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Malawi vs. Zambia

Introduction

MalawiZambia
BackgroundEstablished in 1891, the British protectorate of Nyasaland became the independent nation of Malawi in 1964. After three decades of one-party rule under President Hastings Kamuzu BANDA, the country held multiparty presidential and parliamentary elections in 1994, under a provisional constitution that came into full effect the following year. President Bingu wa MUTHARIKA, elected in 2004 after a failed attempt by the previous president to amend the constitution to permit another term, struggled to assert his authority against his predecessor and subsequently started his own party, the Democratic Progressive Party in 2005. MUTHARIKA was reelected to a second term in 2009. He oversaw some economic improvement in his first term, but was accused of economic mismanagement and poor governance in his second term. He died abruptly in 2012 and was succeeded by vice president, Joyce BANDA, who had earlier started her own party, the People's Party. MUTHARIKA's brother, Peter MUTHARIKA, defeated BANDA in the 2014 election. Population growth, increasing pressure on agricultural lands, corruption, and the scourge of HIV/AIDS pose major problems for Malawi.
The territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the former British South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices, economic mismanagement, and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule and propelled the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) to government. The subsequent vote in 1996, however, saw increasing harassment of opposition parties and abuse of state media and other resources. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems, with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. MWANAWASA was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair. Upon his death in August 2008, he was succeeded by his vice president, Rupiah BANDA, who won a special presidential byelection later that year. The MMD and BANDA lost to the Patriotic Front (PF) and Michael SATA in the 2011 general elections. SATA, however, presided over a period of haphazard economic management and attempted to silence opposition to PF policies. SATA died in October 2014 and was succeeded by his vice president, Guy SCOTT, who served as interim president until special elections were held in January 2015. Edgar LUNGU won the presidential by election and will complete SATA's term, which expires in August 2016 when new presidential, as well as parliamentary and local elections, will be held.

Geography

MalawiZambia
LocationSouthern Africa, east of Zambia, west and north of Mozambique
Southern Africa, east of Angola, south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates13 30 S, 34 00 E
15 00 S, 30 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 118,484 sq km
land: 94,080 sq km
water: 24,404 sq km
total: 752,618 sq km
land: 743,398 sq km
water: 9,220 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Pennsylvania
almost five times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than Texas
Land boundariestotal: 2,857 km
border countries (3): Mozambique 1,498 km, Tanzania 512 km, Zambia 847 km
total: 6,043.15 km
border countries (8): Angola 1,065 km, Botswana 0.15 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,332 km, Malawi 847 km, Mozambique 439 km, Namibia 244 km, Tanzania 353 km, Zimbabwe 763 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climatesub-tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)
tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
Terrainnarrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills, some mountains
mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 779 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of the Shire River and international boundary with Mozambique 37 m
highest point: Sapitwa (Mount Mlanje) 3,002 m
mean elevation: 1,138 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
highest point: unnamed elevation in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m
Natural resourceslimestone, arable land, hydropower, unexploited deposits of uranium, coal, and bauxite
copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 59.2%
arable land 38.2%; permanent crops 1.4%; permanent pasture 19.6%
forest: 34%
other: 6.8% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 31.7%
arable land 4.8%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 26.9%
forest: 66.3%
other: 2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land740 sq km (2012)
1,560 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsNA
periodic drought; tropical storms (November to April)
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; land degradation; water pollution from agricultural runoff, sewage, industrial wastes; siltation of spawning grounds endangers fish populations
air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; Lake Nyasa, some 580 km long, is the country's most prominent physical feature; it contains more fish species than any other lake on earth
landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)

Demographics

MalawiZambia
Population18,570,321
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
15,510,711
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 46.53% (male 4,299,076/female 4,341,129)
15-24 years: 20.49% (male 1,889,240/female 1,915,843)
25-54 years: 27.26% (male 2,512,247/female 2,549,766)
55-64 years: 3.03% (male 268,691/female 294,713)
65 years and over: 2.69% (male 220,608/female 279,008) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 46.08% (male 3,590,466/female 3,556,756)
15-24 years: 20% (male 1,550,183/female 1,552,706)
25-54 years: 28.65% (male 2,239,661/female 2,204,823)
55-64 years: 2.91% (male 211,039/female 240,156)
65 years and over: 2.35% (male 158,827/female 206,094) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 16.5 years
male: 16.3 years
female: 16.6 years (2016 est.)
total: 16.7 years
male: 16.6 years
female: 16.9 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate3.32% (2016 est.)
2.94% (2016 est.)
Birth rate41.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
41.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
12.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 44.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 51.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 38 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 62.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 68.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 57.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 61.2 years
male: 59.2 years
female: 63.2 years (2016 est.)
total population: 52.5 years
male: 50.8 years
female: 54.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate5.54 children born/woman (2016 est.)
5.67 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate9.11% (2015 est.)
12.91% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Malawian(s)
adjective: Malawian
noun: Zambian(s)
adjective: Zambian
Ethnic groupsChewa 34.7%, Lomwe 19.1%, Yao 13.4%, Ngoni 11.8%, Tumbuka 9.4%, Sena 3.6%, Tonga 1.8%, Nyanja 1.1%, Nkhonde 0.8%, other 1.8% (2015 est.)
Bemba 21%, Tonga 13.6%, Chewa 7.4%, Lozi 5.7%, Nsenga 5.3%, Tumbuka 4.4%, Ngoni 4%, Lala 3.1%, Kaonde 2.9%, Namwanga 2.8%, Lunda (north Western) 2.6%, Mambwe 2.5%, Luvale 2.2%, Lamba 2.1%, Ushi 1.9%, Lenje 1.6%, Bisa 1.6%, Mbunda 1.2%, other 13.8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS976,300 (2015 est.)
1,211,900 (2015 est.)
ReligionsProtestant 26.9%, Catholic 18.1%, other Christian 41.9%, Muslim 12.5%, other 0.1%, none 0.5% (2015 est.)
Protestant 75.3%, Roman Catholic 20.2%, other 2.7% (includes Muslim Buddhist, Hindu, and Baha'i), none 1.8% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths26,700 (2015 est.)
19,800 (2015 est.)
LanguagesEnglish (official), Chichewa (common), Chinyanja, Chiyao, Chitumbuka, Chilomwe, Chinkhonde, Chingoni, Chisena, Chitonga, Chinyakyusa, Chilambya
Bembe 33.4%, Nyanja 14.7%, Tonga 11.4%, Lozi 5.5%, Chewa 4.5%, Nsenga 2.9%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda (North Western) 1.9%, Kaonde 1.8%, Lala 1.8%, Lamba 1.8%, English (official) 1.7%, Luvale 1.5%, Mambwe 1.3%, Namwanga 1.2%, Lenje 1.1%, Bisa 1%, other 9.7%, unspecified 0.2%
note: Zambia is said to have over 70 languages, although many of these may be considered dialects; all of Zambia's major languages are members of the Bantu family (2010 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 65.8%
male: 73%
female: 58.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 63.4%
male: 70.9%
female: 56% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Education expenditures5.6% of GDP (2015)
1.1% of GDP (2008)
Urbanizationurban population: 16.3% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.77% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 40.9% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.32% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 95.7% of population
rural: 89.1% of population
total: 90.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4.3% of population
rural: 10.9% of population
total: 9.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 85.6% of population
rural: 51.3% of population
total: 65.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 14.4% of population
rural: 48.7% of population
total: 34.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 47.3% of population
rural: 39.8% of population
total: 41% of population
unimproved:
urban: 52.7% of population
rural: 60.2% of population
total: 59% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 55.6% of population
rural: 35.7% of population
total: 43.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 44.4% of population
rural: 64.3% of population
total: 56.1% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationLILONGWE (capital) 905,000; Blantyre-Limbe 808,000 (2015)
LUSAKA (capital) 2.179 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate634 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
224 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight16.7% (2014)
14.8% (2014)
Health expenditures11.4% of GDP (2014)
5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.02 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
0.16 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density1.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate4.3% (2014)
7.2% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 993,318
percentage: 26% (2006 est.)
total number: 1,000,850
percentage: 41%
note: data represent children ages 7-14 (2005 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth18.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
19.2 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013/14 est.)
Demographic profileMalawi has made great improvements in maternal and child health, but has made less progress in reducing its high fertility rate. In both rural and urban areas, very high proportions of mothers are receiving prenatal care and skilled birth assistance, and most children are being vaccinated. Malawi’s fertility rate, however, has only declined slowly, decreasing from more than 7 children per woman in the 1980s to about 5.5 today. Nonetheless, Malawians prefer smaller families than in the past, and women are increasingly using contraceptives to prevent or space pregnancies. Rapid population growth and high population density is putting pressure on Malawi’s land, water, and forest resources. Reduced plot sizes and increasing vulnerability to climate change, further threaten the sustainability of Malawi’s agriculturally based economy and will worsen food shortages. About 80% of the population is employed in agriculture.
Historically, Malawians migrated abroad in search of work, primarily to South Africa and present-day Zimbabwe, but international migration became uncommon after the 1970s, and most migration in recent years has been internal. During the colonial period, Malawians regularly migrated to southern Africa as contract farm laborers, miners, and domestic servants. In the decade and a half after independence in 1964, the Malawian Government sought to transform its economy from one dependent on small-scale farms to one based on estate agriculture. The resulting demand for wage labor induced more than 300,000 Malawians to return home between the mid-1960s and the mid-1970s. In recent times, internal migration has generally been local, motivated more by marriage than economic reasons.
Zambia’s poor, youthful population consists primarily of Bantu-speaking people representing nearly 70 different ethnicities. Zambia’s high fertility rate continues to drive rapid population growth, averaging almost 3 percent annually between 2000 and 2010. The country’s total fertility rate has fallen by less than 1.5 children per woman during the last 30 years and still averages among the world’s highest, almost 6 children per woman, largely because of the country’s lack of access to family planning services, education for girls, and employment for women. Zambia also exhibits wide fertility disparities based on rural or urban location, education, and income. Poor, uneducated women from rural areas are more likely to marry young, to give birth early, and to have more children, viewing children as a sign of prestige and recognizing that not all of their children will live to adulthood. HIV/AIDS is prevalent in Zambia and contributes to its low life expectancy.
Zambian emigration is low compared to many other African countries and is comprised predominantly of the well-educated. The small amount of brain drain, however, has a major impact in Zambia because of its limited human capital and lack of educational infrastructure for developing skilled professionals in key fields. For example, Zambia has few schools for training doctors, nurses, and other health care workers. Its spending on education is low compared to other sub-Saharan countries.
Contraceptive prevalence rate58.6% (2013)
49% (2013/14)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 94.5
youth dependency ratio: 87.9
elderly dependency ratio: 6.7
potential support ratio: 14.9 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 95.4
youth dependency ratio: 89.7
elderly dependency ratio: 5.7
potential support ratio: 17.6 (2015 est.)

Government

MalawiZambia
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Malawi
conventional short form: Malawi
local long form: Dziko la Malawi
local short form: Malawi
former: British Central African Protectorate, Nyasaland Protectorate, Nyasaland
etymology: named for the East African Maravi Kingdom of the 16th century; the word ""maravi"" means ""fire flames""
"
conventional long form: Republic of Zambia
conventional short form: Zambia
former: Northern Rhodesia
etymology: name derived from the Zambezi River, which flows through the western part of the country and forms its southern border with neighboring Zimbabwe
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Lilongwe
geographic coordinates: 13 58 S, 33 47 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Lusaka
geographic coordinates: 15 25 S, 28 17 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions28 districts; Balaka, Blantyre, Chikwawa, Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga, Kasungu, Likoma, Lilongwe, Machinga, Mangochi, Mchinji, Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Neno, Ntcheu, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Nsanje, Ntchisi, Phalombe, Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba
10 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Muchinga, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western
Independence6 July 1964 (from the UK)
24 October 1964 (from the UK)
National holidayIndependence Day (Republic Day), 6 July (1964)
Independence Day, 24 October (1964)
Constitutionprevious 1953 (preindependence), 1966; latest drafted January to May 1994, approved 16 May 1994, entered into force 18 May 1995; amended several times, last in 2013 (2017)
several previous; latest adopted 24 August 1991, promulgated 30 August 1991; amended 1996, 2015 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal
mixed legal system of English common law and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Arthur Peter MUTHARIKA (since 31 May 2014); Vice President Saulos CHILIMA (since 31 May 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Arthur Peter MUTHARIKA (since 31 May 2014); Vice President Saulos CHILIMA (since 31 May 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet named by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2019)
election results: Peter MUTHARIKA elected president; percent of vote - Peter MUTHARIKA (DPP) 36.4%, Lazarus CHAKWERA (MCP) 27.8%, Joyce BANDA (PP) 20.2%, Atupele MULUZI (UDF) 13.7%, other 1.9%
chief of state: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president from among members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: Edgar LUNGU reelected president; percent of vote - Edgar LUNGU (PF) 50.4%, Hakainde HICHILEMA (UPND) 47.6%, other 2.0%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly (193 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 20-22 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - DPP 22.0%, MCP 17.4%, PP 18.5%, UDF 9.6%, other 2.8%, independent 29.7%; seats by party - DPP 51, MCP 48, PP 26, UDF 14, other 2, independent 52
description: unicameral National Assembly (164 seats; 156 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, and 8 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms); note - 6 additional electoral seats were added for the 11 August 2016 election, up from 150 electoral seats in the 2011 election
elections: last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PF 80, UPND 58, MMD 3, FDD 1, independent 14
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Appeal (consists of the chief justice and at least 3 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly; other judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission, which regulates judicial officers; judges serve until age 65
subordinate courts: High Court; magistrate courts; Industrial Relations Court; district and city traditional or local courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and deputy chief justices, and at least 11 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice-president, and 11 judges); note - the Constitutional Court began operation in June 2016
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president upon the advice of the 9-member Judicial Service Commission headed by the chief justice, and ratified by the National Assembly; judges normally serve until age 65
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Industrial Relations Court; subordinate courts (three levels, based on upper limit of money involved); Small Claims Court; local courts (2 grades, based on upper limit of money involved)
Political parties and leadersAlliance for Democracy or AFORD [Godfrey SHAWA]
Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [Peter MUTHARIKA]
Malawi Congress Party or MCP [Lazarus CHAKWERA]
People's Party or PP [Joyce BANDA]
United Democratic Front or UDF [Atupele MULUZI]
Alliance for Democracy and Development or ADD [Charles MILUPI]
Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]
Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Nevers MUMBA]
Patriotic Front or PF [Edgar LUNGU]
United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Edward Yakobe SAWERENGERA (since 16 September 2016)
chancery: 2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 721-0270
FAX: [1] (202) 721-0288
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Joseph CHILAIZYA (since 19 September 2016
chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Virginia E. PALMER (since 5 February 2015)
embassy: 16 Jomo Kenyatta Road, Lilongwe 3
mailing address: P.O. Box 30016, Lilongwe 3, Malawi
telephone: [265] (1) 773-166
FAX: [265] (1) 770-471
chief of mission: Ambassador Eric T. SCHULTZ (since 12 December 2014)
embassy: Eastern end of Kabulonga Road, Ibex Hill, Lusaka
mailing address: P. O. Box 320065, Lusaka
telephone: [260] (211) 357-000
FAX: [260] ) (211) 357-224
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with a radiant, rising, red sun centered on the black band; black represents the native peoples, red the blood shed in their struggle for freedom, and green the color of nature; the rising sun represents the hope of freedom for the continent of Africa
green field with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag; green stands for the country's natural resources and vegetation, red symbolizes the struggle for freedom, black the people of Zambia, and orange the country's mineral wealth; the eagle represents the people's ability to rise above the nation's problems
National anthem"name: ""Mulungu dalitsa Malawi"" (Oh God Bless Our Land of Malawi)
lyrics/music: Michael-Fredrick Paul SAUKA
note: adopted 1964
"
"name: ""Lumbanyeni Zambia"" (Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free)
lyrics/music: multiple/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA
note: adopted 1964; the melody, from the popular song ""God Bless Africa,"" is the same as that of Tanzania but with different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)lion; national colors: black, red, green
African fish eagle; national colors: green, red, black, orange
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Malawi
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
citizenship by birth: only if at least one parent is a citizen of Zambia
citizenship by descent: yes, if at least one parent was a citizen of Zambia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years for those with an ancestor who was a citizen of Zambia, otherwise 10 years residency is required

Economy

MalawiZambia
Economy - overviewLandlocked Malawi ranks among the world's most densely populated and least developed countries. The country’s economic performance has historically been constrained by policy inconsistency, macroeconomic instability, limited connectivity to the region and the world, poor infrastructure, rampant corruption, high population growth, and poor health and education outcomes that limit labor productivity. The economy is predominately agricultural with about 80% of the population living in rural areas. Agriculture accounts for about one-third of GDP and 80% of export revenues. The performance of the tobacco sector is key to short-term growth as tobacco accounts for more than half of exports.

The economy depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF, the World Bank, and individual donor nations. In 2006, Malawi was approved for relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program but recent increases in domestic borrowing mean that debt servicing in 2016 exceeded the levels prior to HIPC debt relief. President MUTHARIKA launched the Public Financial Management and Public Sector reform programs upon taking office in 2014 to increase accountability following the 2013 “Cashgate” scandal.

Heavily dependent on rain-fed agriculture, with corn being the staple crop, Malawi’s economy was hit hard by the El Nino-driven drought in 2015-16. The drought also slowed economic activity, led to two consecutive years of declining economic growth, and contributed to high inflation rates. Following a successful humanitarian response in 2016-2017 providing food assistance to 6.7 million people - 40% of the population - and increased transparency by agricultural parastatals, the economy has stabilized and inflation is dropping.
Zambia had one of the world’s fastest growing economies for the ten years up to 2014, with real GDP growth averaging roughly 6.7% per annum, though growth slowed in 2015 and 2016 to just under 3%, due to falling copper prices, reduced power generation, and depreciation of the kwacha. Zambia’s lack of economic diversification and dependency on copper as its sole major export makes it vulnerable to fluctuations in the world commodities market and prices turned downward in 2015 due to declining demand from China; Zambia was overtaken by the Democratic Republic of Congo as Africa’s largest copper producer.

Despite recent strong economic growth and its status as a lower middle-income country, widespread and extreme rural poverty and high unemployment levels remain significant problems, made worse by a high birth rate, a relatively high HIV/AIDS burden, and by market-distorting agricultural and energy policies. . Zambia has raised $7 billion from international investors by issuing separate sovereign bonds in 2012, 2014, and 2015, significantly increasing the country’s public debt burden to 56% of GDP; the government plans to refinance $2.8 billion worth of Eurobonds in 2017 to cut debt servicing costs.

Poor management of water resources has also contributed to a power generation shortage, which has hampered industrial productivity and contributed to an increase in year-on-year inflation to more than 20% in 2016. Zambia’s currency, the kwacha, also depreciated sharply against the dollar through 2015-16, leading the central bank to restrict lending. Rampant spending in recent years has increased the fiscal deficit—over 8% in 2015—and may encourage the government to seek external financing from the IMF to fund the shortfall.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$21.2 billion (2016 est.)
$20.65 billion (2015 est.)
$20.08 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$65.17 billion (2016 est.)
$63.27 billion (2015 est.)
$61.43 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2.7% (2016 est.)
2.8% (2015 est.)
5.7% (2014 est.)
3% (2016 est.)
3% (2015 est.)
4.7% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$1,100 (2016 est.)
$1,100 (2015 est.)
$1,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3,900 (2016 est.)
$3,900 (2015 est.)
$3,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 32%
industry: 17.5%
services: 50.5% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 9.2%
industry: 29.2%
services: 61.7% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line50.7% (2010 est.)
60.5% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 37.5% (2010 est.)
lowest 10%: 1.5%
highest 10%: 47.4% (2010)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)21.8% (2016 est.)
21.9% (2015 est.)
20.7% (2016 est.)
10.1% (2015 est.)
Labor force7 million (2013 est.)
7.116 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 64.1%
industry: 6.7%
services: 29.2% (2013 est.)
agriculture: 85%
industry: 6%
services: 9% (2004)
Unemployment rateNA%
15% (2008 est.)
50% (2000 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index46.1 (2010)
39.9 (2004)
57.5 (2013)
50.8 (2004)
Budgetrevenues: $1.03 billion
expenditures: $1.247 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $3.418 billion
expenditures: $5.079 billion (2016 est.)
Industriestobacco, tea, sugar, sawmill products, cement, consumer goods
copper mining and processing, emerald mining, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture
Industrial production growth rate4% (2016 est.)
0.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productstobacco, sugarcane, tea, corn, potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava (manioc, tapioca), sorghum, pulses, cotton, groundnuts, macadamia nuts, coffee; cattle, goats
corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seeds, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), coffee; cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides
Exports$1.277 billion (2016 est.)
$1.278 billion (2015 est.)
$6.609 billion (2016 est.)
$6.998 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiestobacco 55%, dried legumes (8.8%), sugar (6.7%), tea (5.7%), cotton (2%), peanuts, coffee, soy (2015 est.)
copper/cobalt, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cotton
Exports - partnersBelgium 16.1%, Zimbabwe 12.2%, India 6.7%, US 6.1%, South Africa 6.1%, Russia 5.7%, Germany 4.7% (2015)
Switzerland 44.2%, China 14.5%, Singapore 7.8%, South Africa 7.7%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 7.5% (2015)
Imports$2.578 billion (2016 est.)
$2.607 billion (2015 est.)
$6.752 billion (2016 est.)
$7.711 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfood, petroleum products, semi-manufactures, consumer goods, transportation equipment
machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer, foodstuffs, clothing
Imports - partnersSouth Africa 26%, China 17.5%, India 12.6%, Zambia 7.6%, Tanzania 6.3% (2015)
South Africa 31%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 11.2%, China 8.2%, Mauritius 5.7%, Kenya 4.9%, India 4.3% (2015)
Debt - external$1.921 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.715 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$9.27 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.88 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesMalawian kwachas (MWK) per US dollar -
671.6 (2016 est.)
499.6 (2015 est.)
499.6 (2014 est.)
424.9 (2013 est.)
249.11 (2012 est.)
Zambian kwacha (ZMK) per US dollar -
10.8 (2016 est.)
8.6 (2015 est.)
8.6 (2014 est.)
6.2 (2013 est.)
5.1 (2012 est.)
Fiscal year1 July - 30 June
calendar year
Public debt61.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
54.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
57.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
58.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$605.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$693.1 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.046 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.968 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$849 million (2016 est.)
-$605 million (2015 est.)
-$1.164 billion (2016 est.)
-$768 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$5.474 billion (2016 est.)
$20.57 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$NA
$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$NA
$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares$796.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$936.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.341 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$3.004 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$4.009 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$2.817 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate24% (25 November 2016)
27% (July 2016)
9.1% (31 December 2012)
19% (31 December 2011)
Commercial bank prime lending rate42.88% (December 2016 est.)
44.9% (31 December 2015 est.)
15.7% (31 December 2016 est.)
13.25% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$711.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$724.5 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.672 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.682 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$550.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$512.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.328 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.288 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$1.481 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$5.682 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$5.437 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues18.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
16.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4% of GDP (2016 est.)
-8.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 8.6%
male: 9.1%
female: 8.2% (2013 est.)
total: 15.2%
male: 14.6%
female: 15.8% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 75.1%
government consumption: 17.4%
investment in fixed capital: 11.9%
investment in inventories: 2.6%
exports of goods and services: 42.6%
imports of goods and services: -49.6% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 53%
government consumption: 21.7%
investment in fixed capital: 26%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 43.8%
imports of goods and services: -45.7% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving-4.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
3% of GDP (2015 est.)
3.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
27% of GDP (2016 est.)
31.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
37.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

MalawiZambia
Electricity - production2.1 billion kWh (2016 est.)
14 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption2.1 billion kWh (2015 est.)
11 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2016 est.)
1.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2016 est.)
13 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
12,120 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2016)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity353,100 kW (2017 est.)
2.3 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels0.7% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants99.3% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
99.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
12,760 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption7,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
19,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
966 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports6,843 bbl/day (2017 est.)
8,490 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy1.9 million Mt (2013 est.)
3.5 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 14,900,000
electrification - total population: 9%
electrification - urban areas: 32%
electrification - rural areas: 4% (2013)
population without electricity: 10,700,000
electrification - total population: 26%
electrification - urban areas: 45%
electrification - rural areas: 14% (2013)

Telecommunications

MalawiZambia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 45,678
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 116,165
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 6.116 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 34 (July 2015 est.)
total: 11.558 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 77 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: rudimentary; one fixed-line and two mobile-cellular operators govern the market
domestic: limited fixed-line subscribership of about 1 per 100 households; mobile-cellular services are expanding but network coverage is limited and is based around the main urban areas; mobile-cellular subscribership about 45 per 100 households
international: country code - 265; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
general assessment: among the best in sub-Saharan Africa
domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation and network coverage is improving; domestic satellite system being installed to improve telephone service in rural areas; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms
international: country code - 260; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 3 owned by Zamtel (2010)
Internet country code.mw
.zm
Internet userstotal: 1.67 million
percent of population: 9.3% (July 2015 est.)
total: 3.164 million
percent of population: 21% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediaradio is the main broadcast medium; privately owned Zodiak radio has the widest national broadcasting reach, followed by state-run radio; numerous private and community radio stations broadcast in cities and towns around the country; the largest TV network is government-owned, but at least 4 private TV networks broadcast in urban areas; relays of multiple international broadcasters are available (2017)
state-owned Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation (ZNBC) operates 3 TV stations, is the principal local-content provider, and owns about 45% of multi-channel Zambia shares; several private TV stations and multi-channel subscription TV services are available; ZNBC operates 4 radio networks; 64 private radio stations are available (most regionally) and relays of at least 2 international broadcasters — including BBC and Radio France International – are accessible in Lusaka and Kitwe (2015)

Transportation

MalawiZambia
Railwaystotal: 767 km
narrow gauge: 767 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
total: 3,126 km
narrow gauge: 3,126 km 1.067-m gauge
note: includes 1,860 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 15,450 km
paved: 6,951 km
unpaved: 8,499 km (2011)
total: 40,454 km
paved: 9,403 km
unpaved: 31,051 km (2005)
Waterways700 km (on Lake Nyasa [Lake Malawi] and Shire River) (2010)
2,250 km (includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and Luapula rivers) (2010)
Ports and terminalslake port(s): Chipoka, Monkey Bay, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Chilumba (Lake Nyasa)
river port(s): Mpulungu (Zambezi)
Airports32 (2013)
88 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
total: 8
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 25
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 13 (2013)
total: 80
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 53
under 914 m: 21 (2013)

Military

MalawiZambia
Military branchesMalawi Defense Forces (MDF): Army (includes Air Wing, Marine Unit) (2012)
Zambian Defense Force (ZDF): Zambia Army, Zambia Air Force, Zambia National Service (support organization) (2015)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; high school equivalent required for enlisted recruits and college equivalent for officer recruits; initial engagement is 7 years for enlisted personnel and 10 years for officers (2014)
national registration required at age 16; 18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription; Zambian citizenship required; grade 12 certification required; mandatory HIV testing on enlistment; mandatory retirement for officers at age 65 (Army, Air Force) (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.66% of GDP (2015)
0.89% of GDP (2014)
1.24% of GDP (2013)
0.82% of GDP (2012)
0.66% of GDP (2011)
1.75% of GDP (2015)
1.63% of GDP (2014)
1.36% of GDP (2013)
1.36% of GDP (2012)
1.32% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

MalawiZambia
Disputes - internationaldispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River; Malawi contends that the entire lake up to the Tanzanian shoreline is its territory, while Tanzania claims the border is in the center of the lake; the conflict was reignited in 2012 when Malawi awarded a license to a British company for oil exploration in the lake
in 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 5,444 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2016)
IDPs: 8,463 (floods in 2015) (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 21,338 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook