Kinabalu 4,100 m
mean elevation: 478 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m
Natural resourcestin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite
petroleum, natural gas, timber
Land useagricultural land: 23.2%
arable land 2.9%; permanent crops 19.4%; permanent pasture 0.9%
forest: 62%
other: 14.8% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 2.5%
arable land 0.8%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 0.6%
forest: 71.8%
other: 25.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land3,800 sq km (2012)
10 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsflooding; landslides; forest fires
typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare
Environment - current issuesair pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation; smoke/haze from Indonesian forest fires
seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notestrategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China Sea
close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave within Malaysia

Demographics

MalaysiaBrunei
Population30,949,962 (July 2016 est.)
436,620 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 28.16% (male 4,484,188/female 4,231,557)
15-24 years: 16.86% (male 2,647,105/female 2,571,883)
25-54 years: 41.06% (male 6,430,455/female 6,276,427)
55-64 years: 8.06% (male 1,266,415/female 1,227,690)
65 years and over: 5.86% (male 861,151/female 953,091) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 23.46% (male 52,785/female 49,638)
15-24 years: 17.11% (male 37,103/female 37,603)
25-54 years: 46.8% (male 98,152/female 106,206)
55-64 years: 8.09% (male 18,043/female 17,278)
65 years and over: 4.54% (male 9,635/female 10,177) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 28.2 years
male: 28 years
female: 28.5 years (2016 est.)
total: 29.9 years
male: 29.5 years
female: 30.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.4% (2016 est.)
1.6% (2016 est.)
Birth rate19.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
17.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate5.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
3.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
2.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 12.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 14.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 11.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 75 years
male: 72.2 years
female: 78 years (2016 est.)
total population: 77.2 years
male: 74.8 years
female: 79.6 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.53 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.79 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.4% (2015 est.)
NA
Nationalitynoun: Malaysian(s)
adjective: Malaysian
noun: Bruneian(s)
adjective: Bruneian
Ethnic groupsMalay 50.1%, Chinese 22.6%, indigenous 11.8%, Indian 6.7%, other 0.7%, non-citizens 8.2% (2010 est.)
Malay 65.7%, Chinese 10.3%, other indigenous 3.4%, other 20.6% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS91,600 (2015 est.)
NA
ReligionsMuslim (official) 61.3%, Buddhist 19.8%, Christian 9.2%, Hindu 6.3%, Confucianism, Taoism, other traditional Chinese religions 1.3%, other 0.4%, none 0.8%, unspecified 1% (2010 est.)
Muslim (official) 78.8%, Christian 8.7%, Buddhist 7.8%, other (includes indigenous beliefs) 4.7% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths7,200 (2015 est.)
NA
LanguagesBahasa Malaysia (official), English, Chinese (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai
note: in East Malaysia there are several indigenous languages; most widely spoken are Iban and Kadazan
Malay (official), English, Chinese dialects
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.6%
male: 96.2%
female: 93.2% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: 97.5%
female: 94.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 13 years
male: 12 years
female: 13 years (2015)
total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2015)
Education expenditures5% of GDP (2015)
3.7% of GDP (2016)
Urbanizationurban population: 74.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.66% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 77.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -1.79% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major cities - populationKUALA LUMPUR (capital) 6.837 million; Johor Bahru 912,000 (2015)
BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN (capital) 241,000
note: the boundaries of the capital city were expanded in 2007, greatly increasing the city area; the population of the capital increased tenfold (2011)
Maternal mortality rate40 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
23 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight12.9% (2006)
9.6% (2009)
Health expenditures4.2% of GDP (2014)
2.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.28 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
1.47 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density1.9 beds/1,000 population (2012)
2.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate12.9% (2014)
18.6% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 43.6
youth dependency ratio: 35.2
elderly dependency ratio: 8.4
potential support ratio: 11.9 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 38
youth dependency ratio: 31.9
elderly dependency ratio: 6.1
potential support ratio: 16.4 (2015 est.)

Government

MalaysiaBrunei
Country name"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Malaysia
local long form: none
local short form: Malaysia
former: Federation of Malaya
etymology: the name means ""Land of the Malays""
"
"conventional long form: Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form: Brunei
local long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
local short form: Brunei
etymology: derivation of the name is unclear; according to legend, MUHAMMAD SHAH, who would become the first sultan of Brunei, upon discovering what would become Brunei exclaimed ""Baru nah,"" which roughly translates as ""there"" or ""that's it""
"
Government typefederal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
note: all Peninsular Malaysian states have hereditary rulers (commonly referred to as sultans) except Melaka (Malacca) and Pulau Pinang (Penang); those two states along with Sabah and Sarawak in East Malaysia have governors appointed by government; powers of state governments are limited by federal constitution; under terms of federation, Sabah and Sarawak retain certain constitutional prerogatives (e.g., right to maintain their own immigration controls)
absolute monarchy or sultanate
Capitalname: Kuala Lumpur; note - nearby Putrajaya is referred to as a federal government administrative center but not the capital; Parliament meets in Kuala Lumpur
geographic coordinates: 3 10 N, 101 42 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Bandar Seri Begawan
geographic coordinates: 4 53 N, 114 56 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu; and 1 federal territory (Wilayah Persekutuan) with 3 components, Kuala Lumpur, Labuan, and Putrajaya
4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei-Muara, Temburong, Tutong
Independence31 August 1957 (from the UK)
1 January 1984 (from the UK)
National holidayIndependence Day (or Merdeka Day), 31 August (1957) (independence of Malaya); Malaysia Day, 16 September (1963) (formation of Malaysia)
National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protection
Constitutionprevious 1948; latest drafted 21 February 1957, effective 27 August 1957; amended many times, last in 2010 (2016)
drafted 1954 to 1959, signed 29 September 1959; amended 1984, 2004, 2011; note - some constitutional provisions suspended since 1962 under a State of Emergency, others suspended since independence in 1984 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Federal Court at request of supreme head of the federation
mixed legal system based on English common law and Islamic law; note - in May 2014, the first phase of a sharia-based penal codes was instituted, which applies to Muslims and non-Muslims and exists in parallel to the existing common law-based code
Suffrage21 years of age; universal
18 years of age for village elections; universal
Executive branchchief of state: King MUHAMMAD V (formerly known as Tuanku Muhammad Faris Petra) (selected on 14 October 2016; installed on 13 December 2016); the position of the king is primarily ceremonial but he is the final arbiter on the appointment of the prime minister
head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Najib Razak (since 3 April 2009); Deputy Prime Minister Ahmad ZAHID Hamidi (since 29 July 2015)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among members of Parliament with the consent of the king
elections/appointments: king elected by and from the hereditary rulers of 9 states for a 5-year term; election is on a rotational basis among rulers of the 9 states; election last held on 14 October 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister designated from among members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader who commands support of the majority of members in the House becomes prime minister
election results: Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Najib Razak (UMNO) sworn in as prime minister for second term on 3 April 2009
chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; note - 4 additional advisory councils appointed by the monarch are the Religious Council, Privy Council for constitutional issues, Council of Succession, and Legislative Council
elections/appointments: none; the monarchy is hereditary
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament or Parlimen consists of the Senate or Dewan Negara (70 seats; 44 members appointed by the king and 26 indirectly elected by 13 state legislatures; members serve 3-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat (222 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held on 5 May 2013 (next to be held by May 2018)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - BN 47.4%, People's Alliance (DAP, PAS, PKR) 50.9%, other 1.7%; seats by party/coalition - BN 133, People's Alliance (DAP, PAS, PKR) 89
note: seats by party/coalition as of October 2016 - BN 132, PH 72 (DAP 37, PKR 28, AMANAH 6, PPBM 1), PAS 14, WARISAN 2, PSM 1, independent 1
description: Legislative Council or Majlis Mesyuarat Negara Brunei (36 seats; members appointed by the sultan including 3 ex-officio members - the speaker and first and second secretaries; meets annually for approximately two weeks)
elections: last held in March 1962 (date of next election NA)
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Federal Court (consists of the chief justice, president of the Court of Appeal, chief justice of the High Court of Malaya, chief judge of the High Court of Sabah and Sarawak and 7 judges); note - Malaysia has a dual judicial hierarchy of civil and religious (sharia) courts
judge selection and term of office: Federal Court justices appointed by the monarch on advice of the prime minister; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Sessions Court; Magistrates' Court
highest resident court(s): Supreme Court (consists of Court of Appeal and High Court, each with a chief justice and 2 judges); Sharia Court of Appeal (consists of judges appointed by the monarch); note - Brunei has a dual judicial system of secular and sharia (religious) courts; the Judicial Committee of Privy Council in London serves as the final appellate court for civil cases only
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch to serve until age 65, and older if approved by the monarch; Sharia Court of Appeal judges appointed by the monarch; judges appointed for life
subordinate courts: Intermediate Court; Magistrate's Courts; Juvenile Court; small claims courts; lower sharia courts
Political parties and leadersNational Front (Barisan Nasional) or BN::
Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia Party or GERAKAN [MAH Siew Keong]
Liberal Democratic Party (Parti Liberal Demokratik - Sabah) or LDP [TEO Chee Kang]
Malaysian Chinese Association (Persatuan China Malaysia) or MCA [LIOW Tiong Lai]
Malaysian Indian Congress (Kongres India Malaysia) or MIC [S. SUBRAMANIAM]
Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah or PBRS [Joseph KURUP]
Parti Bersatu Sabah or PBS [Joseph PAIRIN Kitingan]
Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu or PBB [Adenan SATEM]
Parti Rakyat Sarawak or PRS [James MASING]
Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party or SPDP [TIONG King Sing]
Sarawak United People's Party (Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sarawak) or SUPP [Dr. SIM Kui Hian]
United Malays National Organization or UMNO [NAJIB bin Abdul Razak]
United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organization (Pertubuhan Pasko Momogun Kadazan Dusun Bersatu) or UPKO [Wilfred Madius TANGAU]
People's Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Penduduk Malaysia) or PPP [M. Kayveas]

Coalition of Hope (Pakatan Harapan) or PH::
Democratic Action Party (Parti Tindakan Demokratik) or DAP [TAN Kok Wai, Acting National Chairman]
National Trust Party (Parti Amanah Negara) or Amanah [Mohamad SABU]
People's Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Rakyat) or PKR [WAN AZIZAH Wan Ismail]
Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia or PPBM [MAHATHIR Mohamad]

Other::
Islamic Party of Malaysia (Parti Islam se Malaysia) or PAS [Abdul HADI Awang]
Sabah Heritage Party or WARISAN [Shafie APDAL]
Socialist Party of Malaysia (Parti Sosialis Malaysia) or PSM [Mohd Nasir HASHIM]
National Development Party or NDP [YASSIN Affendi]
note: Brunei National Solidarity Party or PPKB [Abdul LATIF bin Chuchu] and People's Awareness Party or PAKAR [Awang Haji MAIDIN bin Haji Ahmad] were deregistered in 2007; parties are small and have limited activity
Political pressure groups and leadersBar Council
BERSIH (electoral reform coalition)
ISMA (Muslim NGO)
PERKASA (defense of Malay rights)
other: religious groups; women's groups; youth groups
NA
International organization participationADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, C, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, C, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador ZULHASNAN Rafique (since 9 January 2017)
chancery: 3516 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 572-9700
FAX: [1] (202) 572-9882
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Serbini ALI (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 3520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838
FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560
consulate(s): New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Joseph Y. YUN (since 2 October 2013)
embassy: 376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur
mailing address: US Embassy Kuala Lumpur, APO AP 96535-8152
telephone: [60] (3) 2168-5000
FAX: [60] (3) 2142-2207
chief of mission: Ambassador Craig B. ALLEN (since 9 March 2015)
embassy: Simpang 336-52-16-9, Jalan Datu, Bandar Seri Begawan, BC4115
mailing address: Unit 4280, Box 40, FPO AP 96507; P.O. Box 2991, Bandar Seri Begawan BS8675, Negara Brunei Darussalam
telephone: [673] 238-4616
FAX: [673] 238-4604
Flag description14 equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white (bottom); there is a dark blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow 14-pointed star; the flag is often referred to as Jalur Gemilang (Stripes of Glory); the 14 stripes stand for the equal status in the federation of the 13 member states and the federal government; the 14 points on the star represent the unity between these entities; the crescent is a traditional symbol of Islam; blue symbolizes the unity of the Malay people and yellow is the royal color of Malay rulers
note: the design is based on the flag of the US
"yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; yellow is the color of royalty and symbolizes the sultanate; the white and black bands denote Brunei's chief ministers; the emblem includes five main components: a swallow-tailed flag, the royal umbrella representing the monarchy, the wings of four feathers symbolizing justice, tranquility, prosperity, and peace, the two upraised hands signifying the government's pledge to preserve and promote the welfare of the people, and the crescent moon denoting Islam, the state religion; the state motto ""Always render service with God's guidance"" appears in yellow Arabic script on the crescent; a ribbon below the crescent reads ""Brunei, the Abode of Peace""
"
National anthem"name: ""Negaraku"" (My Country)
lyrics/music: collective, led by Tunku ABDUL RAHMAN/Pierre Jean DE BERANGER
note: adopted 1957; full version only performed in the presence of the king; the tune, which was adopted from a popular French melody titled ""La Rosalie,"" was originally the anthem of Perak, one of Malaysia's 13 states
"
"name: ""Allah Peliharakan Sultan"" (God Bless His Majesty)
lyrics/music: Pengiran Haji Mohamed YUSUF bin Pengiran Abdul Rahim/Awang Haji BESAR bin Sagap
note: adopted 1951
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)tiger, hibiscus; national colors: red, white, blue, yellow
royal parasol; national colors: yellow, white, black
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Malaysia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 out 12 years preceding application
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Brunei
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 12 years

Economy

MalaysiaBrunei
Economy - overviewMalaysia, an upper middle-income country, has transformed itself since the 1970s from a producer of raw materials into a multi-sector economy. Under current Prime Minister NAJIB, Malaysia is attempting to achieve high-income status by 2020 and to move farther up the value-added production chain by attracting investments in high technology, knowledge-based industries and services. NAJIB's Economic Transformation Program is a series of projects and policy measures intended to accelerate the country's economic growth. The government has also taken steps to liberalize some services sub-sectors. Malaysia is vulnerable to a fall in world commodity prices or a general slowdown in global economic activity.

The NAJIB administration is continuing efforts to boost domestic demand and reduce the economy's dependence on exports. Domestic demand continues to anchor economic growth, supported mainly by private consumption, which accounts for 53% of GDP. Nevertheless, exports - particularly of electronics, oil and gas, and palm oil - remain a significant driver of the economy. In 2015, gross exports of goods and services were equivalent to 73% of GDP. The oil and gas sector supplied about 22% of government revenue in 2015, down significantly from prior years amid a decline in commodity prices and diversification of government revenues. Malaysia has embarked on a fiscal reform program with the aim of achieving a balanced budget by 2020, including rationalization of subsidies and the 2015 introduction of a 6% value added tax. Sustained low commodity prices throughout the period not only strained government finances, but also shrunk Malaysia’s current account surplus and weighed heavily on the Malaysian ringgit, which was among the region’s worst performing currencies during 2015. The ringgit rebounded in early 2016, but hit new lows following U.S. presidential elections amid a broader selloff of emerging market assets.

Bank Negara Malaysia (the central bank) maintains adequate foreign exchange reserves; a well-developed regulatory regime has limited Malaysia's exposure to riskier financial instruments, although it remains vulnerable to volatile global capital flows. In order to increase Malaysia’s competitiveness, NAJIB raised possible revisions to the special economic and social preferences accorded to ethnic Malays under the New Economic Policy of 1970, but retreated in 2013 after he encountered significant opposition from Malay nationalists and other vested interests. In September 2013 NAJIB launched the new Bumiputra Economic Empowerment Program, policies that favor and advance the economic condition of ethnic Malays.

Malaysia signed the 12-nation Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) free trade agreement in February 2016, although the future of the TPP remains unclear following the US withdrawal from the agreement. Along with nine other ASEAN members, Malaysia established the ASEAN Economic Community in 2015, which aims to advance regional economic integration.
Brunei is an energy-rich sultanate on the northern coast of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Brunei boasts a well-educated, largely English-speaking population; excellent infrastructure; and a stable government intent on attracting foreign investment. Crude oil and natural gas production account for approximately 65% of GDP and 95% of exports, with Japan as the primary export market.

Per capita GDP is among the highest in the world, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic hydrocarbon production. Bruneian citizens do not pay personal income taxes, and the government provides free medical services and free education through the university level.

The Bruneian Government wants to diversify its economy away from hydrocarbon exports to other industries such as information and communications technology and halal manufacturing. Brunei’s trade in 2016 is set to increase following its regional economic integration in the ASEAN Economic Community, and the expected ratification of the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$863 billion (2016 est.)
$828.2 billion (2015 est.)
$789 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$33.73 billion (2016 est.)
$33.61 billion (2015 est.)
$33.79 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate4.2% (2016 est.)
5% (2015 est.)
6% (2014 est.)
0.4% (2016 est.)
-0.6% (2015 est.)
-2.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$27,200 (2016 est.)
$26,600 (2015 est.)
$25,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$79,700 (2016 est.)
$80,600 (2015 est.)
$82,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 8.2%
industry: 37.8%
services: 54% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 1.1%
industry: 60.4%
services: 38.5% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line3.8% (2009 est.)
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 34.7% (2009 est.)
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2% (2016 est.)
2.1% (2015 est.)
note: approximately 30% of goods are price-controlled
-0.2% (2016 est.)
-0.4% (2015 est.)
Labor force14.77 million (2016 est.)
203,600 (2014 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 11%
industry: 36%
services: 53% (2012 est.)
agriculture: 4.2%
industry: 62.8%
services: 33% (2008 est.)
Unemployment rate3.3% (2016 est.)
3.2% (2015 est.)
6.9% (2014 est.)
9.3% (2011 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $52.66 billion
expenditures: $63.01 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $2.958 billion
expenditures: $4.618 billion (2016 est.)
IndustriesPeninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, petroleum and natural gas, light manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, medical technology, electronics and semiconductors, timber processing; Sabah - logging, petroleum and natural gas production; Sarawak - agriculture processing, petroleum and natural gas production, logging
petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction, agriculture, transportation
Industrial production growth rate4.2% (2016 est.)
1% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsPeninsular Malaysia - palm oil, rubber, cocoa, rice; Sabah - palm oil, subsistence crops; rubber, timber; Sarawak - palm oil, rubber, timber; pepper
rice, vegetables, fruits; chickens, water buffalo, cattle, goats, eggs
Exports$167.3 billion (2016 est.)
$175.7 billion (2015 est.)
$5.315 billion (2016 est.)
$7.235 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiessemiconductors and electronic equipment, palm oil, petroleum and liquefied natural gas, wood and wood products, palm oil, rubber, textiles, chemicals, solar panels
mineral fuels, organic chemicals
Exports - partnersSingapore 13.9%, China 13%, Japan 9.5%, US 9.4%, Thailand 5.7%, Hong Kong 4.7%, India 4.1% (2015)
Japan 36.1%, South Korea 14.9%, Thailand 10.9%, India 9.3%, NZ 5.6%, Australia 5% (2015)
Imports$139.5 billion (2016 est.)
$147.7 billion (2015 est.)
$3.648 billion (2016 est.)
$3.359 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditieselectronics, machinery, petroleum products, plastics, vehicles, iron and steel products, chemicals
machinery and mechanical appliance parts, mineral fuels, motor vehicles, electric machinery
Imports - partnersChina 18.8%, Singapore 12%, US 8.1%, Japan 7.8%, Thailand 6.1%, South Korea 4.5%, Indonesia 4.5% (2015)
Singapore 27.9%, China 25.3%, Malaysia 12.3%, UK 10.6%, South Korea 4.9% (2015)
Debt - external$187.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$186.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$0 (2014)
$0 (2013)
note: public external debt only; private external debt unavailable
Exchange ratesringgits (MYR) per US dollar -
4.079 (2016 est.)
3.91 (2015 est.)
3.91 (2014 est.)
3.27 (2013 est.)
3.09 (2012 est.)
Bruneian dollars (BND) per US dollar -
1.386 (2016 est.)
1.3749 (2015 est.)
1.3749 (2014 est.)
1.267 (2013 est.)
1.25 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
1 April - 31 March
Current Account Balance$6.067 billion (2016 est.)
$8.874 billion (2015 est.)
$1.061 billion (2016 est.)
$2.072 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$302.7 billion (2016 est.)
$10.46 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$383 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$459 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$500.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$NA
Commercial bank prime lending rate4.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
4.57% (31 December 2015 est.)
5.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
5.5% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$437.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$390.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.909 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.323 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$91.28 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$83.97 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.467 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.31 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$478.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$440.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$10.29 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$10.16 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues17.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
-15.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 55.2%
government consumption: 12.9%
investment in fixed capital: 26%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 66.5%
imports of goods and services: -60.7% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 21.7%
government consumption: 23.6%
investment in fixed capital: 37.6%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 50.8%
imports of goods and services: -33.7% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving27.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
29.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
44.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
55.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
60.5% of GDP (2013 est.)

Energy

MalaysiaBrunei
Electricity - production139 billion kWh (2014 est.)
4.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption131 billion kWh (2014 est.)
3.766 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports12 million kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports23 million kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production654,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
115,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports180,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports299,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
117,600 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves3.6 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
1.1 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves1.183 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
390.8 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production65.42 billion cu m (2014 est.)
10.7 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption35.18 billion cu m (2014 est.)
2.4 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports34.87 billion cu m (2014 est.)
8.3 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports4.63 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity30 million kW (2014 est.)
777,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels87.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
100% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants11.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production544,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
10,910 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption745,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
18,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports243,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
189 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports410,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
6,099 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy208 million Mt (2013 est.)
8.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 100,000
electrification - total population: 99.5%
electrification - urban areas: 99.8%
electrification - rural areas: 98.7% (2013)
population without electricity: 104,788
electrification - total population: 76%
electrification - urban areas: 79%
electrification - rural areas: 67% (2012)

Telecommunications

MalaysiaBrunei
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 4,394,559
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 14 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 38,384
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 44.111 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 145 (July 2015 est.)
total: 463,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 108 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: modern system featuring good intercity service on Peninsular Malaysia provided mainly by microwave radio relay and an adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; international service excellent
domestic: domestic satellite system with 2 earth stations; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 160 per 100 persons
international: country code - 60; landing point for several major international submarine cable networks that provide connectivity to Asia, Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Pacific Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: service throughout the country is good; international service is good to Southeast Asia, Middle East, Western Europe, and the US
domestic: every service available
international: country code - 673; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable network provides new links to Asia and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.my
.bn
Internet userstotal: 21.684 million
percent of population: 71.1% (July 2015 est.)
total: 306,000
percent of population: 71.2% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-owned TV broadcaster operates 2 TV networks with relays throughout the country, and the leading private commercial media group operates 4 TV stations with numerous relays throughout the country; satellite TV subscription service is available; state-owned radio broadcaster operates multiple national networks, as well as regional and local stations; many private commercial radio broadcasters and some subscription satellite radio services are available; about 55 radio stations overall (2012)
state-controlled Radio Television Brunei (RTB) operates 5 channels; 3 Malaysian TV stations are available; foreign TV broadcasts are available via satellite systems; RTB operates 5 radio networks and broadcasts on multiple frequencies; British Forces Broadcast Service (BFBS) provides radio broadcasts on 2 FM stations; some radio broadcast stations from Malaysia are available via repeaters (2017)

Transportation

MalaysiaBrunei
Roadwaystotal: 144,403 km (excludes local roads)
paved: 116,169 km (includes 1,821 km of expressways)
unpaved: 28,234 km (2010)
total: 3,029 km
paved: 2,425 km
unpaved: 604 km (2010)
Waterways7,200 km (Peninsular Malaysia 3,200 km; Sabah 1,500 km; Sarawak 2,500 km) (2011)
209 km (navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m; the Belait, Brunei, and Tutong rivers are major transport links) (2012)
Pipelinescondensate 354 km; gas 6,439 km; liquid petroleum gas 155 km; oil 1,937 km; oil/gas/water 43 km; refined products 114 km; water 26 km (2013)
condensate 33 km; condensate/gas 86 km; gas 628 km; oil 492 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Bintulu, Johor Bahru, George Town (Penang), Port Kelang (Port Klang), Tanjung Pelepas
container port(s) (TEUs): George Town (Penang) (1,202,180), Port Kelang (Port Klang) (9,435,403), Tanjung Pelepas (7,302,461)
LNG terminal(s) (export): Bintulu (Sarawak)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Sungei Udang
major seaport(s): Muara
oil terminal(s): Lumut, Seria
LNG terminal(s) (export): Lumut
Merchant marinetotal: 315
by type: bulk carrier 11, cargo 83, carrier 2, chemical tanker 47, container 41, liquefied gas 34, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 86, roll on/roll off 2, vehicle carrier 5
foreign-owned: 26 (Denmark 1, Hong Kong 8, Japan 2, Russia 2, Singapore 13)
registered in other countries: 82 (Bahamas 13, India 1, Indonesia 1, Isle of Man 6, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 11, Panama 12, Papua New Guinea 1, Philippines 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Singapore 27, Thailand 3, US 2, unknown 2) (2010)
total: 9
by type: chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 8
foreign-owned: 2 (UK 2) (2010)
Airports114 (2013)
1 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 39
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 8 (2013)
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports4 (2013)
3 (2013)

Military

MalaysiaBrunei
Military branchesMalaysian Armed Forces (Angkatan Tentera Malaysia, ATM): Malaysian Army (Tentera Darat Malaysia), Royal Malaysian Navy (Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia, TLDM), Royal Malaysian Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Malaysia, TUDM) (2013)
Royal Brunei Armed Forces: Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei Navy, Royal Brunei Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Brunei) (2013)
Military service age and obligation17 years 6 months of age for voluntary military service (younger with parental consent and proof of age); mandatory retirement age 60; women serve in the Malaysian Armed Forces; no conscription (2013)
17 years of age for voluntary military service; non-Malays are ineligible to serve; recruits from the army, navy, and air force all undergo 43-week initial training (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.54% of GDP (2015)
1.46% of GDP (2014)
1.52% of GDP (2013)
1.43% of GDP (2012)
1.57% of GDP (2011)
3.28% of GDP (2015)
3.08% of GDP (2014)
2.28% of GDP (2013)
2.16% of GDP (2012)
2.24% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

MalaysiaBrunei
Disputes - international"while the 2002 ""Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea"" has eased tensions over the Spratly Islands, it is not the legally binding ""code of conduct"" sought by some parties; Malaysia was not party to the March 2005 joint accord among the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam on conducting marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; disputes continue over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's land reclamation, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries in the Johor and Singapore Straits; in 2008, ICJ awarded sovereignty of Pedra Branca (Pulau Batu Puteh/Horsburgh Island) to Singapore, and Middle Rocks to Malaysia, but did not rule on maritime regimes, boundaries, or disposition of South Ledge; land and maritime negotiations with Indonesia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; separatist violence in Thailand's predominantly Muslim southern provinces prompts measures to close and monitor border with Malaysia to stem terrorist activities; Philippines retains a dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo; per Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor, which divides Brunei; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait
"
per Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor, which divides Brunei; nonetheless, Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Louisa Reef
Illicit drugsdrug trafficking prosecuted vigorously, including enforcement of the death penalty; heroin still primary drug of abuse, but synthetic drug demand remains strong; continued ecstasy and methamphetamine producer for domestic users and, to a lesser extent, the regional drug market
drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty
Refugees and internally displaced persons"refugees (country of origin): 87,036 (Burma) (2016)
stateless persons: 10,931 (2016); note - Malaysia's stateless population consists of Rohingya refugees from Burma, ethnic Indians, and the children of Filipino and Indonesian illegal migrants; Burma stripped the Rohingya of their nationality in 1982; Filipino and Indonesian children who have not have been registered for birth certificates by their parents or who received birth certificates stamped ""foreigner"" are not eligible to attend government schools; these children are vulnerable to statelessness should they not be able to apply to their parents' country of origin for passports
"
stateless persons: 20,524 (2016); note - thousands of stateless persons, often ethnic Chinese, are permanent residents and their families have lived in Brunei for generations; obtaining citizenship is difficult and requires individuals to pass rigorous tests on Malay culture, customs, and language; stateless residents receive an International Certificate of Identity, which enables them to travel overseas; the government is considering changing the law prohibiting non-Bruneians, including stateless permanent residents, from owning land

Source: CIA Factbook