Home

Macedonia vs. Serbia

Introduction

MacedoniaSerbia
BackgroundMacedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991. Greek objection to Macedonia’s name, insisting it implies territorial pretensions to the northern Greek province of the same name, and democratic backsliding have stalled the country’s movement toward Euro-Atlantic integration. Immediately after Macedonia declared independence, Greece sought to block Macedonian efforts to gain UN membership if the name “Macedonia” was used. Macedonia was eventually admitted to the UN in 1993 as “The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,” and at the same time it agreed to UN-sponsored negotiations on the name dispute. In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations, but the issue of the name remained unresolved and negotiations for a solution are ongoing. Since 2004, the US and over 130 other nations have recognized Macedonia by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia. Ethnic Albanian grievances over perceived political and economic inequities escalated into an insurgency in 2001 that eventually led to the internationally brokered Ohrid Framework Agreement (OFA), which ended the fighting and established guidelines for constitutional amendments and the creation of new laws that enhanced the rights of minorities. Relations between Macedonians and ethnic Albanians remain fragile, however.
Macedonia has been engulfed in a political crisis that began after the 2014 legislative and presidential election, and which escalated in 2015 when the opposition party began releasing wiretap content that it alleged showed widespread government corruption. Although Macedonia became an EU candidate in 2005, the country still faces challenges, including overcoming the political crisis, fully implementing the OFA, resolving the outstanding name dispute with Greece, improving relations with Bulgaria, halting democratic backsliding, and stimulating economic growth and development. At the 2008 NATO Summit in Bucharest, Romania, the Allies agreed that Macedonia would be invited to join the Alliance as soon as a mutually acceptable resolution to the name dispute was reached with Greece.
"The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Communist Partisans resisted the Axis occupation and division of Yugoslavia from 1941 to 1945 and fought nationalist opponents and collaborators as well. The military and political movement headed by Josip Broz ""TITO"" (Partisans) took full control of Yugoslavia when their domestic rivals and the occupiers were defeated in 1945. Although communists, TITO and his successors (Tito died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In 1989, Slobodan MILOSEVIC became president of the Republic of Serbia and his ultranationalist calls for Serbian domination led to the violent breakup of Yugoslavia along ethnic lines. In 1991, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia declared independence, followed by Bosnia in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in April 1992 and under MILOSEVIC's leadership, Serbia led various military campaigns to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a ""Greater Serbia."" These actions ultimately failed and, after international intervention, led to the signing of the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995.
MILOSEVIC retained control over Serbia and eventually became president of the FRY in 1997. In 1998, an ethnic Albanian insurgency in the formerly autonomous Serbian province of Kosovo provoked a Serbian counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo. The MILOSEVIC government's rejection of a proposed international settlement led to NATO's bombing of Serbia in the spring of 1999. Serbian military and police forces withdrew from Kosovo in June 1999, and the UN Security Council authorized an interim UN administration and a NATO-led security force in Kosovo. FRY elections in late 2000 led to the ouster of MILOSEVIC and the installation of democratic government. In 2003, the FRY became the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, a loose federation of the two republics. Widespread violence predominantly targeting ethnic Serbs in Kosovo in March 2004 led to more intense calls to address Kosovo's status, and the UN began facilitating status talks in 2006. In June 2006, Montenegro seceded from the federation and declared itself an independent nation. Serbia subsequently gave notice that it was the successor state to the union of Serbia and Montenegro.
In February 2008, after nearly two years of inconclusive negotiations, Kosovo declared itself independent of Serbia - an action Serbia refuses to recognize. At Serbia's request, the UN General Assembly (UNGA) in October 2008 sought an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on whether Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence was in accordance with international law. In a ruling considered unfavorable to Serbia, the ICJ issued an advisory opinion in July 2010 stating that international law did not prohibit declarations of independence. In late 2010, Serbia agreed to an EU-drafted UNGA Resolution acknowledging the ICJ's decision and calling for a new round of talks between Serbia and Kosovo, this time on practical issues rather than Kosovo's status. Serbia and Kosovo signed the first agreement of principles governing the normalization of relations between the two countries in April 2013 and are in the process of implementing its provisions. In 2015, Serbia and Kosovo reached four additional agreements within the Brussels Dialogue framework. These included agreements on the Community of Serb-Majority Municipalities; telecommunications; energy production and distribution; and freedom of movement. Prime Minister Aleksandar VUCIC, has promoted an ambitious goal of Serbia joining the EU by 2020. Under his leadership, in January 2014 Serbia opened formal negotiations for accession. Serbia has opened 8 chapters of the EU acquis and provisionally closed 2 chapters.
"

Geography

MacedoniaSerbia
LocationSoutheastern Europe, north of Greece
Southeastern Europe, between Macedonia and Hungary
Geographic coordinates41 50 N, 22 00 E
44 00 N, 21 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 25,713 sq km
land: 25,433 sq km
water: 280 sq km
total: 77,474 sq km
land: 77,474 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly larger than Vermont
slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundariestotal: 838 km
border countries (5): Albania 181 km, Bulgaria 162 km, Greece 234 km, Kosovo 160 km, Serbia 101 km
total: 2,322 km
border countries (8): Bosnia and Herzegovina 345 km, Bulgaria 344 km, Croatia 314 km, Hungary 164 km, Kosovo 366 km, Macedonia 101 km, Montenegro 157 km, Romania 531 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climatewarm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well-distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)
Terrainmountainous with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 741 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m
mean elevation: 442 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Danube and Timok Rivers 35 m
highest point: Midzor 2,169 m
Natural resourceslow-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land
oil, gas, coal, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, chromite, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 44.3%
arable land 16.4%; permanent crops 1.4%; permanent pasture 26.5%
forest: 39.8%
other: 15.9% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 57.9%
arable land 37.7%; permanent crops 3.4%; permanent pasture 16.8%
forest: 31.6%
other: 10.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,280 sq km (2012)
950 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardshigh seismic risks
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issuesair pollution from metallurgical plants
air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East
Population distributiona fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations
a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations

Demographics

MacedoniaSerbia
Population2,100,025 (July 2016 est.)
7,143,921
note: does not include the population of Kosovo (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 17.27% (male 187,752/female 174,935)
15-24 years: 13.69% (male 148,340/female 139,195)
25-54 years: 43.65% (male 465,622/female 451,028)
55-64 years: 12.3% (male 126,548/female 131,749)
65 years and over: 13.09% (male 117,787/female 157,069) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 14.64% (male 539,189/female 506,727)
15-24 years: 11.34% (male 417,692/female 392,379)
25-54 years: 41.41% (male 1,492,799/female 1,465,270)
55-64 years: 14.58% (male 502,172/female 539,349)
65 years and over: 18.03% (male 530,827/female 757,517) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 37.5 years
male: 36.4 years
female: 38.6 years (2016 est.)
total: 42.3 years
male: 40.7 years
female: 44 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.18% (2016 est.)
-0.46% (2016 est.)
Birth rate11.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate9.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
13.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 7.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 5.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 76.2 years
male: 73.6 years
female: 79 years (2016 est.)
total population: 75.5 years
male: 72.6 years
female: 78.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.6 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.43 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.01% (2013 est.)
0.05% (2013 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Macedonian(s)
adjective: Macedonian
noun: Serb(s)
adjective: Serbian
Ethnic groupsMacedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.9%, Romani 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.2% (2002 est.)
note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 6.5–13% of Macedonia’s population
Serb 83.3%, Hungarian 3.5%, Romani 2.1%, Bosniak 2%, other 5.7%, undeclared or unknown 3.4% (2011 est.)
note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–11% of Serbia's population
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS200 (2013 est.)
3,000 (2013 est.)
ReligionsMacedonian Orthodox 64.8%, Muslim 33.3%, other Christian 0.4%, other and unspecified 1.5% (2002 est.)
Orthodox 84.6%, Catholic 5%, Muslim 3.1%, Protestant 1%, atheist 1.1%, other 0.8% (includes agnostics, other Christians, Eastern religionists, Jewish), undeclared or unknown 4.5% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsfewer than 100 (2013 est.)
100 (2013 est.)
LanguagesMacedonian (official) 66.5%, Albanian 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Romani 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other 1.8% (2002 est.)
note: minority languages are co-official with Macedonian in municipalities whre they are spoken by at least 20% of the population; Albanian is co-official in Tetovo, Brvenica, Vrapciste, and other municipalities; Turkish is co-official in Centar Zupa and Plasnica; Romani is co-official in Suto Orizari; Aromanian is co-official in Drusevo; Serbian is co-official in Cucer Sandevo
Serbian (official) 88.1%, Hungarian 3.4%, Bosnian 1.9%, Romani 1.4%, other 3.4%, undeclared or unknown 1.8%
note: Serbian, Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, and Ruthenian (Rusyn) are official in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (2011 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.8%
male: 98.8%
female: 96.8% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.1%
male: 99.1%
female: 97.2% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2014)
total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 57.1% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.11% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 55.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.34% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 99.8% of population
rural: 98.9% of population
total: 99.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.2% of population
rural: 1.1% of population
total: 0.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 98.9% of population
total: 99.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 1.1% of population
total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 97.2% of population
rural: 82.6% of population
total: 90.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.8% of population
rural: 17.4% of population
total: 9.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 98.2% of population
rural: 94.2% of population
total: 96.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.8% of population
rural: 5.8% of population
total: 3.6% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationSKOPJE (capital) 503,000 (2015)
BELGRADE (capital) 1.182 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate8 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
17 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight1.3% (2011)
1.8% (2014)
Health expenditures6.5% of GDP (2014)
10.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.8 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
2.46 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density4.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
5.4 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate20.8% (2014)
21.1% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 16,782
percentage: 6% (2005 est.)
total number: 36,141
percentage: 4% (2005 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth26.6 years (2013 est.)
27.8 years (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate40.2% (2011)
58.4% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 41.4
youth dependency ratio: 24
elderly dependency ratio: 17.4
potential support ratio: 5.7 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 50.1
youth dependency ratio: 24.5
elderly dependency ratio: 25.6
potential support ratio: 3.9 (2015 est.)

Government

MacedoniaSerbia
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Macedonia
conventional short form: Macedonia
local long form: Republika Makedonija
local short form: Makedonija
note: the provisional designation used by the UN, EU, and NATO is the ""former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"" (FYROM)
former: People's Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia
etymology: the country name derives from the ancient kingdom of Macedon (7th to 2nd centuries B.C.)
"
conventional long form: Republic of Serbia
conventional short form: Serbia
local long form: Republika Srbija
local short form: Srbija
former: People's Republic of Serbia, Socialist Republic of Serbia
etymology: the origin of the name in uncertain, but seems to be related to the name of the West Slavic Sorbs who reside in the Lusatian region in present-day eastern Germany; by tradition, the Serbs migrated from that region to the Balkans in about the 6th century A.D.
Government typeparliamentary republic
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Skopje
geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 21 26 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Belgrade (Beograd)
geographic coordinates: 44 50 N, 20 30 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions70 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina) and 1 city* (grad); Aracinovo, Berovo, Bitola, Bogdanci, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Caska, Centar Zupa, Cesinovo-Oblesevo, Cucer Sandevo, Debar, Debarca, Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dojran, Dolneni, Gevgelija, Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Jegunovce, Karbinci, Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kocani, Konce, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovo i Rostusa, Mogila, Negotino, Novaci, Novo Selo, Ohrid, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Skopje*, Sopiste, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vrapciste, Zelenikovo, Zelino, Zrnovci
119 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina) and 26 cities (gradovi, singular - grad)
municipalities: Ada*, Aleksandrovac, Aleksinac, Alibunar*, Apatin*, Arandelovac, Arilje, Babusnica, Bac*, Backa Palanka*, Backa Topola*, Backi Petrovac*, Bajina Basta, Batocina, Becej*, Bela Crkva*, Bela Palanka, Beocin*, Blace, Bogatic, Bojnik, Boljevac, Bor, Bosilegrad, Brus, Bujanovac, Cajetina, Cicevac, Coka*, Crna Trava, Cuprija, Despotovac, Dimitrov, Doljevac, Gadzin Han, Golubac, Gornji Milanovac, Indija*, Irig*, Ivanjica, Kanjiza*, Kladovo, Knic, Knjazevac, Koceljeva, Kosjeric, Kovacica*, Kovin*, Krupanj, Kucevo, Kula*, Kursumlija, Lajkovac, Lapovo, Lebane, Ljig, Ljubovija, Lucani, Majdanpek, Mali Idos*, Mali Zvornik, Malo Crnice, Medveda, Merosina, Mionica, Negotin, Nova Crnja*, Nova Varos, Novi Becej*, Novi Knezevac*, Odzaci*, Opovo*, Osecina, Paracin, Pecinci*, Petrovac na Mlavi, Plandiste*, Pozega, Presevo, Priboj, Prijepolje, Prokuplje, Raca, Raska, Razanj, Rekovac, Ruma*, Secanj*, Senta*, Sid*, Sjenica, Smederevska Palanka, Sokobanja, Srbobran*, Sremski Karlovci*, Stara Pazova*, Surdulica, Svilajnac, Svrljig, Temerin*, Titel*, Topola, Trgoviste, Trstenik, Tutin, Ub, Varvarin, Velika Plana, Veliko Gradiste, Vladicin Han, Vladimirci, Vlasotince, Vrbas*, Vrnjacka Banja, Zabalj*, Zabari, Zagubica, Zitiste*, Zitorada
cities: Beograd, Cacak, Jagodina, Kikinda*, Kragujevac, Kraljevo, Krusevac, Leskovac, Loznica, Nis, Novi Pazar, Novi Sad*, Pancevo*, Pirot, Pozarevac, Sabac, Smederevo, Sombor*, Sremska Mitrovica*, Subotica*, Uzice, Valjevo, Vranje, Vrsac, Zajecar, Zrenjanin*
note: the northern 39 municipalities and 6 cities - about 28% of Serbia's area - compose the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina and are indicated with *
Independence8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsed independence from Yugoslavia)
5 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro)
National holidayIndependence Day, 8 September (1991); also known as National Day
National Day (Statehood Day), 15 February (1835), the day the first constitution of the country was adopted
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the government, by at least 30 members of the Assembly, or by petition of at least 150,000 citizens; draft amendments require approval by majority vote of Assembly members, followed by public debate; final passage requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly; amended several times, last in 2015 (2016)
history: many previous; latest adopted 30 September 2006, approved by referendum 28-29 October 2006, effective 8 November 2006
amendments: proposed by at least one-third of deputies in the National Assembly, by the president of the republic, by the government, or by petition of at least 150,000 voters; passage of proposals and draft amendments each requires at least two-thirds majority vote in the Assembly; amendments to constitutional articles including the preamble, constitutional principles, and human and minority rights and freedoms also require a referendum with passage by simple majority vote (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
civil law system
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Gjorge IVANOV (since 12 May 2009)
head of government: Prime Minister Zoran ZAEV (since 31 May 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Assembly by simple majority vote; note - the 2014 cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO-DPMNE, DUI, and several small parties; as a result of an agreement reached in July 2015 between the largest parties to resolve a 16-month opposition boycott of the Assembly, several minister and deputy minister positions were also given to the opposition SDSM from November 2015 though May 2016 in preparation for elections originally scheduled for 24 April 2016, and then pushed back to 5 June 2016, and then again from September through December 2016
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 13 and 27 April 2014 (next to be held in 2019); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coaliton is usually elected prime minister by the Assembly
election results: Gjorge IVANOV reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Gjorge IVANOV (independent) 55.3%, Stevo PENDAROVSKI (SDSM) 41.1%, other 3.6%
chief of state: President Aleksandar VUCIC (since 31 May 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Ana BRNABIC (since 29 June 2017)
cabinet: Cabinet elected by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 2 April 2017 (next to be held in 2022); prime minister elected by the National Assembly
election results: Aleksandar VUCIC elected president; percent of vote - Aleksandar VUCIC (SNS) 55.1%, Sasa JANKOVIC (independent) 16.4%, Luka MAKSIMOVIC (independent) 9.4%, Vuk JEREMIC (independent) 5.7%, Vojislav SESELJ (SRS) 4.5%, Bosko OBRADOVIC (Dveri) 2.3%, other 5.0%, invalid/blank 1.6%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Assembly or Sobranie (123 seats; 120 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 3 directly elected in diaspora constituencies worldwide by simple majority vote, provided candidates meet a specified minimum vote count; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 11 December 2016, with a second round held in one polling station on 25 December 2016 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - VMRO-DPMNE 38.1%, SDSM coalition 36.7%, BDI 7.3%, Besa Movement 4.9%, Alliance for Albanians 3.1%, PDSh 2.7%, other 7.2%; seats by party - VMRO-DPMNE 51, SDSM coalition 49, BDI 10, Besa Movement 5, Alliance for Albanians 3, PDSh 2
description: unicameral National Assembly or Narodna Skupstina (250 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 24 April 2016 (next to be held by April 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - Serbia is Winning 48.2%, SPS-JS-ZS-KP 11.0%, SRS 8.1%, For a Just Serbia 6.0%, Enough is Enough 6.0%, Alliance for a Better Serbia 5.0%, Dveri-DSS 5.0%, SVM 1.5%, other 9.2%; seats by party/coalition Serbia is Winning 131, SPS-JS-ZS-KP 29, SRS 22, For a Just Serbia 16, Enough is Enough 16, Alliance for a Better Serbia 13, Dveri-DSS 13, SVM 4, other 6
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 22 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Judicial Council, a 7-member body of legal professionals, and appointed by the Assembly; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Assembly for nonrenewable, 9-year terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Basic Courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation (consists of more than 60 judges organized into 3- and 5-member panels for criminal, civil, and administrative cases); Constitutional Court (consists of 15 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices proposed by the High Judicial Council (HJC), an 11-member body of which 7 are judges, and elected by the National Assembly; Constitutional Court judges appointed - 5 each by the National Assembly, the president, and the Supreme Court of Cassation; judges of both courts appointed to permanent tenure by the HJC
subordinate courts: appellate courts, higher courts, and municipal and district courts; courts of special jurisdiction include the Administrative Court, Appellate Commercial Court, and 2 levels of misdemeanor courts
note: in 2003, specialized panels on war crimes were established within the Serbian court system; the panels have jurisdiction over alleged violations of the Basic Criminal Code and crimes against humanity, international law, and criminal acts as defined by the Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
Political parties and leadersAlliance for Albanians [Ziadin SELA]
Besa Movement [Bilal KASAMI]
Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh [Menduh THACI]
Democratic Union for Integration or BDI [Ali AHMETI]
Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Nikola GRUEVSKI]
Social Democratic Union of Macedonia or SDSM [Zoran ZAEV]
note: during the 2016 parliamentary elections VMRO-DPMNE and SDSM each led coalitions
Alliance for a Better Serbia - coalition includes LDP, LSV, SDS
Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Istvan PASZTOR]
Communist Party or KP [Josip Joska BROZ]
Democratic Alliance of Croats in Vojvodina [Petar KUNTIC]
Democratic Party or DS [Dragan SUTANOVAC]
Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Milos Jovanovic]
Dveri [Bosko OBRADOVIC]
Enough of Enough [Sasa RADULOVIC]
For a Just Serbia - coalition includes DS, NS, RS, DSVH, VVS, Together for Sumadija
Greens of Serbia or ZS [Ivan KARIC]
League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina or LSV [Nenad CANAK]
Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Cedomir JOVANOVIC]
Movement of Socialists or PS [Aleksandar VULIN]
New Serbia or NS [Velimir ILIC]
Party for Democratic Action or PDD [Riza HALIMI]
Party of Democratic Action of the Sandzak or SDA [Sulejman UGLJANIN]
Party of United Pensioners of Serbia or PUPS [Milan KRKOBABIC]
Reformist Party or RS [Aleksandar VISNJIC]
Serbia is Winning - coalition includes SNS, SDPS, PUPS, NS, SPO, PS, PSS, NDSS, SNP
Serbian People's Party or SNP [Nenad POPOVIC]
Serbian Progressive Party or SNS [Aleksandar VUCIC]
Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ]
Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC]
Social Democratic Party or SDS [Boris TADIC]
Social Democratic Party of Serbia or SDPS [Rasim LJAJIC]
Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS [Ivica DACIC]
Strength of Serbia or PSS [Bogoljub KARIC]
Together for Serbia or ZZS [Dusan PETROVIC]
Together for Sumadija [Veroljub STEVANOVIC]
note: as of April 2016, Serbia had 111 registered political parties and citizens' associations
Political pressure groups and leadersConfederation of Free Trade Unions [Blagoja RALPOVSKI]
Federation of Trade Unions of Macedonia or SSM [Zivko MITREVSKI]
Trade Union of Education, Science and Culture or SONK [Jakim NEDELKOV]
Student Plenum
Eco Guerilla [Arianit XHAFERI]
Independent Association of Journalists of Serbia or NUNS
Journalists Association of Serbia (Udruzenje novinara Srbije) or UNS
Obraz (Orthodox clero-fascist organization)
SNP 1389 (Serbian nationalist movement)
SNP NASI 1389 (Serbian National Movement NASI)
Eastern Alternative (pro-Russian association)
International organization participationBIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU (candidate country), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU (candidate country), FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Vasko NAUMOVSKI (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 2129 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-0501
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2131
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Detroit, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Djerdj MATKOVIC (since 23 February 2015)
telephone: [1] (202) 332-0333
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3933
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
chancery: 2233 Wisconsin Ave NW
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Jess L. BAILY (since 12 February 2015)
embassy: Str. Samolilova, Nr. 21, 1000 Skopje
mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, US Department of State, 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
telephone: [389] (2) 310-2000
FAX: [389] (2) 310-2499
chief of mission: Ambassador Kyle SCOTT (since 4 February 2016)
embassy: 92 Bulevar kneza Aleksandra Karadjordjevica, 11040 Belgrade, Serbia
mailing address: 5070 Belgrade Place, Washington, DC 20521-5070
telephone: [381] (11) 706-4000
FAX: [381] (11) 706-4005
Flag descriptiona yellow sun (the Sun of Liberty) with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field; the red and yellow colors have long been associated with Macedonia
"three equal horizontal stripes of red (top), blue, and white - the Pan-Slav colors representing freedom and revolutionary ideals; charged with the coat of arms of Serbia shifted slightly to the hoist side; the principal field of the coat of arms represents the Serbian state and displays a white two-headed eagle on a red shield; a smaller red shield on the eagle represents the Serbian nation, and is divided into four quarters by a white cross; interpretations vary as to the meaning and origin of the white, curved symbols resembling firesteels or Cyrillic ""C's"" in each quarter; a royal crown surmounts the coat of arms
note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia
"
National anthem"name: ""Denes nad Makedonija"" (Today Over Macedonia)
lyrics/music: Vlado MALESKI/Todor SKALOVSKI
note: written in 1943 and adopted in 1991 , the song previously served as the anthem of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia while part of Yugoslavia
"
"name: ""Boze pravde"" (God of Justice)
lyrics/music: Jovan DORDEVIC/Davorin JENKO
note: adopted 1904; song originally written as part of a play in 1872 and has been used as an anthem by the Serbian people throughout the 20th and 21st centuries
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)eight-rayed sun; national colors: red, yellow
double-headed eagle; national colors: red, blue, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Macedonia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Serbia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

Economy

MacedoniaSerbia
Economy - overviewSince its independence in 1991, Macedonia has made progress in liberalizing its economy and improving its business environment. Its low tax rates and free economic zones have helped to attract foreign investment, which is still low relative to the rest of Europe. Corruption and weak rule of law remain significant problems. Some businesses complain of opaque regulations and unequal enforcement of the law.

Macedonia’s economy is closely linked to Europe as a customer for exports and source of investment, and has suffered as a result of prolonged weakness in the euro zone. Unemployment has remained consistently high at about 23%, but may be overstated based on the existence of an extensive gray market, estimated to be between 20% and 45% of GDP, which is not captured by official statistics.

Macedonia is working to build a country-wide natural gas pipeline and distribution network. Currently, Macedonia receives its small natural gas supplies from Russia via Bulgaria. In 2016, Macedonia signed a memorandum of understanding with Greece to build an interconnector that could connect to the Trans-Adriatic Pipeline that will traverse the region once complete, or to an LNG import terminal in Greece.

Macedonia maintained macroeconomic stability through the global financial crisis by conducting prudent monetary policy, which keeps the domestic currency pegged to the euro, and inflation at a low level. However, in the last two years, the internal political crisis has hampered economic performance, with GDP slowing in 2016, and both domestic private and public investments declining. Fiscal policies were lax, with unproductive public expenditures, including subsidies and pension increases, and rising guarantees for the debt of state owned enterprises, and fiscal targets were consistently missed. In 2016, public debt reached 50.5% of GDP before being revised down to 47.8% of GDP by year’s end, still relatively low compared to its Western Balkan neighbors and the rest of Europe. In 2016, Macedonia issued a Eurobond worth approximately $495 million to finance 2016 and part of 2017 budget needs.
Serbia has a transitional economy largely dominated by market forces, but the state sector remains significant in certain areas. The economy relies on manufacturing and exports, driven largely by foreign investment. MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of international economic sanctions, civil war, and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during the NATO airstrikes in 1999 left the economy worse off than it was in 1990. In 2015, Serbia’s GDP was 27.5% below where it was in 1989.

After former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC was ousted in September 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government implemented stabilization measures and embarked on a market reform program. Serbia renewed its membership in the IMF in December 2000 and rejoined the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Serbia has made progress in trade liberalization and enterprise restructuring and privatization, but many large enterprises - including the power utilities, telecommunications company, natural gas company, and others - remain state-owned. Serbia has made some progress towards EU membership, signing a Stabilization and Association Agreement with Brussels in May 2008, and with full implementation of the Interim Trade Agreement with the EU in February 2010, gained candidate status in March 2012. In January 2014, Serbia's EU accession talks officially opened, and as of March 2017, Serbia had opened eight negotiating chapters. Serbia's negotiations with the WTO are advanced, with the country's complete ban on the trade and cultivation of agricultural biotechnology products representing the primary remaining obstacle to accession. Serbia maintains a three-year Stand-by Arrangement with the IMF worth approximately $1.3 billion that is scheduled to end in February 2018. The government has shown progress implementing economic reforms, such as fiscal consolidation, privatization, and reducing public spending.

High unemployment and stagnant household incomes are ongoing political and economic problems. Serbia is slowly implementing structural economic reforms needed to ensure the country's long-term prosperity. In 2016, Serbia reduced its budget deficit to 1.4% and slowed the rate of growth of its public debt as a percent of GDP, more than doubled between 2008 and 2015. Serbia's concerns about inflation and exchange-rate stability preclude the use of expansionary monetary policy.

Major economic challenges ahead include: high unemployment rates and the need for private sector job creation; structural reforms of state-owned companies; strategic public sector reforms; and the need for new foreign direct investment. Other serious longer-term challenges include an inefficient judicial system, high levels of corruption, and an aging population. Factors favorable to Serbia's economic growth include the economic reforms it is undergoing as part of its EU accession process and IMF agreement, its strategic location, a relatively inexpensive and skilled labor force, and free trade agreements with the EU, Russia, Turkey, and countries that are members of the Central European Free Trade Agreement.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$29.52 billion (2016 est.)
$28.82 billion (2015 est.)
$27.77 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars; Macedonia has a large informal sector that may not be reflected in these data
$101.8 billion (2016 est.)
$99.05 billion (2015 est.)
$98.26 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2.4% (2016 est.)
3.8% (2015 est.)
3.6% (2014 est.)
2.8% (2016 est.)
0.8% (2015 est.)
-1.8% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$14,500 (2016 est.)
$14,000 (2015 est.)
$13,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$14,200 (2016 est.)
$13,900 (2015 est.)
$13,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 8.4%
industry: 25.2%
services: 66.5% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 9.7%
industry: 42.7%
services: 47.6% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line21.5% (2015 est.)
8.9% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)-0.2% (2016 est.)
-0.3% (2015 est.)
1.6% (2016 est.)
1.5% (2015 est.)
Labor force950,300 (2016 est.)
3.141 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 16.6%
industry: 29.6%
services: 53.8% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 17.8%
industry: 25.6%
services: 56.6% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate23.1% (2016 est.)
24.6% (2015 est.)
13.8% (2016 est.)
17.9% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index33.7 (2015)
35.2 (2014)
38.7 (2014 est.)
28.2 (2008 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $3.041 billion
expenditures: $3.33 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $15.75 billion
expenditures: $16.24 billion
note: this is the consolidated budget, including both central government and local goverment budgets (2016 est.)
Industriesfood processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, iron, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals, automotive parts
automobiles, base metals, furniture, food processing, machinery, chemicals, sugar, tires, clothes, pharmaceuticals
Industrial production growth rate3.4% (2016 est.)
4.7% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsgrapes, tobacco, vegetables, fruits; milk, eggs
wheat, maize, sunflower, sugar beets, grapes/wine, fruits (raspberries, apples, sour cherries), vegetables (tomatoes, peppers, potatoes), beef, pork, and meat products, milk and dairy products
Exports$4.787 billion (2016 est.)
$4.49 billion (2015 est.)
$14.89 billion (2016 est.)
$13.36 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesfoodstuffs, beverages, tobacco; textiles, miscellaneous manufactures, iron, steel; automotive parts
automobiles, iron and steel, rubber, clothes, wheat, fruit and vegetables, nonferrous metals, electric appliances, metal products, weapons and ammunition
Exports - partnersGermany 33.2%, Kosovo 11.5%, Bulgaria 5.1%, Greece 4.5% (2015)
Italy 16.2%, Germany 12.6%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 8.7%, Romania 5.6%, Russia 5.4% (2015)
Imports$6.757 billion (2016 est.)
$6.4 billion (2015 est.)
$19.26 billion (2016 est.)
$18.21 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, automobiles, chemicals, fuels, food products
machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials
Imports - partnersGermany 15.9%, UK 13.6%, Greece 10.9%, Serbia 8.7%, Bulgaria 6.7%, Turkey 5.5%, Italy 4.7% (2015)
Germany 12.4%, Italy 10.6%, Russia 9.6%, China 8.5%, Hungary 4.8%, Poland 4.2% (2015)
Debt - external$7.646 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.873 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$28.23 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$28.86 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesMacedonian denars (MKD) per US dollar -
56.82 (2016 est.)
55.537 (2015 est.)
55.537 (2014 est.)
46.437 (31 December 2013 est.)
47.89 (2012 est.)
Serbian dinars (RSD) per US dollar -
112.4 (2016 est.)
108.811 (2015 est.)
108.811 (2014 est.)
88.405 (2013 est.)
87.99 (2012 est.)
Public debt47.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
46.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: official data from Ministry of Finance; data cover central government debt; this data excludes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; includes treasury debt held by foreign entitites; excludes debt issued by sub-national entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; there are no debt instruments sold for social funds
72.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
74.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued or owned by government entities other than the treasury (for which the Government of Singapore issued guarantees); the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities (for which the GOS also issued guarantees), as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$2.732 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.471 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$12.94 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.99 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$336 million (2016 est.)
-$207 million (2015 est.)
-$1.516 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.751 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$10.49 billion (2016 est.)
$37.53 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$5.628 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.232 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$28.33 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
$11.95 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$749.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$599.6 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares$2.078 billion (31 December 2016)
$1.853 billion (31 December 2015)
$2.269 billion (31 December 2014)
$5.064 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.841 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.525 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate3.25% (31 March 2017)
3.75% (31 December 2016)
note: series discontinued in January 2010; the discount rate has been replaced by a referent rate for calculating the penalty rate
4% (31 December 2016)
7.5% (12 March 2015)
Commercial bank prime lending rate4% (31 December 2016 est.)
4.3% (31 December 2015 est.)
6.29% (31 December 2016 est.)
7.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$5.073 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.043 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$17.06 billion (30 September 2016 est.)
$16.22 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.825 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$5.195 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.486 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$6.308 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.964 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$18.78 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.58 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues29% of GDP (2016 est.)
42% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
-1.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 53.1%
male: 52%
female: 55% (2014 est.)
total: 49.4%
male: N/A
female: N/A (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 68%
government consumption: 15.7%
investment in fixed capital: 18%
investment in inventories: 12.8%
exports of goods and services: 49.3%
imports of goods and services: -63.8% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 73.1%
government consumption: 16.2%
investment in fixed capital: 17.8%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 50.9%
imports of goods and services: -58.2% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving30.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
30.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
29.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
25% of GDP (2016 est.)
23% of GDP (2015 est.)
22.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

MacedoniaSerbia
Electricity - production5.303 billion kWh (2016 est.)
38.11 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption6.455 billion kWh (2016 est.)
26.78 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports58.5 million kWh (2016 est.)
6.428 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports2.191 billion kWh (2016 est.)
5.065 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
21,030 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
45,790 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - proved reserves2,551 bbl (31 December 2016 )
366.5 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (31 December 2016 )
30 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2016)
586.3 million cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - consumption213.4 million cu m (2016 est.)
2.25 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2016)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - imports213.4 million cu m (2016 est.)
1.664 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity2.057 million kW (2016 est.)
7.594 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels64.3% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
59% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants32.8% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
38.8% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources2.9% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
2.2% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
67,360 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption20,700 bbl/day (2016 est.)
66,230 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports3,900 bbl/day (2016 est.)
12,050 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports23,400 bbl/day (2016 est.)
16,070 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy7.9 million Mt (2013 est.)
56.55 million Mt (2015 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

MacedoniaSerbia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 372,557
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 2,770,462
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 39 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 2.223 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (July 2015 est.)
total: 9.156 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 128 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: competition from the mobile-cellular segment of the telecommunications market has led to a drop in fixed-line telephone subscriptions
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership about 120 per 100 persons
international: country code - 389 (2017)
general assessment: replacements of, and upgrades to, telecommunications equipment damaged during the 1999 war resulted in a modern digitalized telecommunications system
domestic: wireless service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing very rapidly; best telecommunications services are centered in urban centers; 4G/LTE mobile network launched in March 2015
international: country code - 381 (2016)
Internet country code.mk
.rs
Internet users1.475 million
70.4% (July 2015 est.)
total: 4.688 million
percent of population: 65.3% (July 2015 est.)

Transportation

MacedoniaSerbia
Railwaystotal: 699 km
standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (223 km electrified) (2017)
total: 5,540 km
standard gauge: 3,809 km 1.435-m gauge (3,526 km one-track lines and 283 km double-track lines) out of which 1,279 km electrified (1,000 km one-track lines and 279 km double-track lines) (2015)
Roadwaystotal: 14,182 km (includes 242 km of expressways)
paved: 9,633 km
unpaved: 4,549 km (2014)
total: 44,248 km
paved: 28,000 km (16,162 km state roads, out of which 741 km highways)
unpaved: 16,248 km (2016)
Airports10 (2013)
26 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 6 (2013)
total: 10
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 16
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 5 (2013)

Military

MacedoniaSerbia
Military branchesArmy of the Republic of Macedonia (ARM; includes General Staff and subordinate Joint Operational Command, Training and Doctrine Command, Special Operations Regiment) (2012)
Serbian Armed Forces (Vojska Srbije, VS): Land Forces (includes Riverine Component, consisting of a river flotilla on the Danube), Air and Air Defense Forces (2016)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2008 (2013)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished December 2010; reserve obligation to age 60 for men and age 50 for women (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.07% of GDP (2015)
1.09% of GDP (2014)
1.17% of GDP (2013)
1.23% of GDP (2012)
1.26% of GDP (2011)
1.34% of GDP (2017 est.)
1.25% of GDP (2016)
1.41% of GDP (2015)
1.49% of GDP (2014)
1.48% of GDP (2013)

Transnational Issues

MacedoniaSerbia
Disputes - internationalKosovo and Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in September 2008; Greece continues to reject the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia
Serbia with several other states protest the US and other states' recognition of Kosovo's declaration of its status as a sovereign and independent state in February 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosovo's northern border challenge final status of Kosovo-Serbia boundary; several thousand NATO-led Kosovo Force peacekeepers under UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo authority continue to keep the peace within Kosovo between the ethnic Albanian majority and the Serb minority in Kosovo; Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute
Illicit drugsmajor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; although not a financial center and most criminal activity is thought to be domestic, money laundering is a problem due to a mostly cash-based economy and weak enforcement
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route; economy vulnerable to money laundering
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 600 (2016)
note: 478,090 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015 - July 2017)
refugees (country of origin): 20,346 (Croatia); 9,081 (Bosnia and Herzegovina) (2016)
IDPs: 219,854 (most are Kosovar Serbs, some are Roma, Ashkalis, and Egyptian (RAE); some RAE IDPs are unregistered) (2016)
stateless persons: 2,373 (includes stateless persons in Kosovo) (2016)
note: 678,493 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015 - December 2016)

Source: CIA Factbook