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Malawi vs. Tanzania

Introduction

MalawiTanzania
BackgroundEstablished in 1891, the British protectorate of Nyasaland became the independent nation of Malawi in 1964. After three decades of one-party rule under President Hastings Kamuzu BANDA, the country held multiparty presidential and parliamentary elections in 1994, under a provisional constitution that came into full effect the following year. President Bingu wa MUTHARIKA, elected in 2004 after a failed attempt by the previous president to amend the constitution to permit another term, struggled to assert his authority against his predecessor and subsequently started his own party, the Democratic Progressive Party in 2005. MUTHARIKA was reelected to a second term in 2009. He oversaw some economic improvement in his first term, but was accused of economic mismanagement and poor governance in his second term. He died abruptly in 2012 and was succeeded by vice president, Joyce BANDA, who had earlier started her own party, the People's Party. MUTHARIKA's brother, Peter MUTHARIKA, defeated BANDA in the 2014 election. Population growth, increasing pressure on agricultural lands, corruption, and the scourge of HIV/AIDS pose major problems for Malawi.
Shortly after achieving independence from Britain in the early 1960s, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the United Republic of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule ended in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities. The formation of a government of national unity between Zanzibar's two leading parties succeeded in minimizing electoral tension in 2010.

Geography

MalawiTanzania
LocationSouthern Africa, east of Zambia, west and north of Mozambique
Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique
Geographic coordinates13 30 S, 34 00 E
6 00 S, 35 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 118,484 sq km
land: 94,080 sq km
water: 24,404 sq km
total: 947,300 sq km
land: 885,800 sq km
water: 61,500 sq km
note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Pennsylvania
more than six times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than twice the size of California
Land boundariestotal: 2,857 km
border countries (3): Mozambique 1,498 km, Tanzania 512 km, Zambia 847 km
total: 4,161 km
border countries (8): Burundi 589 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 479 km, Kenya 775 km, Malawi 512 km, Mozambique 840 km, Rwanda 222 km, Uganda 391 km, Zambia 353 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
1,424 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatesub-tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)
varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
Terrainnarrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills, some mountains
plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 779 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of the Shire River and international boundary with Mozambique 37 m
highest point: Sapitwa (Mount Mlanje) 3,002 m
mean elevation: 1,018 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m (highest point in Africa)
Natural resourceslimestone, arable land, hydropower, unexploited deposits of uranium, coal, and bauxite
hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel
Land useagricultural land: 59.2%
arable land 38.2%; permanent crops 1.4%; permanent pasture 19.6%
forest: 34%
other: 6.8% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 43.7%
arable land 14.3%; permanent crops 2.3%; permanent pasture 27.1%
forest: 37.3%
other: 19% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land740 sq km (2012)
1,840 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsNA
flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought
volcanism: limited volcanic activity; Ol Doinyo Lengai (elev. 2,962 m) has emitted lava in recent years; other historically active volcanoes include Kieyo and Meru
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; land degradation; water pollution from agricultural runoff, sewage, industrial wastes; siltation of spawning grounds endangers fish populations
soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; Lake Nyasa, some 580 km long, is the country's most prominent physical feature; it contains more fish species than any other lake on earth
Kilimanjaro is the highest point in Africa and one of only two mountains on the continent that has glaciers (the other is Mount Kenya); bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) in the southwest

Demographics

MalawiTanzania
Population18,570,321
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
52,482,726
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 46.53% (male 4,299,076/female 4,341,129)
15-24 years: 20.49% (male 1,889,240/female 1,915,843)
25-54 years: 27.26% (male 2,512,247/female 2,549,766)
55-64 years: 3.03% (male 268,691/female 294,713)
65 years and over: 2.69% (male 220,608/female 279,008) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 44.06% (male 11,678,349/female 11,444,708)
15-24 years: 19.71% (male 5,173,239/female 5,169,214)
25-54 years: 29.74% (male 7,840,941/female 7,767,797)
55-64 years: 3.5% (male 802,760/female 1,034,151)
65 years and over: 2.99% (male 668,102/female 903,465) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 16.5 years
male: 16.3 years
female: 16.6 years (2016 est.)
total: 17.6 years
male: 17.3 years
female: 17.9 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate3.32% (2016 est.)
2.77% (2016 est.)
Birth rate41.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
36 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 44.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 51.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 38 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 41.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 43.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 39.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 61.2 years
male: 59.2 years
female: 63.2 years (2016 est.)
total population: 62.2 years
male: 60.8 years
female: 63.6 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate5.54 children born/woman (2016 est.)
4.83 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate9.11% (2015 est.)
4.69% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Malawian(s)
adjective: Malawian
noun: Tanzanian(s)
adjective: Tanzanian
Ethnic groupsChewa 34.7%, Lomwe 19.1%, Yao 13.4%, Ngoni 11.8%, Tumbuka 9.4%, Sena 3.6%, Tonga 1.8%, Nyanja 1.1%, Nkhonde 0.8%, other 1.8% (2015 est.)
mainland - African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, African, mixed Arab and African
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS976,300 (2015 est.)
1,385,800 (2015 est.)
ReligionsProtestant 26.9%, Catholic 18.1%, other Christian 41.9%, Muslim 12.5%, other 0.1%, none 0.5% (2015 est.)
Christian 61.4%, Muslim 35.2%, folk religion 1.8%, other 0.2%, unaffiliated 1.4%
note: Zanzibar is almost entirely Muslim (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths26,700 (2015 est.)
35,700 (2015 est.)
LanguagesEnglish (official), Chichewa (common), Chinyanja, Chiyao, Chitumbuka, Chilomwe, Chinkhonde, Chingoni, Chisena, Chitonga, Chinyakyusa, Chilambya
Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages
note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources including Arabic and English; it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 65.8%
male: 73%
female: 58.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic
total population: 70.6%
male: 75.9%
female: 65.4% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis and leptospirosis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2011)
total: 8 years
male: 8 years
female: 8 years (2013)
Education expenditures5.6% of GDP (2015)
3.5% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 16.3% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.77% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 31.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.36% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 95.7% of population
rural: 89.1% of population
total: 90.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4.3% of population
rural: 10.9% of population
total: 9.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 77.2% of population
rural: 45.5% of population
total: 55.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 22.1% of population
rural: 56% of population
total: 46.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 47.3% of population
rural: 39.8% of population
total: 41% of population
unimproved:
urban: 52.7% of population
rural: 60.2% of population
total: 59% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 31.3% of population
rural: 8.3% of population
total: 15.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 68.7% of population
rural: 91.7% of population
total: 84.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationLILONGWE (capital) 905,000; Blantyre-Limbe 808,000 (2015)
DAR ES SALAAM (capital) 5.116 million; Mwanza 838,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate634 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
398 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight16.7% (2014)
13.6% (2011)
Health expenditures11.4% of GDP (2014)
5.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.02 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density1.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate4.3% (2014)
5.9% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 993,318
percentage: 26% (2006 est.)
total number: 2,815,085
percentage: 21%
note: data represent children ages 5-17 and does not include Zanzibar (2006 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth18.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
19.6 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
Demographic profileMalawi has made great improvements in maternal and child health, but has made less progress in reducing its high fertility rate. In both rural and urban areas, very high proportions of mothers are receiving prenatal care and skilled birth assistance, and most children are being vaccinated. Malawi’s fertility rate, however, has only declined slowly, decreasing from more than 7 children per woman in the 1980s to about 5.5 today. Nonetheless, Malawians prefer smaller families than in the past, and women are increasingly using contraceptives to prevent or space pregnancies. Rapid population growth and high population density is putting pressure on Malawi’s land, water, and forest resources. Reduced plot sizes and increasing vulnerability to climate change, further threaten the sustainability of Malawi’s agriculturally based economy and will worsen food shortages. About 80% of the population is employed in agriculture.
Historically, Malawians migrated abroad in search of work, primarily to South Africa and present-day Zimbabwe, but international migration became uncommon after the 1970s, and most migration in recent years has been internal. During the colonial period, Malawians regularly migrated to southern Africa as contract farm laborers, miners, and domestic servants. In the decade and a half after independence in 1964, the Malawian Government sought to transform its economy from one dependent on small-scale farms to one based on estate agriculture. The resulting demand for wage labor induced more than 300,000 Malawians to return home between the mid-1960s and the mid-1970s. In recent times, internal migration has generally been local, motivated more by marriage than economic reasons.
Tanzania has the largest population in East Africa and the lowest population density; almost a third of the population is urban. Tanzania’s youthful population – about two-thirds of the population is under 25 – is growing rapidly because of the high total fertility rate of 4.8 children per woman. Progress in reducing the birth rate has stalled, sustaining the country’s nearly 3% annual growth. The maternal mortality rate has improved since 2000, yet it remains very high because of early and frequent pregnancies, inadequate maternal health services, and a lack of skilled birth attendants – problems that are worse among poor and rural women. Tanzania has made strides in reducing under-5 and infant mortality rates, but a recent drop in immunization threatens to undermine gains in child health. Malaria is a leading killer of children under 5, while HIV is the main source of adult mortality
For Tanzania, most migration is internal, rural to urban movement, while some temporary labor migration from towns to plantations takes place seasonally for harvests. Tanzania was Africa’s largest refugee-hosting country for decades, hosting hundreds of thousands of refugees from the Great Lakes region, primarily Burundi, over the last fifty years. However, the assisted repatriation and naturalization of tens of thousands of Burundian refugees between 2002 and 2014 dramatically reduced the refugee population. Tanzania is increasingly a transit country for illegal migrants from the Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes region who are heading to southern Africa for security reasons and/or economic opportunities. Some of these migrants choose to settle in Tanzania.
Contraceptive prevalence rate58.6% (2013)
34.4% (2009/10)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 94.5
youth dependency ratio: 87.9
elderly dependency ratio: 6.7
potential support ratio: 14.9 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 93.8
youth dependency ratio: 87.6
elderly dependency ratio: 6.2
potential support ratio: 16.1 (2015 est.)

Government

MalawiTanzania
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Malawi
conventional short form: Malawi
local long form: Dziko la Malawi
local short form: Malawi
former: British Central African Protectorate, Nyasaland Protectorate, Nyasaland
etymology: named for the East African Maravi Kingdom of the 16th century; the word ""maravi"" means ""fire flames""
"
conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form: Tanzania
local long form: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania
local short form: Tanzania
former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
etymology: the country's name is a combination of the first letters of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the two states that merged to form Tanzania in 1964
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Lilongwe
geographic coordinates: 13 58 S, 33 47 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Dodoma; note - officially changed in 1996; serves as the meeting place for the National Assembly; de facto the capital remains in Dar es Salaam, the country's largest city and commercial center, and the site of the executive branch offices and diplomatic representation
geographic coordinates: 6 48 S, 39 17 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions28 districts; Balaka, Blantyre, Chikwawa, Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga, Kasungu, Likoma, Lilongwe, Machinga, Mangochi, Mchinji, Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Neno, Ntcheu, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Nsanje, Ntchisi, Phalombe, Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba
30 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Geita, Iringa, Kagera, Kaskazini Pemba (Pemba North), Kaskazini Unguja (Zanzibar North), Katavi, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Kusini Pemba (Pemba South), Kusini Unguja (Zanzibar Central/South), Lindi, Manyara, Mara, Mbeya, Mjini Magharibi (Zanzibar Urban/West), Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Njombe, Pwani (Coast), Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Simiyu, Singida, Tabora, Tanga
Independence6 July 1964 (from the UK)
26 April 1964 (Tanganyika united with Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar); 29 October 1964 (renamed United Republic of Tanzania); notable earlier dates: 9 December 1961 (Tanganyika became independent from UK-administered UN trusteeship); 10 December 1963 (Zanzibar became independent from UK)
National holidayIndependence Day (Republic Day), 6 July (1964)
Union Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar), 26 April (1964)
Constitutionprevious 1953 (preindependence), 1966; latest drafted January to May 1994, approved 16 May 1994, entered into force 18 May 1995; amended several times, last in 2013 (2017)
several previous; latest adopted 25 April 1977; amended many times, last in 2012; note - in 2012, the Tanzania Constitutional Review Commission was formed, and in June 2013, completed the first draft of a new constitution and a second version in December; a 640-member Constituent Assembly, formed in February 2014, passed a new constitution draft in October; a national referendum planned for April 2015 has been postponed (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal
English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Arthur Peter MUTHARIKA (since 31 May 2014); Vice President Saulos CHILIMA (since 31 May 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Arthur Peter MUTHARIKA (since 31 May 2014); Vice President Saulos CHILIMA (since 31 May 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet named by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2019)
election results: Peter MUTHARIKA elected president; percent of vote - Peter MUTHARIKA (DPP) 36.4%, Lazarus CHAKWERA (MCP) 27.8%, Joyce BANDA (PP) 20.2%, Atupele MULUZI (UDF) 13.7%, other 1.9%
chief of state: President John MAGUFULI (since 5 November 2015); Vice President Samia SULUHU (since 5 November 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President John MAGUFULI, Dr. (since 5 November 2015); Vice President Samia SULUHU (since 5 November 2015); note - Prime Minister Kassim Majaliwa MAJALIWA (since 20 November 2015) has authority over the day-to-day functions of the government, is the leader of government business in the National Assembly, and is head of the Cabinet
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in October 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: John MAGUFULI elected president; percent of vote - John MAGUFULI (CCM) 58.5%, Edward LOWASSA (CHADEMA) 40%, other 1.5%
note: Zanzibar elects a president as head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; election held on 25 October 2015 was annulled by the Zanzibar Electoral Commission and rerun on 20 March 2016; President Ali Mohamed SHEIN reelected; percent of vote - Ali Mohamed SHEIN 91.4%, Hamad Rashid MOHAMED 3%, other 5.6%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly (193 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 20-22 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - DPP 22.0%, MCP 17.4%, PP 18.5%, UDF 9.6%, other 2.8%, independent 29.7%; seats by party - DPP 51, MCP 48, PP 26, UDF 14, other 2, independent 52
description: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (Bunge) (357 seats; 239 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 102 women directly elected by proportional representation vote, 5 indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the Zanzibar House of Representatives, 10 appointed by the president, and 1 seat reserved for the attorney general; members serve a 5-year term); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the National Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives or Baraza La Wawakilishi (81 seats; 50 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 15 women directly elected by proportional representation vote, 10 appointed by the Zanzibar president, 5 seats reserved for government appointed regional commissioners, and 1 seat for the attorney general; elected members serve a 5-year term)
elections: Tanzania National Assembly and Zanzibar House of Representatives elections last held on 25 October 2015 (next National Assembly election to be held in October 2020; next Zanzibar election NA; note the Zanzibar Electoral Commission annulled the 2015 election; no date for repoll announced as of early November)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
Zanzibar House of Representatives - election annulled
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Appeal (consists of the chief justice and at least 3 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly; other judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission, which regulates judicial officers; judges serve until age 65
subordinate courts: High Court; magistrate courts; Industrial Relations Court; district and city traditional or local courts
highest court(s): Court of Appeal of the United Republic of Tanzania (consists of the chief justice and 14 justices); High Court of the United Republic for Mainland Tanzania (consists of the principal judge and 30 judges organized into commercial, land, and labor courts); High Court of Zanzibar (consists of the chief justice and 10 justices)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court justices appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Service Commission for Tanzania, a judicial body of high level judges and 2 members appointed by the national president; Court of Appeal and High Court judges appointed until mandatory retirement at age 60 but can be extended; High Court of Zanzibar judges appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Commission of Zanzibar; judges may serve until mandatory retirement at age 65
subordinate courts: Resident Magistrates Courts; Kadhi courts (for Islamic family matters); district and primary courts
Political parties and leadersAlliance for Democracy or AFORD [Godfrey SHAWA]
Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [Peter MUTHARIKA]
Malawi Congress Party or MCP [Lazarus CHAKWERA]
People's Party or PP [Joyce BANDA]
United Democratic Front or UDF [Atupele MULUZI]
Civic United Front or CUF (Chama Cha Wananchi [Seif Shariff HAMAD, Secretary General]
National Convention for Construction and Reform - Mageuzi or NCCR-M [James Francis MBATCA]
Party of Democracy and Development or CHADEMA (Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo) [Freeman MBOWE]
Revolutionary Party or CCM (Chama Cha Mapinduzi) [John MAGUFULI]
Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine MREMA]
United Democratic Party or UDP [John Momose CHEYO]
Note: in March 2014, four opposition parties (CUF, CHADEMA, NCCR-Mageuzi, and the National League for Democracy) united to form Umoja wa Katiba ya Wananchi (Coalition for the People's Constituion) or UKAWA; during local elections held in October, 2014, UKAWA entered one candidate representing the three parties united in the coalition
Political pressure groups and leadersCouncil for NGOs in Malawi or CONGOMA (human rights, democracy, and development)
Human Rights Consultative Committee or HRCC (human rights)
Malawi Economic Justice Network or MEJN (pro economic growth, development, government accountability)
Malawi Law Society (an umbrella organization of all lawyers in Malawi)
Public Affairs Committee or PAC (promotes democracy, development, peace and unity)
Economic and Social Research Foundation or ESRF
Free Zanzibar
Tanzania Media Women's Association or TAMWA
Tanzania Private Sector Foundation or TPSF
Twaweza
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, EAC, EADB, EITI, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Edward Yakobe SAWERENGERA (since 16 September 2016)
chancery: 2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 721-0270
FAX: [1] (202) 721-0288
chief of mission: Ambassador Wilson MASILINGI (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 1232 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125
FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Virginia E. PALMER (since 5 February 2015)
embassy: 16 Jomo Kenyatta Road, Lilongwe 3
mailing address: P.O. Box 30016, Lilongwe 3, Malawi
telephone: [265] (1) 773-166
FAX: [265] (1) 770-471
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Virginia BLASER (since October 2016)
embassy: 686 Old Bagamoyo Road, Msasani, Dar es Salaam
mailing address: P.O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam
telephone: [255] (22) 229-4000
FAX: [255] (22) 229-4970 or 4971
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with a radiant, rising, red sun centered on the black band; black represents the native peoples, red the blood shed in their struggle for freedom, and green the color of nature; the rising sun represents the hope of freedom for the continent of Africa
divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue; the banner combines colors found on the flags of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; green represents the natural vegetation of the country, gold its rich mineral deposits, black the native Swahili people, and blue the country's many lakes and rivers, as well as the Indian Ocean
National anthem"name: ""Mulungu dalitsa Malawi"" (Oh God Bless Our Land of Malawi)
lyrics/music: Michael-Fredrick Paul SAUKA
note: adopted 1964
"
"name: ""Mungu ibariki Afrika"" (God Bless Africa)
lyrics/music: collective/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA
note: adopted 1961; the anthem, which is also a popular song in Africa, shares the same melody with that of Zambia, but has different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)lion; national colors: black, red, green
Uhuru (Freedom) torch, giraffe; national colors: green, yellow, blue, black
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Malawi
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tanzania; if a child is born abroad, the father must be a citizen of Tanzania
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

MalawiTanzania
Economy - overviewLandlocked Malawi ranks among the world's most densely populated and least developed countries. The country’s economic performance has historically been constrained by policy inconsistency, macroeconomic instability, limited connectivity to the region and the world, poor infrastructure, rampant corruption, high population growth, and poor health and education outcomes that limit labor productivity. The economy is predominately agricultural with about 80% of the population living in rural areas. Agriculture accounts for about one-third of GDP and 80% of export revenues. The performance of the tobacco sector is key to short-term growth as tobacco accounts for more than half of exports.

The economy depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF, the World Bank, and individual donor nations. In 2006, Malawi was approved for relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program but recent increases in domestic borrowing mean that debt servicing in 2016 exceeded the levels prior to HIPC debt relief. President MUTHARIKA launched the Public Financial Management and Public Sector reform programs upon taking office in 2014 to increase accountability following the 2013 “Cashgate” scandal.

Heavily dependent on rain-fed agriculture, with corn being the staple crop, Malawi’s economy was hit hard by the El Nino-driven drought in 2015-16. The drought also slowed economic activity, led to two consecutive years of declining economic growth, and contributed to high inflation rates. Following a successful humanitarian response in 2016-2017 providing food assistance to 6.7 million people - 40% of the population - and increased transparency by agricultural parastatals, the economy has stabilized and inflation is dropping.
Tanzania is one of the world's poorest economies in terms of per capita income, but has achieved high growth rates based on its vast natural resource wealth and tourism. GDP growth in 2009-16 averaged 6-7% per year. Dar es Salaam used fiscal stimulus measures and easier monetary policies to lessen the impact of the global recession. Tanzania has largely completed its transition to a market economy, though the government retains a presence in sectors such as telecommunications, banking, energy, and mining.

The economy depends on agriculture, which accounts for more than one-quarter of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs about 65% of the work force. All land in Tanzania is owned by the government, which can lease land for up to 99 years. Proposed reforms to allow for land ownership, particularly foreign land ownership, remain unpopular.

The financial sector in Tanzania has expanded in recent years and foreign-owned banks account for about 48% of the banking industry's total assets. Competition among foreign commercial banks has resulted in significant improvements in the efficiency and quality of financial services, though interest rates are still relatively high, reflecting high fraud risk. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private-sector growth and investment.

The World Bank, the IMF, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's aging infrastructure, including rail and port, which provide important trade links for inland countries. In 2013, Tanzania completed the world's largest Millennium Challenge Compact (MCC) grant, worth $698 million, but in late 2015, the MCC Board of Directors deferred a decision to renew Tanzania’s eligibility because of irregularities in voting in Zanzibar and concerns over the governments use of a controversial cybercrime bill.

Under the new government elected in 2015, Tanzania has developed an ambitious development agenda focused on creating a better business environment through improved infrastructure, access to financing, and education progress, but implementing budgets remains challenging for the government.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$21.2 billion (2016 est.)
$20.65 billion (2015 est.)
$20.08 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$150.6 billion (2016 est.)
$140.6 billion (2015 est.)
$131.4 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2.7% (2016 est.)
2.8% (2015 est.)
5.7% (2014 est.)
7.2% (2016 est.)
7% (2015 est.)
7% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$1,100 (2016 est.)
$1,100 (2015 est.)
$1,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3,100 (2016 est.)
$2,900 (2015 est.)
$2,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 32%
industry: 17.5%
services: 50.5% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 25.1%
industry: 27.6%
services: 47.3% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line50.7% (2010 est.)
22.8% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 37.5% (2010 est.)
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2007)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)21.8% (2016 est.)
21.9% (2015 est.)
5.2% (2016 est.)
5.6% (2015 est.)
Labor force7 million (2013 est.)
26.96 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 64.1%
industry: 6.7%
services: 29.2% (2013 est.)
agriculture: 66.9%
industry: 6.4%
services: 26.6% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rateNA%
NA%
Distribution of family income - Gini index46.1 (2010)
39.9 (2004)
37.6 (2007)
34.6 (2000)
Budgetrevenues: $1.03 billion
expenditures: $1.247 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $6.257 billion
expenditures: $8.084 billion (2016 est.)
Industriestobacco, tea, sugar, sawmill products, cement, consumer goods
agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine); mining (diamonds, gold, and iron), salt, soda ash; cement, oil refining, shoes, apparel, wood products, fertilizer
Industrial production growth rate4% (2016 est.)
6% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productstobacco, sugarcane, tea, corn, potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava (manioc, tapioca), sorghum, pulses, cotton, groundnuts, macadamia nuts, coffee; cattle, goats
coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves, corn, wheat, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Exports$1.277 billion (2016 est.)
$1.278 billion (2015 est.)
$5.985 billion (2016 est.)
$5.709 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiestobacco 55%, dried legumes (8.8%), sugar (6.7%), tea (5.7%), cotton (2%), peanuts, coffee, soy (2015 est.)
gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton
Exports - partnersBelgium 16.1%, Zimbabwe 12.2%, India 6.7%, US 6.1%, South Africa 6.1%, Russia 5.7%, Germany 4.7% (2015)
India 21.8%, China 8.2%, Japan 5.1%, Kenya 4.6%, Belgium 4.3% (2015)
Imports$2.578 billion (2016 est.)
$2.607 billion (2015 est.)
$9.976 billion (2016 est.)
$9.843 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfood, petroleum products, semi-manufactures, consumer goods, transportation equipment
consumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil
Imports - partnersSouth Africa 26%, China 17.5%, India 12.6%, Zambia 7.6%, Tanzania 6.3% (2015)
China 35.2%, India 13.7%, South Africa 4.5%, UAE 4.4%, Kenya 4.1% (2015)
Debt - external$1.921 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.715 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$15.89 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesMalawian kwachas (MWK) per US dollar -
671.6 (2016 est.)
499.6 (2015 est.)
499.6 (2014 est.)
424.9 (2013 est.)
249.11 (2012 est.)
Tanzanian shillings (TZS) per US dollar -
2,182.3 (2016 est.)
1,989.7 (2015 est.)
1,989.7 (2014 est.)
1,654 (2013 est.)
1,583 (2012 est.)
Fiscal year1 July - 30 June
1 July - 30 June
Public debt61.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
54.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
36.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
34.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$605.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$693.1 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.771 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.073 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: excludes gold
Current Account Balance-$849 million (2016 est.)
-$605 million (2015 est.)
-$2.98 billion (2016 est.)
-$3.637 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$5.474 billion (2016 est.)
$46.7 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$NA
$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$NA
$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares$796.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$936.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.341 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.803 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.539 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.264 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate24% (25 November 2016)
27% (July 2016)
8.25% (31 December 2010)
3.7% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate42.88% (December 2016 est.)
44.9% (31 December 2015 est.)
14.2% (31 December 2016 est.)
16.1% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$711.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$724.5 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$11.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.484 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$550.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$512.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.957 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.457 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$1.481 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$8.072 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$7.533 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues18.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
13.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4% of GDP (2016 est.)
-3.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 8.6%
male: 9.1%
female: 8.2% (2013 est.)
total: 5.8%
male: 4.5%
female: 7.2% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 75.1%
government consumption: 17.4%
investment in fixed capital: 11.9%
investment in inventories: 2.6%
exports of goods and services: 42.6%
imports of goods and services: -49.6% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 62.3%
government consumption: 13.4%
investment in fixed capital: 36.5%
investment in inventories: -5.9%
exports of goods and services: 22.9%
imports of goods and services: -29.2% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving-4.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
3% of GDP (2015 est.)
3.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
21.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
22% of GDP (2015 est.)
21.9% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

MalawiTanzania
Electricity - production2.1 billion kWh (2016 est.)
6.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption2.1 billion kWh (2015 est.)
5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2016 est.)
60 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2016)
6.513 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2017 est.)
550 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2017 est.)
550 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity353,100 kW (2017 est.)
1.2 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels0.7% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
33.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants99.3% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
66.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption7,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
58,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports6,843 bbl/day (2017 est.)
55,380 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy1.9 million Mt (2013 est.)
10 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 14,900,000
electrification - total population: 9%
electrification - urban areas: 32%
electrification - rural areas: 4% (2013)
population without electricity: 37,400,000
electrification - total population: 24%
electrification - urban areas: 71%
electrification - rural areas: 4% (2013)

Telecommunications

MalawiTanzania
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 45,678
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 142,819
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 6.116 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 34 (July 2015 est.)
total: 39.666 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 78 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: rudimentary; one fixed-line and two mobile-cellular operators govern the market
domestic: limited fixed-line subscribership of about 1 per 100 households; mobile-cellular services are expanding but network coverage is limited and is based around the main urban areas; mobile-cellular subscribership about 45 per 100 households
international: country code - 265; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
general assessment: telecommunications services are marginal; system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service
domestic: fixed-line telephone network inadequate with less than 1 connection per 100 persons; mobile-cellular service, aided by multiple providers, is increasing rapidly and exceeds 75 telephones per 100 persons; trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital
international: country code - 255; landing point for the EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable system linking East Africa with Europe and North America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.mw
.tz
Internet userstotal: 1.67 million
percent of population: 9.3% (July 2015 est.)
total: 2.734 million
percent of population: 5.4% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediaradio is the main broadcast medium; privately owned Zodiak radio has the widest national broadcasting reach, followed by state-run radio; numerous private and community radio stations broadcast in cities and towns around the country; the largest TV network is government-owned, but at least 4 private TV networks broadcast in urban areas; relays of multiple international broadcasters are available (2017)
a state-owned TV station and multiple privately owned TV stations; state-owned national radio station supplemented by more than 40 privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)

Transportation

MalawiTanzania
Railwaystotal: 767 km
narrow gauge: 767 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
total: 4,567 km
narrow gauge: 1,860 km 1.067-m gauge; 2,707 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 15,450 km
paved: 6,951 km
unpaved: 8,499 km (2011)
total: 86,472 km
paved: 7,092 km
unpaved: 79,380 km (2010)
Waterways700 km (on Lake Nyasa [Lake Malawi] and Shire River) (2010)
(Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) are the principal avenues of commerce with neighboring countries; the rivers are not navigable) (2011)
Ports and terminalslake port(s): Chipoka, Monkey Bay, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Chilumba (Lake Nyasa)
major seaport(s): Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar
Airports32 (2013)
166 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
total: 10
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 25
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 13 (2013)
total: 156
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
914 to 1,523 m: 98
under 914 m: 33 (2013)

Military

MalawiTanzania
Military branchesMalawi Defense Forces (MDF): Army (includes Air Wing, Marine Unit) (2012)
Tanzania People's Defense Force (Jeshi la Wananchi la Tanzania, JWTZ): Army, Naval Wing (includes Coast Guard), Air Defense Command (includes Air Wing), National Service (2007)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; high school equivalent required for enlisted recruits and college equivalent for officer recruits; initial engagement is 7 years for enlisted personnel and 10 years for officers (2014)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.66% of GDP (2015)
0.89% of GDP (2014)
1.24% of GDP (2013)
0.82% of GDP (2012)
0.66% of GDP (2011)
1.12% of GDP (2015)
1.03% of GDP (2014)
1% of GDP (2013)
0.93% of GDP (2012)
0.92% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

MalawiTanzania
Disputes - internationaldispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River; Malawi contends that the entire lake up to the Tanzanian shoreline is its territory, while Tanzania claims the border is in the center of the lake; the conflict was reignited in 2012 when Malawi awarded a license to a British company for oil exploration in the lake
dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River; Malawi contends that the entire lake up to the Tanzanian shoreline is its territory, while Tanzania claims the border is in the center of the lake; the conflict was reignited in 2012 when Malawi awarded a license to a British company for oil exploration in the lake
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 5,444 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2016)
IDPs: 8,463 (floods in 2015) (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 50,324 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2016); 244,127 (Burundi) (2017)

Source: CIA Factbook